Contents

    * Water
* Utensils
* The Nature And Cleansing Of An-Najasah (The Impurities)
* Wudu (Ablution)
* Mash (Wiping) Over Khuffain (Two Leather Socks)
* The Nullification Of Wudu (Ablution)
* The Manners Of Answering The Call Of Nature
* Taking Ghusl (Bath) And The Precepts Regarding Sexual Impurity
* Tayammum (Purification With Soil)
* Menstruation

Chapter 1: Water

  1. Narrated Abu Huraira[1] (RAA): Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) Said regarding the sea, “Its water is purifying and its dead (animals) are lawful (to eat)”.
    [Al-Arba’a[2] and Ibn Abu Shaiba reported it, version is of the latter. Ibn Khuzaima and At-Tirmidhi graded it Sahih (sound). Malik, Ash-Shafi’i and Ahmad reported it].
  1. Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri[3] (RAA): Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) said, “Water is purer[4] and nothing can make it impure.”
    [Reported by Ath-Thalatha[5], and Ahmad graded it Sahih (sound)]
  1. Narrated Abu Umama Al-Bahili[6] (RAA): Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) said, “Water cannot be rendered impure by anything except something which changes its smell, taste and color[7]“.
    [Ibn Majah reported it and Abu Hatim described it as Da'if (weak)]. And Al-Baihaqi reported: “Water is pure unless any impure thing is added which changes its smell, taste and color.
  1. Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar[8] (RAA): Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) said, “If there is enough water to fill two pots (Qulla)[9], it carries no impurity.” Another version has: “it does not become unclean”.
    [AI-Arba'a reported it. Ibn Khuzaima, Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim graded it Sahih (sound)].
  1. Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him), said, “None of you should take bath in stagnant water when he is sexually impure.”
    [Muslim reported it].
    Another version of Al-Bukhari has: “None of you should urinate in stagnant water that is not flowing, then take bath in it.[10] “A version of Muslim has the words: “from it (i.e. the water)”.
    A version of Abu Da’ud has: “One should not take bath in it from sexual impurity.”
  1. A man[11] who accompanied the Prophet (Peace be upon him) narrated: Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) forbade a woman to bathe with the water left over by a man, and that a man should not bathe with the water left over by a woman, (and instead) they should both take scoopfuls of the water together.
    [Reported by Abu Da’ud and An-Nasa’i and its chain of narrators is Sahih (authentic)]
  1. Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (Radhi Allaahu Anhu)[12]: The Prophet (Peace be upon him) used to bath with the water left over by Maimuna (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) [Muslim reported it]. And Ashab As-Sunan (compilers of the Prophet’s sayings) reported that one of the wives of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) took bath from a vessel, then came the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and when he wanted to take bath from that (vessel), she[13] said, “I was sexually impure.” He said, “Water does not become sexually impure.”
    [At- Tirmidhi and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)].
  1. Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said “The cleansing of the utensil belonging to one of you, after it has been licked by dog, is to wash it seven[14] times, using soil for cleaning at the first time.
    [Muslim reported it· Another version has: "he should spill the contents]”
    Al-Tirmidhi’s version has: “using soil at the first or last time.
  1.  Narrated Abu Qadata[15] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) Said about the cat that, “It is not unclean, but is one of those who intermingle with you
    [Reported by Al-Arba’a[16]. At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)]
  1. Narrated Anas bin Malik[17] Radhi Allaahu Anhu): A Bedouin came and urinated in one corner of the mosque, and the people shouted at him, but Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) stopped them, and when he finished urinating, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) ordered for a bucket of water which was split[18] over it.
    [Agreed upon][19]
  1. Narrated Ibn ‘’Umar (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) ‘said, “Two types of dead animals and two types of bloods have been made lawful for us, the two types of dead animals are locusts and fish (seafood), while the two types of bloods are the liver and the spleen.”
    [Reported by Ahmad and Ibn Majah, and this Hadith has some weakness.]
  1. Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “When a fly falls in the drink of one of you, he should fully dip it and then throw it away because there is disease in one of its wings and cure in the other[20].
    [Reported by Al-Bukhari and Abu Da’ud who added: "It (the fly) protects itself with the diseased wing (by dipping it first in a drink)].
  1. Narrated Abu Waqid Al-Laithi[21] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “Whatever (portion) is cut off from an animal when it is alive is dead (meat).
    [Reported by Abu Da’ud and At-Tirmidhi who graded it Hasan (fair), and this version is of Tirmidhi].

[1]           His real name is ‘Abdullah or ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Sakhr Ad-Dausi, and was one of the greatest Sahaba (Companions of the Prophet Peace be upon him) and reported the largest number of Ahadith. More than 800 men narrated from him. He became a Muslim in the year of Khaibar (7 H.) and stayed in the company of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) until he (the Prophet Peace be upon him) died. He was appointed a Mufti (scholar of Islamic verdicts) during the caliphate of’ Umar and later became the governor of Al-Madina during the reign of Mawan bin Al-Hakam. He died in 59 H. and was buried at Al-Baqi’.

[2]           The collectors of Hadith: Abu Da’ud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah.

[3]           His name is Sa’d bin Malik bin Sinan Al-Khazraji Al-Ansari. He was one of the learned Sahaba, reported many Ahadith and gave religious opinions for some time. He died at the beginning of 74H at the age of 86 years.

[4]           It is reported in Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi and Abu Da’ud that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said these words answering a question about the well of Bud’a, which is located in the vicinity of Al-Madina, and was always filled with filth. This well was situated in a low-lying area and the rainwater would carry all the dirt and garbage into it. These words are certainly about this well.

[5]           The collectors of Hadith: Abu Da’ud, At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasa’i.

[6]           His name is Suday bin ‘Ajlan, one of the Sahaba who reported many Ahadith. He lived in Egypt then moved to Hims (now in Syria) and died there at the age of 81 or 86 years.

[7]           Some of the people remark that water may be less or more in quantity, if filth alters its one quality out of three (its colors, odor and taste), it would become impure. But the proper view in this connection is that if water is less than 227 kilograms (two Qulla) then mere filth makes it impure, whether there is a change in any one of its quality or not, but when water is more than the said quantity, it does not get impure, until there is a change at least in one quality.

[8]           He was among the most ascetic and most knowledgeable Sahaba. He became a Muslim at Makka while a small boy, and mi grated to Al-Medina. He first participated in the battle of Al-Khandaq, died in 73AH, and was buried at Dhi Tuwa.

[9]           Qulla is a large earthen pot, which may contain water up to two and a half water-skins, viz., and one hundred and thirteen kilograms.

[10]         It means less quantity of water; if water is in abundance, it will be regarded as flowing water, which is not an impure one and is good for bathing. It has been prohibited to urinate in the stagnant water on the ground that one may not make it a habit and pollute the water. Condition of the stagnant water is only because flowing water is always clean and never becomes impure, even dirt and filth do not make it impure.

[11]         This man is one of the Sahaba, and failure to mention his name does not harm because the Sahaba are all trust worthy.

[12]         He is ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib, the Prophet’s cousin and the scholar of the Muslim Ummah. He was born 3 years before Al-Hijra and died at Ta’if in 67 AH.

[13]         This Hadith apparently seems to be in contradiction with the first, but actually it is not, because the order is not of absolute prohibition, but is only of suggestive prohibition to avoid any trace of impurity.

[14]         It must be clear that just to clean a thing from impurity, it is not necessary to wash a for seven times. The philosophy of cleaning a thing for seven times is different from that of simple purification. Physicians of today say that mostly in the intestines of dogs there are germs and small worms approximately 4 mm. in length, and these move out from intestines with the excrement and stick to the hair around the anus· When dogs clean this place with tongue, it gets soiled with these organisms If a dog licks a pot or someone kisses the dog, as the European and American ladies do, these ate transferred from dog to the pot or to the mouth of the woman and then to the stomach These organisms keep on moving, and penetrate into blood cells causing many fatal diseases· As the detection of these germs is not possible without microscopic tests, the Shari’a (Islamic law) declared the dog’s saliva an inherently impure thing by a general command, and whatever a thing is polluted with dog’s saliva, must be cleaned seven times (which in one time should be with the soil) to be sure of its purity. For more details please see the footnotes of the book Ahkam-ul-Ahsan, Sharh Umdat-ul-Ahkam].

[15]         He is Al-Harith bin Rib’i Al-Ansari, the prophet’s horseman. He fought the battle of Uhud and those, which followed. It is said he died at Al-Madina or Kufa in 54H

[16]         Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah·

[17]         He was the Prophet’s servant from the time he came to Al-Madina till his death. He is known as Abu Hamza and was Khazraji· He lived in Basra during Umar’s Caliphate and died in it at the age of 99 or 103 years in 91 or 92 or 93 H.

[18]         This Hadith proves that earth gets pure when dried up, as Ibn Abi Shaiba has narrated, specially when you let the water flow over the spot.

[19]         Al-Bukhari and Muslim

[20]         It is evident from this Hadith that if a fly drops into water or syrup, it will not become impure, and the creatures of this family who’s blood does not flow, like mosquito, wasp and spider, etc, do not make the water impure if fallen or died into it.

[21]         His name is Al-Harith bin ‘Auf and is a descendant of Banu ‘Aamir bin Laith. He became a Muslim very early and is counted among the people of Al-Madina. It is said that he fought at Badr, lived in Makka and died in it in 65H or 68H at the age· of 57 and was buried at Funj.

Chapter 2: Utensils

  1. Narrated Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman[1] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “Do not drink in silver or gold utensils, and do not eat in plates of such metals,[2] for such things are for them (the disbelievers) in this worldly life and for you in the Hereafter.”
    [Agreed upon][3]
  1. Narrated Umm Salama[4] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him)· Said, “He who drinks in a silver utensil is only swallowing Hell-fire in his stomach.”
    [Agreed upon].
  1. Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “When the skin is tanned it becomes purified[5]
    [Reported by Muslim] AI-Arba ‘a have the words: “Any skiI1 that is tanned…”
  1. Narrated Salama bin Al-Muhabbiq[6] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “The tanning of a dead animal’s skin purifies it.”
    [Ibn Hibban graded it Sahih (sound)].
  1. Narrated Maimuna (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Some people dragging a (dead) goat passed by the Prophet (Peace be upon him). He told them, “Had you better taken its skin.” They said, “It is dead”. He said, “Water and the leaves of the Acacia tree will purify it.”
    [Reported by Abu Da’ud and An-Nasa’i].
  1. Narrated Abu Tha’laba Al-Khushni[7] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): I said, “O Allah’s Messenger! We are living in a land inhabited by the people of the Scriptures, can we take our meals in their utensils?” He said, “If you can get utensils other than theirs, do not eat in theirs[8] but if you cannot get other than theirs, wash them and eat in them.”
    [Agreed upon].
  1. Narrated ‘Imran bin Husain[9] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) and his Companions performed Wudu (ablution) from a skin water container[10] belonging to a polytheist woman.
    [Agreed upon]. (It is an extract of a long Hadith)
  1. Narrated Anas bin Malik (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): When the cup of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) got broken, he fixed it with a silver wire[11] at the crack.
    [Reported by Al-Bukhari]

[1]           He is nicknamed Abu Abdullah, both him and his father were Sahaba and he became famous for being the confidant of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) He died at Midian (Madain) forty nights after the killing of ‘Uthman in the year 35H or 36 H.

[2]           This Hadith is mentioned here with a purpose to clarify that if it is prohibited to eat and drink in gold and silver utensils, then performing ablution is also prohibited with using gold and silver utensils, otherwise this Hadith would have been placed in the chapter of eating and drinking Eating, drinking and performing ablution in utensils studded with rubies and diamonds is permissible

[3]           Al-Bukhari and Muslim

[4]           She is Hind bint Abu ‘Umaiya. She was married to Abu Salama, she immigrated with him to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and came with him to Al-Madina When Abu Salama died from an injury, he had sustained during the battle of Uhud the Prophet (Peace be upon him) married her in Shawwal 4 H· It is said that she died in 59H or 62 H at the age of 84 years and was buried at Al-Baqi’.

[5]           This Hadith approves that a hide, after tanning becomes pure and clean, may be the hide is of an animal which is (haram) prohibited to eat or (halal) lawful to eat and whether the animal is slaughtered or died. But the skins of human beings and some of the animals are unlawful and not permitted for use. The skin of man is unlawful due to his sacredness and reverence and the skins of animals like dog and pig are unlawful and not permitted for use because they are inherently impure and unclean. It should also be remembered that hair, teeth and horns of permitted animals are also lawful for use and trade.

[6]           He is nicknamed Abu Sinan of Hudhali tribe. He is considered as a resident of Basra and Al-Hasan Al-Basri took the Hadith from him.

[7]           He is a Sahabi (Companion of the Prophet Peace be upon him.) descending from Khushain bin An-Nimir of Quda’a tribe. He was one of the Ashab Ash-Shajara who entered a covenant with the Prophet (Peace be upon him) on the day of Al-Hudaibiya. He was sent to his people and they accepted Islam. He settled in Sham and died there in 75H.

[8]           This Hadith makes it clear that if the utensils from a Muslim are available then the utensils of a non-Muslim should not be used for eating, drinking or cooking. If it is certain about a non-Muslim that he does not eat something unlawful or prohibited, then his utensils may be used, but even then one should be careful.

[9]           He is nicknamed Abu Nujeid and is from the Khuza’a tribe. He accepted Islam in the year of Khaibar. He settled in Basra and died there in 52H or 53H.

[10]         This Hadith clarifies that such utensils of the polytheists may be used without any hesitations, about which there is no probability of being impure.

[11]         This Hadith proves that if this much amount of gold or silver is present m any utensil, then making ablution with it or eating and drinking in it is not prohibited.

Chapter 3: The Nature and Cleansing of An-Najasah

(The Impurities)

  1. Narrated Anas bin Malik (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) was asked about making vinegar out of wine. He said, “No (it is prohibited)”.[1]
    [Reported by Muslim, and At-Tirmidhi and the latter graded it Hasan-Sahih (fair and sound)]
  1. Narrated (Anas bin Malik) (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): On the day of Khaibar, Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) commanded Abu Talha[2] to announce: “Allah and His Messenger have prohibited for you (eating of) the flesh of the donkeys, for it is unclean.”[3]
    [Agreed upon.]
  1. Narrated ‘Amr bin Kharija[4] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) delivered a Khutba (religious talk) to us at Mina while mounted on his camel and its saliva was pouring on my[5] shoulders.
    [Reported by Ahmad and At-Tirmidhi and the latter graded it Sahih (sound)]
  1. Narrated ‘Aisha[6] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) used to wash the semen[7] and then go out for prayer in that (very) garment, and I could still see the trace of the washing on it.
    [Agreed upon].
    In the version of Muslim: “I used to scrape it (the semen) off the garment of Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) and then he offered prayer with it.”
    In yet another version of Muslim: “Verily! I (‘Aisha) used to scrape it (the semen) off his garment with my nails while it was dry”.
  1. Narrated Abu As-Samh[8] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger Peace be upon him) said, “The urine of a baby girl should be washed off and the urine of a baby boy should be sprinkled[9] with water).”
    [Reported by Abu Da’ud and An-Nasa’i and Al-Hakim graded it Sahih (sound)
  1. Narrated ‘Asma’ bint Abu Bakr[10] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said regarding menstruation blood that smears a garment, “She should scrape it, rub it with water, then wash it and then she may pray in it”.
    [Agreed upon].
  1. Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Khaula[11] said, “O Messenger of Allah, suppose the (trace of) the blood does not go?” He said, “(Washing it with) water will suffice you and its trace won’t harm you.”
    [Reported by At- Tirmidhi, and its Sanad (chain of narrators) is weak].

[1]           Making of vinegar from wine by adding something in it is prohibited.

[2]           He is Zaid bin Sahl bin Al-Aswad bin Haram Al-Ansari An-Najari who was one of the senior Sahaba. He attended the ‘Aqaba Covenant and all the battles. He fought bravely during the battle of Uhud and defended the Prophet (Peace be upon him) till his hand got paralyzed. He also killed 20 men in the battle of Hunain. He died in the year 34 H. or 51 H.

[3]           Leftover water of a donkey is pure and usable

[4]           He is ‘Amr bin Kharija bin Al-Muntafiq Al-Asadi. He was an ally of Abu Sufyan. He is regarded as being from the clan of Al-Ash’ar. He is among the Sahaba who settled in Sham and this Hadith was reported by the people of Basra.

[5]           From this Hadith we come to know that the saliva of a Halal [lawful to eat] animal is also pure. This Hadith was approved by the Prophet Peace be upon him.

[6]           She is the daughter of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq and the Prophet (Peace be upon him) married her 2 years before the Hijra in the month of Shawwal, but wedded her in 1 H. at the age of9 years. She was very learned and reported many Ahadith. She died on 17 Ramadan 57 H or 58 H. Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) offered her Funeral prayer and she was buried at Al-Baqi’.

[7]           There is a difference of opinion concerning the human semen, whether it is impure or not. Some religious elites consider it like saliva or nasal secretion, and according to others it is necessary to wash it. Former group gives its reason from the Hadith of scraping it when dried, and the latter group argues from the Hadith of washing the semen. In fact, semen is impure and it must be cleaned by washing, scraping, rubbing or wiping. (See the book Nail-ul-Autar by Imam Shaukani)

[8]           His name is Iyya’d. He was a manumitted slave and servant of the Prophet (Peace be upon him). Ibn Abdul-Bar said that he was reported to be lost and nobody knew where he died.

[9]           It means that there is difference in the urine of a boy and a girl. In the suckling period, girl’s urine is more impure than the boy’s urine.

[10]         She is the mother of’ Abdullah bin Az-Zubair and the elder sister of’ Aisha. She became a Muslim very early in Makka and migrated to Al-Madina. She died less than a month after the killing of her son Ibn Az-Zubair in 73H at the age of about 100 years, yet she neither lost a tooth nor had any mental problem.

[11]         Khaula bint Yasar was a Sahabiya and Abu Salama bin ‘Abdur-Rahman narrated the Hadith from her.

Chapter 4: Wudu (Ablution)

29.  Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “Had I not feared burdening my Ummah (followers), I would have commanded them to use Siwak[1] (stick toothbrush) before every Salat (prayer).”
[Reported by Malik, Ahmad and An-Nasa’i. Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound) and Al-Bukhari mentioned as a Mu'allaq (suspended -- without its chain of narrators)]

30.  Narrated Humran[2], the manumitted slave of ‘Uthman[3] (RA): ‘Uthman (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) called for water to perform ablution. He washed palms of his hands three times, then rinsed his mouth and sniffed water in his nose and then blew it out. He then washed his face three times. Thereafter he washed his right hand up to his elbow three times[4] then the left one likewise, then he passed wet hands on his head. Then he washed his right foot up to the ankle three times, then the left one likewise. He then said, “I saw Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) performing ablution like this ablution of mine.” [Agreed upon]

31.  Narrated ‘Ali[5] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu), regarding the description of the ablution of the Prophet (Peace be upon him): He (the Prophet Peace be upon him) wiped his head (with water) only once[6].
[Reported by Abu Da’ud, An-Nasa’i, At-Tirmidhi with a Sahih Sanad (authentic chain of narrators). At-Tirmidhi said, "It's the most sound Hadith on this subject"]

32.  Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Zaid bin ‘Aasim[7] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) describing the nature of ablution performance: Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) wiped his head from the forehead to the back of his head and then back to the forehead[8] with his (wet) hands.
[Agreed upon].
And in another version of theirs: “He began from the front of his head and took them (his wet hands) to the back of his head and then returned them to the place he had begun from.”

33.  Narrated Abdullah bin ‘Amr[9] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu), regarding the description of the ablution: “Then he (Allah’s Messenger Peace be upon him) wiped his head, inserted his index finger in his ears and wiped the exterior of his ears with his thumbs.”[10]
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and An-Nasa’i and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)]

34.  Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “When one of you wakes up from his sleep, he must blow off his nose three times, for the Satan spends the night inside one’s nostrils”
[11][Agreed upon]

35.  Narrated (Abu Huraira Radhi Allaahu Anhu): (Allah’s Messenger Peace be upon him said,) “When one of you wakes up from his sleep, he must not put his hand in a utensil till he has washed it three times[12], for he does not know where his hand was (while he slept).”
[Agreed upon. This is Muslim's version]

36.  Narrated Laqit bin Sabra (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “Perform a perfect Wudu (ablution), run (your fingers) through the fingers of the hands and the toes[13], and if not fasting, sniff water up well inside the nose.”
[Reported by Al-Arba ‘a[14], and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)] In another version of Abu Da’ud is: “If you perform ablution rinse your mouth.”

37.  Narrated ‘Uthman (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): While performing Wudu, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) would run (his) fingers through his beard[15].
[Reported by At-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)]

38.  Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Zaid (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Two-thirds of a Mudd[16] (of water) was brought to the Prophet Peace be upon him (for ablution) so he began rubbing his arms.
[Reported by Ahmad, and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)]

39.  Narrated (‘Abdullah bin Zaid Radhi Allaahu Anhu): He saw the Prophet Peace be upon him taking some water to wipe his ears other than the water he had taken to wipe his head.
[Reported by Al-Baihaqi, who said that its Isnad (chain of narrators) is authentic, At-Tirmidhi also graded it Sahih (sound)] And the words of the Muslim version are: “he wiped his head taking extra water from that he had taken for the washing of the hands,” and this Hadith is Al-Mahfuz.

40.  Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu):I heard Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) saying, “My people will come on the Day of Resurrection with bright faces, hands and feet from the traces of Wudu (ablution). If any of you can lengthen his brightness[17], let him do so.”
[Agreed upon and this is Muslim's version]

41.  Narrated ‘Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger Peace be upon him· loved to begin with the right while putting on his shoes, combing his hair, in his purification and in all his affairs[18].
[Agreed upon]

42.  Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger Peace be upon him said, “When you perform ablution, begin with your right limbs.”
[Reported by Al-Arba’a[19] and graded Sahih (sound) by Ibn Khuzaima]

43.  Narrated Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba[20][](Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) performed ablution and passed wet hands on his forelock, over the turban and over the two leather socks[21].
[Reported by Muslim]

44.  Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah[22] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) regarding the Hajj (pilgrimage) of the Prophet (Peace be upon him): He (Peace be upon him) said, “Begin with what Allah had begun with.”[23]
[Reported by An- Nasa’i in this commanding version while Muslim has reported it in the reporting[24] one]

45.  Narrated (Jabir bin Abdullah Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet Peace be upon him used to run the water down his elbows while performing ablution.
[Reported by Ad-Daraqutni with a weak chain of narrators]

46.  Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “There is no Wudu (ablution) for one who does not mention Allah’s Name upon it[25].”
[Reported by Ahmad, Abu Da'ud and Ibn Majah with a weak chain of narrators].
At-Tirmidhi reported something similar to the above from Sa’id bin Zaid[26], and Abu Sa’id like this, and Ahmad said that nothing is authenticated in it]

47.  Narrated Talha bin Musarrif[27] quoting his father on the authority of his grandfather[28]: “I saw Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) rinsing his mouth and sniffing up and blowing his nose with separate scoops[29] of water.”
[Reported by Abi Da'ud with a weak chain of narrators].

48.  Narrated ‘Ali (Radhi Allaahu Anhu), regarding performance of Wudu (ablution): The Prophet Peace be upon him, rinsed his mouth and sniffed and blew (his nose) with water three times. He sniffed up and blew his nose with the same hand from which he took the water.
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and An-Nasa'i]

49.  Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Zaid (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) regarding Wudu (ablution): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) put his hand (in the utensil) rinsed (his mouth) and sniffed up and blew (his nose) from one scoop (of water). He did that three times.
[Agreed upon].

50.  Narrated Anas (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) saw a man on whose foot appeared a portion like the size of a nail, which was not touched by water. He then said, “Go back and perform your Wudu (ablution) properly[30].”
[Reported by Abu Da’ud and An-Nasa’i].

51.  Narrated (Anas Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) · used only one Mudd[31] of water for ablution and one Sa’[32] to five Mudd of water for his bath.
[Agreed upon].

52.  Narrated Umar[33] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): ‘Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “If one after performing ablution completely recites the following supplication: (Ash-hadu an la ilaha ill-Allau wahdahu 1a sharika lahu, wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa Rasuluhu) ‘I testify that there is no one worthy of worship but Allah, He is Alone and has no partner and Muhammad is His slave and Messenger,’ all the eight gates of Paradise will be opened for him and he may enter through any gate he wishes.”
[Reported by Muslim and At-Tirmidhi who added the following words to the supplication: (Allahumma aj 'alni minAl-tawwabina waj'alni minAl-mutatahhirina) "Oh Allah! Include me among those who repent and those who keep themselves pure"]


[1]           It means that the use of Siwak (tooth cleaning stick from the tree or the toothbrush) with every ablution is Sunna [the way of the noble Prophet Peace be upon him] and the Hadith reported by Muslim tells us that Siwak should be used before every prayer. It means that if anybody is going to offer prayers with ablution performed previously, even then he should use Siwak. These Ahadith prove extreme emphasis on the constant use of Siwak for the cleaning of teeth. It is Sunna (supererogatory) and not Wajib (compulsory).

[2]           Humran bin Aban was caught by Khalid bin Al-Walid in a war during Abu Bakr’s caliphate, and he sent him to serve ‘Uthman who freed him. He is trustworthy of the 2nd grade in the reporting of Ahadith. He died in 75 H.

[3]           The third Guided Caliph. He accepted Islam early and married Ruqaiya and then Umm Kulthum, daughters of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and was therefore nicknamed Dhun-Nuirain (the possessor of the two lights, i.e. the daughters of the Prophet h Peace be upon him). He was killed as a martyr on Friday, 18th Dhul Hijja, 35H.

[4]           In this Hadith washing of face, hands and feet is stated to be done three times each, whereas in others, two times and one time washing is regarded as enough. Imam Nawawi has written the consensus of opinions that washing once is Fard (obligatory).

[5]           The fourth Guided Caliph. He fought all the battles except Tabuk, for the Prophet (Peace be upon him) had left him as in charge in Al-Madina. An evildoer called ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Muljam killed him as a martyr on Friday morning 17th Ramadan 40 H. at Kufa.

[6]           It means that wiping of head (doing Mash) only once is obligatory.

[7]           He was an Ansari belonging to Bani Mazin from An-Najar clan. He fought at Uhud and killed Musailima Al-Kadhdhab together with Wahshi on Al-Yamama Day. He was killed on the day of Al-Harrah in 63 H.

[8]           This Hadith tells us that Mash (wiping) of head should be started from the front.

[9]           He is the son of’ Amr bin Al’-Aas Al-Qurashi. He became a Muslim before his father who was older than him by 13 years. He was an Aalim (learned), memorized Ahadith and was very pious. He died in the 63 H. or 70 H.

[10]         It means that ears are to be wiped internally and externally. The side close to the head is external and near the face is internal. Tirmidhi after narrating the Hadith concerning wiping of ears internally and externally, says that religious scholars follow the same practice.

[11]         Spending the night of Satan inside the nostrils of a man is plausible, but its actual state is better known to Allah and His Messenger. May be this is a figurative expression, because bad excretions gather in the nose and cause laziness, indolence, slackness and negligence. All these states are satanic dispositions

[12]         It means that hands should not be dipped in the ablution water container, as the word ‘ablution’ is present in some of the Ahadith narrated by Bukhari. Allamah Ibn Hajar, in his book Fath Al-Bari, says: Though this Hadith apparently seems to be related with the utensils of ablution but it includes all other utensils and bathing water containers. But if there is a big pool or tank of water then it is permissible to put hands in it

[13]         It means that the fingers of hands and feet should be washed completely and carefully.

[14]         Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah

[15]         During the performance of ablution, combing of beard with fingers is Sunnah (supererogatory) and not Wajib (compulsory).

[16]         In some Ahadith, a full Mudd has been mentioned. One Mudd is a little more than six hundred grams. This is the least quantity of water mentioned for ablution; otherwise it will be very difficult to perform ablution with small amount of water. Maximum limit of water has not been ordained, any amount of water may be used for ablution and bath, but water should not be wasted

[17]         It may have more than one meaning. It may mean washing of limbs more than the minimum limits, for example, washing of hands up to shoulders and washing of feet up to knees; Abu Huraira Radhi Allaahu Anhu assumes this meaning. It may also mean that every limb should be washed three times, instead of washing it for one time — the minimum limit for washing. It may also mean to perform ablution again and again or to remain with ablution all the time.

[18]         This mode of action of the noble Prophet Peace be upon him was for noble actions, for other actions like coming out of mosque and entering a toilet etc., one should put his left feet first.

[19]         Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah

[20]         Abu Abdullah or Abu Iesa, Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba bin Mas’ud Ath-Thaqafi was a prominent Sahabi. He became a Muslim in the year of the Khandaq (trench) and migrated. He first participated in Al-Hudaibiya. He died in 50 H. in Kufa

[21]         This Hadith makes it clear that wiping over turban (cap) is also correct. There are two forms of it. First, to wipe partly on the turban and partly on the head. There is no difference of opinion on this form of action. Secondly, to wipe only on turban. There is a difference of opinion on this, but this is also proved by Sahih Hadith narrated by Tirmidhi

[22]         Jabir was an Ansari from Sulami clan and he was nicknamed Abu ‘Abdullah. He was among the eminent Sahaba. He fought at Badr though some said that he did not witness neither Badr nor Uhud, but took part in those battles that followed them. He was also at Siffin. He was among the memorizers of many Ahadith. He became blind towards the end of his life, and died in 74 H at the age of 94 years. It is reported that he was the last Sahabi to die at Al-Madina.

[23]         Noble Quran has mentioned As-Safa in the first place between As-Safa and Al-Marwa. The

Noble Prophet (Peace be upon him) Started Sa’i (running between the Safa and Marwa during Hajj and ‘Umrah) from the Safa side, so start ablution in the same manner, starting from washing of the face, then hands up to elbows; then wipe the head and wash the feet.

[24]         In this Hadith the word (bada) has been used in Arabic text, in the sense of giving information instead of order

[25]         In this regard, there exist contradictory Ahadith, which indicate opposing views about saying (Bismillah) before performing ablution. Correct answer of this issue is to say Bismillah is Sunna.

[26]         He is Sa’id bin Zaid bin ‘Amr Al-Qurashi, nicknamed Abu Al-A’war and is one of the ten who were promised Paradise. He accepted Islam very early and was married to Fatima, the sister of ‘Umar, and they were both instrumental to ‘Umar becoming a Muslim. He fought all the battles except Badr, because he was away looking for the caravan. He died in 51 H. and was buried at Al-Baqi’.

[27]         He is Abu Muhammad or Abu ‘Abdullah Talha bin Musarrif. He was a reliable Tabi’i (see glossary) of the 5th grade. He was a righteous reciter of the Quran, and died in 112 H. His father Musarrif is unknown and that has made this Hadith Da’if

[28]         He is called Ka’b bin ‘Amr or Amr bin Ka’b bin Juhdub Al-Yami — descending from a Yamani tribe called Yam of Hamadan. Ibn ‘Abdul-Bar said he (Ka’b) settled in Kufa and is a Sahabi.

[29]         It means that the noble Prophet (Peace be upon him), used to take water separately for cleaning the nose and rinsing the mouth. According to the author, this Hadith is Da’if (weak). According to Al-Bukhari and Muslim, the noble Prophet Peace be upon him used a single handful of water for cleaning the nose and rinsing the mouth. Imam Nawawi has stated its five forms and regarded sound the one, Al-Bukhari and Muslim has stated.

[30]         This Hadith makes it clear that washing of the whole foot is obligatory. In a Hadith recorded by Muslim, it is stated that it is Fire for that part of the foot, which is dry. In this Hadith, there is repudiation for those who consider the Mash (wiping) of foot as proper and acceptable; or those who consider the Mash (wiping) and Ghusl (washing) both compulsory; or those who consider Mash and Ghusl both permissible.

[31]         One Mudd is equal to six hundred grams approx., and one Sa’ is equal to a little more than two and a half kilograms, and this is the least quantity to be used. It means that one should be very careful in the use of water.

[32]         One Sa ‘ is equivalent to 4 Mudd or 2660 grams

[33]         The second Guided Caliph who was unique throughout history. He filled the world with wisdom, justice and conquests. He was Qurash’s ambassador during the Jahiliya (ignorance) period. He accepted Islam in Dhul Hijja, the 6th year of the Prophet-hood and fought all the battles. He made conquests in Iraq, Persia, Sham, Egypt and other places. He was killed by Abu Lu’lu’a, a slave of Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba and died as a martyr on 1st Muharram 24H.

Chapter 5: Mash (Wiping) Over Khuffain
(Two Leather Socks)

  1. Narrated Mughira bin Shu’ba (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Once I was in the company of the Prophet (Peace be upon him), he then performed ablution and I dashed to take off his socks (Khuffain). He said, “Leave them for I had put them on after performing ablution[1].” So he wiped over them.
    [Agreed upon].
  1. Narrated by Al-Arba’a except An-Nasa’i: The Prophet (Peace be upon him) wiped over the upper part of the leather socks and the under part of it.
    [In its chain of narrators there is weakness]
  1. Narrated ‘Ali (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): If the religion were based on opinion,[2] it would be more important to wipe over the under parts of the leather socks than the upper, but I have seen Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) wiping over the upper parts of his leather socks.
    [Reported by Abu Da'ud with good Isnad (chain of narrators)]
  1. Narrated Safwan bin ‘Assal[3] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): When we were on a journey,[4] the Prophet (Peace be upon him) used to command us to wear our leather socks for three days and three nights,[5] whether we had to answer the call of nature or slept. However, in case of ejaculation or sexual impurity, he commanded us to remove the leather socks.
    [Reported by An-Nasa'i and At-Tirmidhi, version is of the latter. With them Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)]
  1. Narrated ‘Ali (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) fixed the period of Mash (wiping) over the leather socks (Khuffain — plural of Khuff) for three days and nights for a traveler and one day and a night for the resident person in a town
    [Reported by Muslim].
  1. Narrated Thawban[6] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) sent out a military expedition and commanded them to wipe over the turbans[7] and leather socks.
    [Reported by Ahmad and Abu Da’ud. Al-Hakim graded it Sahih (sound)]
  1. Narrated ‘Umar (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) in a Mawquf (untraceable) and Anas in a Marfu ‘ (traceable) Hadith: “If one of you performs ablution and puts on his two leather socks, let him perform Mash (wipe) over them (with water) and pray in them, and he may not take them off if he so wishes[8] except after ejaculation or sexual impurity.
    [Reported by Ad-Daraqutni and Al-Hakim and graded Sahih (sound) by him]
  1. Narrated Abu Bakra[9] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) gave permission for the traveler to perform Mash (wiping) over his leather socks for three days and nights and for a non-traveler for a day and a night, if he had put them on in a state of purity.
    [Reported by Ad-Daraqutni, and graded Sahih (sound) by Ibn Khuzaima]
  1. Narrated Ubai bin ‘Imara[10] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): I asked, “O Messenger of Allah, may I wipe over the Khuffain (leather socks)?” The Prophet (Peace be upon him) replied, “Yes”. I asked, “For one day?” He replied, “For one day”. I again asked, “And for two days?” He replied, “For two days too”. I again asked, “And for three days?” He replied, “Yes, as long as you wish”.[11]
    [Reported by Abu Da’ud, who said, “It is not strong.”[12]]

[1]           Mash (wiping) over the socks is conditioned. One should have put on the socks after performing ablution, if socks have been worn without performing an ablution then wiping over the socks is not permissible.

[2]           It means that the religious commands and prohibitions are based on Revelation and not on prudence. One cannot accept or reject the orders on their comprehension or incomprehension. It does not mean that the commands and prohibitions of religion are against the intellect and wisdom. It also proves that in the presence of a Sahih (authentic and sound) Hadith, giving a verdict against it is not allowed, that is why it has been clarified in Islamic Jurisprudence and its principles.

[3]           Safwan bin ‘Assal Al-Muradi Al-Jumali was a well-known Sahabi who had accompanied the Prophet (Peace be upon him) in twelve Ghazwat (expeditions). He settled at Kufa and it is said that among the Sahaba, only ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud reported a Hadith from him.

[4]           Mash (wiping) over the socks is right, and permitted by Ahadith. There are more than eighty (80) Companions of the noble Prophet (Peace be upon him) who have narrated and spoke about this topic. ‘Ashra-e-Mubashshara (ten most pious companions of the noble Prophet Peace be upon him, who were given the glad tiding of Paradise in this world) are also included in the list of reporters. Ibn ‘Abdul-Barr has related the consensus of opinion concerning this issue.

[5]           It means that Mash (wiping) is allowed for a traveler up to three days and for a resident up to thirty-four hours. The time period for Mash starts from the nullification of ablution and not from the time of wearing the socks. The way of carrying out Mash (wiping) is to soak the hands with water and starting from the fingers, drawing it up to the calf of the leg. After the completion of permitted time and by passing of the wind, urine, etc., Mash nullifies, and is also cancelled by all those things, which cancel or nullify the ablution.

[6]           He is Thawban bin Bujdud bin Jahdar, who was nicknamed Abu ‘Abdullah. He was an inhabitant of As-Surat, which is a place between Makka and Al-Madina. It was also said that he was from Himyar. He stayed with the Prophet (Peace be upon him) throughout his life, then settled in Sham and later on moved to Hims, in which he died in 54 H.

[7]           In Arabic text the word Asa’ib stands for a bandage, which is used for dressing of wounds; or in case of broken leg or arm, over the wooden strips around the broken bone.

[8]           ‘If he so wishes’ means within the permitted time for Mash (wiping). After the completion of Mash time, it is a must to take off the socks and perform ablution afresh and wash the feet too and put on the socks again then the time for Mash will start anew.

[9]           His name is Nufai’ bin Al-Harith or bin Al-Masuh. He descended from Ta’if Fort together with a group of slaves and became a Muslim, whereupon the Prophet (Peace be upon him) freed him. He was among the virtuous Sahaba and died at Basra in 51 H or 52 H.

[10]         Ubai bin ‘Imara was a Sahabi from the Ansar of Al-Madina. He settled in Egypt. Ibn Hibban said, “He prayed to the two Qiblah, but I do not take his report as a complete chain of narrators.”

[11]         Sanad (transmitted chain) of this Hadith is not sound. That Hadith in which the period of one day (twenty-four hours) for a resident and three days for a traveler is granted is sound.

[12]         This Hadith was not taken as evidence for its weakness and for contradicting the sound and good Hadith that fixed the durations. An-Nawawi has mentioned in Sharh Al- Muhadhdhab that the Imam have agreed on the weakness of this Hadith and Ahmad said, ” Its narrators are unknown.”

Chapter 6: The Nullification[1] of Wudu (Ablution)

  1. Narrated Anas (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Companions of Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) in his lifetime used to wait for the ‘Isha (night) prayer, so much so that their heads were lowered down (by dozing)[2]. They would then pray without performing ablution.[3]
    [Reported by Abu Da'ud and Ad- Daraqutni graded it Sahih (sound). Its origin is in Muslim].
  1. Narrated ‘Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Fatima bint Abu Hubaish[4] came to the Prophet r (Peace be upon him) and said, “O Messenger of Allah, I am a woman whose blood keeps flowing (even after the menstruation period).[5] I am never purified; should I, therefore, stop praying?” He (the Prophet) said, “No, for that is only a vein, and is not menstruation. So when the menstruation comes, abstain from prayers, and when it ends, wash the blood from your self and then pray.”
    [Agreed upon].
    Al-Bukhari’s version adds: “Then perform ablution for every prayer,”[6] and Muslim admitted that he dropped this addition deliberately.
  1. Narrated ‘Ali bin Abi Talib (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): I was one whose Madhi (urethral discharge)[7] flowed readily and asked Miqdad[8] to ask the Prophet (Peace be upon him) about it. He (the Prophet) said: “One should perform Wudu (ablution) in this case.”
    [Agreed upon and this is Al-Bukhari's version]
  1. Narrated ‘Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) kissed[9] one of his wives and went to pray without performing (fresh) ablution.
    [Reported by Ahmad, and Al-Bukhari graded it Da’if (weak)]
  1. Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “If one of you feels disturbance in his stomach and doubts whether he has released some air or not, then he should not leave the mosque unless he hears its sound or smells (its) odor.[10]
    [Reported by Muslim]
  1. Narrated Talq bin ‘Ali[11] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): A man said: “I touched my penis” or he said, “Does a man who touch his penis during the prayer should perform Wudu (ablution)?” The Prophet (Peace be upon him), replied, “No, it is only a part of your body.”
    [Reported by Al-Khamsa[12]. Ibn Hibban graded it Sahih (sound) and Ibn Al-Madini said, “It is better than the Hadith of Busra”]
  1. Narrated Busra bint Safwan[13] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “He who touches his penis should perform ablution.”[14]
    [Reported by Al-Khamsa, and At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Hibban graded it Sahih (sound), and Al-Bukhari said, "It is the most authentic (Hadith) in this chapter"]
  1. Narrated ‘Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “Whoever vomits, bleeds through the nose[15], or releases Madhi(urethral discharge) should go, perform ablution and then complete his Salat (prayer)[16] (by continuing from where he had stopped at) on condition that he does not speak in the process.”
    [Reported by Ibn Majah, and Ahmad and others graded it Da'if].
  1. Narrated Jabir bin Samura[17] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): A man asked the Prophet (Peace be upon him), “Should I perform ablution after eating mutton?” He replied, “If you wish so”, he then asked, “Should I perform ablution after eating camel meat?[18] He(Peace be upon him) said, “Yes.”
    [Reported by Muslim]
  1. Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: “Whoever washes a dead person[19] should take a bath (thereafter); and whoever carries it should perform ablution.”
    [Reported by Ahmad, An-Nasa’i and At-Tirmidhi who graded it Hasan (fair). And Ahmad said that there is no authentic Hadith in this chapter]
  1. Narrated Abdullah bin Abu ‘Bakr[20] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The book written by Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) for ‘Amr bin Hazm[21] also contained: “None except a pure person should touch the Quran[22].
    [Reported by Malik as a Mursal and by An-Nasa’i and Ibn Hibban as Mawsul. And it is graded as Ma'lul (defective)].
  1. Narrated ‘Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) used to mention A11ah’s Name (praise Him) at all times.[23]
    [Reported by Muslim and Al-Bukhari recorded it as Mu'allaq (suspended)].
  1. Narrated Anas bin Malik (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) had blood extracted from his body[24] and offered the prayer and did not perform (a new) ablution.
    [Reported by Ad-Daraqutni who graded it Da’if (weak)]
  1. Narrated Mu’awiya[25] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “The eye (when awake) is the string of anus (to stop air escaping), and if the two eyes sleep the string is untied.”[26]
    [Reported by Ahmad and At-Tabardni who added, "Whoever sleeps should perform ablution.]” Also reported by Abu Da’ud mentioning the above addition without the words “the string is untied”, but both versions are weak]. And Ibn ‘Abbas (Radhi Allaahu Anhu), narrated in a Marfu’ (traceable) Hadith that: “Ablution is necessary for one who sleeps while he is lying flat[27].”
    [Reported by Abu Da'ud and there is weakness in its chain of narrators]
  1. Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “Satan comes to one of you in Salat (prayer) and blows air in his bottom, so he imagines that he has released air yet he did not. So if he gets that feeling he should not leave his prayer unless he hears the sound (of the air) or smells its odor.”
    [Reported by Al-Bazzar] . It is originally from the Sahihain of Bukhari and Muslim as the Hadith narrated by ‘Abdullah bin Zaid. And Muslim reported by Abu Huraira likewise. And Abu Sa’id narrated in a Marfu’ Hadith: “If Satan comes to one of you and says: ‘You have nullified your ablution (by releasing air)’, let him say: ‘You have lied.'” [Reported by Al-Hakim]. Ibn Hibban also reported the above Hadith with the version: “Let him say in his heart…”

[1]           All those causes which invalidate the Wudu (ablution) also invalidate the Tayammum (purification with clean soil in case the water is not available).

[2]           It proves that ablution is not cancelled by dozing.

[3]           Sleep invalidates the ablution or not, is a controversial issue. In this matter final decision is that with a sound sleep ablution is nullified, otherwise not.

[4]           Fatima bint Abu Hubaish is a Sahabiya from Quraish and then Asad. Her father is Qais bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib bin Asad bin ‘Abdul-‘Uzza bin Qusai. She was a renowned Muhajira and was married to ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh.

[5]           Vaginal bleeding is of three types: 1) Haid – Blood of regular monthly menstrual course which starts at the age of puberty. This type of blood ceases during the period of pregnancy. 2) Nifas – Puerperal blood coming after the childbirth, it lasts maximum for forty days. 3) Istihada – The blood which may happen to come differently from the above two types. Here it means the last mentioned.

[6]           It means that the Istihada blood invalidates the ablution, that is why the noble Prophet (PUH), ordered to perform a fresh ablution for every prayer.

[7]           Madhi is a white water like lubricant, which oozes out involuntarily at the time of sexual desire. This urethral discharge invalidates the ablution, but is not a cause for obligatory bath

[8]           Miqdad bin ‘Amr bin Tha’laba Al-Bahrani was nicknamed Abul-Aswad or Abu ‘Amr and is known as Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad. Al-Aswad bin Yaghuth Az-Zuhri had fostered and entered into a defense agreement with Miqdad in the Jahiliya days. He was among the virtuous, wise and eminent Sahaba. He was the sixth Muslim, made the two migrations and attended all the major battles. He was a horseman during Badr and participated in the conquest of Egypt. He died at the age of 70 in 33 H. at Al-Jauf, three miles from Al- Madina so he was carried to Al-Madina, ‘Uthman offered his Funeral prayer, and was buried at Al-Baqi’.

[9]           This Hadith confirms that ablution is not cancelled by touching a woman with or without lust. This is supported by a reporting of Imam Bukhari narrated by ‘Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) was praying in the darkness and I was laying at rest while my feet were at the place where the Prophet prostrated (on his prayer mat). At the time of prostration he would touch my feet and I would remove them.

[10]         This Hadith points out an important principle that everything remains at its command until there is something certain against it. Suspicion carries no weight, whether one is in prayer or not

[11]         He is Abi Ali Talq bin Ali bin Talq bin ‘Amr Al-Hanafi As-Siheimi Al-Yamami. He visited the Prophet (Peace be upon him) as soon as he arrived at Al-Madina and worked with him in building the Prophet’s Mosque.

[12]         Ahmad, Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah.

[13]         Busra bint Safwan bin Naufal bin Asad bin ‘Abdul-‘Uzza Al-Qurashiya Al-Asadiya was a Sahabiya, among the first Muslims, migrated early and lived till the caliphate of Mu’awiya.

[14]         Foregoing Hadith of Talq bin Ali seems to be contradictory to this, but infect it is not. If the organ is touched uncovered or with lustful intention, then the ablution is nullified, otherwise not.

[15]         This Hadith is Da’if (weak), and there is no Sahih (sound) Hadith concerning this issue.

[16]         It means that if a man prayed two Rak’a with the Imam (leader of prayer) and it happens that his ablution is cancelled. He leaves the prayer and after making a fresh ablution joins again with the Imam in the same part of prayer where he left, then he should finish the prayer with Imam.

[17]         He is a famous Sahabi and the son of Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas’ sister. He settled at Kufa and built a house there. He died in 74 H. or 66 H. His father Samura bin Junada As-Sawai Al. ‘Aamiri is also a Sahabi.

[18]         Some people mean by this the complete ablution and others mean only the rinsing of mouth. Latter view is correct because the noble Prophet (Peace be upon him) pointed out fat as its cause and fat always sticks in the mouth only.

[19]     Concerning this issue there is no authentic Hadith. Some say that bath is compulsory on one who bathes the dead body, some others are of the opinion that it is just desirable; while to others ablution is compulsory, and there are still others who consider it also not necessary.

[20]         ‘Abdullah bin Abu Bakr bin Muhammad bin ‘Amr bin Hazm Al-Ansari Al-Madani Al- Qadi was a Tabi’i of the 5th grade. He died in 135 H. at the age of 70 years.

[21]         He is a Khazraji, a Najari and is nicknamed Abu Ad-Dahhak. He first took part in Al-Khandaq and the Prophet (Peace be upon him) sent him to Najran to teach the people about the religion and collect their Sadaqat. He wrote for them a book containing the obligatory and voluntary acts, the Sadaqat and the blood wit, and this is the book mentioned in the Hadith. He died in Al-Madina after the fifties

[22]         Hadath Akbar (sexual discharge) and Hadath Asghar (passing wind, urine or defecation) both make the purification due, if Hadath (impurity) is the result of coition then it is unanimously agreed not to touch the noble Quran, but there is a difference of opinion in doing that without ablution.

[23]         The times of answering the call of nature, urination and coition are not included. In the state of being impure by coition, remembrance and pronouncing the Name of Allah is permissible, but touching and reciting the noble Quran is prohibited.

[24]         This Hadith clarifies that bleeding except from two (vagina and anus) does not invalidate the ablution. Ahadith of same class have also been narrated by Ibn ‘Umar, Ibn ‘Abbas and Abi Aufa (Radhi Allaahu Anhu)

[25]         Both him and his father Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb became Muslims at the conquest of Makka. ‘Umar appointed him as the governor of Sham after the death of his brother Yazid bin Abu Sufyan and he remained so until ‘Ali came out in order to dispose him by force and he was sworn as the caliph when Al-Hasan stepped down in his favor in the year 40 H. He died in Rajab 60 H. at the age of 78 years

[26]         It means sleep is a cause of Hadath (impurity) and not Hadath itself

[27]         It means that sleeping in the flat position results in the invalidation of ablution, whereas in the foregoing Hadith mere sleep is described as the factor of invalidation. Sleeping in the flat position is an indication of sound sleep, when all the organs of body are at rest, it enhances the possibility of uncontrolled passing of wind; while in a light sleep or napping one is not completely unconscious.

Chapter 7: The Manners of Answering
the Call of Nature

  1. Narrated Anas bin Malik (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) used to remove his ring[1] when entering the lavatory.
    [Reported by Al-Arba’a[2], and it is defective]
  1. Narrated (Anas) (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) on entering the lavatory used to say[3]: [Alla’humma inni a'udhu bika minal khubthi wal khaba'ithi] “O Allah, I seek refuge with you from devils – males and females (or all offensive and wicked things, evil deeds and evil spirits, etc.).”
    [Reported by As-Sab'a].
  1. Narrated (Anas) (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Whenever Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) went to the privy, a servant and I used to carry a skin water container and a spear, and he would cleanse himself with the water[4]
    [Agreed upon]
  1. Narrated Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) told me, “Take the skin water container”, he then went forward till he disappeared[5] from me and relieved himself.
    [Agreed upon].
  1. Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “Safeguard your selves from the two matters which cause ac cursing that befalls the one who relieves himself on people’s path-ways[6] and under the shades.”
    [Reported by Muslim] Narrated Mu’adh[7] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): He (the Prophet Peace be upon him) said: “Guard against the three things which cause curse (i.e.) defecating at the watering places, on the roadbeds and in the shades.”[8]
    [Reported by Abu Da'ud]. Ahmad reported from Ibn Abbas (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) that defecation is prohibited also at the place where water collects.
    [And both the two (i.e. the previous and this Hadith) have weakness.
    And Ibn ‘Umar (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) the prohibition of relieving oneself under fruity trees and on the bank of a flowing river.
    [Reported by At-Tabardni with a weak chain of narrators]
  1. Narrated Jabir (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “When two people go together to relieve themselves they should disappear from each other and do not talk, for Allah detests that.”
    [Reported by Ahmad; Ibn As-Sakan and Ibn Al-Qattan graded it Sahih (sound) but ‘it is defective[9]].
  1. Narrated Abu Qatada (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “Nobody should touch his penis with his right hand[10] when urinating, and should not clean himself (from defecation or urine) using his right hand and should not breathe in the utensil (he is drinking from).”
    [Agreed upon. This version is of Muslim].
  1. Narrated Salman[11] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) forbade us to face the Qiblah when defecating or urinating, or to clean ourselves using the right hand, or to clean ourselves with less than three stones, or to clean ourselves with dung or a bone.
    [Reported by Muslim]
  1. Narrated Abu Ayub[12] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): (Allah’s Messenger Peace be upon him said,) “Neither face nor turn your back to the Qiblah[13] while defecating or urinating, but turn towards the east or the west.”
    [Reported by the As-Sab'a]
  1. Narrated ‘Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, “If anyone goes to relieve himself, he should conceal himself.”
    [Reported by Abu Da'ud]
  1. Narrated (‘Aisha Radhi Allaahu Anhu): When the Prophet (Peace be upon him) came out of the privy, he used to say, “Ghufra’naka (O Allah! Grant me Your forgiveness).”
    [Reported by Al-Khamsa[14]. Abu Hatim and Al-Hakim graded it Sahih (sound)]
  1. Narrated Ibn Mas’ud (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) went out to answer the call of nature and asked me to bring three stones. I found two stones and searched for the third but could not find it. So I took a dried piece of dung and brought it to him. He took the two stones and threw away the dung[15] and said, “This is a filthy thing”.
    [Reported by Al-Bukhari. And in the version of Ahmad and Ad-Daraqutni it is added: “Bring me more[16] (something other than dung)”]
  1. Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) forbade us to use a bone or dung for cleaning and said, “These two things do not purify.”
    [Reported by Ad-Daraqutni who graded it Sahih (sound)]
  1. Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): A11ah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “Beware of (smearing yourselves with) urine, because it is the main cause of punishment in the grave.”
    [Reported by Ad-Daraqutni] and Al-Hakim reported that: “Urination is the main cause of punishment in the grave”.
    [Its chain of narrators is authentic]
  1. Narrated Sura’qa bin Malik[17] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): A11ah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) educated us about lavatory (manners) that we should sit on our left foot[18] and keep erect our right foot.
    [Reported by Al-Baihaqi through a chain of weak narrators][19]
  1. Narrated ‘Iesa bin Yazdad[20] from his father (Radhi Allaahu Anhu,): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “When one of you passes urine, he should empty his penis three times.”
    [Reported by Ibn Majah through a weak chain of narrators]
  1. Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) asked the residents of Quba’ that what had earned them the Praise of Allah and they replied, “We use water after (cleaning ourselves with) stones.”
    [Reported by Al-Bazzar with Da'if chain of narrators and its Asl (original source) is in Abu Da’ud and At-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound) through Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) without mentioning the "stones."]

[1]           On that ring “Allah’s Messenger Muhammad” (Peace be upon him) was carved in three lines. It means that Names of Allah and the verses of noble Quran in the written form should not be carried to the lavatory or while going out to answer the call of nature.

[2]           Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah

[3]           Usually jinns live in such filthy places, for that reason the noble Prophet (Peace be upon him) sought the refuge of Allah. Before entering the lavatory one should recite this prayer in an audible voice. According to the narration of Anas (Radhi Allaahu Anhu), in wilds or in jungle, one should recite this prayer before sitting for the call of nature. During the call of nature one should also be careful about one’s body and clothes.

[4]           Most of the people [religious scholars] prefer to purify with clod of mud and water both.

[5]           This action of the noble Prophet (Peace be upon him) guides that while going out for the call of nature, it is necessary to arrange some kind of privacy and be hidden from others. In another Hadith, it is stated that in an open space, a mound of soil or a heap of sand should be made for the purpose of screening. If someone eases himself in an open, Satan will laugh at his buttocks and will make him a laughing stock of people.

[6]           It is prohibited to answer the call of nature near pathways or near the ways in the vicinity of populated areas. Sites of abandoned road or deserted place can be used for the purpose

[7]           Mu’adh is an Ansari of Al-Khazraj tribe and was one of the virtuous, noble and most learned Sahaba. He attended Al-‘Aqaba, Badr and other major battles. The Prophet ·(Peace be upon him) appointed him as his representative in Yemen. Then ‘Umar appointed him as the governor of Sham after Abu ‘Ubaida bin Al-Jarrah. He died in the plague of Amwa’s in 17H or 18 H at the age of 38.

[8]           Altogether these are six places. It is forbidden in a Hadith to answer the call of nature or to urinate near the gates of the mosques.

[9]           This is confirmed by other authentic Ahadith, so it is correct.

[10]         Handling the male organ with right hand during urination or washing, and breathing in the utensils during drinking is prohibited according to some, while according to others it is undesirable. Breathing in the utensil is harmful because this is the cause of transmission of germs from one to another, and the Hadith which informs about three pauses while drinking means drink should be taken slowly and not at a gulp.

[11]         He was known as “Salman the benevolent” and was nicknamed Abu ‘Abdullah. His origin is from Persia. He traveled in search of a religion and became a Christian. Then he moved to Al-Madina and believed in the Prophet (Peace be upon him) as soon as he arrived at Al-Madina He was a leader in Islam and died in Al-Madina in 50 H or 32 H. It is reported that he lived long for either 250 or 350 years.

[12]         His name is Khalid bin Zaid bin Kulaib. He hosted the Prophet (Peace be upon him) when he first arrived in Al-Madina. He was one of the senior and most great Sahaba. He attended Badr and was martyred while taking part in an expedition against the Byzantinians in 50 H. His grave, situated at the walls of Istanbul, is well known and visited.

[13]         In this issue ‘Forbiddance’ is for open places, it is not forbidden in inside the building where there are walls around. As there is a Hadith narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (Radhi Allaahu Anhu). He narrates: “In the house of my sister Hafsa, I went upstairs on the roof, I saw the noble Prophet (Peace be upon him) answering the call of nature, he was facing towards Sham.” This Hadith is of Sahih Muslim.

[14]         The Collectors of Hadith: Ahmad, Abu Da’ud, An-Nasa’i, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah.

[15]         It is known from this Hadith that one should not clean the private parts with dung or excrement of animals, and so it is forbidden to clean with bones.

[16]         The mentioned addition proves that for cleanliness three clods of mud are needed, even though two may suffice, but the condition of three is a must. More than three may be used if needed, but the number should be odd. This Hadith also proves that dung cannot be used for cleaning private parts, likewise cleaning by bones is also prohibited.

[17]         Sura’qa bin Malik bin Ju’shum Al-Mudlaji Al-Kinani, nicknamed Abu Sufyan was a prominent Sahabi. He was the one who traced Allah’s Messenger (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) on his way to migration whereupon the forelegs of his horse sunk into the ground up to the knees. He died in 24 H.

[18]         There is always advisability in every command of Islam, whether we comprehend it or not The noble Prophet b (Peace be upon him) instructed us to sit on the left foot (to put weight of the body on left foot) while sitting for answering the call of nature; as the stomach is on the left side, it makes the action easy; and the constipation, the mother of diseases, is also eradicated.

[19]         This Hadith is weak because there are unknown narrators in its chain.

[20]         ‘Iesa and his father Yazdad are both unknown. Ibn Ma’in said, ” ‘Iesa and his father are unknown.”

Chapter 8: Taking Ghusl (Bath) and the Precepts Regarding Sexual Impurity.

  1. Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said: “The water (of the Ghusl is due to the water (of sexual emission)”[1].
    [Reported by Muslim and its Asl (origin) is in Al-Bukhari].

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  1. Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): AllahÐh’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said that, “If one of you sits between her legs (of a woman) and penetrates her[2], Ghusl (bath) is obligatory.”
    [Agreed upon] And Muslim added: “Even if he does not ejaculate.”
  1. Narrated Umm Salama (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Umm Sulaim[3], the wife of Abu Talha said, “O Allah’s Messenger! (Peace be upon him) A11ah is not ashamed of the truth. Is a Ghusl (bath) compulsory for a woman when she has a sexual dream.”[4] He (Peace be upon him) replied, “Yes! When she sees signs of liquid.”
    [Agreed upon.]
  1. Narrated Anas (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) Said about the precept of a woman having ejaculation during sleep like a man, “She should take a Ghusl (bath)”.
    [Agreed upon] Added Muslim: Umm Salama said, “Does this happen (to a woman)?” He (Peace be upon him) said, “Yes, otherwise where does the resemblance (of a child to its mother) come from)[5]?”
  1. Narrated ‘Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) used to take a bath from four things; after sexual intercourse, on Fridays, after extracting blood from his body and after washing a dead body.[6].
    [Reported by Abu Da’ud and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)]
  1. Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu), regarding the story of Thumama bin Utha’l[7] when he embraced Islam: The Prophet (Peace be upon him) ordered him to take a bath.[8]
    [Narrated by Abdur- Razzaq and its origin is in Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

100. Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “Taking a bath on Friday is a must for every adult”.
[Reported by As-Sab’a[9]].

101. Narrated Samura[10] [2] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “Whoever performs ablution on Friday has done a good thing and he who takes bath, taking bath is better (for him).”
[Reported by Al-Khamsa[11] and At-Tirmidhi graded it Hasan (fair)]

102. Narrated ‘Ali (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) used to teach us the Quran except when he was in a state of sexual impurity[12].
[Reported by Ahmad and Al-Arba’a·. This is the version of At-Tirmidhi who graded it Hasan (fair). And Ibn Hibban graded it Sahih (sound)].

103. Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “If one of you has sexual intercourse with his wife, and wishes to repeat he should perform ablution [1] [13]between them.”
[Reported by Muslim.] Al-Hakim added: “Ablution makes one active for repeating (the sexual act).”
Narrated ‘Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) used to sleep in the state of sexual impurity without touching water[14].
[Reported by Al-Arba 'a. This Hadith is defective.]

104. Narrated ‘Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Whenever Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) took Ghusl (bath) after sexual intercourse, he would begin by washing his hands, then pour water with his right hand on his left hand and wash his sexual organ. He would then perform ablution, then take some water and run his fingers through the roots of his hair. Then he would pour three handfuls on his head, then pour water over the rest of his body and subsequently wash his feet.
[Agreed upon and this version is of Muslim]. Narrated Maimuna (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) poured water over his private parts and washed them with his left hand. He then struck his hand against the earth. In another version: ‘He rubbed it on the earth.’ And in the last of this version: “Then I brought him a towel[15] but he returned it and kept wiping off the water with his hand.”
[Agreed upon].

105. Narrated Umm Salama (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): I said, “O Messenger of Allah, I am a woman with tightly plaited hair on my head; should I undo it for taking a bath from sexual intercourse?
“In another version is: “from menstruation?” He (Peace be upon him) said, “No, it is enough for you to throw three handfuls of water[16] on your head”.
[Reported by Muslim.]

106. Narrated ‘Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “I do not permit a woman in menstrual condition[17][3] or anyone in a state of sexual impurity to (enter) the mosque”.[18]
[Reported by Abu Da'ud and Ibn Khuzaima graded it Sahih (sound)]

107.     Narrated (‘Aisha Radhi Allaahu Anhu): I and Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) took a Ghusl (bath) due to sexual impurity from the same vessel and our hands alternated into it.
[Agreed upon.] Ibn Hibban added “and (our hands) met.”

108. Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “There is sexual impurity under every hair[19], so wash the hair and cleanse the skin.”
[Reported by Abu Da'ud and At-Tirmidhi who both graded it Da'if (weak); and in the version of Ahmad, a similar Hadith is narrated by 'Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu), and in the chain is one narrator who is Majhul (unknown)].


[1]           It means after seminal discharge, taking of bath is essential and obligatory. This Hadith is linked only with ‘night discharge’ and not with coition. Most of the religious scholars believe in it. Ubai bin K’ab said that in the early period of Islam, in case of coition, taking of bath was not obligatory until the seminal discharge happened, but afterwards this order was abrogated. Some of the research scholars have reported the consensus of Muslims on this issue that as soon as coition is started, taking of Ghusl (bath) becomes obligatory, whether seminal discharge occurs or not.

[2]           It means that with the start of coitus, taking of Ghusl (bath) becomes obligatory. This Hadith cancels the previous one, if linked with coition.

[3]           Her name is Ar-Rumaisa’ or Al-Ghumaisa’ bint Milha’n, Anas bin Malik’s mother. She was among the virtuous Sahabiyat. She was married to Malik bin An-Nasr, then she became a Muslim and invited him to Islam, but he became angry and went to Sham where he died. She was then proposed to by Abu Talha while still a Mushrik, but she made a condition that he should become a Muslim, so he became one and married her. She died during the caliphate of’ Uthman.

[4]           As Men, women also have “wet dreams”, so taking bath is obligatory for them too.

[5]           It means that women also have seminal discharge otherwise how a child can take after the mother? Resemblance of children to their parents is on account of potency of semen.

[6] Among all these four, taking bath after coition is Fard (obligatory), on Friday is Sunna (the way of noble Prophet Peace be upon him) and the rest of the two are Mustahab (desirable). Ahadith regarding obligation of Friday bath are more authentic, therefore, those are to be followed.

[7]           Thumama bin Utha’l was from Banu Hanifa and the chief of Al-Yamama people. He went to perform ‘Umrah while still a Mushrik and was captured by some horsemen of the Prophet Peace be upon him). They brought him to Al-Madina and tied him to one of the mosque’s pillars. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) released him after three days. He then became a devoted Muslim and stood firm, during the Ridda (apostasy) days, against his people who were cheated by Musailima Al-Kadhdhab.

[8]           When a non-Muslim embraces Islam, it is obligatory for him to take a bath. Abu Da’ud reported that the noble Prophet (Peace be upon him) ordered Thumama to take a bath, when he embraced Islam.

[9]           Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and Musnad Ahmad.

[10] Samura bin Jundub is a well-known Sahabi nicknamed Abu .Abdullah. He was a Fazari and an ally of the Ansar. He was also one of the memorizers who narrated many Ahadith. He settled at Basra and was very harsh against Al-Haruriya. He died rewards the end of the year 59 H.

[11] Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and Musnad Ahmad

[12] From this Hadith and from others it is proved that reading of noble Quran for a person, needing post-coition Ghusl (bath) is not right.

[13] This ablution is desirable and not essential, it also brings about a pleasure and freshness in mood. It is reported that if the noble Prophet (Peace be upon him) to his different wives in one night, he used to take a Ghusl (bath) after going to each of them. It is also reported that he performed ablution in between and sometimes he did not. So, in this matter one can choose any mode.

[14] It means that before going to sleep, ablution is not essential for a Junubi (a man in the post-discharge state). There is a Hadith from Bukhari regarding this issue that the noble Prophet (Peace be upon him) used to perform ablution before eating, drinking or sleeping. Therefore, it is better to follow the way of the noble Prophet (Peace be upon him) though it is merely preferable.

[15] The issue of drying the limbs after performing ablution is discretionary, therefore, it depends on the choice whether to dry or not.

[16] This Hadith makes it clear that for a menstruating woman and Junubi (a man in the post-discharge state) it is not essential to unravel the hair. There is another Hadith from ‘Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu), in which untying of hair is reported. Both the Ahadith are for different occasions.

[17] A menstruating woman is not allowed to enter a mosque and circumambulate the Sacred Ka’ba. She should not pray or fast in this period. Prayers of this period are pardoned but she must fast later on. Reading and touching the noble Quran is also prohibited. She should also not recite a complete verse .f Quran at a time. Remembrance of Allah is allowed to her. She can participate in invocation upon Allah with other Muslims. She is allowed to go to the place of Eid prayers.

[18] It means that a menstruating woman and a man in post-discharge state is not allowed to stay in a mosque but passing through is allowed. If somebody gets discharged as a result of wet dream during a sleep in a mosque, it is essential for him to go out. This is unanimously agreed upon.

[19] We come to know by this Hadith that it is obligatory to wash the whole body after having a sexual intercourse except rinsing of mouth and putting water in the nose because these two are controversial.

Chapter 9: Tayammum (Purification with Soil)

109.    Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, “I have been given five things which were not given to anyone else before me. Allah made me victorious by awe (of frightening my enemies) for a distance of one month’s journey. The earth has been made for me (and my followers) a place for praying and purification (performing Tayammum). Therefore, anyone (of my followers) should pray wherever the time of Salat (prayer)[1] becomes due.”[2]
In the version of Muslim narrated by Hudhaifa: “The soil[3] of the earth has been made for us as a means of purification when we do not find water.”
In the version of Ahmad narrated by ‘Ali (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): “The soil has been made for us a means of cleansing.”

  1. Narrated Ammar bin Yasir[4] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) sent me on an errand, then I had ejaculation (in my sleep) and I did not find water. (For performing Tayammum) I rolled on the soil like an animal. Then I returned to the Prophet and mentioned that to him. He (Peace be upon him) said, “It was sufficient for you to do with your hands this way”. He then struck his hands once on the soil and then rubbed the left hand on the right and the exterior part of his palms and his face.
    [Agreed upon. The version is that of Muslim].
    And in the version of Al-Bukhari: ‘He (Allah’s Messenger Peace be upon him) struck the earth with his palms of both hands[5] and then blew the dust and rubbed his palms of both hands over his face and hands.
  1. Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “Tayammum (purifying with the soil) consists of two strikings[6], of the soil, one for the face and one for the hands up to the elbows.”
    [Reported by Ad-Daraqutni, and the Imam graded it Sahih as Mawquf
  1. Narrated Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “The soil is a means of ablution for a believing Muslim, even if he does not find water for ten years[7]; but when he finds water he should guard against disobeying Allah and let it touch his skin.”
    [Reported by AI-Bazzar, and Al-Qattan graded it Sahih  (sound).  But Ad-Daraqutni approved it as Mursal, At-Tirmidhi also reported a similar version on the authority of Abu Dhar,[8] which he authenticated and so did Al-Hakim].
  1. Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Two men set out on a journey and when the time of Salat (prayer) came they had no water. They performed Tayammum with clean earth and prayed. Later on they found water within the time of the prayer.  One of them repeated the prayer and ablution but the other did not repeat. Then they came to Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him), and related the matter to him. Addressing himself to the one who did not repeat, he said, “You followed the Sunna and your (first) prayer was enough for you.”[9] He said to the one who performed ablution and repeated: “For you there is a double reward”.[10]
    [Reported by Abu Da'ud and An-Nasa'i]
  1. Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) regarding the explanation of the Words of Allah “And if you are ill[11] or on a journey…” If a man sustains a wound in the cause of Allah and an injury, then becomes sexually impure and fears death if he takes Ghusl (bath), he should perform Tayammum.
    [Reported by Ad- Daraqutni in a Mawquf (untraceable) Hadith and Al-Bazzar in a Marfu' (traceable) one. Ibn Khuzaima and Al-Hakim graded it Sahih (sound)].
  1. Narrated ‘Ali (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): One of my forearms was broken. Then I asked Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) and he ordered me to wipe over the bandages.[12]
    [Reported by Ibn Majah with a very weak chain of narrators].
  1. Narrated Jabir (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) concerning the man who had sustained a cut on his head and took a bath and died: (Allah’s Messenger Peace be upon him said) “It was enough for him to perform Tayammum then bind a bandage over the wound and wipe water on it and then wash the rest of his body.”
    [Reported by Abu Da'ud, its chain is Da'if and there is disagreement concerning its narrator].
  1. Narrated Ibn Abbas (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): It is the Sunna that a person should not pray more than once [13]with a (one) Tayammum and he should perform Tayammum for the next Salat (prayer).
    [Reported by Ad-Daraqutni with a very weak chain of narrators][14]

[1]           It means that if water is not available, one should not miss the first part of prayer time in search of water.

[2]           Other three things are: a) Booty has been made lawful; b) Intercession on the Day of Judgment; c) Messengership for the whole universe

[3]           Soil and all other things from the kind of soil are regarded as same and Tayammum is permissible with them, but things like lime, antimony and arsenic, etc. do not fall in the kind of soil.

[4]           ‘Ammar was nicknamed Abul-Yaqzan, and was among the most senior and early Muslims, and was tortured in Makka for his Faith. He made the two migrations and took part in Badr and all the other important battles. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) told him, “O ‘Ammar, the transgressive party will kill you.” This happened in Siffin in 36 H. when he was with ‘Ali and he was killed by some soldiers of Mu’awiya at the age of 73 years.

[5]           This Hadith argues about Tayammum (purification with soil). Religious elites are of the opinion that one stroke on earth is enough for face and both hands. Some others say that two strokes are essential, one for face and the other for hands as is mentioned in the next Hadith. But all Ahadith, which mention ‘two strokes’, are Da’if (weak).

[6]           The scholars of Ahadith have regarded this Hadith as Da’if (weak), and all its chains are also weak.

[7]           It means that at the time of necessity soil is a complete substitute of water and fulfills all purposes of purification whether it concerns ablution, or Ghusl (bath). With one Tayammum many obligatory acts can be performed, if there is no factor, which nullifies it.

[8]           Abu Dhar’s name was Jundub bin Junada, and he was among the most prominent Sahaba and an ascetic. He became a Muslim very early at Makka. Then went back to his people. He came to the Prophet (Peace be upon him), at Al-Madina and later settled and died at Rabdha in 32 H.

[9]           It means that if somebody has already prayed a certain prayer by performing Tayammum, then there is no need to repeat the prayer, even afterwards water is found and still there is time for the prayer.

[10]         It was not necessary to pray again, if the prayer had been offered by performing Tayammum. The second person got double reward not for the reason that he prayed again but for the exercise of judgment regarding the problem, which was although wrong but there is one reward for a wrong judgment. Second reason for earning double reward may be that he prayed twice, once with Tayammum and once with ablution

[11]         It means that when you intend for prayer and there is some hindrance in performing ablution or having Ghusl (bath), the Tayammum is essential. Here illness means some serious disease and not the ordinary boils and eruptions.

[12]     Ðp;    The word in Arabic is Jaba’ir used for those wooden strips, which are placed around the broken arm or leg for support and to keep it straight.

[13]         Since Tayammum (purification with soil) is a substitute for ablution, it works the same. Many prayers can be offered with one ablution, in the same way many prayers can be offered with one Tayammum. Some people after performing Tayammum for coition or wet dream hesitate to enter the mosque or to recite the Quran. This is only an evil apprehension and a satanic distraction and should not be cared for. In this Hadith Hasan bin ‘Ammar is weak in the chain of narrators. There are two other Ahadith on the same issue and both of them are Da’if (weak).

[14]         This Hadith is weak because it was narrated by Hasan bin ‘Ammar who was weak, and due to this fact the Hadith scholars did not rely on it, but said that, “Allah has permitted for us the use of soil in the absence of water and since ablution becomes obligatory after passing urine, excreting or releasing air, so is the case of Tayammum.”

Chapter 10: Menstruation

118. Narrated ‘Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Fatima bint Abu Hubaish had a prolonged flow of blood[1] and Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him)· told her, “The menstruation blood is a dark recognizable blood, so if that comes then avoid prayer. And if it is the other  (light colored blood), then perform Wudu (ablution) and offer Salat  (prayer) (for that is blood of a vein).”
[Reported by Abu Da'ud and An-Nasa’i. Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim graded it Sahih (sound). Abu Hatim termed it Munkar (unusual)] And in the Hadith of Asma bint ‘Umais[2] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu) reported by Abu Da’ud, (the Prophet Peace be upon him said:) “She should sit in a tub, and when she sees yellowish color on the top of the water, she should take a bath once for the Zuhr and Asr prayers, and take another bath for the Maghrib and Isha prayers, and take a bath once for the Fajr prayer, and in between these times she should perform ablution.”

119. Narrated Hamna bint Jahsh[3](Radhi Allaahu Anhu): MY menstruation was too much and severe. So I came to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) to ask for his (religious) opinion. He said, “This is a stroke of the devil, so observe your menses for six or seven days, then take a bath and when you see that you are purified and quite clean, pray for twenty-three or twenty-four days, and fast and pray for that will suffice you. And do so every month just as the other women menstruate  (and are purified).  But if you are strong enough[4] to delay the Zuhr prayer and advance the Asr prayer then take a bath and combine the Zuhr and the Asr prayer; then delay the Maghrib prayer and advance the Isha prayer then take a bath and combine the two prayers, do so; and take a bath at Fajr.” Allah’s Messenger Peace be upon him said of the two types of actions: “This one appeals more to my liking (i.e. taking a bath for every prayer)”.
[Reported by Al-Khamsa except An- Nasa’i, At-Tirmidhi graded it Sahih (sound) and Al-Bukhari graded it Hasan (fair)]

120. Narrated ‘Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Umm Habiba bint Jahsh[5] complained to Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) about the blood (which flows beyond the menstruation period). He said, “Keep away (from prayer) the length of time that your menses prevented you, then take a bath (and offer prayers)”. And she used to take a bath for every prayer[6].
[Reported by Muslim.] In a version of Al-Bukhari is: “Perform ablution for every Salat (prayer)”. It has been reported by Abu Da’ud and others in another version

121. Narrated Umm Atiya[7] (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): We considered it nothing (as impure) the muddiness and yellowness (of the fluids) after purification[8] (from menstruation).
[Reported by Al-Bukhari and Abu Da'ud and version is of the latter].

122. Narrated Anas (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): The Jews used not to eat with a woman during her menstruation period, so the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, “Do every thing else apart from sexual intercourse (with your wives)”.
[Reported by Muslim.]

123. Narrated ‘Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him), used to order me to put on an Izar[9] and then caress[10] me while menstruating.
[Agreed upon]

124. Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said regarding a husband who has sexual intercourse with his wife during her menstruation period, “He should give out (as atonement) one Dinar or ½ Dinar as alms”
[Reported by Al-Khamsa. Al-Hakim and Ibn Al-Qattan graded it Sahih (sound). And others considered it to be Mawquf (untraceable)][11]

125. Narrated Abu Sa’id AI-Khudri (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said, “Is it not the case that a woman in her menstruation period neither prays nor fasts?”[12]
[Agreed upon. It is part of a long Hadith]

126. Narrated ‘Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): When we came to a place called Sarif, I menstruated and the Prophet (Peace be upon him) told me, “Do what a pilgrim does except that you don’t circumambulate round the Ka’ba until you are purified”.
[Agreed upon and it is part of a long Hadith.]

127. Narrated Mu’adh (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): He asked the Prophet (Peace be upon him), “What is lawful for a man regarding his wife when she is menstruating?” and he replied, “What is above the waist wrapper (Izar).”[13]
[Reported by Abu Da'ud and graded it Da'if.]

128. Narrated Umm Salama (Radhi Allaahu Anhu): During the time of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) the women having bleeding after delivery (postnatal or puerperal blood) would refrain (from prayer) for forty days.[14]
[Reported  by Al-Khamsa except An-Nasa’i, and the version is that of Abu Da’ud].
And in another version of Abu Da’ud: “The Prophet (Peace be upon him) did not command her to repeat the prayers (abandoned during the period of bleeding).” And Al-Hakim graded it Sahih (sound).


[1]           Istihada may be either prolonged puerperium or prolonged menstruation period (and is regarded as bleeding between the periods). Period of menstruation, according to some scholars is from one to fifteen days; and according to others, its duration is from three to ten days. Experience confirms the later assertion. Every woman knows her period if bleeding exceeds the normal time then it would be Istihada.

[2]           She was the wife of Jafar bin Abu Talib. She had migrated with him to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and bore him there children, among them was ‘Abdullah. Then Abu Bakr As-Siddiq married her after the martyrdom of Jafar at the battle of Mu’ta, and she bore him Muhammad. Ali bin Abu Talib also married her after the death of Abu Bakr and she bore him Yahya ‘Umar used to ask her the interpretation of dreams. She died after the death of ‘Ali.

[3]           Hamna bint Jahsh is the sister of the ‘Mother of the Believers’ Zainab bint Jahsh. She was married to Mus’ab bin ‘Umair, who was martyred during the battle of Uhud after which she was married by Talha bin ‘Ubaidullah.

[4]           In this Hadith, Hamna was ordered to take a bath three times a day. One bath for Zuhr and Asr prayers; second for Maghrib and Isha; and third for Fajr. In the preceding Hadith Fatima bint Abu Hubaish was ordered merely to perform ablution before every prayer. It means in case of Istihada taking a bath is not compulsory but performing ablution is obligatory for every prayer. Taking a bath is preferable if weather conditions and health allows, otherwise there is no need to take bath.

[5]           Habiba bint Jahsh was another sister of Zainab bint Jahsh,’the Mother of the Believers’ and she was married to ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf Muslim narrated that she had a prolonged flow of blood for seven years. She died in 44H.

[6]           It was only a precautionary or voluntary act of Umm Habiba to take a bath for every prayer. Authentic decision regarding this issue is to take a post-menstruation Ghusl (bath) and purify oneself. Concerning prolonged bleeding, there is an order to wash the blood and perform ablution for every prayer

[7]           Her name was Nusaiba bint Ka’b or bint Al-Harith Al-Ansariya. She was among the prominent Sahabiya women, and she used to accompany Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) to battles, nursing the sick and treating the injured. She fought during the battle of Uhud like heroes. She witnessed the washing of the body of the daughter of the Prophet (Peace be upon him), which she perfected and narrated, and a number of Sahaba and Tabi’i Ulama at Basra recorded that from her. Her Hadith is considered to be the basis of washing the dead. She was counted to be among the Sahabiya who settled at Basra.

[8]           In the narration of’ Aisha (Radhi Allaahu Anhu), yellow and dusty colored water is considered as menses, but this Hadith states: “We considered it nothing.” Apparently both Ahadith appear to be opposing each other, but actually both are correct in their context. If the yellow or dusty color water oozes out in the menstruation period, it will be considered as ‘menses'; and if it percolates after the period, it is ‘nothing’ as the word B ‘ad At-Tuhr gives the clue.

[9]           A cloth worn from the waistline downwards like a skirt.

[10] Those who do not believe in the Ahadith (i.e. deniers of Sunna), create ambiguity and doubt at this point, and make the people suspicious about the Ahadith. They assert that sexual intercourse in menstruation periods is prohibited by the noble Quran but according to this Hadith the Prophet would do it during that period, therefore, Hadith is not true. Literal meaning of Mubasharat is to touch and rub the body with the body, and speaking metaphorically it means coition.  In other Ahadith it has been clarified that sexual intercourse is strictly forbidden during menstruation, thus, it is quite a dishonesty to translate the word Mubasharat as sexual intercourse instead of ‘fondling’ and create the suspicion.

[11] This is a Da’if (weak) Hadith, therefore, most of the religious scholars do not deem it necessary to expiate, although some of the scholars are in favor of this opinion; but first opinion is correct because order is only for encouraging charity.

[12] This is a small portion of a long Hadith. The noble Prophet (Peace be upon him), while delivering a Khutba (religious talk) to the women, told them that their religion was imperfect. They asked, “How?” In the answer to their question, he spoke these words, which mean that a menstruating women should not pray or fast.

[13] “Everything above the Izar (dress worn below the waist)” may have two meanings: First, the Izar may be a figurative speech for ‘sexual intercourse’, in other words, except sexual intercourse everything is permitted. Secondly, it may metaphorically mean the portion of body related to Izar. But this meaning will contradict the other Hadith stating: “Do everything except intercourse·” Therefore, first meaning is preferable.

[14] It means the maximum period of puerperal blood is forty days and minimum time for it is not fixed. If it continues more than forty days, it will be regarded as Istihada (bleeding between periods), which is not a hindrance for prayer, fasting and having sexual intercourse. Every command of the puerperium is identical to that of menstruation.