Translation of Sahih Muslim, Book 22:

The Book of Sacrifices (Kitab Al-Adahi)


INTRODUCTION

Religion, at its highest and best, is the devotion of the total self, through service and adoration, to the Almighty Who controls the universe. In this sense all the manifold rites, consecrations, and purifications, offerings and sacred feasts, all the working of asceticism and morality are only the indirect expression of the inner experience of religion-the experience of trust, surrender, yearning and enthusiasm. Sacrifice, whether that of wealth or desires, is the practical proof of man's devotion to his Creator. It is in fact religion in action.

The Holy Qur'an expresses this attitude of mind and heart in the following words:" Say: Truly, my prayer and my service of sacrifice, and my living and my dying are for God (alone), the Sustainer of all the worlds, in Whose Divinity none has a share. Thus I have been bidden-and I am foremost among those who surrender themselves unto Him" (vi. 162-163).

The 'Id al-Adha is commemorative of that unparalleled act of devotion of that noble soul. Abraham (peace be upon him), who, in obedience to the Command of his Lord, readily offered the life of his son Isma'il. The Holy Qur'an narrates this soul- stirring event in these words:" And when he (Isma'il) attained the age to assist him in his (Abrahm's) work, he (Abraham) said: O my son! I see in vision that I offer thee in sacrifice. Now see what is thy view. The son said: O my father, do as thou art commanded. Thou wilt find me, if God so wills, patient. So when they both had surrendered themselves to (Allah), and he laid him down prostrate on his forehead (for sacrifice), We called out to him: O Abraham, thou hast indeed fulfilled the vision. Thus do We reward the doers of good. Surely this is a manifest trial. And We ransom- ed him with a great sacrifice. And We left (this blessing) for him among the later generations. Peace be upon Abraham I Thus indeed do We reward those who do good; for he was one of Our believing servants" (xxxvii. 102-111)

In the above-quoted verses 'axim (great), the adjective qualifying" Sacrifice." may be understood both in literal and figurative sense. In literal sense it implies that a big ram was substituted. The figurative sense is even more important. It was indeed a great and momentous occasion, when two men with concentrated will ranged themselves in ranks of those to whom self-sacrifice in the service of God was the supreme thing in life. Similarly, the words" thou hast indeed fulfilled the vision" show that it was not in fact the act of slaughtering which was needed for the fulfilment of the vision, but it was the attitude of submission and surrender, an attitude of preparedness to sacrifice one's all in the path of Allah. that was demanded of Abraham and his illustrious son, and they eminently stood this test.

Readiness to Sacrifice One's Life. In Islam the act of sacrifice is the symbol of a Muslim's readiness to lay down his life, and to sacrifice all his interests and desires in the cause of truth. The purpose of sacrifice is not fulfilled only by shedding the blood of an animal, but it is really fulfilled when a man submits himself completely to the command of Allah. This has been clearly laid down in Sura Hajj, verse 37;" Not their flesh, nor their blood reaches Allah, but it is the piety from you that reaches Him." This verse eloquently speaks of the fact that sacrifice in Islam is nothing else than a natural expression of homage and gratitude to the Creator. It is the spirit of willing devotion and cheerful obedience underlying sacrifices that is accepted by Allah Who is the Fountainhead of all morality. It is only piety of heart. nobility of soul and righteousness of conduct, that is acceptable to Him. It is essentially symbolic, an external symbol of dedication, devotion to Allah. Tafsir Ibn Kathir stresses this point:" The man who offers sacrifice should keep this fact uppermost in his mind that the most important motive behind this is the willing submission to Allah" ' (Vol. VI, p. 183).

Such truths, so self-evident to the Muslim readers, needed a clear and emphatic enunciation in view of the horrible misconceptions which had crowded round the act of sacrifice before Islam.

" Throughout the Semitic field," observes Robertson Smith, in his well known book. The Religion of the Semitics, the fundamental idea of sacrifice was that of communion between the God and his worshipper by joint participation in the living flesh and blood of a sacred victim" (p. 49).

" The Greeks also looked upon sacrifice as a 'Communion feast' with the Divinity, in which the God and his people became of one flesh by partaking together of the flesh of the victim; the animal was regarded, as in some degree, divine, as having the divine spirit incarnate in it. Among the Babylonians the gods feast in heaven, they eat the offerings, they scent the savour, like flies do they gather themselves together with the offerers" (Hastings, Encyclopedia of Rdigion & Ethics, Article" Sacrifice" ).

The Holy Qur'an strikes at the very root of such wrong concepts of sacrifice and asserts that" it is neither the flesh nor the blood of (animals) that reaches Allah, but it is your piety that reaches Him," for God does not stand In need of food or blood. What He, in fact, desires is the devotion and piety of our hearts. and, as a symbol of such offer, the visible institution of sacrifice has been instituted. The Holy Qur'an has further elucidated the main parpose of the institution of sacrifice." For every people did We appoint rites (of sacrifice) that they might celebrate the name of God over the sustenance He gave them from animals (fit for food). But your God is One God. Sub- mit then your wills to him (in Islam).... The sacrificial camels We have made for you as among the symbols from God. In them is (much) good for you So mention the name of Allah on them standing in a row. Then when they fall down on their sides, eat of them, feed the contented one and the beggar. Thus have We made them subservient to you that you may be grateful" (xxii. 34-38).

The Qur'an testifies to the historical fact that whatever may be the outward symbols of sacrifice, it has been accepted in one form or another by all the nations of the world. It had been a fundamental element of both Jewish and Gentile religions, and Christianity. It had been corrupted by many wrong practices and been overlaid by many wrong notions before the advent of Islam. Islam purifies it from all wrong notions and practices connected with it, and makes it explicitly clear that the act of sacrifice is an outward symbol of man's readiness to lay down his life, if required, and to surrender all his interests in the cause of truth and righteousness.

The words" We have made them (subservient) to you" have a very wide significance. A Muslim has been awakened to the realisation of the fact that if they offer as a sacrifice an animal over which they hold control, it is their bounden duty to lay down their lives in the way of Allah, Who is not only their Master, but also their Creator and Sustainer and Who. therefore, exercises a far greater authority over them than they do over the animals. This should be the true motive of sacrifice, and it is with this spirit that this act should be performed.

The Qur'anic words" To Him is acceptable observance of duty on your part" make it abundantly clear that the prevalent idea of atonement that" it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul" (Leviticus; 17: 11) has no foundation in Islam. The expiation of sin in Islam rests entirely on the good deeds of men, repentance of the Winners and the Forgiving and Merciful nature of God 'This fact cuts the ground from under the feet of any theory of an atoning sacrifice.

The opening verse" For every people did We appoint rites (of sacrifice) that they might celebrate the name of God over the beast cattle wherewith He bath provided them," speaks of the fact that the very idea of human sacrifice is repugnant to the true religion and Allah has never given it sanction.

This practice of human sacrifice was not uncommon before Islam." Both on the mainland of Greece and in the Greek colonies human sacrifice was practised, usually as a means towards expulsion of evil" (Encydopaedia Britannica, Article'on" Sacrifice" ). it occupied a prominent place in the ritual of the mother goddesses of ancient times.

" The ordinary form of sacrifice," says E. O. James, in his famous book, The origins of Sacrifice," consisted in stripping the victim of his ornaments, stretching him over the convex sacrificial stones and while fare priests held his arms, legs, head, the high priests or sacrificer cut open his breast with a flint or obsidian knife, and tore out the heart. This was held up to the sun to provide it with nourishment, before it was cast into a basin of Copal placed in a position to enable the blood and incense to ascend to the gods. The body was hurled down the steps of the temple to the court where it was seized by the priest or by the warrior who captured the victim. Some times a solemn feast was then held on the flesh, the skin having first been removed to be worn ceremonially by men who seem to have acquired thereby the fertilising nd health-giving qualities of the victim. Some of the blood was carried to certain temples and smeared on the hips of the images of gods" (pp. 84-6).

Islam has not only exterminated the very idea of human sacrifice, but has completely ended all such inhuman practices which were very common with the people before Islam. The Holy Qur'an makes a pointed reference to the fact that this sacrifice of animals is commemorative of Abraham's offer of his son's life at the Command of Allah, who was substituted by a ram, and it has been perpetuated by Islam. It is narrated that once the Companions of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) asked him about the sacrifice. He replied:" This is commemorative Sunnah of your father Abraham" (vide Ibn Kathir, Vol. III, p. 221). That this practice of sacrifice was already prevalent amongst the people before Islam can be well borne out by the fact that we find clear references to it in the poetry of pre-Islamic Arabia. The well. known poet Umayya observes:

Abraham was one who would fulfil the pledges and offer sacrifices for Allah's sake.

Thus he offered the life of his only son whose separation and whose risk of life, he could not bear.

He said," O my son I have pledged you to Allah.

May I sacrifice my life for you!

Be steadfast and firm."

He had hardly taken off the shirt of his son, when Allah substituted Isma'il by a stout ram.

Not only this practice of sacrifice has been preserved in Islam, but even the way of Abraham's has been declared to he one of righteousness and truthfulness:

" Say: Behold, my Lord has guided me to a way that is straight-a religion of Right Path-the Path (trodden) by Abraham, who was wholly devoted to God, and was not of those who ascribe divinity to any beside him" (vi. 161).

Even the Millat has been assigned a name after the name of Abraham:

" He hath selected you and hath not placed upon you any hardship in religion-the religion of your father, Abraham. He named you Muslims before this, and in this, that the Messenger may be a witness to you and you may he witnesses to mankind" (xxii. 78).

Historical Continuity, The constant reference to the earlier Prophets and the Qur'anic testimony to their righteousness and the preservation of some of their religious practices have been done to awaken the people to the realisation of a fundamental fact, i. e. the fact of the historical continuity of religious experience. The Muslims have been asked to believe in that which has been revealed unto Prophet Muhammad (may peace be upon him) as well as in that which was revealed before him. Life-so the Qur'an teaches us-is not a series of disconnected parts but a continuous, organic process: and this law applies also to the law of the mind, of which man's religious experience (in its cumulative sense) is a part. To make religious experience more living, to set Allah the Ever-living with loving vividness before the eyes of living men, to make them feel Him as actually and eternally present in their lives, man needs a path, clear-cut path, lightened with glories of the Messengers of Allah-a path on which one should not feel lonely but the strength of comradeship of those noble souls upon whom Allah has bestowed His choicest blessings.

A few words may be said about the way how an animal should be slaughtered according to the teachings of Islam. Three are the aims which should be kept before the mind while slaughtering the animal:

It should be slaughtered by reciting the name of Allah and glorifying Him.

It should be slaughtered with a sharp knife so that its jugular vein may be cut with the minimum possible pain and its skin should not be removed and limbs should not be cut so long as there is any sign of life in it.

The head should not be removed from the body abruptly but only the jugular vein should be cut so that even the last drop of blood flows out of its body. If the animal is beheaded with a stroke, the blood congeals in its veins which makes the flesh distasteful and pernicious to health.


Chapter 1: THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE


Book 022, Number 4818:

Jundab b. Sufyan reported: I was with Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) on the day of 'Id al-Adha. While he had not returned after having offered (the Id prayer) and finished it, he saw the flesh of the sacrificial animals which had been slaughtered before he had completed the prayer. Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: One who slaughtered his sacrificial animal before his prayer or our prayer ('Id), he should slaughter another one in its stead, and he who did not slaughter, he should slaughter by reciting the name of Allah.


Book 022, Number 4819:

Jundab b. Sufyan reported: I was with Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) (on the occasion) of 'Id al-Adha. After he had completed the prayer with people, he found that the goats had been slaughtered, whereupon he said: He who slaughtered sacrificial animal before the prayer should slaughter a goat (again) in its stead and he who has not slaughtered he should slaughter it by reciting the name of Allah.


Book 022, Number 4820:

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of al-Aswad b. Qais with the same chain of transmitters.


Book 022, Number 4821:

Jundab al-Bajali reported: I saw Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) observing ('Id) prayer on the Day of Sacrifice (10th of Dhu'l-Hijja) and then delivering a sermon and he said: He who sacrificed the (animal) before offering ('Id) prayer, he should offer again in its stead, and he who did not sacrifice the animal should slaughter it by reciting the name of Allah.


Book 022, Number 4822:

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu'ba through another chain of transmitters.


Book 022, Number 4823:

Al-Bara' reported: My maternal uncle Abu Burda sacrificed his animal before ('Id) prayer. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: That is a goat (slaughtered for the sake of) flesh (and not as a sacrifice on the day of Adha). He said: I have a lamb of six months. Thereupon he said: Offer it as a sacrifice, but it will not justify for anyone except you, and then said: He who sacrificed (the animal) before ('Id) prayer, he in fact slaughtered it for his own self, and he who slaughtered after prayer, his ritual of sacrifice became complete and he in fact observed the religious practice of the Muslims.


Book 022, Number 4824:

Al-Bara' b. 'Azib reported that his maternal'uncle Abu Burda b. Niyar sacrificed his animal earlier than the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) had sacrificed. Thereupon he said: Apostle of Allah, it is the day of meat and it is not desirable (to have longing for it and not to make use of it immediately), so I hastened in offering my animal as a sacrifice, so that I might feed my family and neighbours and my kith and kin. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Offer again your sacrifice. He said: Messenger of Allah, I have a small milch goat of less than one year, and that is better than two dry goats (from which only) meat (can be acquired). Thereupon he said: That is better than the two animals of sacrifice on your behalf, and the sacrifice of a goat, of less than six months shall not be accepted as a sacrifice on behalf of anyone after your (sacrifice).


Book 022, Number 4825:

Al-Bara' b. 'Azib reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) delivered an address on the day (of Nahr) in which he said: None of you should offer sacrifice of animals until he has completed the ('Id) prayer. Thereupon my maternal uncle said: Messenger of Allah, it is the day of meat, so it is not desirable (to keep my family in the state of longing). The rest of the hadith is the same.


Book 022, Number 4826:

Al-Bara' reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: He who observes prayer like our prayer and turns his face towards our Qibla (in prayer) and who offers sacrifices (of animals) as we do, he must not slaughter the (animal as a sacrifice) until he has completed the prayer. Thereupon my maternal uncle said: Messenger of Allah, I have sacrificed the animal on behalf of my son. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: This is the thing in which you have made haste for your family. He said: I have a goat with me better than two goats. Thereupon he said: Sacrifice it for that is the best.


Book 022, Number 4827:

Al-Bara' b. 'Azib reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: The first (act) with which we started our day (the day of 'Id-ul Adha) was that we offered prayer. We then returned and sacrificed the animals and he who did that in fact adhered to our Sunnah (practice). And he who slaughtered the (animal on that day before the 'Id prayer), for him (the slaughtering of animal was directed to the acquiring of) meat for his family, and there is nothing of the sort of sacrifice in it. It was Abu Burda b. Niyar who had slaughtered (the animal before the 'Id prayer). He said: I have a small lamb, of less than one year, but better than that of more than a year. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) qaid: Sacrifice it, but it will not suffice (as a sacrifice) for anyone after you.


Book 022, Number 4828:

A hadith like this has been narrated on the authority of al-Bara' b. 'Azib through another chain of transmitters.


Book 022, Number 4829:

al-Bara' b. 'Azib reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) addressed us on the day of Nahr after the ('Id) prayer. The rest of the hadith is the same.


Book 022, Number 4830:

Al-Bara' b. 'Azib reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) addressed us on the day of Nahr and said: None should sacrifice the animal unless he has completed the ('Id) prayer. A person said: I have a milch goat of less than one year, better than two fat goats. Thereupon he said: Sacrifice it, and no goat of less than a year of age will be accepted as sacrifice after you.


Book 022, Number 4831:

Al-Bara' b. 'Azib reported that Abu Burda slaughtered the animal as a sacrifice before the ('Id) prayer. Thereupon Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Offer a substitute for it (since it does not absolve you of the responsibility of sacrifice). Thereupon he said: Allah's Messenger. I have nothing with me but a goat of less than six months. Shu'ba (one of the narrators) said: I think he (al-Bara' b. 'Azib also) said: And it is better than a goat of one year. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Make it a substitute for that (and sacrifice it), but it will not suffice for anyone (as a sacrifice) after you.


Book 022, Number 4832:

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu'ba with the same chain of transmitters, but did not mention tht doubt (expressed in his statement) That is (the goat of less than a year) is better than a goat of more than one year.


Book 022, Number 4833:

Anas (b. Malik) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said on the day of Nahr (Sacrifice): He who slaughtered (the animal as a sacrifice) before the ('Id) prayer. should repeat it (i. e. offer another animal). Thereupon a person stood up and said: Messenger of Allah, that is the day when meat is much desired, and he also made a mention of the need of his neighbour, and perhaps Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) attested it. He (the person who had sacrificed the animal before the 'Id prayer) said: I have a goat of less than one year of age with me and I like it more than two fleshy goats; should I offer it as a sacrifice? He permitted him to do so. He (the narrator) said: I do not know whether this permission was granted to anyone else besides him or not. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) then turned towards two rams. and he slaughtered them, and the people' came to the goats and got them distributed amongst themselves (for offering them as sacrifice).


Book 022, Number 4834:

Anas b. Malik reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) offered the 'Id prayer and then delivered the sermon giving the command: He who slaughtered the animal before prayer should slaughter (another animal as a sacrifice). The rest of the hadith is the same.


Book 022, Number 4835:

Anas b. Malik reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) addressed us on the day of 'Id al-Adha. He smelt the odour of flesh and he prohibited thern from slaughtering (the animals before the 'Id prayer), saying: He who slaughtered the animals (before the 'Id prayer) should do that again (as it is not valid as a sacrifice).


Chapter 2: OF WHAT AGE THE ANIMAL IS TO BE SACRIFICED


Book 022, Number 4836:

Jabir reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Sacrifice only a grown-up animal, unless it is difficult for you, in which case sacrifice a ram (of even less than a year, but more than six months' age).


Book 022, Number 4837:

Jabir b. 'Abdullah reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) led us in the 'Id prayer in Medina on the Day of Sacrifice. Some persons slaughtered their animals ahead of him under the impression that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) had-already offered sacrifice. Thereupon Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Those who had slaughtered their animals ahead of him should slaughter the other ones in their stead. And they should not sacrifice the animal before Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) had sacrificed (his animal)


Book 022, Number 4838:

Uqba b. 'Amir reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) gave the gifts of goats to be distributed amongst his Companions. They sacrificed them, but a lamb of one year of age was left. (Someone) made a mention of that to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), whereupon he said: You sacrifice it.


Book 022, Number 4839:

Amir al-Juhani reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) distributed sacrificial animals (amongst us for sacrificing them on 'Id al-Adha). So we sacrificed them. There fell to my lot a lamb of less than one year I said: Allah's Messenger, there has fallen to my lot a lamb (Jadha'a), whereupon he said: Sacrifice that.


Book 022, Number 4840:

This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of 'Uqba b. 'Amir al-Juhan with a slight change of wording.


Chapter 3: IT IS MERITORIOUS TO SACRIFICE THE ANIMAL WITH ONE'S OWN HAND AND SO IS MERITORIOUS THE RECITATION OF BISMILLAH (IN THE NAME OF ALLAH) AND TAKBIR (ALLAH-O-AKBAR)


Book 022, Number 4841:

Anas reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) sacrificed with his own hands two horned rams which were white with black markings reciting the name of Allah and glorifying Him (saying Allah-o-Akbar). He placed his foot on their sides (while sacrificing).


Book 022, Number 4842:

Anas reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) sacrificed two horned rams of white colour with black markings over them. He also stated: I saw him sacrificing them with his own hand and saw him placing his foot on their sides, and recited the name of Allah and Glorified Him.


Book 022, Number 4843:

Shu'ba reported: Qatada informed me that he had heard Anas saying that Allah's Messenger (may peace be npon him) sacrificed (the horned rams) and like that. I said: Did you (Qatada) hear from Anas? He said. Yes.


Book 022, Number 4844:

This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Anas with a slight variation of wording.


Book 022, Number 4845:

'A'isha reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded that a ram with black legs, black belly and black (circles) round the eyes should be brought to him, so that he should sacrifice it. He said to 'A'isha: Give me the large knife, and then said: Sharpen it on a stone. She did that. He then took it (the knife) and then the ram; he placed it on the ground and then sacrificed it, saying: Bismillah, Allah-humma Taqabbal min Muhammadin wa Al-i-Muhammadin, wa min Ummati Muhammadin (In the name of Allah," O Allah, accept [this sacrifice] on behalf of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and the Umma of Muhammad" ).


Chapter 4: PERMISSIBILITY OF SLAUGHTERING THE ANIMAL WITH ANYTHING WHICH MAY MAKE ITS BLOOD FLOW, EXCEPT TOOTH, NAIL AND BONE


Book 022, Number 4846:

Rafi' b. Khadij is reported to have said: Allah's Messenger, we are going to encounter the enemy tomorrow, but we have no knives with us. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Make haste or be careful (in making arrangements for procuring knives) which would let the blood flow (and along with it) the name of Allah is also to be recited. Then eat, but not the tooth or nail. And I am going to tell you why it is not permissible to slaughter the animal with the help of tooth and bone; and as for the nail. it is a bone, and the bone is the knife of Abyssinians. He (the narrator) said: There fell to our lot as spoils of war camels and goats, and one of the camels among them became wild. A person (amongst usl struck It with an arrow which brought it under control. whereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: This camel became wild like wild animals, so if you find any animal getting wild, you do the same with that


Book 022, Number 4847:

Rafi' b. Khadij reported: While we were with Allah's Messenger (may peace he upon him) in Dhu'I-Hulaifa in Tihama, we got hold of goats and camels. Some persons (amongst us) made haste and boiled (the flesh of goats and camels) in their earthen pots. He then commanded and these were turned over; then he equalised ten goats for a camel. The rest of the hadith is the same.


Book 022, Number 4848:

Rafi' b. Khadij reported from his grandfather that he said: Allah's Messenger, we are going to encounter the enemy tomorrow, but we do not have long knives with us, should we then slaughter them with the peel of the reed? The rest of the hadith is the same. (And at the end the words are):" A camel became wild (and got out of our control). We attacked it with arrows until we made it fall down." This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Sa'id b. Masruq with the same chain of transmitters with a slight variation of words.


Book 022, Number 4849:

Rafi' b. Khadij reported that he said: Allah's Messenger, we are going to encounter the enemy tomorrow. and we do not have large knives with us. The rest of the hadith is the same, but no mention is made of this:" The people hastened and they boiled (flesh) in the earthen pots. He (the Holy Prophet), cammanded and these were turned over and the narrator narrated the whole event.


Chapter 5: IT WAS NOT PERMISSIBLE TO EAT THE FLESH OF SACRIFICIAL ANIMALS BEYOND THREE DAYS AT THE BEGINNING OF ISLAM, BUT THIS PROHIBITION WAS ABROGATED, AND NOW IT IS PERMISSIBLE


Book 022, Number 4850:

Abu Ubaid reported: I was with 'Ali b. Abi Talib on the occasion of the 'Id day. He started with the 'Id prayer before delivering the sermon, and said: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade us to eat the flesh of our sacrificial animals beyond three days.


Book 022, Number 4851:

Abu 'Ubaid, the freed slave of Ibn Azhar, reported that he said 'Id (prayer) with Umar b. al-Khattab, and then said the 'Id (prayer) with 'Ali b. Abu Talib. He (the narrator further) reported: He led us in prayer before delivering the sermon and then addressed the people saying: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) has forbidden you to eat the flesh of your sacrificial animals beyond three nights, so do not eat that.


Book 022, Number 4852:

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zuhri with the same chain of transmitters.


Book 022, Number 4853:

Ibn 'Umar reported kllah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) having said: None of you shculd eat the flesh of his sacrificial animal beyond three days.


Book 022, Number 4854:

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Umar through another chain of transmitters.


Book 022, Number 4855:

Ibn 'Umar reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade that the flesh of sacrificial animals be eaten beyond three (days) Salim (son of Ibn Umar) said: Ibn 'Umar did not eat the flesh of the sacrificial animals beyond three (days). Ibn Abu 'Umar said:" Beyond three days."


Book 022, Number 4856:

Abdullah b. Waqid reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade (people) to cat the flesh of sacrificed animals beyond three days. Abdullah b. Abu Bakr said, I made a mention of that to 'Amra, whereupon she said: He has told the truth, for I heard 'A'isha say: The poor among the people of the desert come (to the towns) on the occasion of Id al-Adha during the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). Upon this Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Retain with you (the flesh) sufficing for three (days), and whatever is left out of that give in charity. After this. they (the Muslims) said: Allah's Messenger, the people make waterskins with the (hides) of their sacrificed animals and they melt fat out of them. Thereupon he said. What the then? They said: You forbade (us) to eat the flesh of sacrificial animals beyond threoq (days), whereupon he said: I forbade you for those (poor persons) who flocked (to the towns on this occasion for getting meat) but now when (this situation has improved) you may eat, preserve and give -in charity.


Book 022, Number 4857:

Jabir reported that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbade eating of the flesh of sacrificed animals beyond three (days). but afterwards said: Eat, make a provision, and keep it.


Book 022, Number 4858:

Jabir b. Abdullah reported: We did not eat the flesh of our sacrificial animals beyond three days in Mina. Then Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) permitted us saying: Eat and make it a provision (for journey). I asked 'Ata' whether Jabir had also said: Till we came to Medina. He said: Yes.


Book 022, Number 4859:

Jabir b. 'Abdullah reported: We did not eat the flesh of sacrificed animals beyond three (days), but then Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded us to make it a provision for journey and cat it (beyond three days).


Book 022, Number 4860:

Jabir reported: We made provision (out of the flesh of sacrificed animals for our journey) to Medina during the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him).


Book 022, Number 4861:

Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: O people of Medina, do not eat the flesh of sacrificed animals beyond three days. Ibn al-Muthanni said: Three days. They (the Companions of the Holy Prophet) complained to the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) that they had children and servants of theirs (to feed), whereupon he said: Eat, and feed others, and store, and make it a provision of food.


Book 022, Number 4862:

Salama b. al-Akwa' reported Allah's Messenger (way peace be upon him) having said: He who sacrifices (animal) among you nothing should be left in his house (out of its flesh) on the morning of the third day. When it was the next year they (his Companions) said: Should we do this year as we did daring the previous year? Thereupon he said: Don't do that, for that was a year when the people were hard pressed (on account of poverty). so I wanted that the (flesh) might be distributed amongst them.


Book 022, Number 4863:

Thauban reported that Allah's Messenger (way peace be upon him) slaughtered his sacrificial animal and then said: Thauban, make his meat usable (for journey), and I continuously served him that until he arrived in Medina.


Book 022, Number 4864:

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Mu'awiya b. Salih with the same chain of transmitters.


Book 022, Number 4865:

Thauban, the freed slave of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to me on the occasion of Hajjat-al-Wada' (the Farewell Pilgrimage): Make the flesh usable. So I made it usable (for him) and he ate it constantly until he reached Medina. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Yabya b. Hamza with the same chain of transmitters, but he did not say: On the occasion of Hajjat-al-Wada'.


Book 022, Number 4866:

Abdullah b. Buraida reported on the authority of his father that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said this: I prohibited you from visiting the graves, but (now) you may visit them, and I prohibited you (from eating) the flesh of sacrific- ed animals beyond three days, but now keep it as long as you like. I prohibited you from the use of Nabidh except (that preoared) in dry waterskins. Now drink (Nabidh prepared in any utensil), but do not drink when it becomes intoxicant.


Book 022, Number 4867:

Ibn Buraida, on the authority of his father, reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: I used to forbid you. The rest of the hadith is the same.


Chapter 6: SACRIFICING OF FARA' AND 'ATIRA ARE IDOLATROUS PRACTICES


Book 022, Number 4868:

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: (The sacrifice of Fara' and 'Atira) has no (sanction in Islam). Ibn Rafi' made this addition in his narration that Fara' means the first-born young one of a camel.


Chapter 7: IT IS NOT PERMISSIBLE FOR ONE WHO INTENDS TO SACRIFICE THE ANIMAL TO GET ONE'S HAIR OR NAILS CUT AFTER THE BEGINNING OF DHU'L-HIJJA


Book 022, Number 4869:

Umm Salama reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: When any one of you intending to sacrifice the animal enters in the month (of Dhu'l-Hijja) he should not get his hair or nails touched (cut). It was said to Sufyan that some of the (scholars) did not deem this hadith to be Maffu'. He said: But I deem it as Marfu' (i. e. chain of narration traceable right up to the Holy Prophet).


Book 022, Number 4870:

Umm Salama reported Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: If anyone of you intends to offer sacrifice he should not get his hair cut or nails trimmed.


Book 022, Number 4871:

Umm Salama reported (these words) directly from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him): If anyone has in his possession a sacrificial animal to offer as a sacrifice (on 'Id al-Adha), he should not get his hair cut and nails trimmed after he has entered the first days of Dhu'l Hijja


Book 022, Number 4872:

This hadith has been narrated on the authority of 'Amr b. Muslim with the same chain of transmitters.


Book 022, Number 4873:

Umm Salama, the wife of Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him), reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) to have said: He who has a sacrificial animal with him whom (he intends) to offer as sacrifice, and he enters the month of Dhu'I-Hijja, he should not get his hair cut or nails trimmed until he has sacrificed the animal.


Book 022, Number 4874:

'Amr b. Muslim b. 'Ammar al-Laithi reported: While we were in a bathroom just before 'Id al-Adha some of the persons tried to remove the hair with the help of hair-removing chemicals. Thereupon some of the people owning the bath (or some of the people sitting therein) said that Sa'id b. Musayyib did not approve of it, or he prohibited it. Then I met Sa'id b. Musayyib and made a mention of that to him, whereupon he said: O my nephew, this is the hadith which has been forgotten, and abandoned. Umm Salama, the wife of Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him), narrated to me Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said as narrated above.


Book 022, Number 4875:

Amr b. Muslim al-Jundani reported that Ibn Musayyib had told him that it was Umm Salama, the wife of Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him), who had informed him of that as narrated above.


Chapter 8: IT IS FORBIDDEN TO SACRIFICE THE ANIMAL FOR ANYONE BESIDES ALLAH, THE EXALTED, AND CURSE UPON ONE WHO DOES IT


Book 022, Number 4876:

Abu Tufail 'Amir b. Withila reported: I was in the company of 'Ali b. Abi Talib, when a person came to him, and said: What was it that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) told you in secret? Thereupon he (liadrat 'All) was enraged and said: Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) did not tell me anything in secret that he hid from people, except that he told me four things. He said: Com- mader of Faithful, what are these? He said: Allah cursed him who cursed his father; Allah cursed him who sacrificed for anyone besides Allah; and Allah cursed him who accommodates an innovator (in religion) ; and Allah cursed him who changed the minarets (the boundary lines) of the land.


Book 022, Number 4877:

Abu Tufail reported: We said to 'Ali b. Abi Talib: Inform us about something which Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) told you in secret, whereupon he said: He told me nothing in secret which he bid from people, but I heard him say: Allah cursed him who sacrificed for anyone besides Allah; and cursed him who accommodated an innovator; and Allah cursed him who cursed his parents and Allah cursed him who changed the boundary lines (of the land possessed by him).


Book 022, Number 4878:

Abu Tufail reported: 'Ali was asked whether Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) had showed special favour (by disclosing to him) a thing (which he kept secret from others). Thereupon he said: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) singled us not for (disclosing to us) anything (secret) which he did not make public, (but those few things) which lie in the sheath of my sword. He drew out the written document contained in it and on that (it was mentioned): Allah cursed him who sacrificed for anyone else besides Allah; and Allah cursed him who stole the signposts (demarcating the boundary lines of the) land; and Allah cursed him who cursed his father; and Allah cursed him who accommodated an innovator (in religion).


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