Belief in the Messengers – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 46 (Part C) & Lesson 47
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Belief in the Messengers

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:  

Allaah sent all of the messengers as bringers of good tidings and as warners, and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

رُّسُلًا مُّبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى اللَّهِ حُجَّةٌ بَعْدَ الرُّسُلِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

Messengers were sent as bringers of glad tidings and as warners so that the people should have no excuse with Allaah after the sending of the messengers. And Allaah is ever All Mighty, All Wise. [4:165] [74]


[74]:Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Eemaan in the Messengers is one of the six pillars of eemaan; he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said: 

Eemaan is that you truly believe in Allaah and in His Angels and in His Books and in His Messengers…”

[Hadeeth reported by al Bukhaaree (50) and Muslim (8,9 & 10) from the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radi Allaahu‘ anhu]

So having eemaan in the Messengers is one of the pillars of eemaan; so it is essential to have eemaan in all of the messengers, from the first of them to the last of them. So whoever denies a single messenger, then he is a kaafir (disbeliever) in all of them, just as He, the Most High, said: 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَّخِذُوا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا – أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ حَقًّا ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا

Those who disbelieve in Allaah and in His Messengers want to make a distinction between believing in Allaah and in His Messengers and they say, “We believe in some of them and we disbelieve in some.”And they wish to take a path in between that. They are the disbelievers in truth and We have prepared a humiliating punishment for the disbelievers. [4:150-151]

So there must be eemaan in all of the Messengers from the first of them to the last of them, those whom Allaah has named from them in His Book, and those He has not named. For the Messengers are many; and therefore there occurs in the hadeeth that they number:

“One hundred and twenty four thousand (prophets) and the messengers from them were three hundred and fifteen all together.”

[Hadeeth reported by Ahmad in his Musnad from the hadeeth of Aboo Umaamah al Baahilee radi Allaahu ‘anhu and declared to be saheeh by al Albaanee in as Saheehah (2668)]

So there were many messengers; from them were those whom Allaah named in His Book and from them were those He did not name. So it is obligatory upon us to have eemaan in all of them, from the first of them to the last of them.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

: وأولُهُمْ نوحٌ عليهِ السلامُ، وآخِرُهُم محمدٌ صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو خاتِمُ النَّبيينَ والدليلُ على أنَّ أوَّلُهُم نوح قوله تعالى

And the first of them was Nooh, ‘alaihissalaam, and the last of them was Muhammad sallAllaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam; and the proof that the first of them was Nooh, ‘alaihissalaam, is His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ

We have sent you (O Muhammad), with Revelation, just as We sent Revelation to Nooh and to the prophets who came after him [4:163] 75


 [75]:Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The proof that the first of them was Nooh is His saying, He the Most High:

… إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ

We sent revelation to you…

This was an address to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam

 كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ ۚ وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَعِيسَىٰ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُونُسَ وَهَارُونَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا 

… just as We sent revelation to Nooh and the prophets who came after him; and We sent revelation to Ibraaheem and Isma’eel and Is-haaq and Ya’qoob and to the tribes (of Banu Israeel) and to ‘Eesaa and Ayyoob and Yoonus and Haaroon and Sulaymaan; and We gave the Zaboor to Daawud. [4:163]

Allaah mentioned a number of their names together in this aayah, just as He mentioned a number of their names together in the aayah from Soorah al An’aam:

 وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِ دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُوسُفَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَهَارُونَ

And from his descendants were Daawood and Sulaymaan and Ayyoob and Yoosuf and Moosaa and Haaroon… [6:84]

to the end of the aayaat.

So the first of them was Nooh  – ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam – as proven by His saying, He the Most High:

 .. وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ

And the prophets who came after him… [4:163]

Allaah sent him (Nooh) to his people when they went beyond the limits (ghuloo) concerning the righteous people after the people had been upon the religion of Tawheed from the time of Aadam ‘alaihissalaam for ten generations and they were upon Tawheed.

So when the people of Nooh came, there were amongst (those people) righteous men. Then when those righteous men died, the people grieved severely for them. So Satan seized the opportunity and said to them, “Make images of those righteous people and set them up in the places where you sit in order that when you see these images, you will remember their condition and you will gain enthusiasm upon worship.” So therefore they made images of those dead people and they set them up in the sitting places but they (these images) were not worshipped to begin with because of the presence of scholars who used to explain Tawheed to the people and used to criticize shirk.

Then when the people of knowledge died and the first generation passed away, a later generation came – and the scholars had died – Satan came and said to them, “Your forefathers only erected these images in order to worship them and they used to seek rain near them (these images).” So he made worship of them seem to be good, so they worshipped them besides Allaah.

So in this way, shirk came about upon the Earth; so Allaah therefore sent His Prophet Nooh  – ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam – calling them to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and seeking to return them to Tawheed, which was the religion of their forefather Aadam – ‘alaihissalaam.  However they (Nooh’s people) were obstinate and haughty:

وَقَالُوا لَا تَذَرُنَّ آلِهَتَكُمْ وَلَا تَذَرُنَّ وَدًّا وَلَا سُوَاعًا وَلَا يَغُوثَ وَيَعُوقَ وَنَسْرًا

And they said, “Do not forsake those objects that you worship! Do not forsake Wadd nor Suwaa’ nor Yaghooth nor Ya’ooq nor Nasr. [71:23]

Ibn ‘Abbaas said:

« هذه أسماء رجال صالحين ، صوروا صورهم ونصبوها على مجالسهم فآل ﺑﻬم الأمر إلى أن عبدوها من دون الله »

“These were the names of righteous men; they made images of them and they set them up in their sitting places, and this eventually led them to worshipping them besides Allaah.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree as narration 4920]

So when Nooh – ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam – came to them and forbade them from worshipping them and he commanded them to worship Allaah, they said, “Do not abandon those objects that you worship; do not obey Nooh but rather continue upon your kufr and transgression and obstinacy!

This was the first shirk that occurred upon the Earth and its cause was the images. And therefore the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

« إن أشد الناس عذابا عند الله يوم القيامة المصورون »

“The people who will receive the severest punishment on the Day of Resurrection will be those who make images.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree (5950) and Muslim (2109) from hadeeth of ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood radi Allaahu ‘anhu]

And he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

« إن الذين يصنعون هذه الصور يعذبون يوم القيامة ، يقال لهم : أحيوا ما خلقتم »

Those people who make these images will be punished on the Day of Resurrection. It will be said to them, “Give life to that which you have created.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree (5951) and Muslim  (2108) from hadeeth of ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar  radi Allaahu‘ anhumaa ]

They will be commanded to breathe the spirit of life into these images; and this will be a case of ta’jeez (giving them a command to show their inability) and as a punishment for them, and Allaah’s refuge is sought. This is because making images is a route from the routes which lead to shirk, just as happened with the people of Nooh.

So the first of the Messengers was Nooh. And as for the seal of the Messengers and the last of them, then he was Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. He, the Most High, said:

مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ

Muhammad is not the father of any of your men but rather he is the Messenger of Allaah and the final one of the prophets. [33:40]

And he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

« وأنا خاتم النبيين لا نبي بعدي »

I am the seal of the Prophets; there will be no prophet after me.[6]

[Hadith Reported by Aboo Daawud (4252) and at Tirmidhee from hadeeth of Thawbaan radi Allaahu ‘anhu and declared saheeh by al Albaanee]

So through him, the Heavenly Messages were concluded. So no prophet will be raised and sent after him until the Hour is established. However his Sharee’ah (Revealed Law) will remain until the Hour is established and his religion will remain until the Hour is established, as has preceded.  So whoever claims Prophethood after Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam then he is a disbeliever; and whoever believes (this false claimant to Prophethood) then he (too) is a disbeliever in Allaah, because there will be no prophet after him sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.

And many people have claimed Prophethood after him; and Allaah has exposed them and has made their falsehood apparent. And from the last of them – in what we know – was al Qaadiyaanee, Ghulaam Ahmad al Qaadiyaanee, the Indian; the one who in the beginning claimed to be upon knowledge and worship, then he claimed that he was ‘Eesaa ibn Maryam, then he claimed Prophethood. And he now has followers who call themselves the Qaadiyaanees. And the Muslims have declared them to be disbelievers and they have shunned them and counted them as being a disbelieving sect  outside of Islaam. And they are a people who are shunned and banished – and all praise is for Allaah – from the lands of the Muslims. And they (the Qaadiyaanees) are active (in dawah). However their activities end in failure.

So, in summary, there will be no prophet after the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. Whoever claims prophet hood after him, then he is a great liar, just as he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

« لا تقوم الساعة حتى يبعث دجالون كذابون ، قريبا من ثلاثين كلهم يزعم أنه رسول الله »

“The Hour will not be established until dajjaals (great tricksters), great liars are sent, close to thirty, each one of them claiming that he is a messenger of Allaah.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree (3609) and Muslim after the narration 2923 in the Book of Trials and Tribulations from the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radi Allaahu ‘anhu]

Those who claim falsely to be prophets are many but Allaah exposes their affair and uncovers them and shows how debased they are to the people. And whoever believes them, then he is a disbeliever because he is denying the Truth of what has been said by Allaah and His Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and the consensus of the Muslims upon the fact that Prophethood was concluded with Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And Allaah sent a Messenger to every nation, from Nooh until Muhammad, commanding them to worship Allaah alone, and forbidding them from the worship of at-taaghoot and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

We certainly sent a messenger to every nation ordering them that they should worship Allaah (alone) and they should shun the Taaghoot [16:36] 76


[76]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

And his saying: “Allaah sent a messenger to every nation…”, Meaning: Allaah sent a messenger to every nation of mankind in order to establish the proof upon them so that they would not be able to say, “No bringer of good tidings nor any warner came to us!

And because of His saying, He the Most High: 

مَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّىٰ نَبْعَثَ رَسُولًا

We do not punish until We have sent a messenger. [17:15]

So Allaah sent a messenger to every nation from the previous nations, just as He, the Most High, said:

وَإِن مِّنْ أُمَّةٍ إِلَّا خَلَا فِيهَا نَذِيرٌ

There was not a previous nation except that Allaah sent a warner to them. [35:24]

However it is obligatory that we are aware of what was the call of the Messengers? The call of all the messengers, from the first of them to the last of them, was the call to tawheed as per His saying, He the Most High:

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

We certainly sent a messenger to every nation ordering them that they should worship Allaah (alone) and they should shun the taaghoot. [16:36]

So everything that is worshipped besides Allaah is Taaghoot, as will follow with regards to the types of the Taaghoots – that from their types is that which is worshipped besides Allaah whilst he is pleased with that, as will follow.

So the meaning of His saying, He the Most High:

 .. وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

And shun the Taaghoot…

means to keep away from worshipping the false objects of worship and the idols and the graves and the tombs; these are taaghoots. So the noble aayah proves that the call of the Messengers, all of them, was concentrated upon Tawheed from the first of them to the last of them.

Just as He, the Perfect and Most High, said:

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ

And We did not send any messenger before you except that We revealed to him that none has the right to be worshipped except Me so worship Me alone. [21:25]

And His saying:

يُنَزِّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةَ بِالرُّوحِ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ أَنْ أَنذِرُوا أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاتَّقُونِ

He (Allaah) sends down the angels with the Revelation from His Command to whomever He wishes from His servants ordering them, “Warn the people that none has the right to be worshipped except Me, so therefore fear and be dutiful to Me.” [16:2]

So the call of the Messengers, all of them, was to tawheed and to singling out Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, with worship and to forbidding shirk. This was the call of the Messengers.

Then after tawheed comes the Revealed Laws with regards to the halaal (permissible) and the haraam (forbidden). And the details of the Revealed Laws varied in accordance with the variation between the nations and the needs of the nations. And Allaah abrogated from them whatever He wished, and then all of them were abrogated through the Revealed Law of Islaam – the halaal and the haraam, the rulings and the acts of worship and the commands and the prohibitions.

As for the foundation (of the Revealed Laws) then it was tawheed; then this did not vary and it was not abrogated. This was a single religion; the religion of all the Messengers from the first of them to the last of them was one religion (in this respect) – just as He, the Most High, said:

لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجًا

And for each people We laid down a prescribed law and a detailed way to follow. [5:48]

And the religion of tawheed is the worship of Allaah with that which He legislated at each time in accordance with its particular circumstances. So if a Revealed Law was abrogated then the people moved onto the new abrogating Law.

So whoever insists and remains upon that which has been abrogated, and avoids that which is abrogating, then he will be a disbeliever in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic because the religion which has been abrogated will not be a religion after its being abrogated. Rather it will only be religion before it was abrogated. So when it has been abrogated, then it will not be religion. The religion will be that which comes later (abrogates). Therefore the Revealed Law of Islaam abrogated whatever came before it from the Revealed religious laws.

So whoever remains upon Judaism or Christianity after the sending of Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam then he is a kaafir (disbeliever) because he is acting upon a religion which has been abrogated, whose time has come to an end.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/Prophets-Messengers

Whoever Denies the Resurrection is a Disbeliever – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 46 (Part B)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And whoever denies the Resurrection is a disbeliever, and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

زَعَمَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَن لَّن يُبْعَثُوا ۚ قُلْ بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّي لَتُبْعَثُنَّ ثُمَّ لَتُنَبَّؤُنَّ بِمَا عَمِلْتُمْ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ

Those who disbelieve claim that they will not be resurrected. Say (O Muhammad), ‘Yes, by my Lord you will certainly be resurrected and then you will certainly be informed of the deeds which you did. And that is easy for Allaah. [64:7] [73]


[73]:Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His saying: “Whoever denies the Resurrection is a disbeliever…” – because he has denied a pillar from the pillars of eemaan and because he is denying Allaah and to His Messengers and to His Books because Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, informed about the Resurrection and the Messengers informed about the Resurrection and the Books informed about the Resurrection. So whoever denies it then he is a disbeliever. And the proof is His saying, He the Most High: 

.. زَعَمَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا

Those who disbelieve za’ama claim…

Az –za’m means “a lie” ( a false claim)

أَن لَّن يُبْعَثُوا ..

…that they will not be resurrected. [64:7]

So the aayah proves that denying the Resurrection is kufr (disbelief). They say, “there is no resurrection after death” – the people of shirk and the worshippers of idols in the time of the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam used to dispute about the Resurrection.

أَإِذَا كُنَّا عِظَامًا نَّخِرَةً  – قَالُوا تِلْكَ إِذًا كَرَّةٌ خَاسِرَةٌ

“How can that occur when we have become crumbled bones?” They said, “That would be a return resulting in loss.” [79:11-12]

And they said:

مَن يُحْيِي الْعِظَامَ وَهِيَ رَمِيمٌ

“Who can give life to the bones when they have crumbled to dust?” [36:78]

And from their disputing was:

أَيَعِدُكُمْ أَنَّكُمْ إِذَا مِتُّمْ وَكُنتُمْ تُرَابًا وَعِظَامًا أَنَّكُم مُّخْرَجُونَ – هَيْهَاتَ هَيْهَاتَ لِمَا تُوعَدُونَ

“Does he (the Prophet Saalih) promise you that when you have become dust and bones that you will then be brought out anew from your graves? How far fetched, how far fetched is what you are being promised.” [23:35-36]

– to the rest of the sayings of the disbelievers from the previous nations and from the people of shirk in the time of the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. So whoever denies the Resurrection then he will be along with those disbelievers.

No one denies the Resurrection except for a disbeliever. And Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, has commanded His Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam to swear an oath by Him upon the Resurrection.

He said:

قُلْ بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّي 

Say,”Yes, by my Lord…”

This is an oath. 

لَتُبْعَثُنَّ ثُمَّ لَتُنَبَّؤُنَّ بِمَا عَمِلْتُمْ ..

“…you will certainly be resurrected (from your graves), and then you will certainly be informed of the deeds which you did (in the world).” [64:7]

This aayah is one of the three aayaat in which Allaah commanded His Prophet to swear an oath upon the Resurrection.

The first aayah is from Soorah Yoonus:

وَيَسْتَنبِئُونَكَ أَحَقٌّ هُوَ ۖ قُلْ إِي وَرَبِّي إِنَّهُ لَحَقٌّ ۖ وَمَا أَنتُم بِمُعْجِزِينَ

And they question you, “Is is true?” Say, “Yes, by my Lord, it is indeed true and you cannot render Allaah incapable.” [10:53]

The second is in Soorah Saba’:

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَا تَأْتِينَا السَّاعَةُ ۖ قُلْ بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّي لَتَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ ۖ لَا يَعْزُبُ عَنْهُ مِثْقَالُ ذَرَّةٍ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا أَصْغَرُ مِن ذَٰلِكَ وَلَا أَكْبَرُ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ لِّيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ

And those who disbelieve say, “The Hour will not come upon us.”

Say, “Yes, by my Lord, the Knower of the hidden and the unseen, it shall certainly come upon you. Not even the amount of the tiniest ant in the Heavens or the Earth escapes Him – nor anything smaller nor anything greater  – except that it is confirmed in a Clear Book.”

In order that He should reward those who believe and do righteous deeds. For them there will be forgiveness and generous provision. [34:3-4]

So Allaah commanded His Prophet to swear by Him upon the Resurrection and upon the establishment of the Hour.

And the third aayah is that which is with us from Soorah at Taghaabun:

زَعَمَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَن لَّن يُبْعَثُوا ۚ قُلْ بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّي لَتُبْعَثُنَّ ثُمَّ لَتُنَبَّؤُنَّ بِمَا عَمِلْتُمْ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ

“Those who disbelieve claim that Allaah will not resurrect them after death. 

Say (O Muhammad), ‘Yes, by my Lord you will certainly be resurrected (from your graves), and then you will certainly be informed of the deeds which you did (in the world).  And that is easy for Allaah.[64:7]

So the Wisdom behind the Resurrection is recompensing the servants for their deeds. And His saying, He the Most High:

…then you will certainly be informed… 

Meaning – that you will be informed of your deeds and recompensed for them.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/finaljourney

The Hisaab (Account) and the Meezaan (Balance) – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 46 (Part A)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Hisaab (Account) and The Meezaan (the Balance)

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

After the Resurrection the people will be brought to hisaab (account) and will be rewarded or punished for their actions.  And the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُوا بِمَا عَمِلُوا وَيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا بِالْحُسْنَى

And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth,So that He may recompense those who did evil for what they did; and that He may reward those who did good with the best reward of Paradise. [53:31][72]


[72Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

From the actions that will occur on the Day of Resurrection is al hisaab (the Reckoning) and al meezaan (the Balance). The hisaab has the meaning of munaaqashah (interrogation) of the people of sins.

So the Muslims will be of three categories on the Day of Resurrection:

The first category from them are those who will have no hisaab (reckoning) and will enter Paradise without any reckoning and without any punishment, just as occurs in the hadeeth of the seventy thousand who will enter Paradise without any reckoning and without any punishment.[1]

[1] Hadeeth reported by al Bukhaaree (5705) and Muslim from the hadeeth of ‘Imraan ibn Husayn radi Allaahu ‘anhu

The second category of the people are those who will be given a light reckoning, and it is al-‘ard (presentation of the record) only. He is not taken to account with the reckoning of interrogation but rather will be reckoned such that the record is just presented to him. And this person is also (as well as the first category) one of the people of bliss. He, the Most High, said:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ – فَسَوْفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابًا يَسِيرًا – وَيَنقَلِبُ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ مَسْرُورًا

So as for the one who is given his record of deeds in his right hand, then he will soon receive a light reckoning and he will return to his family joyful. [84:7-9]

The third category: those who will receive a reckoning involving interrogation and this person is in great danger, because of his sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam saying:

Whoever has his record closely examined will be punished.

[Reported by al Bukhaaree (103) and Muslim (2876) from the hadeeth of ‘Aaishah radiAllaahu‘anhaa]

As for the kuffaar (disbelievers) then the scholars disagree regarding them: will they receive a reckoning or will they not receive a reckoning? So from the scholars are those who say that the disbelievers will not receive a reckoning because they (the disbelievers) do not have any good deeds. Rather they will be taken straight to the Fire because they have no good deeds. And from the scholars are those who say (that) they will receive a reckoning with a hisaab (reckoning) of taqreer (confession), meaning a (confession) of their deeds, their kufr (disbelief) and their apostasy. Then they will be taken to the Fire.

And the meezaan (the Balance) means the apparatus upon which the deeds of the people will be weighed. The good deeds will be placed on one scale and the evil deeds on one scale.

He, the Most High, said:

فَمَن ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ – وَمَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ

So whoever’s balance of good deeds is heavy, then they will be the successful ones. And whoever’s balance of good deeds is light then they are the ones who have caused their own souls to be in loss. [23:102-103]

So if the evil deeds outweigh, then the person will lose; and if the good deeds outweigh, then the person will succeed.

This Balance is a balance for the deeds; and likewise, the person who is given the record in his right hand, then his reckoning will be easy. And whoever is given his record in his left hand, then his reckoning will be difficult and he will see the terrors and the huge dangers and he will go on from one danger to the next in the different stages of the Resurrection, and the Reckoning, and Gathering. These are terrifying matters if we reflect upon them.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/finaljourney

Eemaan (True Faith) in al-Ba’th (the Resurrection) – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 45
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Belief in the Resurrection

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And after they have died, the people will be resurrected, and the proof is His saying:

مِنْهَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ وَفِيهَا نُعِيدُكُمْ وَمِنْهَا نُخْرِجُكُمْ تَارَةً أُخْرَىٰ

From the Earth We created you (O Mankind), and to it We shall return you (after death) and from it We shall raise you to life again. [20:55][70]


[70]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He moved on, to another fundamental principle, which is eemaan (true faith) in al-ba’th (the Resurrection) – meaning that death alone is not what is wanted. We know and everyone knows – even the disbelievers and the atheists and the evil heretics – all of them know that death will certainly occur. No one denies death, because it is something which is experienced. However the important matter is the Resurrection after death; this is the point of disagreement between the believers and the disbelievers, the Resurrection after death. And it (the Resurrection) is the restoration of the bodies which have rotted away and become decayed bones and dust and which have separated in the Earth. They will be restored and rebuilt just as they were before, because the One who created them in the first place is fully able to bring them back again.

Then the souls will be blown into them, then they will move and proceed from the graves to the Mahshar (GatheringPlace) because of His saying, He the Most High:

يَوْمَ يَخْرُجُونَ مِنَ الْأَجْدَاثِ سِرَاعًا كَأَنَّهُمْ إِلَىٰ نُصُبٍ يُوفِضُونَ

On the Day when they will come out from the graves, they will be as if they are racing to a finishing post. [70:43]

And He, the Most High, said:

يَخْرُجُونَ مِنَ الْأَجْدَاثِ كَأَنَّهُمْ جَرَادٌ مُّنتَشِرٌ – مُّهْطِعِينَ إِلَى الدَّاعِ ۖ يَقُولُ الْكَافِرُونَ هَٰذَا يَوْمٌ عَسِرٌ

They will come forth from the graves as if they are scattered locusts, rushing towards the caller. [54:7-8]

No one will stay back. So this Resurrection is true, there is no doubt about it. And whoever denies it is a disbeliever in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. And having eemaan in the Resurrection is one of the six pillars of eemaan about which the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

“(Eemaan) is that you truly believe in Allaah and in His Angels and in His Books and in His Messengers and in the Last Day  and that you truly believe in Pre-decree, the good of it and the bad of it.”

[Reported by al Bukhaaree (50) and Muslim from the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radi Allaahu ‘anhu ]

So whoever does not truly believe in the Resurrection and in the Last Day, then he is a kaafir (a disbeliever) in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, even if he bears witness to ‘laa ilaaha ill Allaah’ and that ‘Muhammad rasool ullaah’ and even if he prays and fasts and performs Hajj and gives the Zakaat and does the actions of obedience. If he denies the Resurrection or doubts about it, then he will be a disbeliever in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

And the proofs for the Resurrection are many; from them is His saying, He the Most High:

.. مِنْهَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ

From it We created you…

Meaning: the Earth, when He created Aadam ‘alaihissalaam, the father of mankind.

.. وَفِيهَا نُعِيدُكُمْ

And to it We shall return you…

Meaning; after death, in the graves.

وَمِنْهَا نُخْرِجُكُمْ تَارَةً أُخْرَىٰ

And from it We shall bring you out again. 

This is the Resurrection.

So this aayah includes the beginning and the final return:

مِنْهَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ وَفِيهَا نُعِيدُكُمْ وَمِنْهَا نُخْرِجُكُمْ تَارَةً أُخْرَىٰ

From it We created you and to it We shall return you and from it We shall bring you out again. [20:55]


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

Also the saying of Allaah, the Most High: 

وَاللَّهُ أَنبَتَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ نَبَاتًا – ثُمَّ يُعِيدُكُمْ فِيهَا وَيُخْرِجُكُمْ إِخْرَاجًا

And Allaah created you from the (dust of) the Earth, then He will cause you to return (to being dust) within the Earth, then He will bring you forth and restore you to life. [71:17-18] [71]


[71]  Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

.. وَاللَّهُ أَنبَتَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ نَبَاتًا

Allaah created you from the (dust of) the Earth…

When He created Aadam ‘alaihissalaam from it. 

.. ثُمَّ يُعِيدُكُمْ فِيهَا

Then He will return you to it…

Through death and the graves. 

وَيُخْرِجُكُمْ إِخْرَاجًا

And He will bring you out from it. [71:17-18]

This is the Resurrection. They will come out from the graves and they will proceed to the Mah-shar (the Gathering Place).

He, the Most High, said: 

قَالَ فِيهَا تَحْيَوْنَ وَفِيهَا تَمُوتُونَ وَمِنْهَا تُخْرَجُونَ

He said, “Upon the Earth you will live and upon it you will die and from it you will be brought out.” [7:25]

Meaning: you will live upon its surface and you will die upon it and you will come out from it for the Resurrection on the Day of Resurrection.

These are proofs from the Qur’aan for the Resurrection.

There is also to be found an intellectual proof from the Qur’aan itself and it is that the One who is able to bring the creation about initially is able to restore the creation even more so.

He, the Most High, said:

وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَهُوَ أَهْوَنُ عَلَيْهِ ۚ وَلَهُ الْمَثَلُ الْأَعْلَىٰ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

And He (Allaah) is the One who created the creation to begin with, then He restores it and that is even easier for Him. And for Him is the highest description in the Heavens and the Earth. And He is the All Mighty, the All Wise. [30:27]

The One who was able to bring the people into existence from non existence is able to restore them after death even more so. This is a proof which is textual and intellectual.

And from the proofs for the Resurrection is that which occurs to the Earth with regards to its being brought to life with plants. So you can see the Earth being dead, having no plants upon it, being barren. Then Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, sends down rain upon it, then He causes plants to grow which were dead stubble previously. Likewise the bodies which are within the Earth; they were stored within the Earth and Allaah will send down rain upon them and then the bodies will grow and become complete. And then the souls will be breathed into them. So indeed you see the Earth, how it can be dry and arid, but then it comes to life with that (vegetation) which grows from it.

Allaah, the Majestic and Most High – He is the One who gives life to the Earth after its death:

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنَّكَ تَرَى الْأَرْضَ خَاشِعَةً فَإِذَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهَا الْمَاءَ اهْتَزَّتْ وَرَبَتْ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِي أَحْيَاهَا لَمُحْيِي الْمَوْتَىٰ ۚ إِنَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

And from His signs is that you see the Earth dry and barren. Then when We send down water upon it, it rises and stirs to life with vegetation. The One who gives life to it will certainly give life to the dead. Indeed He has full ability over everything. [41:39]

So the One who has ability over giving life to the Earth after its death is able to give life to the bodies after their death because both are cases of coming to life after death.

And from the proofs for the Resurrection is that if were to be no Resurrection then that would necessitate that the creation of Mankind was meaningless because they (the people) live  –  the obedient, dutiful, believer in Allaah and His Messengers live;  and the disbeliever, the atheist, the evil heretic, the wicked tyrant, the arrogant one, the sinner live – all of them live and then they die, without this believer receiving anything from his reward or without this disbeliever and this evil heretic and this atheist and this tyrannical oppressor of the people receiving any of his recompense whatsoever?

So does this befit Allaah that He would leave the people in this manner without rewarding the people of eemaan for their eemaan, and the people who did good for their good, and the people of crimes and disbelief for their crimes and kufr? This would not befit the Wisdom of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, and therefore He said:

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُوا بِمَا عَمِلُوا وَيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا بِالْحُسْنَى

And to Allaah belongs whatever is in the Heavens and in the Earth, so that He will recompense those who did evil for what they did and He will reward those who did good with the best reward. [53:31]

And this will not occur except on the Day of Resurrection.

And likewise in His saying, He the Perfect:

أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ اجْتَرَحُوا السَّيِّئَاتِ أَن نَّجْعَلَهُمْ كَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَوَاءً مَّحْيَاهُمْ وَمَمَاتُهُمْ ۚ سَاءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ

And do those who commit evil deeds think that We will treat them just the same as those who believe and do righteous deeds in their life and in their death? Evil is the judgment that they make. [45:21]

And, He the Perfect and Most High, said:

أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ كَالْمُفْسِدِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الْمُتَّقِينَ كَالْفُجَّارِ

Shall We make those who truly believe and who do righteous deeds just like those who cause corruption upon the Earth? Or shall We make those who are dutiful to Allaah just the same as the wicked evil doers? [38:28]

And He, the Perfect and Most High, said:

أَفَحَسِبْتُمْ أَنَّمَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ عَبَثًا وَأَنَّكُمْ إِلَيْنَا لَا تُرْجَعُونَ

Do you think that We created you without purpose and that you will not be returned to Us? [23:115]

And He, the Most High, said:

أَيَحْسَبُ الْإِنسَانُ أَن يُتْرَكَ سُدًى – أَلَمْ يَكُ نُطْفَةً مِّن مَّنِيٍّ يُمْنَىٰ – ثُمَّ كَانَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقَ فَسَوَّىٰ – فَجَعَلَ مِنْهُ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالْأُنثَىٰ – أَلَيْسَ ذَٰلِكَ بِقَادِرٍ عَلَىٰ أَن يُحْيِيَ الْمَوْتَىٰ

Does man think that he will be left without having duties placed upon him? Was he not a drop of sperm emitted? Then he was a clot of blood and Allaah created him and fully formed him? And produced from him offspring, male and female? Is the One who did that not able to give life to the dead? [75:36-40]

And He rebutted the disbeliever who said,

مَن يُحْيِي الْعِظَامَ وَهِيَ رَمِيمٌ

Who will give life to the bones when they are decayed away? [36:78]

With His saying:

 قُلْ يُحْيِيهَا الَّذِي أَنشَأَهَا أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ خَلْقٍ عَلِيمٌ  – الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ الشَّجَرِ الْأَخْضَرِ نَارًا فَإِذَا أَنتُم مِّنْهُ تُوقِدُونَ

Say, “He who created him in the first place will give life to him; and He has full knowledge of every created thing. He who produces fire for you from the green tree, then you use it to light your own fires. [36:78-80]

The One who is able to bring out fire which burns from a fresh green tree – is He not able to give life to the dead?

And from the evidences for the Resurrection is using as evidence the creation of the Heavens and the Earth. So the One who created these tremendously huge and awesome created things is fully able to restore man to life because the One who is able to do something tremendous will be able to do something less, even more so.

He, the Most High, said:

أَوَلَيْسَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ بِقَادِرٍ عَلَىٰ أَن يَخْلُقَ مِثْلَهُم ۚ بَلَىٰ وَهُوَ الْخَلَّاقُ الْعَلِيمُ

Is the One who created the Heavens and the Earth not able to create the like of them? Yes, indeed! And He is the All Knowing Creator who creates again and again. [36:81]

And He, the Most High, said:

لَخَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَكْبَرُ مِنْ خَلْقِ النَّاسِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

The creation of the Heavens and the Earth is greater than the creation of mankind. However most of mankind do not know. [40:57]

So these are the evidences for the Resurrection which confirm that Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, will resurrect those who are in the graves and that He will recompense every doer of deeds in accordance with his deeds; if good, then with good and if evil, then with evil. So let the disbeliever disbelieve and let the wicked person and the evil heretic and the apostate be upon evil – because in front of him there lies the Resurrection and the Rising from death and the Recompensing and the Reckoning.

As for the believer, the one who is dutiful to Allaah, who worships Allaah and seeks to draw closer to Allaah, then his deeds will never be lost. For there is an appointment where Allaah will recompense him for his deeds and will give him multiplied reward and will give him things that he did not think of or expect.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/finaljourney

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: Settling in al-Madeenah and the Completion of the Religion – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 44 (Part B)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Settling in al-Madeenah and the Coming Down of the Rest of the Religious Duties and the Completion of the Religion

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

فلما استقر بالمدينة أمر ببقية شرائع الإسلام ، مثل الزكاة والصوم والحج والجهاد ، والأذان ، والأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر ، وغير ذلك من شرائع الإسلام ، أخذ على هذا عشر سنين ، وبعدها توفي صلوات الله وسلامه عليه ، ودينه باق وهذا دينه ، لا خير إلا دل الأمة عليه ، ولا شر إلا حذرها منه ، والخير الذي دلها عليه التوحيد وجميع ما يحبه الله ويرضاه ، والشر الذي حذر منه الشرك وجميع ما يكرهه الله ويأباه ، بعثه الله إلى الناس كافة ، وافترض الله طاعته على جميع الثقلين الجن والإنس 

When he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam settled in al-Madeenah, he was ordered with the rest of the prescribed duties of Islaam, such as the zakaat; fasting (Sawm); Hajj; Jihaad; the adhaan; commanding good and forbidding evil; and the rest of the prescribed duties of Islaam.  He spent ten years establishing that, after which he passed away, may Allaah extol and send blessings of peace upon him. His religion remains and this is his religion.  There is no good except that he directed his nation to it and there is no evil except that he warned them against it.  The good that he guided them to is tawheed, and all that Allaah loves and is pleased with. The evil which he warned against was shirk and everything that Allaah hates and rejects.  Allaah sent him as a prophet to the whole of mankind, and Allaah made it obligatory upon all of the jinn and mankind to obey him.

قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا

The proof is His saying, the Most High: «Say: O people! I am the Messenger of Allaah to you all.» [7:158] [67]


[67Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

This, as has already been explained, means that the sharee`ah came down in stages until it was completed – and all praise is for Allaah – before the death of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and before Allaah sent down to him:

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

«This day, I have completed your religion for you, perfected My blessings upon you, and am pleased with Islaam as your Religion.» [5:3]

A short period after this aayah came down, the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam passed away; and his religion remains until the establishment of the Hour.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

Allaah completed the religion through him and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

«This day, I have completed your religion for you, perfected My blessings upon you, and am pleased with Islaam as your Religion.» [5:3][68]


[68] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam did not pass away until after Allaah had completed the religion and the favour through him and had sent down to him His saying, He the Most High:

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

«This day, I have completed your religion for you, perfected My blessings upon you, and am pleased with Islaam as your Religion.» [5:3]

This aayah came down to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam whilst he was performing the standing in `Arafah during the Farewell Hajj on the Day of Jumu`ah. And he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam lived after it for a short time and then moved on to the highest company (of angels).

And he left his nation upon al-mahajjah al-baydaa (the clear white path) whose night is the same as its day; no one deviates from it except that he is destroyed.

This aayah contains a testimony from Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, that this religion has been completed and that it covers everything of benefit to the servants and that it contains a solution for all of their issues and problems until the Establishment of the Hour. And that is suitable for every time and place; they do not need any other legislation after it or any other book to come down or any other messenger to be sent after the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.           

So, there is no matter to be found and there is no event that will occur until the Day of Resurrection except that in the Legislation revealed to Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam there is a solution for it and the ruling concerning it. However, the matter relates back to who is competent to extract evidence and to derive proof, rulings and issues. If there are to be found ahlul-`ilm (people of knowledge) and people qualified to make ijtihaad (personal deductions in rulings) who fulfill the conditions of ijtihaad, then indeed, this legislation is complete and contains a solution for all problems. Deficiency only comes about from us from the aspect of deficiency in (our) knowledge and inability to fully understand what Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, has sent down – or from the aspect of desires, that there occurs a case of following of desires which diverts a person away from the Truth. Otherwise this religion is fully suitable and comprehensive and complete. Allaah has sufficed the Islaamic nation with it until the establishment of the hour if it acts upon it (the religion) correctly and refers back to it in its affairs.

He, the Most High, said:

فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ

«So if you disagree about anything then refer it back to Allaah and the Messenger.» [4:59]

Referring back to Allaah is to refer back to the Book of Allaah, and referring back to the Messenger after his passing away is to refer back to his Sunnah.

He, the Most High, said:

وَمَا اخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِيهِ مِن شَيْءٍ فَحُكْمُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ

« And whatever you disagree about then its judgment is to be referred to Allaah.» [42:10]

This aayah (from Soorah al-Maa.idah) contains a refutation of those who make accusations against the Islaamic Legislation of its having shortcomings or of its being deficient, (these accusations coming) from the atheists and the evil heretics, or from the “semi students” whose understanding falls short in being able to understand the hidden wisdoms of the Islaamic Legislation. Therefore, these (foolish people) ascribe deficiency to the Islaamic Legislation and they do not know that the deficiency is with themselves alone.

So it (this aayah) contains a refutation against those who accuse the Islaamic Legislation of deficiency and that it does not cover all needs of the servants and all matters of welfare of the servants until the Establishment of the Hour.

Or those who say: “It was specific to a certain olden times,” – because there are many ignorant people who, when it is said to them, “This is the Islaamic ruling,” they say, “That was in the time of the Messenger and the initial time. As for now, conditions have changed and the matters have altered; and the legislated rulings were for people who have now passed away and for problems that have come to an end.”

They say this, and this is disbelief in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and it is a denial of His Saying, He the Most High:

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ

«This day, I have completed your religion for you.» [5:3]

Allaah completed the religion for this nation until the Hour is established for every time and place and for every generation of mankind.

It also contains a refutation of the innovators, those who introduce worship from themselves and ascribe it to the religion, when it has no proof from the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. Rather they just introduce it in accordance with what they deem to be good or based upon blindly following others whom they have good thoughts about from the people of false ideas and people with their own goals and desires. So therefore, they introduce worship into the religion, which Allaah has sent down no proof for. He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

» من أحدث في أمرنا هذا ما ليس منه فهو رد «

«Whoever introduces into this affair of ours that which is not from it, then it is rejected

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 2697 and Muslim no. 1718 from a hadeeth of `Aa.ishah, radiyallaahu `anhaa.]

And he `alaihissalaatu wasallaam said:

» وإياكم ومحدثات الأمور فإن كل محدثة بدعة وكل بدعة ضلالة «

«And beware of newly introduced matters, for every newly introduced matter is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance.»

[Reported by Aboo Daawood, Ahmad, at-Tirmithee, and Ibn Maajah from the famous hadeeth of `Irbaad ibn Saariyyah, radiyallaahu `anhu. (al-Albaanee declared it saheeh) ].

Whoever introduces acts of worship which have no proof from the Book of Allaah nor from the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah, then he is accusing this religion of not being complete and he wishes to complete the religion himself. He is not actually acknowledging the fact that Allaah has completed it.

Whatever was not religion in the time of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam will never be religion after him. So this contains a refutation of these groups: The group who say that Islaam is not suitable for every time, or those who innovate newly invented innovations which have no proof from the Book of Allaah nor the Sunnah of His Messenger, and who ascribe them to the religion.

This aayah (from Soorah al-Maa.idah) contains a refutation of them because the religion was completed by Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. So there is no scope for addition in it nor for reduction from it. And there is no scope for raising doubts nor seeking to obscure the issue by saying that it is not suitable for the people in these later times.

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ

«This day, I have completed your religion for you.» [5:3]

This is the Speech of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. He is the Most Truthful One of those who speak.

And He, the Most High, said:

وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

«And I perfected My blessings upon you, and am pleased with Islaam as your Religion.» [5:3]

This was the last of that which came down to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and it is a testimony from the Lord of the whole of the Creation for this religion that it is complete, comprehensive, and fully suitable for every time and place.

So His saying (in this aayah) is an address to this nation, from the first of it to the last of it, and it is not just an address to the first generation alone. Rather it is an address to the whole of the nation until the Hour is established.

As for ijmaa` (consensus), then the whole nation are agreed in consensus that he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam passed away. No one disagrees about this except the people of false beliefs, those who say that the Messenger did not die. They negate death from the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. This is baseless speech and speech which is clearly rejected. It is refuted by what has been experienced and what is clearly the case, for the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam indeed passed away amongst his Companions. He was bathed, shrouded, had the funeral prayer prayed over him and he was buried. Can these actions be carried out on a person who is still alive?  He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was treated as one who had died. He was washed and shrouded and prayed over and then he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was buried in his grave.

This is the way of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, with regards to His Creation. And then where are the Messengers who came before him? What occurred to him occurred to the Messengers who came before him. They died. And he is one of them, so he died. This is by consensus of the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah. No one disagrees about this except the people of false beliefs, those who seek to attach themselves to the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and seek deliverance through him besides Allaah, and say: “He is still alive.”


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

The proof that he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam died is His saying, the Most High:

إِنَّكَ مَيِّتٌ وَإِنَّهُم مَّيِّتُونَ – ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عِندَ رَبِّكُمْ تَخْتَصِمُونَ

«O (Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam)! You will certainly die and they will certainly die. Then on the Day of Resurrection you will all dispute before your Lord.» [39:30-31][69]


[69Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, when Allaah completed the religion through him and perfected His Favour through him, caused him to die, as is the way of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, with His creation:

كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ

«Every soul shall taste death.» [3:185]

The Prophets and the Messengers enter within this generality:

كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ

«Every soul shall taste death.» [3:185]

The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam passed away and moved on from this world to his Lord, He the Mighty and Majestic. This is established by the text, by consensus, and by analogy.

As for the textual (proof), then it is His statement, He the Most High:

إِنَّكَ مَيِّتٌ وَإِنَّهُم مَّيِّتُونَ

«You will certainly die and they will certainly die.» [39:30]

This is information from Allaah to His Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam that he will soon die.

Meaning: You are going to die.

So it is said to a person who is going to die: “This is a mayyit (person who is going to die).”

As for the person who has actually already died, then it is said about him: ‘mayt,’ with a sukoon (on the letter yaa in the middle of the word), because of His saying, He the Most High:

أَوَمَن كَانَ مَيْتًا فَأَحْيَيْنَاهُ

«Or one who was mayt (dead) and We gave life to him.» [6:122]

So the mayt is the one whose soul has left his body. As for al-mayyit, then he is the one who will die in future.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/muhammad

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: Hijrah to al-Madeenah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 43 (Part A)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Hijrah to al-Madeenah

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

وبعدها أمر بالهجرة إلى المدينة

After that, he was commanded to perform hijrah to al-Madeenah.[62]


[62Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His saying (rahimahullaah): «After that, he was commanded to perform hijrah to al-Madeenah»: When the harm from the Quraysh became severe and their evil increased on account of their blocking (people) from Allaah’s path, persecuting the Muslims and torturing those who had no group of people to defend them from the Muslims, who were in a state of weakness – then Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, gave permission for the Muslims to make hijrah to Abyssinia – the first hijrah, because there was a king with whom no one would be oppressed. He was a Christian, however he was just, so a large group of them migrated.

When the Quraysh came to know of their migration to Abyssinia, they sent two representatives from the wise men of Quraysh to seek (that they be brought back). One of them was `Amr ibn al-`Aas. They had with them gifts for an-Najaashee (the ruler of Abyssinia). They said: “These people have run away from us and they are relatives of ours. We want them to return to us – and they are evil doers – so that they do not cause corruption in your land,” to the end (of what they said). They gave him the gifts that they had with them in order to change his mind, however, he (rahimahullaah) called the muhaajireen and listened to what they had to say and he gave them a choice, so they chose to remain in Abyssinia. Therefore, the two representatives went back frustrated. And the muhaajiroon in Abyssinia remained there.

Then, Allaah favoured an-Najaashee and he accepted Islaam and made his Islaam good. When he died, the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and his Companions prayed the funeral prayer for him with the prayer of one whose body is absent. So in migrating to him there was good for him as well; by means of them, Allaah guided him, so he entered into Islaam.

Then the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam met a group from the Ansaar (the Muslims from al-Madeenah) in Minaa during the Hajj; and the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi was allam used to present himself to the tribes during the Hajj. He would go to the different camping places of the Arabs in Minaa and call them to Allaah. And it happened that he met some men from the Ansaar, so he called them to Allaah and he explained his call to them. They accepted the call from the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and gave him a pledge upon Islaam. They went back to their people from the Hajj and called them to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Then in the next pilgrimage, a larger number came than those who were in the first. Some men from the Ansaar came and gave the pledge to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi was allam, the second pledge of al-`Aqabah, meaning: at the stoning place of al-`Aqabah. They gave a pledge upon the basis of Islaam and upon the basis of aiding him if he made the migration to them and that they would defend him just as they defended themselves and their (own) children.

So then, after this – meaning, after this blessed pledge – the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam commanded those Muslims who were in Makkah to perform hijrah (migration) to al-Madeenah; and whoever migrated, migrated to al-Madeenah. And the Messenger and some of his Companions remained. Then Allaah permitted His Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam to migrate.

When the Quraysh became aware of the migration of his Companions to al-Madeenah and they knew of the pledge that had occurred between him and the Ansaar, they feared that Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam would join up with his Companions in al-Madeenah and would therefore, attain power and gain strength.

On this night, when the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam wanted to depart to make hijrah, they came and surrounded his house. They stood outside the door with their weapons, intending to attack Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. So, Allaah informed His Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam (and) the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam commanded `Alee to sleep upon his bed so that the people of shirk could see him and think that he was the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. So `Alee radiyallaahu `anhu slept upon the bed of Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and covered himself with the blanket of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.

So, the mushriks were waiting for him to come out, thinking that he was the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam when in actuality, the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam had already come out between them and they were unaware. Allaah blinded their sight from him, and he took some dust and scattered it upon their heads, and departed from amongst them.

He went to Aboo Bakr radiyallaahu `anhu and the two of them departed and went to the Cave of Thawr and hid there for three days. The Quraysh were asking the people to catch him by whatever means; alive or dead. So, when they despaired of finding him after looking and searching, they offered rewards for whoever could bring him sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam alive or dead. When they had totally despaired, Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and his Companion left the cave and rode their riding camels and went to al-Madeenah. 


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

والهجرة : الانتقال من بلد الشرك إلى بلد الإسلام 

Hijrah is to move from the land of shirk to the land of Islaam.[63]


[63] :Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

al-Hijrah in the (Arabic) language means “to abandon something.” As for hijrah in the legislation, then it is just as the Shaykh defined it: “to depart from the land of kufr and go to the land of Islaam.” This is hijrah in the legislation.

And hijrah is a tremendous deed; Allaah has joined it along with jihaad in many aayaat.

After the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam made the hijrah to al-Madeenah, the Muhaajiroon, who had been in Abyssinia, then came to al-Madeenah and the Muslims gathered in al-Madeenah – and all praise is for Allaah. A state was formed for the Muslims in al-Madeenah, comprising the muhaajiroon and the Ansaar; and whoever had accepted Islaam would come to them.

Then, Allaah legislated the remaining duties of the religion, so He made the fasting obligatory upon His Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, and the Zakaat in the second year after the hijrah and He made obligatory upon him the Hajj in the ninth year after the Hijrah according the correct saying. With that, the pillars of Islaam were completed, the first of them being the two testimonies and the last of them being the Hajj to Allaah’s Sacred House.

So in summary, we know from this that tawheed is the first requirement in calling to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and that the caller begins with it before he begins with the prayer, the fasting, the zakaat or the Hajj, because the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam remained for ten years calling to tawheed and forbidding shirk. He was not commanded with prayer and he was not commanded with zakaat nor pilgrimage nor fasting. Rather these obligatory duties were made obligatory after tawheed was established.

So when he would send out callers, the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam would command them to call the people with the first thing they would call to being tawheed, just as occurs in the hadeeth of Mu`aadh:

» إنك تأتي قوما من أهل الكتاب ، فليكن أول ما تدعوهم إليه  شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله ، فإن هم أجابوا لذلك فأعلمهم أن الله افترض عليهم خمس صلوات « 

«You are going to a people from the People of the Book. So let the first thing that you call them to be the testimony that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. If they accept that from you, then inform them that Allaah has made five prayers obligatory upon them…» to the end of the hadeeth.

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 1395 and Muslim no. 19 from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Abbaas, radiyallaahu `anhumaa.]

So, this proves that a person is not commanded with the prayer nor with the zakaat nor with fasting until tawheed is established and tawheed is present – and that whoever begins with other than tawheed, then his call will fail and his methodology is contrary to the methodology of the Messengers, all of them `alaihumassalaam.

All of the Messengers began by calling to tawheed and to the correction of `aqeedah. It is important for those who proceed to be aware of this methodology, for there are many people today, who confuse this methodology and change this methodology and choose a different methodology for themselves from their own ideas or from other people who are ignorant. There must be a return to the methodology of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. This is the benefit of having awareness of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and his seerah and of making this one of the three fundamental principles. You know how he called the people and what was his sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam methodology in calling them, so you can proceed upon it because he `alaihissalaatu wasalaam is the example to be followed.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/muhammad

https://abdurrahman.org/hijrah

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: He called the people to tawheed & warned against shirk for 10 years in Makkah  – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 42 (Part A)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Time Period of the Call in Makkah 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

أخذ على هذا عشر سنين يدعو إلى التوحيد

He carried this out for ten years calling to tawheed[60]


[60] :Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His statement: «He carried this out for ten years calling to tawheed» meaning: He called the people to tawheed and warned against shirk for ten years in Makkah. He was calling to tawheed and forbidding shirk, because they used to direct worship to the idols.

And the wisdom in Allaah’s sending him as a prophet in Makkah was that Makkah is Umm al-Quraa (the mother of all the cities), that to which all the cities relate back to. Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, says:

وَمَا كَانَ رَبُّكَ مُهْلِكَ الْقُرَىٰ حَتَّىٰ يَبْعَثَ فِي أُمِّهَا رَسُولًا

«And your Lord would not destroy the townships until He sent a Messenger in their original one.» [28:59]

The ‘Umm‘ is the source to which something relates back to and the foundation which it relates back to; this is the Umm.

His saying, He the Most High:

هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ

«They are the foundation of the Book.» [3:7]

Meaning: The source to which the aayaat which are mutashaabihah (unclear) are referred back to.

Likewise Makkah has been honored by Allaah, in that it is the original place to which the whole of the people of the Earth resort back, and Muslims in the different regions of the Earth return to Makkah. So it is Umm al-Quraa with the meaning that it is the place of return. Allaah sent His Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam in Makkah because it is Umm al-Quraa.

He remained in it for thirteen years forbidding the people of Makkah from shirk and commanding them with tawheed, because the people of Makkah are the example for others besides them.

Therefore, it is binding that Makkah should remain, until the establishment of the Hour, as an abode of tawheed and a beacon for the call to Allaah, and everything which conflicts with that must be kept away from it. So, shirk, innovations, and false superstitions must be kept away from it, because the people always look towards it. What is done in it is propagated around the world. So, if what is done in it is good, then good will spread about and if the opposite is the case, then evil will spread.

So it is obligatory that Makkah be kept pure always and for this reason, He, the Majestic and Most High, said:

وَعَهِدْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ أَن طَهِّرَا بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْعَاكِفِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ

«And We enjoined Ibraaheem and Ismaa`eel that they should purify My House for those people who make tawwaaf, and those who stay there for worship and those who bow and prostrate.» [2:125]

So it is obligatory that Makkah be purified from everything that conflicts with Islaam, so that the religion can emanate from it and the call to the East and Western parts of the Earth, because Allaah sent His Prophet in it and he began his call `alaihissalaatu wassalaam from it.

The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam remained in Makkah for thirteen years; from them were ten years in which he called to tawheed and forbade from shirk (only) and he was not commanded with anything other than that. He was not commanded with the prayer nor with the zakaat nor with fasting nor with Hajj (the Pilgrimage). Rather his call was restricted to warning against shirk and to commanding tawheed.

He would say to them:

Say that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, you will be successful!

And they would say:

أَجَعَلَ الْآلِهَةَ إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا ۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ عُجَابٌ

«Does he make all the objects of worship a single object of worship? Indeed this is something very strange!» [38:5]

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/muhammad

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: Early Life and the Coming Down of the Revelation to Him – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 41
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

He lived for sixty-three years: forty before Prophet-hood and twenty-three as a Prophet and Messenger. He was sent as a Prophet through [the revelation of]Iqra  [58]


[58] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He was born in Makkah sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and breastfed amongst the tribe of Banoo Sa`d with Haleemah as-Sa`diyyah. His father, `Abdullaah, died whilst he was still in the womb and his mother died a short time after his birth. So he was taken care of by Umm Ayman al-Habashiyyah whom he inherited from his father. He came to be under the guardianship of his grandfather, `Abdul-Muttalib, then `Abdul-Muttalib died and his guardianship moved to his paternal uncle, Aboo Taalib.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam lived for forty years before prophet-hood being well-known for trustworthiness, truthfulness, generosity, for avoiding the worship of idols and avoiding the drinking of khamar (alcohol). He had not used to do what the people of the day of ignorance did, rather he `alaihissalaatu wassalaam used to go out to the cave of Hiraa and worship in it for days at a time. He would worship Allaah upon the religious way of Ibraaheem upon tawheed. Then, when he reached the age of forty  `alaihissalaatu wasalaam, the revelation came down upon him such that Jibreel came to him whilst he was in the cave of Hiraa, and said to him: “Recite!” He said: “I cannot recite,” – meaning: I am not able to read. So he pressed him very tightly and then released him and said: “Recite!” He said: “I am not able to recite!” Then, he pressed him a second time and released him and said: “Recite!” He said: “I cannot recite!” So, he pressed for third time and  said:

اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ – خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ

«Recite! In the Name of your Lord Who created, who created man from a clot of blood.» [96: 1-2]

This was his sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam prophet-hood. Allaah made him a prophet through [the aayah] “Iqra.”

Then, he went to his house shaking from fear, because he had encountered something which he had not known before, an extremely frightening matter. So, he found his wife Khadijah radiyallaahu`anha, and she covered him up and calmed him down. She said to him: “Know! By Allaah! Allaah will not humiliate you for indeed you maintain the ties of kinship, you show hospitality to the guest, you look after the orphans, and you help people who have been struck by calamities.” So, she prepared him and took him to her paternal uncle, Waraqah ibn Nawfal. He was a man who devoted himself to worship and who read the previous scriptures and who worshipped Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. When he informed him of what he had seen, he said: “This was the spirit who used to descend to Moosaa,” meaning: Jibreel `alaihisalaam. 


The Coming Down of the Revelation to him (sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam)

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

He was sent as a Messenger with al-Muddathir. His land was Makkah and he made migration to al-Madeenah. Allaah sent him to warn against shirk and to call to tawheed. The proof is His saying:

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ – قُمْ فَأَنذِرْ – وَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّرْ – وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ – وَالرُّجْزَ فَاهْجُرْ  – وَلَا تَمْنُن تَسْتَكْثِرُ – وَلِرَبِّكَ فَاصْبِرْ

«O you wrapped (in garments)! Arise and warn! And exalt your Lord! And purify your garments! And shun the idols! And do not give anything in order to receive more in return! And patiently persevere for the sake of your Lord!» [74:1-7] [59]


[59] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

There came down to him, His saying, He the Most High:

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ – قُمْ فَأَنذِرْ

«O you wrapped (in garments)! Arise and warn!» [74:1-2]

This was him being sent as a Messenger and this is the meaning of the saying of the Shaykh:

«He was sent as a Prophet through [the revelation of] Iqra. and he was sent as a Messenger with al-Muddathir

The difference between a prophet and a Messenger is that a prophet (nabiyy) is one to whom Allaah has revealed way, but he was not commanded to convey it, whereas a rasool (Messenger) is one to whom a revealed way was sent and he was commanded to convey it. The clarification of that is that the Messenger is one to whom a revealed law comes down and a book, so he (sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam) was sent as a prophet through Iqra. and he was sent as a messenger through al-Muddathir at the age of forty. This was the case with the prophets. A prophet is sent with a revealed law and book from before him and he is entrusted with certain duties like the prophets of Banoo Israa`eel who came after Moosaa.

«al-Muddathir» means the one who is wrapped up, because he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was struck by alarm, so he said: “Cover me up with garments! Cover me up with garments!” Meaning: Cover me up. Therefore, Allaah sent down to him:

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ – قُمْ فَأَنذِرْ – وَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّرْ

«O you wrapped (in garments)! Arise and warn! And exalt your Lord!» [74:1-3]

 Meaning: Exalt and venerate Him.

وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ

«And purify your garments!» [74:4]

Meaning: Purify your deeds from shirk, because a person’s actions are garments. Allaah, the Most High, said:

وَلِبَاسُ التَّقْوَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ

«And the clothing of dutifulness to Allaah, that is better.» [7:26]

Dutifulness is called clothing.

وَالرُّجْزَ فَاهْجُرْ

«And keep away from Ar-Rujz (the idols)! »[74:5]

«ar-Rujz» ar-Rujz (filth) means the idols.

«Shun [the idols]» meaning: abandon and keep well away from them.

So, Allaah raised him as a Prophet at the age of forty and he remained in Makkah for thirteen years, calling the people to tawheed and to the abandonment of the worship of idols. There were many discussions which he had with the people of shirk. He suffered harm upon himself and upon those who believed in him and his followers. The people of shirk caused many difficulties throughout the thirteen years.

Three years before the migration, he was taken on the Night Journey to Jerusalem. He was taken up through the heavens and the five daily prayers were made obligatory upon him. So, he prayed in Makkah for three years. Then, the Quraysh plotted to kill and attack him, so Allaah permitted him to migrate to al-Madeenah. So, he migrated to al-Madeenah after he had met with the Ansaar in the first and second pledge of al-`Aqabah.

He migrated to al-Madeenah and remained there for ten years. So, altogether, it was twenty-three years [of prophet-hood]. After the prophet-hood, he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam lived twenty-three years, thirteen years in Makkah laying the foundations of the call to tawheed, and for ten years in al-Madeenah. Then, Allaah took his soul at the age of sixty-three years. So, his life-span in Messenger-ship was twenty-three years.

This blessing which Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, sent down upon him, this abundant knowledge, this jihaad, and this establishment which He granted him upon the earth was all in this short time of twenty-three years. This is one of the signs of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, and from the blessings given to the prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, the blessings of his call and the blessings of the revelation which was sent down to him. And before all of this, it came about through the aid of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. He is the One who helped him. He is the One who defended him and aided him until he conveyed His call to the East and the West. All praise is for Allaah, the Lord of the whole of creation.

His saying: «Allaah sent him to warn against shirk and to call to tawheed» This is his call sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, warning against shirk and calling to tawheed. And this is what is obligatory for the du`aat (callers) to precede upon in their call, that they should focus upon warning against shirk and calling to tawheed before everything, otherwise their call will not be upon the manhaj (methodology) of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.

Allaah sent the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam with warning against shirk and calling to tawheed, so it is essential to lay this foundation down first of all. After that, the person can direct his attention to the rest of the matters, since matters will not be correct and sound except with the presence of tawheed. If all of the people were to abandon zinaa (fornication), intoxicants, stealing, and they took on every virtuous quality from deeds and behavior, but did not abandon shirk, there would be no benefit in these matters and it will not benefit them. Whereas, if the people were to remain free of shirk, but had major sins less than shirk, then there is hope for such a person that Allaah will either forgive him or punish him in accordance with the level of his sins. But his final destination will be to Paradise because he is a person of tawheed. 

So Tawheed is the fundamental basis and foundation. There is no salvation except with the presence of tawheed firstly. Therefore, it is obligatory to concentrate and always give attention to it and to call the people to it and to teach it to the people and to explain it to them, what is the meaning of tawheed and what is the meaning of shirk. The Muslim must be aware of this matter and attain certainty concerning it. He should check himself so that he does not fall into anything from shirk or infringe tawheed. This matter is essential and the da`wah must proceed upon this basis.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

The meaning of «Arise and warn!» is to warn against shirk and call to tawheed. «And exalt your Lord!» meaning: venerate Him with tawheed. «And purify your garments!» meaning: purify your deeds from shirk. «And shun ar-rujz» ar-rujz means the idols and «shunning» meaning: abandoning them and disassociating from them and their people.


Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/muhammad

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: His Name and Lineage – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 40
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Third Fundamental Principle:
Knowledge About Our Prophet Muhammad –sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam
His Name, His Lineage, and His Early Life 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

الأصل الثالث : معرفة نبيكم محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم 

The third fundamental principle: Knowledge about your Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam.[56]


[56] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His saying: «The third fundamental principle» meaning: from the three fundamental principles, because the Shaykh (rahimahullaah) has mentioned at the start of the treatise that it is obligatory upon every Muslim male and female to have knowledge of these three fundamental principles, and they are: knowledge of Allaah, knowledge of the religion of Islaam, and knowledge about His Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam with the evidences.

As for the first and second fundamental principles, then a clarification of them has preceded and an explanation of their evidences. 

The third fundamental principle: It is knowledge about the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam, because of the fact that the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam is an intermediary between Allaah and His creation with regard to conveying His Religion and His Message. Therefore, it is obligatory to know about him, `alaihissalaatu wasalaam.  Otherwise, how could you follow a person whom you do not know of?

So, you must know about him with regard to his name, the land he was born and grew up in, the land to which he migrated and that you know the extent of his lifespan `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. And the phases of his life, `alaihissalaatu wasalaam and the phases of the time period which he was sent in this world. That you also know what occurred before Prophet-hood and after it and before the migration, and after it. That you know how the revelation first came to him, `alaihissalaatu wasalaam and when the revelation began, and what is the aayah which proves his Prophet-hood and the aayah which proves His Messenger-ship. That you can quote the aayahs which prove His Prophet-hood and the aayahs which prove His Messenger-ship. You must know this; that you know his lineage and which tribe he was from, because the Arabs are made of tribes and he was an Arab without any doubt. So, knowledge of these matters is essential about the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam through studying the aayahs and the ahaadeeth which are connected to these matters.

And you look into the life of the Messenger sallallaahu`alayhi wa sallam and his call, in order that you should know these matters about your Prophet whom you are commanded to follow and take as an example.


His Name, His Lineage

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

وهو محمد بن عبد الله بن عبد المطلب بن هاشم من قريش ، وقريش من العرب ،  والعرب من ذرية إسماعيل بن إبراهيم الخليل ، عليه وعلى نبينا أفضل الصلاة والسلام

He is Muhammad, the son of `Abdullaah, the son of `Abdul-Muttalib, the son of Haashim, who is from Quraysh. Quraysh are from the Arabs, and the Arabs are from the descendants of Ismaa`eel, the son of Ibraaheem, al-Khaleel(the specially beloved one). May the most excellent salaat (extolment) and salaam(peace and security) be upon him and our Prophet.[57]


[57Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

This is his name and lineage. His name is Muhammad `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. He has other names besides Muhammad. However, the most famous one of his names is Muhammad and Allaah mentioned that in the Qur.aan in a number of aayahs.

مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ

«Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah» [48:29]

And His saying:

وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ

«And Muhammad is not except a Messenger, Messengers have passed away before him.» [3:144]

And His saying:

مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ

«Muhammad is not the father of any of your men.» [33:40]

And His saying:

«And those who have eemaan (truly believe) and perform righteous deeds, and believe in that which was sent down upon Muhammad (sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam), for it is the truth from their Lord.» [40:2]

So, Allaah mentioned his name Muhammad in a number of aayaahs.

From his names is Ahmad. Allaah mentioned in His saying regarding the glad tidings given by al-Maseeh `alaihissalaam:

وَإِذْ قَالَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُم مُّصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيَّ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَمُبَشِّرًا بِرَسُولٍ يَأْتِي مِن بَعْدِي اسْمُهُ أَحْمَدُ

«And remember when `Eesaa ibn Maryam, said: “O Children of Israa.eel! I am Allaah’s Messenger to you confirming what came before me from the Tauraat, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger who will come after me, whose name will be Ahmad.» [61:6]

So, he is Muhammad and Ahmad. The meaning of that is one abundant in praise, `alaihissalaatu wa salaam, and abundant in attributes for which he is to be praised.

From his names are: the Prophet of Mercy (نبي الرحمة), the Prophet of Great War (نبي الملحمة) – meaning jihaad in Allaah’s Cause – the one after whom the people will be resurrected (الحاشر), and the final Prophet (والعاقب), `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. The one who is such that the people will be resurrected after his being sent as a Prophet, because he is the last of the Messengers, sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. So, there is nothing after him except for the establishment of the Hour. After his Messenger-ship, the Hour will be established and the people will be resurrected for recompensing and accounting.

Whoever wants to get knowledge of these matters (Names and Meanings) , let him refer back to the Book Jalaa.ul-Afhaam fee asSalaati was-Salaam `alaa Khayril-Anaam of the Imaam Ibnul-Qayyim (rahimahullaah).

As for his lineage: He is Muhammad, the son of `Abdullaah, the son of `Abdul-Muttalib, the son of Haashim, the son of `Abdul-Manaaf, the son of Qusay, the son of Kilaab.

He was from the tribe of Quraysh which is the noblest of the tribes, and Quraysh are from the descendants of Ismaa`eel `alaihissalaatu wasalaam.

The Arabs are of two categories upon the most famous saying:

  • The original Arabs: They were the descendants of Qahtaan.
  • The assimilated Arabs: They were the descendants of `Adnaan from the descendants of Ismaa`eel `alaihissalaam, the son of Ibraaheem, al-Khaleel, `alaihissalaam. They were called al-Musta`rabah (the assimilated Arabs) because they learned the Arabic language from the original Arabs.

When the tribe of Jurhum came and settled in Makkah beside Haajir, the mother of Ismaa`eel and her son Ismaa`eel whilst he was young – when they found the well of Zamzam, they settled there and made an agreement with Haajir that they should settle beside her and that she should permit them to take water from the well. Ismaa`eel `alaihissalaam was a suckling infant at that time, then he grew older and took the Arabic language from the tribe of Jurhum, and they were from the original Arabs. He married from the tribe of Jurhum and descendants came from him who learnt the Arabic language. They grew up with the Arabs and became Arabs themselves by assimilation. They are the descendants of `Adnaan. As for the original Arabs, then they are the descendants of Qahtaan whose origin was from Yemen.

Some of the scholars said: The original Arabs themselves were of two categories: Arabs who became extinct and Arabs who remained.

The Arabs who became extinct were the ones who were destroyed. They were the people of Nooh, `Aad, and Thamood, and Shu`ayb.

As for the remaining Arabs, then they are those who are divided into the original Arabs and the assimilated Arabs.

The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was from the descendants of Haashim (the tribe of Haashim), and Haashim was from the descendants of Ismaa`eel, `alaihissalaatu wa salaam. His name was Muhammad, the son of `Abdullaah, the son of `Abdul-Muttalib.

And [regarding] `Abdul-Muttalib, this was not his name, his name was Shaybah. However, he was called `Abdul-Muttalib because his paternal uncle, al-Muttalib, the son of Manaaf, brought him from al-Madeenah whilst he was little from his maternal uncles, Banoo an-Najaar. So, when the people saw him being dark from travelling, they thought he was a slave owned by al-Muttalib. So, they said: `Abdul-Muttalib (the slave of Muttalib), the son of Haashim, the son of `Abdul-Manaaf. `Abdul-Manaaf had four sons: Haashim who was the grandfather of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam, al-Muttalib, `Abd-Shams, and Nawfal.

Banoo Haashim are called the Haashimiyyoon and Banoo Muttalib are called the Muttallibiyyoon.

As for  `Abd- Shams, then from them was `Uthmaan –radiyallaahu `anh and Banoo `Umay-yah. They were all from `Abd- Shams.

As for Nawfal, he had descendents, from them: Jubayr bin Mut`im and Hakeem ibn Hizaam.

Ibraaheem `alaihissalaatu wasalaam had Ismaa`eel and he was the eldest. He is the grandfather of the Arab descendants of `Adnaan. And Ishaaq is the grandfather of the children of Israa.eel, and all of the Prophets were from the descendants of Ishaaq, except for our Prophet `alaihissalaatu wasalaam, he was from the descendants of Ismaa`eel, he was the final prophet.

As for his birth: He sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam was born in the year of the elephant. It is the year when Abrahah, the King of Yemen came towards Makkah. He was sent on a mission by the (christian) King of the Abyssinians to demolish the Ka`bah. With him, there was a very large elephant, so when he reached the place which is called al-Mughamas, nothing remained except for him to enter Makkah and demolish the Ka`bah. The people of Makkah had already separated and climbed into the mountains because they had no strength to oppose him. So, he wanted to go on to the Ka`bah, but the elephant was held back and it refused to get up from the ground. Allaah held it back. When he turned it in the direction other than the direction of Makkah, it would get up and trod. And when he pointed it in the direction of Makkah, it was prevented and unable to walk, and whilst they were in that condition, they saw two flocks of birds coming from the direction of the ocean and they had with them stones. Each bird had two stones with it, a stone in its beak and a stone between its feet. They threw these little stones down and they would strike the head of the man and it would come out from his anus and split him in two halves. So, Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, destroyed him.

Allaah sent down, with regard to that, reminding the Quraysh, Sooratul-Feel:

أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّكَ بِأَصْحَابِ الْفِيلِ – أَلَمْ يَجْعَلْ كَيْدَهُمْ فِي تَضْلِيلٍ – وَأَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ طَيْرًا أَبَابِيلَ – تَرْمِيهِم بِحِجَارَةٍ مِّن سِجِّيلٍ

«Do you not see how your Lord dealt with the Companions of the Elephant? Did He not make their plan go astray? And He sent against them birds, in flocks, striking them with stones of clay.» [105:1-4]

[The stones were] from Hell, and Allaah’s refuge is sought.

فَجَعَلَهُمْ كَعَصْفٍ مَّأْكُولٍ

«So He made them like straws of corn devoured.» [105:5]

They became like dry straw which have been eaten by animals and excreted.

This was the story of the elephant, so Allaah defended His Sacred House and destroyed this tyrant Abrahah, and in this year, Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was born. There appeared along with his birth signs; light appeared along with him which caused the castles of Shaam to shine. In the night of his birth, the idols shook. The throne room of Kisraa (the emperor of Persians) shook and some balconies from it fell down in the night the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was born. These were signs of the descending of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam as a Prophet. The devils were thrown into commotion in that tremendous night.

He was born in the mountain-pass of `Alee, he was born in Makkah (close to the Ka’bah) . However, the precise location of the house is not confirmed.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/muhammad

Al-ihsaan (Perfection) : It’s Categories and Levels – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 36 – Part B & Lesson 37
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Third Level is al-Ihsaan 

The Definition of Ihsaan 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

:المرتبة الثالثة : الإحسان ، ركن واحد ، وهو 

أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه ، فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه يراك

The third level is al-ihsaan. It is a single pillar and it is: «That you worship Allaah as if you were seeing Him, and even though you do not see Him, He certainly sees you.»46


[46]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Al-Ihsaan in the language means to perfect something and complete it. It is derived from al-husun which means al-jamaal (beauty), the opposite of ugliness.

And it is divided into (three) categories: 

  • Firstly: Al-Ihsaan (Perfection) of what lies between the servant and his Lord. This is what is meant (in this book here). 
  • Secondly: Al-Ihsaan (Perfection) of what is between the servant and the rest of the people. 
  • Thirdly: Doing well and perfecting what you do. When a person makes something or does an action, then it is obligatory upon him that he perfects it and does it completely. 

[1] Ihsaan (perfection) of what lies between the servant and his Lord


The first type is ihsaan (perfection) of what lies between the servant and his Lord. The Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam explained it when Jibreel asked him in the presence of the companions as will follow. He said:

«Ihsaan is that you worship Allaah as if you were seeing Him,
and even though you do not see Him, He certainly sees you

So ihsaan between the servant and his Lord is his perfecting the action which Allaah has made a duty upon him, that he does it correctly, purely and sincerely for the Face of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

So, an action in which there is ihsaan between the servant and his Lord is that which is done sincerely for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and done with the following of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.

Al- ihsaan is of two levels :

The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam made clear that ihsaan is of two levels, one of them being higher than the other: 

The first level is that you worship Allaah as if you were seeing Him such that your certainty and eemaan in Allaah reaches such a level that it is as if you are actually seeing Allaah with your eyes. You have no hesitancy or doubt, rather it is as if Allaah is in front of you, He the Perfect and Most High, and you are seeing Him openly. Whoever reaches this level has reached the limit of ihsaan. You worship Allaah as if you are seeing Him on account of the completeness of certainty and sincerity, which is as if you are seeing Allaah with your eyes.

Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, will not be seen in this world, rather He will only be seen in the Hereafter. However, you see Him with your heart to the extent that it is as if you are seeing Him with your eyes. Therefore, He will reward the people of ihsaan in the Hereafter that they will see Him, He the Perfect and Most High. This is since they used to worship Him as if they were seeing Him in this world. So, Allaah rewards them by giving them the opportunity to see Him with their eyes in the abode of bliss. He, the Most High, said:

لِّلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا الْحُسْنَىٰ وَزِيَادَةٌ

«For the people of ihsaan there will be the best reward of Paradise and something extra.» [10:26]

Something extra is looking upon the Face of Allaah. The reason is that they perfected their deeds in this world, so Allaah gave them the best reward which is Paradise. And He will give them an increase which is seeing Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. So therefore, you worship Allaah as if you are actually witnessing Him, upon love and longing to meet Him, He the Perfect and Most High. You feel delight in obedience to Him and you feel calm and obedience to Him, He the Perfect and Most High. You eagerly desire obedience to Him. This is the path of the people of ihsaan. 

The second level: If you do not reach this tremendous level (first level), then you worship Him upon the path of al-muraqabah (watchfulness) such that you know that Allaah sees you, knows your condition, and knows what lies within yourself. Therefore, it is not befitting that you should disobey Him and contradict His command when He sees and observes you. This is a good state, however, it is less than the first one. So, as long as you know that He sees you, then you therefore perfect your worship of Him and you do it well, because you know that Allaah is seeing you. And for Allaah is the Highest example. If you were in front of a created being who had status and he commanded you with a command, and you were carrying this matter out in front of him and he was looking at you, would it be befitting that you be negligent in the performance of this action? 

So in summary, ihsaan is of two levels: 

  • The level of witnessing with the heart: It is that you worship Allaah as if you are seeing Him from the strength of certainty and eemaan. It is as you are seeing Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, with your eyes. 
  • The second level: It is that you worship Allaah knowing that He sees you and observes you, therefore, you do not disobey Him and contradict His command, He the Perfect and Most High.

This is the level of al-ihsaan and it is highest of the levels of the religion. Whoever reaches it has reached the highest of the levels of the religion. Before it is the level of eemaan, and before that is the level of al-Islaam.

The deen has a number of domains: 

The first domain: al-Islaam. It is wide to such an extent that the hypocrite enters within it and is called a Muslim and is treated like a Muslim, because he has submitted to Islaam outwardly. So therefore, he enters within the domain of Islaam. And the person who is weak in eemaan [enters the domain of Islaam], but he has nothing from eemaan except a mustard seed of it. 

The second domain: It is more restricted and more specific – the domain of al-eemaan. The hypocrite in belief does not enter into it whatsoever. Rather, only the people of eemaan enter into it, and they are two categories: those who are complete in eemaan and those who are deficient in eemaan. So, the sinful believer and dutiful believer both enter into it. 

The third domain: It is more restricted than the second one – the domain of al-ihsaan. It just as the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam made clear. No one will enter into it except the people of complete eemaan.


The Evidence for al-Ihsaan 

And the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا وَّالَّذِينَ هُم مُّحْسِنُونَ

«Allaah is with those who fear Him and are dutiful to Him; and He is with those who are people of ihsaan.» [16:128]

And His saying, He the Most High:

وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى الْعَزِيزِ الرَّحِيمِ الَّذِي يَرَاكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ وَتَقَلُّبَكَ فِي السَّاجِدِينَ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

«And place your reliance upon the All-Mighty, the Bestower of Mercy. He who sees you when you stand to pray. And who sees your movements along with those who pray along with you. Indeed! He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.» [26:217-220]

And His saying, He the Most High:

وَمَا تَكُونُ فِي شَأْنٍ وَمَا تَتْلُو مِنْهُ مِن قُرْآنٍ وَلَا تَعْمَلُونَ مِنْ عَمَلٍ إِلَّا كُنَّا عَلَيْكُمْ شُهُودًا إِذْ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا يَعْزُبُ عَن رَّبِّكَ مِن مِّثْقَالِ ذَرَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي السَّمَاءِ وَلَا أَصْغَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ وَلَا أَكْبَرَ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ

«And you are not (O Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam) engaged in any matter nor do you recite the Book of Allaah, – nor do you do any action (O people), except that We are witness in your deeds when you do them. And not even that which is of the weight of the tiniest ant is hidden from your Lord on the earth or in the heavens. Nor is there anything smaller than that or greater than it except that it is written in a Clear Book [10:61] [47]


[47] : Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

This is the proof for the first level of al-ihsaan:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا وَّالَّذِينَ هُم مُّحْسِنُونَ

«Allaah is with those who fear Him and are dutiful to Him, and He is with those who are people of ihsaan.» [16:128]

The aayah proves that Allaah is with the people of ihsaan. They are those who worship Allaah as if they were seeing Him, so Allaah is with them in a specific sense of Ma`iyyah (Allah being with creation) – the Ma`iyyah with regard to aiding, helping, and tawfeeq (guiding them to and granting them attainment of correctness).

And His saying, He the Most High:

وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى الْعَزِيزِ الرَّحِيمِ الَّذِي يَرَاكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ وَتَقَلُّبَكَ فِي السَّاجِدِينَ

«And place your reliance upon the All-Mighty, the Bestower of Mercy. He who sees you when you stand to pray. And who sees your movements along with those who pray along with you.» [26:217-219]

This is a proof for the second level. This is a proof for his saying [sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam]: «Then, He certainly sees you

«And place your reliance» Meaning: trust your affairs «to the All-Mighty, the Bestower of Mercy» He is Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

«When you stand to pray» You stand for worship and the prayer.

«And who sees your movements along with those who pray along with you» He sees you whilst you are performing your rukoo` (bowing) and whilst you are performing your sajdah (prostration). He sees you in all the states of worship; standing, bowing, and prostrating. He, the Perfect and Most High, sees you.

«Indeed! He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing» The One who hears your sayings. The One who knows your sayings, He the Perfect and Most High.

And His saying, He the Most High:

وَمَا تَكُونُ فِي شَأْنٍ وَمَا تَتْلُو مِنْهُ مِن قُرْآنٍ وَلَا تَعْمَلُونَ مِنْ عَمَلٍ إِلَّا كُنَّا عَلَيْكُمْ شُهُودًا إِذْ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ

«And you (O Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam) are not engaged in any matter nor do you recite the Book of Allaah, – nor do you do any action (O people), except that We are witness in your deeds when you do them.» [10:61]

This is a proof for the second level.

«And you (O Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam) are not engaged in any matter» This is an address to the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam. In any affair from your affairs, from the affairs of worship or other than it – all of your actions and your movements – you will not be engaged in any affair at all.

«Nor do you recite from it (i.e. Book of Allaah)» Meaning: from Allaah, because the Qur`aan is from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Or the pronoun could refer back to the affair, so the meaning would be: From the affairs which you are engaged in is recitation of the Qur`aan.

«Nor do you do (O people)» This is [an address] for all of the nation, for the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and other than him.

«Any action» Meaning: Any action from the actions, whether good or bad.

«Except that We are witness [in your deeds]» We are seeing you, observing you, and witnessing you. This is a proof for his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam: «Then indeed, He sees you

«When you do them» You are carrying it out and you are doing it. So, this gives a proof for the second level from the levels of ihsaan, in that He, the Majestic and Most High, witnesses the action of every doer of an action. He, the Perfect and Most High, sees him, knows him, and observes him. Nothing is hidden from him.

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَخْفَىٰ عَلَيْهِ شَيْءٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي السَّمَاءِ

«Nothing whatsoever in the earth or in the heavens is hidden from Allaah.» [3:5]


[2] Ihsaan between the person and rest of the creation


As for ihsaan between the servant and the creation, then its meaning is: doing good to them and withholding from harming them.

Such that you feed the hungry person, cloth the person without clothing, assist the needy person with your position, and that you intercede for the one who needs to be interceded for. You do that which is good with all the different aspects of good. You are hospitable to the guest and you are generous towards the neighbor. Nothing but good emanates from you towards the neighbor, and you withhold harming him. So, no harm comes from you towards him or towards anyone else.

  1. From the people, there are who are such that nothing but harm comes from them, and
  2. From the people there are those whom harm and good comes. And
  3. From the people, there are those whom nothing but good comes from them. This is the highest of the levels.

Doing good towards the people and withholding harm from them is ihsaan (good and fine treatment) towards the people:

أَحْسِنُوا ۛ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

«Do good. Allaah loves al-Muhsineen (the doers of good).» [2:195]

Even towards the animals, it is obligatory that you treat them well and make available for them whatever they need and that you withhold harming them and that you are gentle with them. This is from ihsaan towards the animals.

Even a person who is going to be rightfully executed, you should not torture him, rather, you should execute him in a fine and tranquil manner. A person who is obligatory to execute, and someone it is obligatory to carry a hadd (prescribed punishment) upon, then it is carried out upon him with gentleness. There is to be no mutilation, no torture, and no beating to death.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

»إن الله كتب الإحسان على كل شيء ، فإذا قتلتم فأحسنوا القتلة ، وإذا ذبحتم فأحسنوا الذبح«

«Allaah has obligated ihsaan with regard to everything. So, when you kill, then kill in a fine manner. And when you slaughter an animal, then slaughter in a good manner

[Reported by Muslim no. 1955 as a hadeeth of Shaddaad bin Aws, radiy Allaahu `anhu.]

So, [the principle of ihsaan applies] to execution or other than it from that which necessitates prescribed punishment.

«When you slaughter» Meaning: when you slaughter animals which are to be eaten, then slaughter in a fine manner:

» وليحد  أحدكم شفرته ، وليرح ذبيحته «

«Let one of you sharpen his knife and give relief to the animal which he is slaughtering

Therefore, you are to treat with ihsaan even the animals. Allaah forgave the prostitute woman from the People of Israaeel on account that she gave a drink of water to a dog which had its tongue hanging out from thirst. So, she gave it water to drink and Allaah thanked her for that and forgave her, her sin.[2] This is a tremendous sin and it is prostitution, meaning: zinaa (fornication). But Allaah forgave her on account of that – because she treated the thirsty animal in a fine manner.

So how about something other than a dog? If you were to treat a hungry person from the Muslims with ihsaan, or from the descendants of Aadam, even if he is a disbeliever – if you were to treat him well, then Allaah, the Majestic and Most High will thank you for that fine treatment. He, the Most High, said:

أَحْسِنُوا ۛ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

«Do good. Allaah loves al-Muhsineen (the doers of good).» [2:195]


[3] Ihsaan (Perfection) of the Action


The third type: It is perfection of the action. Whatever action you do, it is obligatory that you perfect it and not so that it should be said: “So-and-so has done such-and-such very well.” There occurs in the hadeeth:

» إن الله يحب إذا عمل أحدكم عملا أن يتقنه «

«Allaah loves that one when one of you does an action that he perfects it

[Reported by al-Bayhaqee in Shu`ab al-Eemaan 4/334 no. 5313 and no. 5314 from a hadeeth of `Aa.ishah, radiy Allaahu `anha. [Declared hasan (good) by Shaikh al-Albaanee in Saheeh al-Jaami`. He spoke about it in Silsilatul-Ahaadeeth asSaheehah no. 1113].


Footnotes:

[2] Refer to al-Bukhaaree no. 3467, Muslim no. 2245 as a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah, radiy Allaahu `anhu.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/belief/imaan-faith-pillars

Eemaan has 70 and odd branches, its highest of them is the saying of “Laa ilaaha illAllaah” – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 32 – Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

The Second Level is Eemaan  

المرتبة الثانية : الإيمان : وهو بضع وسبعون شعبة ، فأعلاها قول : لا إله إلا الله ، وأدناها إماطة الأذى عن الطريق ، والحياء شعبة من الإيمان 

The second level is al-Eemaan (true faith) and it has seventy and odd branches, its highest of them is the saying of “Laa ilaaha illAllaah” and the lowest of them is removal of that which is harmful from the path; and al-hayaa (a sense of shame) is a branch of eemaan.[42]


[42] : Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Eemaan is more inclusive than Islaam, so every believer is a Muslim, but not every Muslim is a believer. So eemaan is more inclusive with respect to itself, and it is more specific with regard to its people.

Eemaan in the language is at-tasdeeq (to believe, to attest with the heart).

He the Most High, said upon the tongue of the brothers of Yoosuf:

 وَمَا أَنتَ بِمُؤْمِنٍ لَّنَا

Meaning: you won’t believe us. (12:17)

As for [the meaning of] eemaan in the legislation, then it is as explained by the people of the Sunnah and Jamaa`ah:

Speech of the tongue, belief of the heart, and action of the limbs.
It increases with obedience, and it decreases through sin.

It is with this explanation, a reality relating to the legislation, because realities are three: a reality which relates to the language, a reality with regards to the legislation, and a reality relating to people’s custom.

So the explanation of eemaan with this explanation is a reality relating to the legislation. So, eemaan moves from the meaning in language to the meaning in Islaamic legislation.

So, eemaan is: speech upon the tongue – there has to be speech and acknowledgment with the tongue. And it is belief in the heart, when a person speaks upon his tongue, he must be believing it in his heart, otherwise he will be just like the hypocrites, those who: 

 يَقُولُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِم مَّا لَيْسَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ

They say with their tongues that which is not in their hearts. [48:11]

And speech upon the tongue, and belief in the heart will not suffice, rather there must be action on the limbs also, and carrying out the obligatory duties is essential, and avoiding the prohibitions. So the person does the acts of obedience and he avoids the forbidden acts, all of this is from eemaan. With this definition, it comprises the whole of the religion. However, these acts of obedience and these many legislated duties, some of them are a part of the reality of eemaan, and some of them are things which are a completion of eemaan.

Eemaan has pillars and branches, and the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam explained them in two hadeeth. He explained the arkaan (pillars) of eemaan in the hadeeth of Jibreel, and he explained the branches of eemaan in the hadeeth of «Eemaan is seventy and odd branches». This will follow in shaa’ Allaah.

Eemaan and Islaam, if they are mentioned together, then each of them has its own meaning. When only one of them is mentioned, then it enters along with the other. If they are mentioned together, then Islaam is explained to be the outward actions, and they are the five pillars of Islaam, and eemaan is explained to be the inward actions which are the six pillars, and their places are in the heart. All of these must be found together in a Muslim. The Muslim must be one who has eemaan and who establishes the pillars of Islaam and the pillars of eemaan – he must gather all of them.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

»الإيمان بضع وسبعون شعبة ، أو بضع وستون شعبة«

«Eemaan is of seventy and odd branches, or sixty and odd branches.» There are two narrations.

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (9) with the wording «sixty and odd» and Muslim (35) with both wordings from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radi Allaahu `anhu.]

His saying «odd»: it is a number between three and nine. So if it is said: «ten and odd,» then it means a number between thirteen until nineteen, and if it is said «odd» on its own, then it means something between three and nine.

His saying «branches»: a branch is a part of the thing, meaning that the pillars have seventy and odd parts or sections.

His saying «the highest one of them»: meaning: the highest of the branches is the saying Laa ilaaha illaAllaah.  It is the head of Islaam and it is the head of eemaan, it is the first pillar, and it is the entry point of the religion.

His saying «the lowest one of them»: meaning: the last of them and the least one of them.

His saying «removing that which is harmful from the path»: meaning: removing that which is harmful from the path which is walked upon. And «that which is harmful» is everything which causes harm to the people, whether it be thorns, rocks, filthy things or refuse, everything which causes harm to people upon their path. And placing that which is harmful upon their path is forbidden, because the path is for those who wish to precede upon it, and harm impedes those who want to proceed, or puts them in danger, such as stopping his car upon the road, this is from causing harm – and letting water flow out from the house unto the path, this is from harm – and putting rubbish upon the pathway, this is from causing harm, whether it be upon the road, the town, or in the countryside – placing a rock, pieces of timber, iron upon the pathways of the people, digging holes in the roads of the people – all of this is from causing harm. So if a Muslim comes and removes this harm, and clears the path of it, then this is a proof for his eemaan. So, placing that which is harmful upon the path is from the branches of kufr, and removing harm from the path is from the branches of eemaan.

His saying «al-hayaa (true sense of shame is a branch of eemaan)»: al-hayaa is a characteristic which Allaah places in a person which leads him to carry out whatever will beautify and adorn him; and which prevents him from things which will contaminate and disfigure him. And al-hayaa which leads a person to perform that which is good, and to withhold from that which is evil is praiseworthy. As for shame or shyness which prevents a person from doing something good, from seeking knowledge, and from asking about things which are a problem to his understanding, then this is blameworthy shyness. This is because it is blameworthy embarrassment.

And the pillars of eemaan are many as you have come to know there are seventy and odd. Al-Imaam al-Bayhaqee wrote a large work in which he mentioned the branches of eemaan, it has an abridgment which has been printed.

From the proofs of the scholars that eemaan is speech upon the tongue, belief in the heart and action on the limbs is his saying sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam:

» أعلاها لا إله إلا الله «

« The highest of them is none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah. » This is a proof for sayings. And his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam:

» أدناها إماطة الأذى عن الطريق «

« And removal of that which is harmful from the path » is an action. It proves that actions are from eemaan. And his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam:

» الحياء شعبة من الإيمان «

« al-hayaa is a branch from eemaan .» This is something in the heart, al-hayaa is in the heart. This is a proof that eemaan is sayings upon the tongue, belief in the heart, and actions upon the limbs.

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Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the Proof for the testification that ‘Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah’ is His saying:

لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُم بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ

There has indeed come to you a Messenger from Allaah from amongst yourselves; it grieves him that you undergo suffering. He is eager and anxious for your guidance and he is full of compassion and mercy for the believers. [9:128] 37


[37] : Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

The first pillar of the pillars of Islaam is composed of two matters:

  1. The first: The testification Laa ilaaha illaAllaah (none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah).
  2. The second: The testification ‘Muhammadan rasoolullaah‘ (Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah).

So these two are a single pillar. The first part means making ones worship purely and sincerely. And the second part means following the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.

The proof for the testification that ‘Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah’ is His saying:  

لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُم بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ

There has indeed come to you a Messenger from Allaah from amongst yourselves; it grieves him that you undergo suffering. He is eager and anxious for your guidance and he is full of compassion and mercy for the believers. [9:128]

And the proofs for the testification that ‘Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah’ are many in the Book and the Sunnah, as well as the amazing miracles which prove his sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam‘s Messenger-ship.

And from the Book is this aayah:

لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُم بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ

There has indeed come to you a Messenger from Allaah from amongst yourselves; it grieves him that you undergo suffering. He is eager and anxious for your guidance and he is full of compassion and mercy for the believers. [9:128]

So this is a witness from Allaah for this Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, for his Messenger-ship and it is an description of his characteristics.

His saying, He the Most High:

لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ

There has indeed come to you. [9:128]

The ‘Laam’ is a Laam to indicate an oath. So therefore, it carries along with it an oath which is understood (in the meaning) and is taken to be wallaahi (by Allaah) ‘there has certainly come to you.’

قَدْ

is a particle for confirmation and emphasis.

جَاءَكُمْ

He has come to you. [9:128]

O Mankind! This is an address to the whole of mankind, because his sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam‘s Messenger-ship was general to all of the thaqalayn (two species), mankind and jinn.

رَسُولٌ

A Messenger. [9:128]

He was one who had a revealed law sent to him by revelation and he was commanded to convey it. He was called a Messenger because he was mursal (sent) with a Message by Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ

From your own selves. [9:128]

From your own species and your own type, from human-kind. He was not an angel from the angels. And this was the Way of Allaah the Perfect and Most High – that He would send to mankind, Messengers from them, in order to make their affair clear and in order for them to speak with them and because they would know them. If He had sent, as a Messenger to them, an angel, they would have not been able to speak with him because he would have not been from their type of being. Also, they would have not be able to see the angel, because he would have not been from their type of being. So from His Mercy, He the Perfect and Most High, is that He sent as a Messenger to mankind a Messenger from their own type. Indeed he was from the Arabs, and from the most noble of the houses of the Arabs in lineage, from the tribe of Baanee Haashim, who are the most honorable in lineage of Quraysh, and Quraysh are the most honorable of the Arabs in lineage.

So, he was the specially chosen from the best of people. They knew him and they knew of his personality, his lineage, tribe, and his town. If they had not known him, then how could they attest to his truthfulness? And if he came with other than their language, then how could they understand his speech?

عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ

It grieves him greatly that you should suffer. [9:128]

His saying:

عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ

Meaning: It troubled him sallallaahu‘alaihiwasallam.

مَا عَنِتُّمْ

Meaning: Whatever troubles you.

Meaning: Inconvenience and hardship. The Messenger sallallaahu‘alaihiwasallam was troubled by whatever caused trouble to his nation. He had not used to want hardship for them. Rather, he wanted ease and easiness. And therefore, his revealed law sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam came as something easy and easy-going.

He, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said:

بعثت بالحنيفية السمحة

I was sent with the Straight and true religion; the religion of ease.[1] [2]

[1] Ahmad (5/266). [2] Reported by Ahmad 23/623 (22291) from the hadeeth of Abu Umaamah Al-Baahilee, radiallaahu ‘anhu. [Shaikh Al-Albaanee declared this hadeeth as strong in As-Saheehah no. 2924]

He the Most High said:

وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ

And He did not place upon you any hardship in the religion. [22:78]

And He said:

مَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ حَرَجٍ

Allaah does not wish to place any hardship upon you. [5:6]

So His revealed Way is easy, it goes along with the capability of the people and with what those given duties, are able to do, and it does not burden them with things they are not capable of. Therefore, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam used to love to make things easy for them. He was never given a choice between two matters except that he chose the easiest one of the two as long as it was not sinful. He used to love to perform an action but he would leave it out of compassion for his Nation. He would leave the action even though he loved it, from the righteous deeds in order that he should not put difficulty upon his nation. These were from his characteristics, that whatever caused difficulty for his nation was a difficulty he felt himself, and he would become pleased with whatever was pleasing to them, and he would be joyful with whatever caused them to be joyful.

Whoever has these as his characteristics, then there is no doubt that he will not bring except that which is khayr (good) and Rahmah (mercy), sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. 

حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُم

He is eager and anxious for you. [9:128]

Meaning: For your guidance and that you are taken out from the darkness into the light. Therefore, he himself bore difficulty in calling the people, seeking that they should be guided, and seeking to take them out from darkness into light to such an extent that Allaah said to him:

لَعَلَّكَ بَاخِعٌ نَّفْسَكَ أَلَّا يَكُونُوا مُؤْمِنِينَ

Perhaps you will destroy yourself with grief that they are not believing. [26:3]

Meaning: Perhaps you would bring about your own destruction that they do not believe, because of grief. So do not grieve for them. And this was from the completeness of his sincerity, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. 

He was compassionate and merciful towards the believers. [9:128]

Meaning: ra’oof is from ra’fah (compassion), and it means tenderness and kindness.

Meaning: He described him with Rahmah (mercy), so he was not harsh. 

فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لَانفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ

So by mercy from Allaah you were gentle with them, and if you had been severe and hard-hearted, they would have dispersed from around you. [3:159]

He  sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam was humble and gentle with the believers, he would lower his wing in gentleness, and he would meet them with a smiling face, and love, affection, and fine treatment. These were from his  sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam characteristics.

Allaah mentioned five attributes for this Messenger  sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam:

  1. First: He was from amongst you.
  2. Second: He was troubled by whatever troubled you.
  3. Third: He was eager and anxious for you.
  4. Fourth: He was compassionate towards the believers.
  5. Fifth: He was merciful.

Five characteristics from the characteristics of this Prophet  sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. And compassion and mercy were mentioned specifically for the believers since he  sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam was stern upon the people of shirk and the obstinate and willful rejecters of the truth.

He would become angry for that which angered Allaah the Perfect and Most High, just as He the Most High said:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ

O Prophet! Strive against the unbelievers and the hypocrites, and be stern against them. And their dwelling place will be the Hell-Fire, what an evil destination! [9:73]

The mercy and compassion was specific for the believers. Likewise the believers are to be the same with each other.

مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah and those who are with him are stern against the unbelievers, merciful amongst themselves. [48:29]

These were his sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam characteristics.

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Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

ومعناها لا معبودَ بحقٍّ إلا اللهُ وحده؛ (لا إله) نافيًا جميعَ مَا يُعْبدُ مِنْ دونِ اللهِ (إلا الله) مُثْبِتًا العبادةَ له وحدَهُ لا شريكَ لهُ في عبادتِهِ، كما أنَّه ليس له شريك في مُلْكِه

And its meaning is none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah; laa ilaaha (nothing has the right to be worshipped) is a negation of everything which is worshipped besides Allaah. Illallaah (except Allaah) affirms worship for Allaah Alone, and that none is given any share of worship along with Him, just as He has no sharer in His Sovereignty.34


[34]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, “And its meaning is none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah”: the meaning of laa ilaaha illAllaah is not as is said by the people of falsehood: “there is no creator and there is no provider except Allaah”, because this is tawheed-ur-Ruboobiyyah (tawheed of Lordship), the people of shirk agreed to that, but they would not say laa ilaaha illAllaah. He the Most High said:

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا إِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ

وَيَقُولُونَ أَئِنَّا لَتَارِكُو آلِهَتِنَا لِشَاعِرٍ مَّجْنُونٍ

When it was said to them, “laa ilaaha illAllaah(none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah), they became proud, and they say, “are we to abandon worshipping our gods for a crazy poet?” [37:35-36]

“Aalihatinaa” means: those things which we worship.

لِشَاعِرٍ مَّجْنُونٍ ..

… in favour of a crazy poet?” [37:35-36]

They meant the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, they described him with poetry and madness, because he had said to them, “Say: laa ilaaha illAllaah”, and he forbade them from the worship of idols.

And when he said to them, “Say: laa ilaaha illAllaah”, they said:

أَجَعَلَ الْآلِهَةَ إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا ۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ عُجَابٌ

Has he made all of the objects of worship a single One to be worshipped? This is something very strange [38:5]

They thought that there were many gods to be worshipped.

So therefore this shows that its meaning is – nothing truly deserves worship except Allaah. Whereas if its meaning were – there is no creator and there is provider except Allaah – then they agreed to that, and they did not question it. So if that were its meaning they would not have refused to say laa ilaaha illAllaah, because they used to say when they were asked, “Who created the heavens and the earth?”, they used to say, “Allaah”. And when they were asked, “Who creates? Who gives provision? Who gives life and gives death and who controls the earth?”, they used to say , “Allaah”. They acknowledged this. So if that were the meaning of laa ilaaha illAllaah then they would have consented to it. However its meaning is, “None has the right to be worshipped except Allaah”.

If you were to say, “Nothing is worshipped except Allaah”, this would be a great error, because then all the objects of worship would be Allaah, High and Exalted is Allaah above this. Rather if you restrict it and you say, “bihaqq” (nothing is deservedly worshipped), then all the objects of worship are negated except Allaah the Perfect and Most High. You must therefore say, None has the right to be worshipped truly, meaning none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah. Then he explained that in accordance with the wording of the saying:

laa ilaaha: is a negation, it negates the right to worship from everything besides Allaah.

illAllaah: this is affirmation of worship for Allaah alone with no partner.

So laa ilaaha illAllaah includes negation and affirmation, and tawheed has to have negation and affirmation both. Affirmation alone will not suffice; and negation would not suffice on its own. There must be negation and affirmation, just as He the Most High said:

فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ

So whoever rejects the false objects of worship, and truly believes in and worships Allaah [2:256]

وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا

And worship Allaah and do not associate anything in worship along with Him [4:36]

So if you say, “Allaah is One who deserves worship”, this will not suffice, because Al-Laat is one who was worshipped, and Al-‘Uzza is one who was worshipped, and Manaat was an object of worship, all of the idols were called gods, or objects of worship. So therefore you must say, “laa ilaaha illAllaah”, none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah – there must be combination between negation and affirmation so that therefore tawheed is actualized and shirk is negated.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

: وتفسيرها الذي يوضحها قوله تعالى

And its explanation which will make it clear is His saying, He the Most High:

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ إِنَّنِي بَرَاءٌ مِّمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ

إِلَّا الَّذِي فَطَرَنِي فَإِنَّهُ سَيَهْدِينِ

وَجَعَلَهَا كَلِمَةً بَاقِيَةً فِي عَقِبِهِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

And remember when Ibraaheem said to his father and to his people “I am totally free of everything that you worship except for the One who created me, for He will guide me”. And Allaah made it a saying to persist amongst his progeny so that they might remember and return to obedience to their Lord. [43:26-28] 35


[35Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

The best thing to explain the Qur’aan is the Qur’aan. So laa ilaaha illAllaah has been explained by Allaah in the Qur’aan, and that is in the saying of His Khaleel, His specially chosen One (Ibraheem ‘alaihisalaatu wassalaam), in that which Allaah mentioned from him: 

إِنَّنِي بَرَاءٌ

I am totally free [43:26]

This is negation; it has the same meaning of laa ilaaha (none has the right to be worshipped): 

إِلَّا الَّذِي فَطَرَنِي

Except for the One who created me [43:27]

Meaning: except for Allaah. This is affirmation.

So this aayah is a complete and full explanation of the meaning of laa ilaaha illAllaah.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And His saying, He the Most High:

قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ

Say : O people of the Scripture, come to a word of justice between us that we will single out Allaah with all worship and will not worship anything else besides Him, nor will we take one another as lords besides Allaah. Then if they turn away then say bear witness that we are Muslims submitting to Allaah and making our worship purely and sincerely for him. [3:64] 36


[36]  Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

And His saying, He the Most High:

قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا

Say: O people of the Scripture, come to a word of justice between us that we will single out Allaah with all worship and will not worship anything else besides Him. [3:64]

This aayah from Soorah Aal-i-‘Imraan came down with regard to the deputation of Najraan, the Christians who came to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam and debated him and asked him questions, and a long conversation occurred between them and him. They were Christians from the Christians of the Arabs. And in the end, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam requested from them Al-Mubaahala (calling down Allaah’s curses upon whoever was lying):

 فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءَنَا وَأَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَنِسَاءَنَا وَنِسَاءَكُمْ وَأَنفُسَنَا وَأَنفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَل لَّعْنَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِينَ

Then say: Come, let us call our children and your children, our womenfolk and your womenfolk, ourselves and yourselves – then let us invoke and call down Allaah’s Curse upon the liars. [3:61]

So when he requested al-Mubaahalah (calling down curses upon the liars), they feared and they did not engage in calling down the curses along with him, ‘alaihisalaatu wassalaam. Rather, they handed over the Jizyah because they knew that they were upon falsehood, and that he was the Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.

نبتهل: Meaning, let us call the curse down upon the liar from us. They knew that they were the ones who were the liars, and if they had engaged in calling down curses, fire would have descended upon them and consumed them in their places. Therefore they said no, we won’t do so – rather, we will hand over the Jizyah (special tax) and we will not engage in calling Allaah’s curses down upon the liars. So the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam accepted the payment of Jizyah from them.  And it had become clear to them that Allaah had indeed commanded him with what was contained in this aayah.

This aayah contains the meaning of laa ilaaha illAllaah (none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah). His saying:

أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ

That we will not worship [3:64]

This is a negation. And His saying:

إِلَّا اللَّهَ

Except Allaah. [3:62]

This is affirmation.

And this is the ‘Adl (justice) for which the heavens and the earth are established. So the heavens and the earth are established upon tawheed (singling out Allaah with all worship) and upon al-‘Adl. So we do not associate anything in worship along with Him, neither with the Messiah, whom they claim is a lord and whom they worship besides Allaah, nor anyone besides the Messiah, not even Muhammad ‘alaihisalaatu wassalaam, and not any one from the Prophets, not anyone from the righteous, nor anyone from the awliyaa (beloved servants of Allaah):

أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا

That we will not worship except Allaah, and we will not associate anything at all with Him. [3:64]

وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ

And we will not take one another as lords besides Allaah. [3:64]

Meaning: Just as you (i.e. the people of the Book) have taken the Rabbis and monks as lords besides Allaah the Most High:

اتَّخَذُوا أَحْبَارَهُمْ وَرُهْبَانَهُمْ أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَالْمَسِيحَ ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا

They took their rabbis and their monks as lords besides Allaah and (they) also (took as their Lord) the Messiah, son of Maryam, and they were not commanded except that they should worship a single God. [9:31]

The taking of rabbis and monks as lords besides Allaah is something which Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam explained as being their obedience to them in declaring lawful that which Allaah has made forbidden and making forbidden that which Allaah had made lawful.[1] This is the meaning of their taking them as lords besides Allaah, since they used to declare lawful that which Allaah has made forbidden, and  declare forbidden which Allaah has made lawful. So the people obeying them upon that is taking them as Lords. This is because the One who legislates for the people and declares things to be lawful and forbidden for the people is Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا

So, if they turn away. [3:64]

Meaning: (They) do not accept the call to tawheed:

فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ

Then say: Bear witness that we are Muslims (obedient to Allaah, worshiping Him alone). [3:64]

They call them to bear witness that they were muwahiduun (people of tawheed) and that they were kuffaar (unbelievers).  So they made clear to them the falsity of what they were upon. And this aayah shows Al-Baraa’a (freeing oneself) from the religion of the people of shirk and it clearly states “(We) bear witness that we are Muslims.” This contains the obligation of clearly announcing the falsity of what the people of shirk are upon and not remaining silent about it, and of clearly announcing the falsity of shirk and of refuting its people.

In summary:

Laa ilaaha illAllaah (none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah) has two pillars, and they are:

  1. An-Nafee (negation) and
  2. Al-Ithbaat (affirmation).

So if it is said to you: What are the pillars of laa ilaaha illAllaah? Then say, negation and affirmation.

Its conditions are seven, and it (saying the shahadah) will not benefit except with these conditions; someone has written them in a line of poetry and said:

Knowledge, certainty, purity and sincerity and your being truthful

                             Along with love, compliance, and acceptance of them

1.Knowledge: Its opposite is ignorance, so the person who says Laa ilaaha illAllaah with his tongue, but is ignorant of its meaning, then laa ilaaha illAllaah will not benefit him.

2.Certainty: Such that he does not have any doubt. This is because some people may know its meaning, however, they have a doubt about it, so his knowledge is not correct. He must have certainty of laa ilaaha illAllaah and that it is true.

3.Purity and Sincerity: Its opposite is ash-Shirk. Some people say laa ilaaha illAllaah, but they do not abandon shirk as is presently the case today with the worshippers of the graves. Those people will not be benefited by (saying) laa ilaaha illAllaah because from its conditions is abandoning shirk.

4.Being truthful: Its opposite is falsehood and lying. This is because the munaafiquun say laa ilaaha illAllaah, but they are liars in their hearts; they do not believe its meaning. Allaah the Most High said:

إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ قَالُوا نَشْهَدُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُهُ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لَكَاذِبُونَ

اتَّخَذُوا أَيْمَانَهُمْ جُنَّةً

When the hypocrites come to you, they say: “We bear witness that you are the Messenger of Allaah indeed.” But Allaah knows that you are indeed His Messenger, and Allaah bears witness that the hypocrites are liars. They take their oaths as a shield to screen them. [63:1-2]

5.Love: That the person loves this saying and is an ally to its people. As for the person who does not love it or does not love its people, then it will not benefit him.

6.Compliance: It is the opposite of turning away from it and abandoning it, and it is complying with what it (this saying) indicates with regard to worshipping Allaah Alone and not associating anything with Him, and it is complying with His commands. Since you have acknowledged and have borne witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah Alone, then it becomes binding upon you to comply with His rulings and His religion. As for your saying laa ilaaha illAllaah, and you do not comply with His legislations, then laa ilaaha illAllaah will not benefit you.

7.Acceptance: Acceptance which negates Ar-Rad (rejection) – such that you do not reject anything from the rights of laa ilaaha illAllaah and whatever it indicates. Rather, you accept everything which laa ilaaha illAllaah indicates and you accept it correctly.

And an eighth condition is added:

And the eighth is added; rejecting whatever things are 

worshipped besides the One who is truly worshipped

Meaning: 8.Freeing oneself from shirk. So a person will not be a muwahid (a person of tawheed) until he frees himself from shirk. 

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ إِنَّنِي بَرَاءٌ مِّمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ

And when Ibraaheem said to his father and his people: I am totally free of whatever you worship. [43:26]

These are the conditions of laa ilaaha illAllaah – eight conditions.

Footnotes:

[1] Refer to the hadeeth of ‘Alee ibn Haatim radiy Allaahu ‘anhu that was reported by At-Tirmidhee (3095). In it Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

“They did not used to directly worship them, but rather, when they (priests or monks) declared something lawful for them, they (the people) would then declare it lawful. And when they declared something forbidden for them, they would take it as being forbidden.”

[Shaikh Al-Albaanee rahimahullaah declared this hadeeth as hasan (good)].

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Intention For Voluntary Fast – Bulugh al-Marâm | Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

BismillaahIntention For Voluntary Fast
[Translation Source: Darussalam English Publication of Bulugh al-Maraam]

Explained by Dr. Saleh as Saleh rahimahullaah based on the explanation of Shaykh Uthaymeen rahimahullaah

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Allaah bears witness that “Lā ilāha illā Huwa”. Likewise the Angels & the people of knowledge bear witness – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 27 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

So the proof for the shahaadah (testification) is:

شَهِدَ اللَّهُ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَأُولُو الْعِلْمِ قَائِمًا بِالْقِسْطِ ۚ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

Allaah bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped but Him; and likewise the Angels and the people of knowledge bear witness. He Who maintains justice, none has the right to be worshipped but Him, the All-Mighty the All-Wise [3:18]33


[33]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, He the Most High, “He testified“: meaning He judged and He decreed and He informed and He made clear and He made it binding.

So bearing witness from Allaah revolves around these five meanings: judging and decreeing and and informing and clarifying and making binding. So the meaning of, “He testified”, is He the Perfect and Most High decreed it upon His servants and He calls them to know of it and He informed them and He made it binding upon them that none has the right to be worshipped except Him.

laa ilaaha”, (none had the right to be worshipped): this is a negating ‘laa’ which negates everything which is worshipped besides Allaah

illaahu”, (except for Him): this affirms worship for Allaah alone.

And the meaning of, “annahu laailaaha illaahu”, (none has the right to be worshipped but him): it means there is nothing that is worshipped rightfully except  Allaah the Perfect and Most High. As for those who are worshipped besides Allaah, then worship of it is false because of His saying He the Most High:

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرُ

That is because Allaah, He is the true God deserving all worship and those whom they call upon besides Him are futile and false and Allaah He is the Most High the Most Great [22:62]

He the Perfect and Most High testifies to His unity and the right to all worship and He is the most truthful One Who speaks and His bearing witness He the Perfect and Most High is the truest testification there can be because it comes from One Who is All-Wise, All-Aware, All-Knowing, he knows everything so therefore it is a testification which is true.

And the Angels“: they testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Him and they are a species of beings whom Allaah created to worship Him. They are honourable Angels, honoured servants, Allaah created them to worship Him. They declare His perfection night and day, and they never slacken. And also Allaah created them to carry out His commands in the creation, He entrusted them with implementing whatever He commanded, He the Perfect and Most High, from the affairs of the creation. So every Angel from them is entrusted with a duty. And their testification is a true testification, because they are people of knowledge, and of ‘ibaadah (worship) and of ma‘rifah (awareness) of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And they are from the most excellent of the creation, along with the point of disagreement which is are the righteous humans more excellent than the Angels, or are the Angels more excellent than the righteous humans there being disagreement about that point.

And the people of knowledge”: they are of two categories: the Angels, and the second category are the Possessors of Knowledge from mankind. And the Possessors of Knowledge do not testify except with something that is true, contrary to the case with those who are ignorant people, for their testification is not counted. And every species from the creation of Allaah bears witness for Allaah of His Unity and that none has the right to be worshipped but Him. And this is a case of showing the honour and nobility of the people of knowledge since Allaah joined their testification along with His testification, He the Perfect and Most High, and with the testification of His Angels. He counted the testification of the people of knowledge from the creation, and this shows their excellence and their nobility and their status, and they are testifying to the greatest matter that can be testified to, and it is at-Tawheed.

And what is meant by the Possessors of Knowledge – are the people of knowledge of the Legislation (i.e. Islamic knowledge), not as is said by some people that people of knowledge means the people of industry and agriculture, so those people, it is not said about them that they are People of Knowledge unrestrictedly, because their knowledge is limited in scope and is restricted, rather it is to be said, “this person is knowledgeable about arithmetic, this person is knowledgeable about engineering, this person is knowledgeable about medicine”, but it is not said about them that they are the People of Knowledge unrestrictedly. Because this term is not used unrestrictedly except for the people who have Islamic knowledge. And also most of those people are people who have only worldly knowledge, and amongst them are atheists whose knowledge mostly only increases them in ignorance concerning Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and in self delusion and in atheism as you can see today in the disbelieving nations, that they are advanced with regards to industries and with regards to agriculture, however they are disbelievers. So how could it be said that they are the People of Knowledge, those whom Allaah has mentioned in His saying, “and the Possessors of Knowledge”. This is not at all feasible.

And likewise His saying:

إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ

It is only those who have Knowledge amongst His slaves that fear Allaah [35:28]

What is meant is the scholars of Islamic knowledge, those who truly know Allaah and who truly worship Him and who fear Him. As for those people, then most of them do not fear Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Rather they disbelieve in Allaah and deny Him, and they claim that the world has no Lord and that rather nature brought it about and controls it, as is the case with the communists – they reject the Lord, the Perfect and Most High, even though they have worldly knowledge. So how then could we say – those people, they are the People of Knowledge? This is an error. So the term ‘Knowledge’ is not applied unrestrictedly except to its true people, and it is a noble title which cannot be applied to atheists and disbelievers, such that it is said, “they are the people of Knowledge”.

So the Angels and the possessors of Knowledge, they bear witness to Allaah’s Unity and sole right to worship. Therefore the saying of others besides them from the atheists and the people of shirk and the Sabeans, those who disbelieve in Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, is not counted. Those people, they are not counted, neither they nor their saying, because it is something contrary to the testification of Allaah and the testification of His Angels and the testification of those possessing knowledge from His Creation.

And His saying,Qaa’imam bil-Qist, (maintaining justice): this phrase is in the accusative case indicating a state along with, ‘He bore witness’ – meaning whilst establishing justice, He the Perfect and Most High. And the word, “al-Qist”, means al-‘adl (justice) – meaning Allaah the Perfect and Most High establishes justice in everything, and al-‘adl (justice) is the opposite of al-jawr (injustice), and He the Perfect and Most High is a just judge, nothing but justice comes from Him in everything.

Laa ilaaha illahu”, (none has the right to be worshipped but Him): this emphasizes the first sentence.

Al-‘Azeez-ul-Hakeem”, (the Almighty the All-Wise): these are two Names of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, comprising two Attributes from His Attributes, and they are al-‘Izzah (Might) and al-Hikmah (Wisdom).

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