The Book of Purification
from Buloogh Al Maaram
Chapter 1: Water
 His real name is 'Abdullah or 'Abdur-Rahman bin Sakhr Ad-Dausi, and was one of the greatest Sahaba (Companions of the Prophet Peace be upon him) and reported the largest number of Ahadith. More than 800 men narrated from him. He became a Muslim in the year of Khaibar (7 H.) and stayed in the company of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) until he (the Prophet Peace be upon him) died. He was appointed a Mufti (scholar of Islamic verdicts) during the caliphate of' Umar and later became the governor of Al-Madina during the reign of Mawan bin Al-Hakam. He died in 59 H. and was buried at Al-Baqi'.
 The collectors of Hadith: Abu Da’ud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.
 His name is Sa'd bin Malik bin Sinan Al-Khazraji Al-Ansari. He was one of the learned Sahaba, reported many Ahadith and gave religious opinions for some time. He died at the beginning of 74H at the age of 86 years.
 It is reported in Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi and Abu Da’ud that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said these words answering a question about the well of Bud'a, which is located in the vicinity of Al-Madina, and was always filled with filth. This well was situated in a low-lying area and the rainwater would carry all the dirt and garbage into it. These words are certainly about this well.
 The collectors of Hadith: Abu Da'ud, At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasa'i.
 His name is Suday bin 'Ajlan, one of the Sahaba who reported many Ahadith. He lived in Egypt then moved to Hims (now in Syria) and died there at the age of 81 or 86 years.
 Some of the people remark that water may be less or more in quantity, if filth alters its one quality out of three (its colors, odor and taste), it would become impure. But the proper view in this connection is that if water is less than 227 kilograms (two Qulla) then mere filth makes it impure, whether there is a change in any one of its quality or not, but when water is more than the said quantity, it does not get impure, until there is a change at least in one quality.
 He was among the most ascetic and most knowledgeable Sahaba. He became a Muslim at Makka while a small boy, and mi grated to Al-Medina. He first participated in the battle of Al-Khandaq, died in 73AH, and was buried at Dhi Tuwa.
 Qulla is a large earthen pot, which may contain water up to two and a half water-skins, viz., and one hundred and thirteen kilograms.
 It means less quantity of water; if water is in abundance, it will be regarded as flowing water, which is not an impure one and is good for bathing. It has been prohibited to urinate in the stagnant water on the ground that one may not make it a habit and pollute the water. Condition of the stagnant water is only because flowing water is always clean and never becomes impure, even dirt and filth do not make it impure.
 This man is one of the Sahaba, and failure to mention his name does not harm because the Sahaba are all trust worthy.
 He is ‘Abdullah bin 'Abbas bin 'Abdul-Muttalib, the Prophet's cousin and the scholar of the Muslim Ummah. He was born 3 years before Al-Hijra and died at Ta'if in 67 AH.
 This Hadith apparently seems to be in contradiction with the first, but actually it is not, because the order is not of absolute prohibition, but is only of suggestive prohibition to avoid any trace of impurity.
 It must be clear that just to clean a thing from impurity, it is not necessary to wash a for seven times. The philosophy of cleaning a thing for seven times is different from that of simple purification. Physicians of today say that mostly in the intestines of dogs there are germs and small worms approximately 4 mm. in length, and these move out from intestines with the excrement and stick to the hair around the anus∑ When dogs clean this place with tongue, it gets soiled with these organisms If a dog licks a pot or someone kisses the dog, as the European and American ladies do, these ate transferred from dog to the pot or to the mouth of the woman and then to the stomach These organisms keep on moving, and penetrate into blood cells causing many fatal diseases∑ As the detection of these germs is not possible without microscopic tests, the Shari'a (Islamic law) declared the dog's saliva an inherently impure thing by a general command, and whatever a thing is polluted with dog's saliva, must be cleaned seven times (which in one time should be with the soil) to be sure of its purity. For more details please see the footnotes of the book Ahkam-ul-Ahsan, Sharh Umdat-ul-Ahkam].
 He is Al-Harith bin Rib'i Al-Ansari, the prophet's horseman. He fought the battle of Uhud and those, which followed. It is said he died at Al-Madina or Kufa in 54H
 Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah∑
 He was the Prophet’s servant from the time he came to Al-Madina till his death. He is known as Abu Hamza and was Khazraji∑ He lived in Basra during Umar's Caliphate and died in it at the age of 99 or 103 years in 91 or 92 or 93 H.
 This Hadith proves that earth gets pure when dried up, as Ibn Abi Shaiba has narrated, specially when you let the water flow over the spot.
 Al-Bukhari and Muslim
 It is evident from this Hadith that if a fly drops into water or syrup, it will not become impure, and the creatures of this family who's blood does not flow, like mosquito, wasp and spider, etc, do not make the water impure if fallen or died into it.
 His name is Al-Harith bin 'Auf and is a descendant of Banu 'Aamir bin Laith. He became a Muslim very early and is counted among the people of Al-Madina. It is said that he fought at Badr, lived in Makka and died in it in 65H or 68H at the age∑ of 57 and was buried at Funj.
Chapter 2: Utensils
 He is nicknamed Abu Abdullah, both him and his father were Sahaba and he became famous for being the confidant of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) He died at Midian (Madain) forty nights after the killing of 'Uthman in the year 35H or 36 H.
 This Hadith is mentioned here with a purpose to clarify that if it is prohibited to eat and drink in gold and silver utensils, then performing ablution is also prohibited with using gold and silver utensils, otherwise this Hadith would have been placed in the chapter of eating and drinking Eating, drinking and performing ablution in utensils studded with rubies and diamonds is permissible
 Al-Bukhari and Muslim
 She is Hind bint Abu 'Umaiya. She was married to Abu Salama, she immigrated with him to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and came with him to Al-Madina When Abu Salama died from an injury, he had sustained during the battle of Uhud the Prophet (Peace be upon him) married her in Shawwal 4 H∑ It is said that she died in 59H or 62 H at the age of 84 years and was buried at Al-Baqi'.
 This Hadith approves that a hide, after tanning becomes pure and clean, may be the hide is of an animal which is (haram) prohibited to eat or (halal) lawful to eat and whether the animal is slaughtered or died. But the skins of human beings and some of the animals are unlawful and not permitted for use. The skin of man is unlawful due to his sacredness and reverence and the skins of animals like dog and pig are unlawful and not permitted for use because they are inherently impure and unclean. It should also be remembered that hair, teeth and horns of permitted animals are also lawful for use and trade.
 He is nicknamed Abu Sinan of Hudhali tribe. He is considered as a resident of Basra and Al-Hasan Al-Basri took the Hadith from him.
 He is a Sahabi (Companion of the Prophet Peace be upon him.) descending from Khushain bin An-Nimir of Quda'a tribe. He was one of the Ashab Ash-Shajara who entered a covenant with the Prophet (Peace be upon him) on the day of Al-Hudaibiya. He was sent to his people and they accepted Islam. He settled in Sham and died there in 75H.
 This Hadith makes it clear that if the utensils from a Muslim are available then the utensils of a non-Muslim should not be used for eating, drinking or cooking. If it is certain about a non-Muslim that he does not eat something unlawful or prohibited, then his utensils may be used, but even then one should be careful.
 He is nicknamed Abu Nujeid and is from the Khuza'a tribe. He accepted Islam in the year of Khaibar. He settled in Basra and died there in 52H or 53H.
 This Hadith clarifies that such utensils of the polytheists may be used without any hesitations, about which there is no probability of being impure.
 This Hadith proves that if this much amount of gold or silver is present m any utensil, then making ablution with it or eating and drinking in it is not prohibited.
Chapter 3: The Nature and Cleansing of An-Najasah
 Making of vinegar from wine by adding something in it is prohibited.
 He is Zaid bin Sahl bin Al-Aswad bin Haram Al-Ansari An-Najari who was one of the senior Sahaba. He attended the 'Aqaba Covenant and all the battles. He fought bravely during the battle of Uhud and defended the Prophet (Peace be upon him) till his hand got paralyzed. He also killed 20 men in the battle of Hunain. He died in the year 34 H. or 51 H.
 Leftover water of a donkey is pure and usable
 He is 'Amr bin Kharija bin Al-Muntafiq Al-Asadi. He was an ally of Abu Sufyan. He is regarded as being from the clan of Al-Ash'ar. He is among the Sahaba who settled in Sham and this Hadith was reported by the people of Basra.
 From this Hadith we come to know that the saliva of a Halal [lawful to eat] animal is also pure. This Hadith was approved by the Prophet Peace be upon him.
 She is the daughter of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq and the Prophet (Peace be upon him) married her 2 years before the Hijra in the month of Shawwal, but wedded her in 1 H. at the age of9 years. She was very learned and reported many Ahadith. She died on 17 Ramadan 57 H or 58 H. Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) offered her Funeral prayer and she was buried at Al-Baqi'.
 There is a difference of opinion concerning the human semen, whether it is impure or not. Some religious elites consider it like saliva or nasal secretion, and according to others it is necessary to wash it. Former group gives its reason from the Hadith of scraping it when dried, and the latter group argues from the Hadith of washing the semen. In fact, semen is impure and it must be cleaned by washing, scraping, rubbing or wiping. (See the book Nail-ul-Autar by Imam Shaukani)
 His name is Iyya’d. He was a manumitted slave and servant of the Prophet (Peace be upon him). Ibn Abdul-Bar said that he was reported to be lost and nobody knew where he died.
 It means that there is difference in the urine of a boy and a girl. In the suckling period, girl's urine is more impure than the boy's urine.
 She is the mother of' Abdullah bin Az-Zubair and the elder sister of' Aisha. She became a Muslim very early in Makka and migrated to Al-Madina. She died less than a month after the killing of her son Ibn Az-Zubair in 73H at the age of about 100 years, yet she neither lost a tooth nor had any mental problem.
 Khaula bint Yasar was a Sahabiya and Abu Salama bin 'Abdur-Rahman narrated the Hadith from her.
Chapter 4: Wudu (Ablution)
Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him)
said, "Had I not feared burdening my Ummah (followers), I would have
commanded them to use Siwak
(stick toothbrush) before every Salat (prayer)."
30. Narrated Humran, the manumitted slave of 'Uthman (RA): 'Uthman (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) called for water to perform ablution. He washed palms of his hands three times, then rinsed his mouth and sniffed water in his nose and then blew it out. He then washed his face three times. Thereafter he washed his right hand up to his elbow three times then the left one likewise, then he passed wet hands on his head. Then he washed his right foot up to the ankle three times, then the left one likewise. He then said, "I saw Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) performing ablution like this ablution of mine." [Agreed upon]
(Radhi Allaahu Anhu), regarding the description of the ablution of the Prophet (Peace be upon him):
He (the Prophet Peace be upon him) wiped his head (with water) only once.
Narrated 'Abdullah bin Zaid bin 'Aasim
(Radhi Allaahu Anhu) describing the nature of ablution performance: Allah’s Messenger
(Peace be upon him) wiped his head from the forehead to the back of his head and
then back to the forehead with
his (wet) hands.
Narrated Abdullah bin 'Amr
(Radhi Allaahu Anhu), regarding the description of the ablution: "Then he (Allah’s
Messenger Peace be upon him) wiped his head, inserted his index finger in his ears
and wiped the exterior of his ears with his thumbs."
Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him)
said, "When one of you wakes up from his sleep, he must blow off his
nose three times, for the Satan spends the night inside one's nostrils"
Narrated (Abu Huraira Radhi Allaahu Anhu): (Allah’s Messenger Peace be upon him
said,) "When one of you wakes up from his sleep, he must not put his
hand in a utensil till he has washed it three times,
for he does not know where his hand was (while he slept)."
Narrated Laqit bin Sabra (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger
(Peace be upon him) said, "Perform a perfect Wudu (ablution), run (your fingers)
through the fingers of the hands and the toes,
and if not fasting, sniff water up well inside the nose."
Narrated 'Uthman (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): While performing Wudu, the
Prophet (Peace be upon him) would run (his) fingers through his beard.
Narrated 'Abdullah bin Zaid (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Two-thirds of a Mudd
(of water) was brought to the Prophet Peace be upon him (for ablution) so he began
rubbing his arms.
Narrated ('Abdullah bin Zaid Radhi Allaahu Anhu): He saw the
Prophet Peace be upon him taking some water to wipe his ears other than the water he
had taken to wipe his head.
Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu):I heard Allah’s Messenger
(Peace be upon him) saying, "My people will come on the Day of Resurrection with
bright faces, hands and feet from the traces of Wudu (ablution). If any
of you can lengthen his brightness,
let him do so."
Narrated 'Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah's Messenger Peace be upon him∑ loved
to begin with the right while putting on his shoes, combing his hair,
in his purification and in all his affairs.
Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger Peace be upon him
said, "When you perform ablution, begin with your right limbs."
Narrated Al-Mughira bin Shu'ba(Radhi Allaahu Anhu):
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) performed ablution and passed wet hands on his
forelock, over the turban and over the two leather socks.
Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah
(Radhi Allaahu Anhu) regarding the Hajj (pilgrimage) of the Prophet (Peace be upon him): He (Peace be upon him)
said, "Begin with what Allah had begun with."
Narrated (Jabir bin Abdullah Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet Peace be upon him
used to run the water down his elbows while performing ablution.
Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him)
said, "There is no Wudu (ablution) for one who does not mention Allah's
Name upon it."
Narrated Talha bin Musarrif
quoting his father on the authority of his grandfather: "I
saw Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) rinsing his mouth and sniffing up and
blowing his nose with separate scoops of
Narrated 'Ali (Radhi Allaahu Anhu), regarding performance of Wudu
(ablution): The Prophet Peace be upon him, rinsed his mouth and sniffed and blew
(his nose) with water three times. He sniffed up and blew his nose with
the same hand from which he took the water.
Narrated 'Abdullah bin Zaid (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) regarding Wudu
(ablution): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) put his hand (in the utensil) rinsed
(his mouth) and sniffed up and blew (his nose) from one scoop (of
water). He did that three times.
Narrated Anas (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) saw a man on
whose foot appeared a portion like the size of a nail, which was not
touched by water. He then said, "Go back and perform your Wudu
(Radhi Allaahu Anhu): 'Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, "If one after performing
ablution completely recites the following supplication: (Ash-hadu
an la ilaha ill-Allau wahdahu 1a sharika lahu, wa ash-hadu anna
Muhammadan 'abduhu wa Rasuluhu) 'I testify that there is no
one worthy of worship but Allah, He is Alone and has no partner and
Muhammad is His slave and Messenger,' all the eight gates of Paradise
will be opened for him and he may enter through any gate he wishes."
 It means that the use of Siwak (tooth cleaning stick from the tree or the toothbrush) with every ablution is Sunna [the way of the noble Prophet Peace be upon him] and the Hadith reported by Muslim tells us that Siwak should be used before every prayer. It means that if anybody is going to offer prayers with ablution performed previously, even then he should use Siwak. These Ahadith prove extreme emphasis on the constant use of Siwak for the cleaning of teeth. It is Sunna (supererogatory) and not Wajib (compulsory).
 Humran bin Aban was caught by Khalid bin Al-Walid in a war during Abu Bakr's caliphate, and he sent him to serve 'Uthman who freed him. He is trustworthy of the 2nd grade in the reporting of Ahadith. He died in 75 H.
 The third Guided Caliph. He accepted Islam early and married Ruqaiya and then Umm Kulthum, daughters of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and was therefore nicknamed Dhun-Nuirain (the possessor of the two lights, i.e. the daughters of the Prophet h Peace be upon him). He was killed as a martyr on Friday, 18th Dhul Hijja, 35H.
 In this Hadith washing of face, hands and feet is stated to be done three times each, whereas in others, two times and one time washing is regarded as enough. Imam Nawawi has written the consensus of opinions that washing once is Fard (obligatory).
 The fourth Guided Caliph. He fought all the battles except Tabuk, for the Prophet (Peace be upon him) had left him as in charge in Al-Madina. An evildoer called 'Abdur-Rahman bin Muljam killed him as a martyr on Friday morning 17th Ramadan 40 H. at Kufa.
 It means that wiping of head (doing Mash) only once is obligatory.
 He was an Ansari belonging to Bani Mazin from An-Najar clan. He fought at Uhud and killed Musailima Al-Kadhdhab together with Wahshi on Al-Yamama Day. He was killed on the day of Al-Harrah in 63 H.
 This Hadith tells us that Mash (wiping) of head should be started from the front.
 He is the son of' Amr bin Al'-Aas Al-Qurashi. He became a Muslim before his father who was older than him by 13 years. He was an Aalim (learned), memorized Ahadith and was very pious. He died in the 63 H. or 70 H.
 It means that ears are to be wiped internally and externally. The side close to the head is external and near the face is internal. Tirmidhi after narrating the Hadith concerning wiping of ears internally and externally, says that religious scholars follow the same practice.
 Spending the night of Satan inside the nostrils of a man is plausible, but its actual state is better known to Allah and His Messenger. May be this is a figurative expression, because bad excretions gather in the nose and cause laziness, indolence, slackness and negligence. All these states are satanic dispositions
 It means that hands should not be dipped in the ablution water container, as the word 'ablution' is present in some of the Ahadith narrated by Bukhari. Allamah Ibn Hajar, in his book Fath Al-Bari, says: Though this Hadith apparently seems to be related with the utensils of ablution but it includes all other utensils and bathing water containers. But if there is a big pool or tank of water then it is permissible to put hands in it
 It means that the fingers of hands and feet should be washed completely and carefully.
 Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah
 During the performance of ablution, combing of beard with fingers is Sunnah (supererogatory) and not Wajib (compulsory).
 In some Ahadith, a full Mudd has been mentioned. One Mudd is a little more than six hundred grams. This is the least quantity of water mentioned for ablution; otherwise it will be very difficult to perform ablution with small amount of water. Maximum limit of water has not been ordained, any amount of water may be used for ablution and bath, but water should not be wasted
 It may have more than one meaning. It may mean washing of limbs more than the minimum limits, for example, washing of hands up to shoulders and washing of feet up to knees; Abu Huraira Radhi Allaahu Anhu assumes this meaning. It may also mean that every limb should be washed three times, instead of washing it for one time -- the minimum limit for washing. It may also mean to perform ablution again and again or to remain with ablution all the time.
 This mode of action of the noble Prophet Peace be upon him was for noble actions, for other actions like coming out of mosque and entering a toilet etc., one should put his left feet first.
 Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah
 Abu Abdullah or Abu Iesa, Al-Mughira bin Shu'ba bin Mas'ud Ath-Thaqafi was a prominent Sahabi. He became a Muslim in the year of the Khandaq (trench) and migrated. He first participated in Al-Hudaibiya. He died in 50 H. in Kufa
 This Hadith makes it clear that wiping over turban (cap) is also correct. There are two forms of it. First, to wipe partly on the turban and partly on the head. There is no difference of opinion on this form of action. Secondly, to wipe only on turban. There is a difference of opinion on this, but this is also proved by Sahih Hadith narrated by Tirmidhi
 Jabir was an Ansari from Sulami clan and he was nicknamed Abu 'Abdullah. He was among the eminent Sahaba. He fought at Badr though some said that he did not witness neither Badr nor Uhud, but took part in those battles that followed them. He was also at Siffin. He was among the memorizers of many Ahadith. He became blind towards the end of his life, and died in 74 H at the age of 94 years. It is reported that he was the last Sahabi to die at Al-Madina.
 Noble Quran has mentioned As-Safa in the first place between As-Safa and Al-Marwa. The
Noble Prophet (Peace be upon him) Started Sa'i (running between the Safa and Marwa during Hajj and 'Umrah) from the Safa side, so start ablution in the same manner, starting from washing of the face, then hands up to elbows; then wipe the head and wash the feet.
 In this Hadith the word (bada) has been used in Arabic text, in the sense of giving information instead of order
 In this regard, there exist contradictory Ahadith, which indicate opposing views about saying (Bismillah) before performing ablution. Correct answer of this issue is to say Bismillah is Sunna.
 He is Sa'id bin Zaid bin 'Amr Al-Qurashi, nicknamed Abu Al-A'war and is one of the ten who were promised Paradise. He accepted Islam very early and was married to Fatima, the sister of 'Umar, and they were both instrumental to 'Umar becoming a Muslim. He fought all the battles except Badr, because he was away looking for the caravan. He died in 51 H. and was buried at Al-Baqi'.
 He is Abu Muhammad or Abu 'Abdullah Talha bin Musarrif. He was a reliable Tabi'i (see glossary) of the 5th grade. He was a righteous reciter of the Quran, and died in 112 H. His father Musarrif is unknown and that has made this Hadith Da'if
 He is called Ka'b bin 'Amr or Amr bin Ka'b bin Juhdub Al-Yami -- descending from a Yamani tribe called Yam of Hamadan. Ibn 'Abdul-Bar said he (Ka'b) settled in Kufa and is a Sahabi.
 It means that the noble Prophet (Peace be upon him), used to take water separately for cleaning the nose and rinsing the mouth. According to the author, this Hadith is Da'if (weak). According to Al-Bukhari and Muslim, the noble Prophet Peace be upon him used a single handful of water for cleaning the nose and rinsing the mouth. Imam Nawawi has stated its five forms and regarded sound the one, Al-Bukhari and Muslim has stated.
 This Hadith makes it clear that washing of the whole foot is obligatory. In a Hadith recorded by Muslim, it is stated that it is Fire for that part of the foot, which is dry. In this Hadith, there is repudiation for those who consider the Mash (wiping) of foot as proper and acceptable; or those who consider the Mash (wiping) and Ghusl (washing) both compulsory; or those who consider Mash and Ghusl both permissible.
 One Mudd is equal to six hundred grams approx., and one Sa' is equal to a little more than two and a half kilograms, and this is the least quantity to be used. It means that one should be very careful in the use of water.
 One Sa ' is equivalent to 4 Mudd or 2660 grams
 The second Guided Caliph who was unique throughout history. He filled the world with wisdom, justice and conquests. He was Qurash's ambassador during the Jahiliya (ignorance) period. He accepted Islam in Dhul Hijja, the 6th year of the Prophet-hood and fought all the battles. He made conquests in Iraq, Persia, Sham, Egypt and other places. He was killed by Abu Lu'lu'a, a slave of Al-Mughira bin Shu'ba and died as a martyr on 1st Muharram 24H.
Chapter 5: Mash
(Wiping) Over Khuffain