|Quran : Tafsir Ibn Kathir : |
The Command to warn His Tribe of near Kindred
Here Allah commands (His Prophet ) to worship Him alone, with no partner or associate, and tells him that whoever associates others in worship with Him, He will punish them. Then Allah commands His Messenger to warn his tribe of near kindred, i.e., those who were most closely related to him, and to tell them that nothing could save any of them except for faith in Allah. Allah also commanded him to be kind and gentle with the believing servants of Allah who followed him, and to disown those who disobeyed him, no matter who they were. Allah said:
(Then if they disobey you, say: "I am innocent of what you do.'') This specific warning does not contradict the general warning; indeed it is a part of it, as Allah says elsewhere:
(In order that you may warn a people whose forefathers were not warned, so they are heedless.) (36:6),
(that you may warn the Mother of the Towns and all around it) (42:7),
(And warn therewith those who fear that they will be gathered before their Lord) (6:51),
(that you may give glad tidings to those who have Taqwa, and warn with it the most quarrelsome people.) (19:97),
(that I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach) (6:19), and
(but those of the sects that reject it, the Fire will be their promised meeting place) (11:17). According to Sahih Muslim, ﴿the Prophet said:﴾
(By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, no one from these nations -- Jewish or Christian -- hears of me then does not believe in me, but he will enter Hell.) Many Hadiths have been narrated concerning the revelation of this Ayah, some of which we will quote below: Imam Ahmad, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "When Allah revealed the Ayah,
(And warn your tribe of near kindred.), the Prophet went to As-Safa', climbed up and called out,
(O people!) The people gathered around him, some coming of their own accord and others sending people on their behalf to find out what was happening. The Messenger of Allah said:
(O Bani `Abd Al-Muttalib, O Bani Fihr, O Bani Lu'ayy! What do you think, if I told you that there was a cavalry at the foot of this mountain coming to attack you -- would you believe me) They said, "Yes.'' He said:
(Then I warn you of a great punishment that is close at hand.) Abu Lahab said, "May you perish for the rest of the day! You only called us to tell us this'' Then Allah revealed:
(Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab and perish he!) ﴿111:1﴾ This was also recorded by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i. Imam Ahmad recorded that `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her said: "When the Ayah:
(And warn your tribe of near kindred) was revealed, the Messenger of Allah stood up and said:
(O Fatimah daughter of Muhammad, O Safiyyah daughter of `Abd Al-Muttalib, O Bani `Abd Al-Muttalib, I cannot help you before Allah. Ask me for whatever you want of my wealth.) This was recorded by Muslim. Imam Ahmad recorded that Qabisah bin Mukhariq and Zuhayr bin `Amr said: "When the Ayah:
(And warn your tribe of near kindred.) was revealed, the Messenger of Allah climbed on top of a rock on the side of a mountain and started to call out:
(O Bani `Abd Manaf, I am indeed a warner, and the parable of me and you is that of a man who sees the enemy so he goes to save his family, fearing that the enemy may reach them before he does.) And he started to call out, (O people!) It was also recorded by Muslim and An-Nasa'i. Allah's saying:
(And put your trust in the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful,) means, `in all your affairs, for He is your Helper, Protector and Supporter, and He is the One Who will cause you to prevail and will make your word supreme.'
(Who sees you when you stand up. ) means, He is taking care of you. This is like the Ayah,
(So wait patiently for the decision of your Lord, for verily, you are under Our Eyes) (52:48) Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah,
(Who sees you when you stand up.) means, "To pray.'' `Ikrimah said: "He sees him when he stands and bows and prostrates.'' Al-Hasan said:
(Who sees you when you stand up.) "When you pray alone.'' Ad-Dahhak said:
(Who sees you when you stand up.) "When you are lying in bed and when you are sitting.'' Qatadah said:
(Who sees you) "When you are standing, when you are sitting, and in all other situations.''
(And your movements among those who fall prostrate.) Qatadah said:
(Who sees you when you stand up. And your movements among those who fall prostrate.) "When you pray, He sees you when you pray alone and when you pray in congregation.'' This was also the view of `Ikrimah, `Ata' Al-Khurasani and Al-Hasan Al-Basri.
(Verily, He, only He, is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.) He hears all that His servants say and He knows all their movements, as He says:
(Neither you do any deed nor recite any portion of the Qur'an, nor you do any deed, but We are Witness thereof, when you are doing it) (10:61).
(221. Shall I inform you upon whom the Shayatin descend) (222. They descend on every lying, sinful person (Athim).) (223. Who gives ear, and most of them are liars.) (224. As for the poets, the astray follow them,) (225. See you not that they speak about every subject in their poetry) (226. And that they say what they do not do.) (227. Except those who believe and do righteous deeds, and remember Allah much and vindicate themselves after they have been wronged. And those who do wrong will come to know by what overturning they will be overturned.)