Cursing is prohibited
Muslims should neither curse nor imprecate each other with words such as, 'May the Curse of Allah be upon you,' or 'I wish you to burn in Hell-fire,' etc. Narrated Samurah Ibn Jundub (radhi allahu anhu), 'Allah's Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Do not curse one another, invoking curse of Allah or Wrath of Allah or the fire of Hell.' [Abu Dawood, at-Tirmidhee]
To curse a Muslim is akin to killing him. Allah's Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Cursing a believer is like murdering him.' [Agreed upon]
The act of cursing is such that one who does it can himself become a recipient of it. Narrated Abu Darda (radhi allahu anhu), 'Allah's Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'When a person curses (La'nah; to ask that something be deprived of Allah's Mercy) somebody or something, the curse goes up to the heaven and the gates of the heaven are closed. Then it comes down to the earth and its gates are closed. Then it turns right and left, and if it does not find an entrance to go anywhere, it returns to the person or thing that was cursed, if he or it deserves to be cursed; otherwise, it returns to the person, who uttered it.' [Abu Dawood] Allah's Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) also warned, 'Those who frequently resort to cursing would neither be accepted as witnesses nor as intercessors on the Day of Resurrection.' [Saheeh Muslim]
It is not allowed to curse, disgrace or humiliate even a sinner because in doing so, one helps the Shaytan, who is avowed to disgrace and humiliate Muslims before Allah. Narrated Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu), 'A drunkard was brought to the Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam). He (r) said, 'Give him a beating.' Then some beat him with their hands, some with their shoes, and some with (a folded) piece of cloth. When he left, someone said to him, 'May Allah disgrace you!' The Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Do not help Shaytan overcome him by uttering such words.' [Saheeh al-Bukharee]
Moreover, it is incorrect to curse a sinner because perhaps, the person may have sought Istagfar (seek forgiveness for one's sins) and Allah, the All-Forgiving, may have forgiven the person for his transgression. It is related in Saheeh Muslim that during the time of Allah's Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam), when a woman was being punished for the sin of adultery, her blood spurted upon Khalid Ibn Waleed (radhi allahu anhu), who swore at her. Thereupon, the Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Khalid, be gentle. By Him, in Whose Hand is my life, she has made such a repentance that even if a wrongful tax collector were to repent, he would have been forgiven.' He (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) then prayed over her and she was buried. Therefore, the right conduct would be to pray for his or her guidance and refrain from any critique, cursing or humiliation.
Even the deceased Muslims should not be censured or condemned for their wrongdoings, for, they have reached their end and they are receiving the return of their deeds in the Hereafter. Aa'isha (radhi allahu anha) narrated, 'The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Do not abuse the dead, because they have attained that which they had forwarded (i.e., their deeds, good or bad).' [Saheeh al-Bukharee]
Taunting is prohibited
Taunting is to insult, reproach mockingly or disgrace someone, for e.g. with reference to his lineage, appearance or shortcoming. Narrated Ibn Mas'ood (radhi allahu anhu), 'Allah's Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'A true believer is not involved in taunting, or frequently cursing or in indecency or abusing.'' [At-Tirmidhee]
Abusing is prohibited
Narrated Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu), 'Allah's Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'When two persons indulge in abusing each other, the beginner will be the sinner, so long, as the oppressed does not transgress the limits.' [Saheeh Muslim] This Hadeeth tells us that if a Muslim abuses another and says unfair things about him and in return, the recipient also abuses him and says unfair things to the same extent, then the entire burden of the sin of abusing lies upon the person who initiated the quarrel. However, if the one, who is wronged, exceeds the limits in revenge, then he will also be guilty to the degree of his excess. Thus, even though, revenge is permissible, it is better to forgive and be patient.
Nicknaming is prohibited
'Nor defame one another, nor insult one another by nicknames.' [Soorah al-Hujurat (49): 11]
Nicknaming has become a way of life today; social gatherings are filled with personal jokes and character assassination. Whereas, a Muslim is strictly prohibited from uttering nicknames, which involve insult or defamation of another person. Islam forbids revealing faults except in cases of necessity, like court or marriage cases. It encourages covering the faults of others and seeking to eliminate them. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Do not hurt the feelings of Allah's servants, do not embarrass them; do not seek to expose their faults. Whoever seeks to expose the faults of his Muslim brother, Allah will expose his faults and expose him, even if he hides in the innermost part of his home.' [Musnad Ahmad] He (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) also said, 'Each one of you is the mirror of his brother, so if he sees any faults in him, he should wipe it away from him.' [Sunan Abu Dawood (3/4900)] and, 'Whoever covers the faults of a Muslim, Allah will cover his faults on the Day of Resurrection.' [(Saheeh) Sunan at-Tirmidhee 2/1152]
Aa'isha (radhi allahu anha) reported that when the camel of Prophet's wife; Safeeyah (radhi allahu anha), became ill, the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) asked his wife Zainab (radhi allahu anha) to give one of her two camels to her. Zainab (radhi allahu anha) angrily replied, 'Shall I give it to that Jewess?' The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) became so angry that he abandoned her for more than two months. [Abu Dawood]
Calling a Muslim, a disbeliever is prohibited
Narrated Abu Dharr (radhi allahu anhu), 'I heard Allah's Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) saying, 'When any Muslim accuses another Muslim of sin or disbelief, the reproach rebounds upon the one who utters it, if the other person is not deserving of it.' [Saheeh al-Bukharee]
Ibn Umar (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'When a person calls his brother (in Islam) a disbeliever, one of them will certainly deserve the title. If the addressee is so as he has asserted, the disbelief of the man is confirmed, but if it is untrue, then it will revert to him (the accuser).' [Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim] We learn from this Hadeeth that to call a Muslim, ‘a disbeliever’ is strictly prohibited because, if the one, who has been called as such does not have the traits which make him a disbeliever, then the one, who says it, will be held a disbeliever.
Despising is prohibited
'O you who believe! Let not a group scoff at another group; it may be that the latter are better than the former. Nor let (some) women scoff at other women; it may be that the latter are better than the former.' [Soorah al-Hujurat (49): 11]
The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'It is enough evil for a Muslim to look down upon his (Muslim) brother.' [Saheeh Muslim]
Ibn Mas'ood (radhi allahu anhu) narrated, 'the Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'the haughty, even with pride equal to a mustard seed in his heart, will not enter Jannah.'' A man enquired, 'What about that a person likes fine dress and fine shoes?' He replied, 'Allah is Beautiful and likes beauty. Pride amounts to disclaiming truth out of self-esteem, and despising people.'' [Saheeh Muslim]
Jundub Ibn Abdullah (radhi allahu anhu) reported, 'The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Once someone said, 'By Allah! Allah will not forgive such and such (a person).' Thereupon, Allah, the Exalted and the Glorious, said, 'Who is he, who takes an oath in My Name that I will not grant pardon to so-and-so? I have granted pardon to so-and-so and rendered your good deeds fruitless.'' [Saheeh Muslim] In the above Hadeeth, 'the such and such person' was a sinner, so this devout worshipper vowed, exalted himself and thought that he, with his worship of Allah, had achieved a level in which he was able to judge the actions of Allah and that nothing that he requested would be rejected. This contradicts the reality of servitude (to Allah). Thus, Allah punished him and said, 'Who is this that swears upon Me?' and he forgave the sinner while he nullified the deeds of that devout worshiper. [See, Ghayatul-Murid fi-Sharh Kitab at-Tawheed by Shaikh Salih Ibn Abdul-Aziz ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibraheem Aali Shaikh]
Declaring an oath on Allah is in two aspects,
a) The aspect of avowing, arrogance and haughtiness to such an extent that the person makes a right for himself upon Allah and feels that Allah judges according to the judgment that he himself has chosen. This is contrary to the completion of Tawheed and it contradicts its foundation.
b) The second situation is that the person declares an oath upon Allah in a manner of humility and humbleness towards Allah, and due to necessity and need for Him, glory be unto Him. This is what a Hadeeth has been related concerning, 'And from the slaves of Allah are those who, if they vow an oath upon Allah, He will certainly fulfill it.' This is from the aspect of his thinking good about Allah, the Mighty and Majestic. [See, Ghayatul-Murid fi-Sharh Kitab at-Tawheed by Shaikh Salih Ibn Abdul-Aziz ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibraheem Aali Shaikh]
Lying in-joke is prohibited
Allah's Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) strictly forbade lying at all times, but he (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) specifically reproached the person, who lies to make people laugh, he (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Woe be on one, who speaks and lies in order to make people laugh, woe be on him.' [Abu Dawood (3/4972)] This Hadeeth shows the gravity of lying in jokes, which has today become a very common behavior. People appreciate and encourage false jokes claiming that it brings joy and amusement. In fact, a specific day has also been designated for this ugly practice- 1st April, a day when people lie, play jokes and mock in the name of entertainment. This deceitful practice of lying, which is considered mere humor, is known to have caused great harm to many - even trauma and deaths. Still, this dishonest tradition is not only practiced among the common masses, but also newspapers and magazines participate in it by publishing false news and untrue stories on the first day of April! However, in the above Hadeeth, the Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) forbade lying even if the intention of the person is to amuse people, because one who habitually lies for sake of amusement, loses the fear of lying and he is very likely to later fall into harmful lies.
Islam does not prohibit all humor. It is known through many narrations that Allah's Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) approved joking, and he (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) would himself play and joke with his companions and small children but he always spoke the truth. Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu) narrated that the Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) was told, 'O Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam), you are joking with us.' He (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'I only say what is true.' [At-Tirmidhee]
Defaming someone's lineage is prohibited
Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu) narrated, 'The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Two matters are signs of disbelief on the part of those who indulge in them; defaming and speaking evil of a person's lineage, and wailing over the dead.'' [Saheeh Muslim] To defame someone's lineage is to disgrace and humiliate somebody saying to him/her, 'Your father belongs to such and such profession,' or 'Your mother is such and such / so and so' or, 'You are a weaver, blacksmith, launderer, cobbler, etc.'
Once Abu Dharr al-Ghifaree (radhi allahu anhu) in a state of anger called Bilal (radhi allahu anhu), 'You son of black woman.' The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) angrily turned to him and said, 'You are a man who still has in him (practices of) Jahiliyah (pre-Islamic period).' [Saheeh al-Bukharee (8/76)]
Recounting one's favors is prohibited
Abu Dharr (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'The Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) observed, 'There are three (types of) people to whom Allah will neither speak on the Day of Resurrection nor look at them, nor purify them, and they will have a painful chastisement.' The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) repeated it three times. Abu Dharr (radhi allahu anhu) remarked, 'They are ruined. Who are they, O Messenger of Allah?' Upon this, the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'One who lets down his lower garments (below his ankles) out of arrogance, one who boasts of his favors done to another; and who sells his goods by taking a false oath.'' [Saheeh Muslim]
Allah says in the Qur'aan about those who follow their charity with reminder, 'O you who believe! Do not render in vain your Sadaqa (charity) by reminders of your generosity or by injury, like him, who spends his wealth to be seen of men, and he does not believe in Allah, nor in the Last Day. His likeness is the likeness of a smooth rock on which is little dust; on it falls heavy rain, which leaves it bare. They are not able to do anything with what they have earned. And Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.' [Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 265]
(in the above verse) '…like him, who spends his wealth to be seen of men,' means, 'Do not nullify your acts of charity by following them with reminders and harm, just like the charity of those who give it to show off to people.' The boasting person pretends to give away in charity for Allah's sake, but, in reality, seeks to gain people's praise and the reputation of being kind or generous, or other material gains of this life. All the while, he does not think about Allah or gaining His pleasure and generous rewards, and this is why Allah said, 'and he does not believe in Allah, nor in the Last Day.'
Allah next sets the example of whoever gives charity to show off. Ad-Dahhak commented that the example fits one who follows his acts of charity with reminders or harm. [at-Tabaree 5: 527] Allah says, 'His likeness is the likeness of a smooth rock on which is little dust; on it falls heavy rain, which leaves it bare.' This verse means that heavy rain left the smooth rock completely barren of dust. Such is the case with Allah's action regarding the work of those who show off, as their deeds are bound to vanish and disappear, even though people think that these deeds are as plentiful as specks of dust. So, Allah said, 'They are not able to do anything with what they have earned. And Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.' Thus, those who recount their charity will not cause harm to those whom they gave charity, it will only annul the charity, whether these reminders or hints take the form of words or actions. In this case, even the reward of giving away in charity is not sufficient to nullify the harm of reminders.
And Allah says in a previous verse of the same Soorah praising those who spend from their money in His cause, and then refrain from reminding those who received the charity, 'Those, who spend their wealth in the Cause of Allah, and do not follow up their gifts with reminders of their generosity or with injury, their reward is with their Lord. On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. Kind words and forgiving of faults are better than Sadaqa (charity) followed by injury. And Allah is Rich (free of all wants) and He is Most-Forbearing.' [Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 264]
Addressing someone as, ‘The King of Kings' is prohibited
Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu) narrated, 'The Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'the most disgraceful man near Allah is a man who calls himself Malikul-Amlak (i.e., the King of kings), for there is no King except Allah.'' [Agreed upon]
Allah's Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) informs us in this Hadeeth that the most disgraceful man in the Sight of Allah is, the one, who calls himself, 'King of the Kings' or the like, or is so called by others and he is pleased with it. Sufyan said, 'This is like the tile ShahanShah.' [See,Kitab at-Tawheed by Shaikh Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab]
Tawheed necessitates that none should be described with Names that are exclusively for Allah or names that have a similar meaning. Addressing someone as, 'The King of Kings' contains the sin of naming the person with what is exclusively to Allah and it is like making oneself similar to Allah by using this name, and comparing oneself to Him, the true King of the kings. Verily, the kings are numerous and the One who possesses all the kings is, Allah. The human being is only described as being king of something specific and he is not the king of everything. Thus, the one who owns a possession is called a king of that possession. However, the absolute comprehensive title of, 'The King of kings' - this is for Allah Alone. Here is a warning to all those who take such names and titles for themselves or attribute them to others, without perhaps, fully understanding the meaning or being aware of the great sin which they commit in doing so.
Reviling Fever is prohibited
Jabir (radhi allahu anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) visited Umm Sa'ib (or Umm Musaiyyab) and asked her, 'What ails you O Umm Sa'ib (or Umm Musaiyyab)? You are shivering.' She replied, 'It is a fever, may Allah not bless it!' He said to her, 'Do not revile fever, for it cleanses out the sins of the sons of Adam in the same way that a furnace removes the dirt of iron.' [Saheeh Muslim]
Diseases are part of fate - the Will of Allah and a means of expiation of sins, and therefore, should not be criticized. However, one should take necessary measures to overcome them because Sharee'ah makes it obligatory to do so.
Rejoicing over another's trouble is prohibited
A true Muslim is one, who feels unhappy to see other Muslims suffering, and rejoices on the happiness of his Muslim brothers. It is contrary to the conduct of a true believer to rejoice over the trouble of another Muslim. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Do not express pleasure at the misfortune of a (Muslim) brother, lest Allah should bestow mercy upon him and make you suffer from a misfortune.' [At-Tirmidhee]
Swearing in the name of anything besides Allah is prohibited
Oath is a solemn appeal to Allah to witness one's determination, or to emphasize a matter by mentioning a glorified one in particular. Glorification and exaltation are due to Allah Alone, therefore, it is not permissible to swear by other than Allah. Scholars are agreed that an oath must be sworn by Allah, His Names or Attributes only, and that swearing by other than Allah constitutes Shirk. Ibn Umar (radhi allahu anhu) narrated, 'The Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Allah has prohibited you from taking an oath by your fathers. He who must take an oath, may do so by swearing in the Name of Allah or he should remain silent.'' [Agreed upon] Ibn Umar (radhi allahu anhu) also reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'He who swears by other than Allah, commits Kufr and Shirk.' [Musnad Ahmad]
It is minor Shirk to swear by other than Allah, unless the one, who is sworn by, is aggrandized by the swearer, to the point of worship, then it constitutes major Shirk. Such is the case of the grave worshippers of today. They fear dead people (whom they aggrandize) more than they fear Allah, to the point that if one of them is asked to swear by a wali, he would not dare to do so, unless he swears on a truth, but if he is asked to swear by Allah, he would do so even if he is lying!
Swearing falsely is prohibited
Abu Umamah Iyas bin Tha`labah Al-Harithi (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'He, who misappropriates the right of a Muslim by taking a false oath, Allah will condemn him to the fire of Hell and will forbid Jannah for him.' A person asked, 'O Messenger of Allah, even if it is something insignificant?' He replied, 'Yes, even if it is the twig of an Arak tree.'' [Saheeh Muslim]
Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn al-As (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'The Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Of the major sins are; associating anything in worship with Allah, disobedience to the parents, killing without justification and taking a false oath (intentionally).'' [Saheeh al-Bukharee]
Another narration mentions, 'A bedouin came to the Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) and asked him, 'O Messenger of Allah, what are the major sins?' He (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) replied, 'Associating anything with Allah in worship.' The man asked, '(What is) next?' He (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) replied, 'Al-Yamin al-Ghamus.' He enquired, 'What do you mean by Al-Yamin Al-Ghamus?' He (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) replied, 'Swearing falsely to usurp the property of a Muslim.' [Saheeh al-Bukharee]
‘Ghamus' means to drown. A false oath drowns one in sin. For this reason, it is called Al-Yamin al-Ghamus, 'the oath that drowns one in sin.' Is it open to expiation? Some religious scholars believe that it is, while others think it is not, because in their opinion, it is a lie, which is employed to deprive somebody of his wealth and property. For this reason, they say that in such case, one should beg pardon from Allah and arrange to restore the wealth and property to the victim. This seems to be the more appropriate course because mere repentance cannot remit this sin. It is necessary to rectify the wrong and compensate the victim. [See, Riyadh as-Saliheen. Commentary by Hafiz Salahuddin Yusuf]
Swearing Frequently or Swearing in Transaction is prohibited, even if it be true.
Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) saying, 'Swearing produces a ready sale for a commodity, but he will be deprived of Allah's blessings.'' [Agreed upon]
The Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) informs us in this Hadeeth that when a seller swears falsely concerning the worth of his goods, he may attain some benefit by selling a large quantity of it, but this is not a fair means of business. Even though, it increases the sale, it robs the business of its blessings. Therefore, even if a person is perfectly right in his statement in respect to his merchandise, he should not take an oath to influence his customers.
Food for Thought: If one's perfectly true oath robs the deal of its blessings, then how great is the sin of those who take false oaths to sell their goods?!!
Salman (radhi allahu anhu) narrated that Allah's Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'There are three types of people whom Allah will not speak to, and neither will He bless them, and for them is the severe torment. They are, (i) the white-haired old adulterer, (ii) the arrogant beggar and (iii) the one who has made Allah as his merchandise, i.e., he does not purchase except by swearing (by Allah), nor does he sell except by swearing (by Allah).' [At-Tabaranee with a Saheeh isnad]
The Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) informs us in this Hadeeth that there are three categories of people to whom Allah will not speak on the Day of Resurrection nor will He cleanse them of their sins with forgiveness. This is because they committed sins without any excuse or justification and the first of these three is the fornicator and adulterer, who continues to sin in spite of his advanced years and consequent lessening of sexual urge, and his knowledge that the end of his life is near. The second is the man, who behaves arrogantly towards people, though, he possesses none of the wealth, rank or privilege, which often lead men to behave arrogantly. The third is the one, who treats Allah's Name with impropriety, frequently swearing by Him, Most High, without cause or valid excuse. In light of the above, those who frequently use the expression, 'Wallahi' (i.e. by Allah) should restrict themselves from such loose speech.
Cursing the Wind is prohibited / Reviling the Rooster
Cursing the Wind is prohibited
Abul-Mundhir Ubaiy bin Ka`b (radhi allahu anhu) narrated, 'The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Do not malign the wind. When you experience something, which displeases you, supplicate,
Translation: 'O Allah, I ask You for it’s goodness, the good within it, and the good it was sent with, and i take refuge with You from it’s evil, the evil within it, and from the evil it was sent with.’ [See, At-Tirmidhee]
Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) saying, 'The wind is a Blessing of Allah. Sometimes, it brings His Mercy and sometimes, it brings His Chastisement. When you experience it, do not revile it but beg of Allah, its good; and seek Allah's Refuge against its evil.'' [Abu Dawood with good Isnad]
Wind is a creation of Allah, it does not blow or remain still, or harm or benefit except by Allah's Command, therefore, maligning it amounts to maligning Him, Who sent it. Allah's Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) informs us that the wind may bear good or ill and that it is incumbent upon the believer to ask Allah, the Most High, for the good and to seek protection with Him from the evil.
'Cursing the wind is by abusing it, (or) reviling it with evil. It is not considered cursing it that it is described as being harsh or with characteristics that contain evil…' [Ghayatul-Murid fi-Sharh Kitab at-Tawheed by Shaikh Salih Ibn Abdul-Aziz ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibraheem Aali Shaikh]
Reviling the Rooster is un-desirable
Zaid bin Khalid Al-Juhani (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Do not revile the rooster for it wakes you up for prayer.' [Abu Dawood] The utility of the rooster is not realized much nowadays since Adhan (the call to prayer) is amplified through loudspeakers. However, before the invention of loudspeakers, the voice of the Mu'adhdhin (one who pronounces the Adhan) could only travel short distance. It was the rooster's crow, which used to awaken the Muslims for Tahajjud and Fajr prayers. Thus, we learn from this Hadeeth that whosoever cooperates in virtue, should be respected. One should also induce people to virtue and cooperate with them in good deeds so that one is well rewarded for it by Allah. [See, Riyadh as-Saliheen]
Praising a Person in his Presence is Undesirable
Abu Musa Al-Asharee (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'The Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) heard a person lauding another person or praising him too much. Thereupon, he said, 'You killed the man,' or he said, 'You ruined the man.'' [Agreed upon]
Abu Bakrah (radhi allahu anhu) reported, 'Mention of a man was made to the Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) and someone praised him, whereupon he (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Woe be to you! You have broken the neck of your friend!' He repeated this several times and added, 'If one of you has to praise his friend at all, he should say, 'I reckon him to be such and such and Allah knows him well,’ if you think him to be so-and-so, you will be accountable to Allah because no one can testify the purity of others against Allah.'' [Agreed upon]
These Ahaadeeth prohibit us from praising anyone in his face. If one has to praise someone, he should say, 'In my opinion, he is such and such,' provided he really thinks as he says. The reason for this is that it is Allah Alone, Who knows him thoroughly and none can claim to be innocent before Him.
Saying, 'If only such and such…' when some adversity befalls is forbidden
It is part of a Muslim belief in al-Qada wal-Qadar (the Pre-Decree) that 'whatever occurred (to you) could not have missed (you).' Nothing takes place except that Allah had inscribed it in al-Lawh al-Mahfoodh, or 'the Preserved Tablet,' 'Allah had written the ordained measures (and due proportions) of the creation, fifty-thousand years before the creation of the Heavens and the Earth...' [Saheeh Muslim] This inscription includes every calamity that befalls the slave. Allah says in the Qur'aan, 'No disaster strikes upon the earth or within yourselves but was recorded in a Book (al-Lawh al-Mahfoodh) before We bring it into existence. Verily, this is easy for Allah…' [(57): 22-23]
Allah states the reason behind the pre-ordainment (in the next verses of Soorah Hadid) that the slave should not despair if some calamity afflicts, nor become proud and haughty on achieving some good, because every calamity that befell him was previously designated for him and all blessings are from Allah Alone. Thus, whatever reached him could not have missed him and whatever missed him could not have reached him.
'…many people reject the decree in respect to their actions. They think that if they had done something (different), the situation would change. Yet, Allah had decreed the deed and its result, so everything is according to His Wisdom.' [Ghayatul-Murid fi-Sharh Kitab at-Tawheed by Shaikh Salih Ibn Abdul-Aziz ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibraheem Aali Shaikh]
Therefore, the slave should refrain from over speculation and conjecture, like saying, 'if I had done such and such… the result would have been different…' or '…I would have been saved from this calamity...' etc. It is narrated in Saheeh Muslim from Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu) that Allah's Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Seek carefully what benefits you (in the Hereafter) and seek help only from Allah and neither lose heart. If any diversity (misfortune) comes to you, do not say, 'If I had only acted in such and such way, it would have been such and such, but instead say, 'Allah has decreed it and what He willed is done.' Verily, 'if' opens the way for the work of Shaytan.'
'…if one uses it (i.e., the statement, 'if only…'), it will weaken his heart and dissuade it. The forbiddance refers to the usage of the term, 'if only,' and 'if only, I wish' and whatever expressions are similar to them in regretting what has past. However, using the term, 'if only,' in the future tense, if it is regarding something good, with hope for what Allah has, and seeking help by means of goodness, then this is permissible. But if it is in a manner of haughtiness and arrogance, then it is not permissible, because it contains a form of making oneself the judge or decide over the Decree.' [Ghayatul-Murid fi-Sharh Kitab at-Tawheed by Shaikh Salih Ibn Abdul-Aziz ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibraheem Aali Shaikh]
Attributing Rain to the Stars is prohibited
Since Allah is the Real Creator and Maker of all things and events, all the blessings, without any exception, should be attributed to Him Alone. If a reference is made to the cause or causes, which occasion an incident or event, it is permissible, but to ascribe them entirely to some factor or factors is the conduct of polytheists and amounts to Shirk and Kufr. Allah's Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Four things are in my Ummah from the affairs of pre-Islamic ignorance that they will not abandon; (i) Pride (boasting) about the family lineages, (ii) defaming the family lineages (of others), (iii) seeking rain by the stars and (iv) wailing (over the dead)…' [Saheeh Muslim] People of the period of ignorance used to ascribe the rain, which if occurred at the appearance or setting of some star, to that star and would thus, accept it as the real cause of it. In this Hadeeth, such ascription has been regarded as Kufr and Shirk. [See, Riyadh as-Saliheen]
Zaid bin Khalid (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) led the Fajr prayer at al-Hudaibiyyah after a rainfall during the night. At the conclusion of prayer, he turned towards the people and said, 'Do you know what your Rabb has said?' They replied, 'Allah and His Messenger know better.' Upon this, he remarked, 'He has said, 'Some of My slaves have entered the morning as believers in Me and some as unbelievers. He who said, 'We have had a rainfall due to the Grace and Mercy of Allah, believes in Me and disbelieves in the stars; and he who said, 'We have had a rainfall due to the rising of such and such star (mutirna bi-naw'i kadhaa), disbelieves in Me and affirms his faith in the stars.''' [Agreed upon]
'The necessary completion of Tawheed obligates the slave to attribute all blessings to Allah Alone, and not attribute anything of them to other than Allah, even if that other was a means (of their occurrence)… The letter baa (mutirna bi-naw'i kadha wa kadha) in the statement, 'We were given rain bi-naw'i kadhaa (by such and such star)' if it means that the star was a means of causing the rain, then this is minor Shirk. However, if it (the baa) means that the star is the one, who brought the rain in response to the supplication of its worshippers or due to its mercy to mankind, then this is major Shirk with Allah.' [Ghayatul-Murid fi-Sharh Kitab at-Tawheed by Shaikh Ibn Abdul-Aziz ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibraheem Aali Shaikh]
Saying: 'Forgive me, if you wish, O Allah!' is prohibited
'It is understood from this statement ('Forgive me if you wish, O Allah!') that the speaker does not need to be forgiven. It is as if he does not want to humble himself and he is not in need. This is a trait of the people of arrogance and those, who turn away from Allah. For this reason, …it is contrary to what is obligatory upon the slave in reference to Allah's Lordship. It is obligatory that the slave manifests his poverty and his need of His Lord and that he cannot do without the forgiveness of Allah, and He cannot do without Allah, His pardoning, His generosity and His favor.' [Ghayatul-Mureed by Shaikh Salih Ibn Abdul Aziz Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibraheem aali Shaikh]
Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'You must not supplicate, 'O Allah! Forgive me if You wish. O Allah! Bestow mercy on me if You wish.' But, (one should) beg from Allah with certitude, for, no one has the power to compel (force) Allah.''' [Agreed upon]
'Beg from Allah with certitude' in the above Hadeeth means that one should not pray with 'ifs' and 'buts,' rather, one should make a definite prayer and insist upon it and never give in despair.
Another narration of Saheeh Muslim mentions, 'A supplication should be made in full confidence and one should persistently express his desire (before Allah) in his supplication, because no bounty is too great for Allah to bestow (upon his slaves).' means that Allah has the Absolute Power to answer our prayers, whether they relate to religious or worldly matters. Thus, one should ask with determination, neediness and humility, one should not ask as one who is not in need and is arrogant, 'for no one has the power to compel Allah,' due to His perfect lack of need, might, dominance and power.
Pretentiousness and Exaggeration during Conversation is undesirable
Ibn Mas'ood (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'The Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Ruined are Al-Mutanatti`un.' He repeated this thrice. [Saheeh Muslim] 'Mutanatti`un are those people who are in the habit of making unnecessary and unreasonably fine distinctions, exaggeration, artificial and eloquent speech in simple matters. We learn from this Hadeeth that in all matters one should adopt simplicity and avoid exaggeration, no matter whether in speech or action.' [See, Riyadh as-Saliheen]
Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-Aas (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Verily, Allah dislikes an eloquent person who rolls his tongue as a cow rolls its tongue (while eating).' [Abu Dawood and at-Tirmidhee] The person referred to in this Hadeeth is the one, who speaks with affection to display his eloquence. [See, Riyadh as-Saliheen]
Jabir bin Abdullah (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'The dearest and the closest of you to me on the Day of Resurrection will be those who are the best in behavior; and the most hateful and the farthest from me on the Day of Resurrection will be the ath-Thartharun (talkative) and Mutashaddiqun (the most pretentious or loud mouthed) and Mutafaihiqun (the most rhetorical).' [At-Tirmidhee]
Ath-Thartharun (talkative) is the plural of Tharthar, which comes from the word Thartharah, meaning to speak repeatedly in an artificial manner.
Mutashaddiqun (loud-mouthed) is the plural of Mutashaddiq, which means a person who speaks loudly to display his eloquence.
Mutafaihiqun is the plural of Mutafaihiq, which is from the word Fihq, meaning to fill.
This Hadeeth is a reference to those people who speak in a loud and lofty manner. All these characteristics of speech are indicative of artificiality and affectation which are condemned by the Sharee'ah, and people having these defects will be far away from the Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) and will face the Wrath of Allah. Islam likes simple, polite and natural style of conversation. In fact, all moral virtues will be a means of Allah's Pleasure. May Allah enable us to adopt these virtues. [See, Riyadh as-Saliheen]
Describing other women's charms to one's husband is prohibited
Abdullah ibn Mas'ood (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'The Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'No woman should tubashir (from the word, mubashirah) another woman and then describe her qualities to her husband in such a manner as if he was looking at her.' [Agreed upon]
'Mubashirah' means meeting of two bodies, and here it signifies that one should not see another person's body. Here, it is used in its literal as well as metaphorical sense. What it really means is that neither a woman should see the body of any other woman, nor should she touch her own body with the body of some other woman…' [See, Riyadh as-Saliheen]
Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar (rahimahullah) said, 'Al-Qaabisi said, 'The reason for this prohibition is the fear that the husband may like the description and that may lead him to divorce the woman, who gave the description or be tempted by the woman, who was described to him.' [Fath al-Baree (9/338), Awn al-Ma'bood (6/132), Fayd al-Qadeer (9723)]
One is allowed, however, to disclose a woman's charms to a man, who intends to marry her. [See, Riyadh as-Saliheen]
Indecent talk is prohibited
Ibn Mas'ood (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'A true believer does not taunt or curse or abuse or talk indecently.'' [At-Tirmidhee] We learn from this Hadeeth that in order for one to be a perfect believer, it is not enough to possess all the moral qualities but one must also keep oneself away from moral evils. Anas (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Indecency does not leave anything untainted, and decency does not leave anything ungraced and unembellished.'[At-Tirmidhee]
Saying: 'What Allah Wills and so-and-so wills' is prohibited
Hudhaifah Ibn Yaman (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'The Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Say not, 'What Allah wills and so-and-so wills,' but say, 'What Allah wills, and then what so-and-so wills.'' [Abu Dawood with authentic Isnad]
The first form ('What Allah wills and so-and-so wills,') mentioned in this Hadeeth is prohibited for the reason that it combines the will of someone else with the Will of Allah. It is, thus, associating partners in the Will of Allah, a form of minor Shirk. It is as if someone says to a person, 'I have only Allah's Support and yours.' In this statement, Allah and the man (addressed) are given the same status, which is most unfair and unjust. It would, however, be all right to say, 'We have the support of Allah and then yours', because this statement does not have any trace of Shirk, because in this second form, the Will of Allah comes first, which is the correct position, and the will of someone else comes later which is subject to the Will of Allah. Once a man came to the Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) and said, 'With the Will of Allah and with your will,' he (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said to him, 'Have you made me an associate with Allah?' Rather it is, 'what Allah Alone wills.' [An-Nisaee]
Qutailah (radhi allahu anhu) narrated, 'A Jew came to the Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) and said, 'Your people commit Shirk when they say, 'By the Will of Allah and with your will,' and say, 'By Ka'bah.' Thereafter, the Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) commanded to swear by saying, 'By the Rabb (Lord) of the Ka'bah,' and to say, 'by the Will of Allah and then with your will.' [An-Nisaee graded it saheeh]
Whoever curses time has wronged Allah
It is a common practice among the people to curse, degrade or attribute evil to time, if something displeasing occurs at a certain time. They will curse that day, month or year. Time, however, is not responsible for the occurrence of events. Deeds are only performed in it (i.e., the time). The One, Who Controls and Decrees all events is Allah. When one curses time, he is either, actually cursing Allah, Who governs all events, or he is ascribing occurrence of events to the time - and in doing so, he commits Shirk. The Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'Allah said, 'The son of Adam wrongs me for, he curses ad-Dahr (the time); though I am ad-Dahr (the time), in My Hands are all things, and I cause the revolution of day and night.'' [Saheeh al-Bukharee] in another narration, 'Do not abuse ad-Dahr (time), for Allah is ad-Dahr.' [Saheeh Muslim]
Ash-Shafa'ee, Abu Ubaydah, and several other Imams of Tafseer explained the meaning of the above Hadeeth saying, 'During the time of Jahiliyah (ignorance), when an affliction, a calamity or disaster struck them, the Arabs used to say, 'Woe to ad-Dahr (time)! So they used to blame such incidents on ad-Dahr, cursing ad-Dahr in the process. Surely, it is Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, Who causes these (and all) things to happen. This is why when they cursed ad-Dahr, it was as if they were cursing Allah, Himself, since truthfully He causes all incidents to happen. Therefore, abusing ad-Dahr was prohibited due to this consideration, for it was Allah, Whom they meant by abusing ad-Dahr,...' This is the best explanation for this subject, and it is the desired meaning. And Allah knows best. We should mention that Ibn-Hazm and those of the Zahiriyyah like him made an error when they used this Hadeeth to include ad-Dahr among Allah's most beautiful Names.' [See, Tafseer Ibn Katheer under the Tafseer of the verse, (45): 24]
'It is not considered cursing time to describe the years as difficult or to describe the day as black (i.e. dreary, sad), or the months as unfortunate, and similar statements. The reason is that this is restricted, meaning this is the day that he (the person) was unfortunate, or this is the day that he was bleak or dismal. Thus, the meaning of this is to describe what happened in that time, and that from his description was such-and-such, meaning, this person who is speaking. So actually, he is describing his condition and he is not describing the time with praise or reviling it.' [Ghayatul-Murid fi-Sharh Kitab at-Tawheed by Shaikh Ibn Abdul-Aziz ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibraheem Aali Shaikh]
Making fun of anything in which Allah, the Qur'aan or the Messenger is mentioned leads to disbelief whether one intends it or not
Abdullah Ibn Umar said, 'During the battle of Tabuk, a man was sitting in a gathering and said, 'I have never seen like these reciters of ours! They have the hungriest stomachs, the most lying tongues and are the most cowardice in battle.' A man in the Masjid (mosque) said, 'you lie, you are a hypocrite, and I will surely inform the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam).' This statement was conveyed to the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) and also, a part of the Qur'aan was revealed about it.' Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhi allahu anhu) said, 'I have seen that man afterwards holding onto the shoulders of the Messenger's camel while stones were falling on him, declaring, 'O Allah's Messenger! We were only engaged in idle talk and jesting,' while the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) was reciting, 'If you ask them (about this), they declare, 'We were only talking idly and joking.' Say, 'Was it at Allah, and His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and His Messenger (r) that you were mocking? Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after you had believed. If We pardon some of you, We will punish others amongst you because they were Mujrimoon (disbelievers, polytheists, sinners, criminals, etc.).' [Soorah Tawbah (9): 65-66]
This verse is a textual proof that the person who mocks Allah, the Messenger or the Ayaat of Allah - meaning the legislative relations of Allah, i.e. the Qur'aan, then this mocker is a disbeliever and his making excuses that he was just joking and playing does not benefit him.
'Tawheed is submission, compliance, acceptance and honoring, whereas, mocking and making fun of anything that contains the mention of Allah, the Qur'aan and the Messenger is opposed to it because it is contrary to honoring. For this reason, it is major disbelief in Allah, however, with its principle condition, which is that mocking, degrading, making fun and teasing is at Allah or His Messenger or the Qur'aan. If the mocking is at the religion, then that is excluded from this, as mocking the religion contains different classifications. Is the intent of the mocking actually the religion of Islam? If so, then this is disbelief (Kufr). It could be that this reviler, or curser or mocker of the religion intends the religious (practice) of the person who is being mocked and he does not fundamentally mean to mock the Islamic religion. In this case, his mocking is not directed at one of the three (Allah, the Qur'aan and the Messenger).' [Ghayatul-Murid fi-Sharh Kitab at-Tawheed by Shaikh Salih Ibn Abdul-Aziz ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibraheem Aali Shaikh]
To say, 'this wealth is the result of my labor and knowledge' is prohibited
'Man does not get tired of asking for good; but if an evil touches him, then he gives up all hope and is lost in despair. And truly, if We give him a taste of mercy from us, after some adversity (severe poverty or disease, etc.) has touched him, he is sure to say, 'This is for me (hadha li - due to my merit)…' [Soorah Fussilat (41): 50]
Allah tells us that man never gets tired of asking his Lord for good, like wealth, physical health, etc. but if he is made to experience trials and difficulties of poverty, 'then he gives up all hope and is lost in despair' i.e. he thinks that he will never experience anything good again. 'And truly, if We give him a taste of mercy from us, after some adversity (severe poverty or disease, etc.) has touched him, he is sure to say: 'This is for me (hadha li - due to my merit)...' meaning if something good happens to him or some provision comes to him after a period of difficulty, he says, 'this is because of me, because I deserve this from my Lord.' Mujahid said, '(the Arabic word hadha li means) this is the result of my labor and I do deserve it.' So, when he is given some blessing, he becomes careless, arrogant and ungrateful, as Allah says, 'Nay, Verily, man does transgress. Because he considers himself self-sufficient.' [Soorah al-Alaq (96): 6] [See, Tafseer Ibn Katheer]
'this (i.e., to say, 'this wealth is the result of my labor and knowledge') means that he was deserving of that and that Allah did not favor him with this thing, or He favored him with it because he deserved this favoring. Two kinds of people are included in this description that has been mentioned in the verse, the person who attributes something to himself and he basically, does not attribute it to Allah. The second is the person who attributes something to himself from the aspect of deserving and that he sees himself as deserving that thing from Allah, as occurs with some of those who have been deceived. The action of the slave is a means and the means differ. It may be effective by the permission of Allah, and thus, the matter goes back to the fact that it is the bounty of Allah that He gives to whomever He wishes.' [Interpretation of Kitab at-Tawheed, by Shaikh Salih Ibn Abdul Aziz Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibraheem aali Shaikh]
'Qatadah said, 'Meaning due to knowledge that I possess of the different methods of earning. This happens to many people from those whom Allah has enriched and they have begun making tremendous business. Such a person attributes something to himself and says, 'I have knowledge of the different methods of earning.' And similar statements, or if he is given a position (job), he says, 'This is due to my efforts.'' [Interpretation of Kitab at-Tawheed, by Shaikh Salih Ibn Abdul Aziz Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibraheem aali Shaikh]
Such was the case of Qaroon, who used to boast about his wealth saying, 'This has been given to me only because of the knowledge, I possess.' [Soorah al-Qasas (28): 78] Allah says, 'Did he not know that Allah had destroyed before him generations, men who were stronger than him in might and greater in the amount (of riches) they had collected? But the Mujrimoon (criminals, disbelievers, polytheist, sinners) will not be questioned of their sins.' [Soorah al-Qasas (28): 78] Because Allah knows them well and they will be punished without being called to account. Allah further says, 'So, We caused the earth to swallow him and his dwelling place. Then he had no group to help him against Allah, nor was he one of those who could save themselves.' [Soorah al-Qasas (28): 78] Meaning his wealth, servants and followers were of no avail to him; they could not protect him from the Wrath of Allah. Nor could he help or save himself. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, 'When a man among the people who came before you went out wearing out green garments, walking proudly and arrogantly, Allah commanded the earth to swallow him up, and he will remain sinking down into it until the Day of Resurrection.' [(Hasan) Musnad Ahmad]
Therefore, it is necessary to be grateful to Allah for His blessings and bounties and not attribute them to anyone except Him Alone.
May Allah grant us the ability to protect ourselves from Words We Say out of Negligence. Ameen!