Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: His Name and Lineage – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 40
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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The Third Fundamental Principle:
Knowledge About Our Prophet Muhammad –sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam
His Name, His Lineage, and His Early Life 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

الأصل الثالث : معرفة نبيكم محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم 

The third fundamental principle: Knowledge about your Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam.[56]


[56] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His saying: «The third fundamental principle» meaning: from the three fundamental principles, because the Shaykh (rahimahullaah) has mentioned at the start of the treatise that it is obligatory upon every Muslim male and female to have knowledge of these three fundamental principles, and they are: knowledge of Allaah, knowledge of the religion of Islaam, and knowledge about His Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam with the evidences.

As for the first and second fundamental principles, then a clarification of them has preceded and an explanation of their evidences. 

The third fundamental principle: It is knowledge about the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam, because of the fact that the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam is an intermediary between Allaah and His creation with regard to conveying His Religion and His Message. Therefore, it is obligatory to know about him, `alaihissalaatu wasalaam.  Otherwise, how could you follow a person whom you do not know of?

So, you must know about him with regard to his name, the land he was born and grew up in, the land to which he migrated and that you know the extent of his lifespan `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. And the phases of his life, `alaihissalaatu wasalaam and the phases of the time period which he was sent in this world. That you also know what occurred before Prophet-hood and after it and before the migration, and after it. That you know how the revelation first came to him, `alaihissalaatu wasalaam and when the revelation began, and what is the aayah which proves his Prophet-hood and the aayah which proves His Messenger-ship. That you can quote the aayahs which prove His Prophet-hood and the aayahs which prove His Messenger-ship. You must know this; that you know his lineage and which tribe he was from, because the Arabs are made of tribes and he was an Arab without any doubt. So, knowledge of these matters is essential about the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam through studying the aayahs and the ahaadeeth which are connected to these matters.

And you look into the life of the Messenger sallallaahu`alayhi wa sallam and his call, in order that you should know these matters about your Prophet whom you are commanded to follow and take as an example.


His Name, His Lineage

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

وهو محمد بن عبد الله بن عبد المطلب بن هاشم من قريش ، وقريش من العرب ،  والعرب من ذرية إسماعيل بن إبراهيم الخليل ، عليه وعلى نبينا أفضل الصلاة والسلام

He is Muhammad, the son of `Abdullaah, the son of `Abdul-Muttalib, the son of Haashim, who is from Quraysh. Quraysh are from the Arabs, and the Arabs are from the descendants of Ismaa`eel, the son of Ibraaheem, al-Khaleel(the specially beloved one). May the most excellent salaat (extolment) and salaam(peace and security) be upon him and our Prophet.[57]


[57Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

This is his name and lineage. His name is Muhammad `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. He has other names besides Muhammad. However, the most famous one of his names is Muhammad and Allaah mentioned that in the Qur.aan in a number of aayahs.

مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ

«Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah» [48:29]

And His saying:

وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ

«And Muhammad is not except a Messenger, Messengers have passed away before him.» [3:144]

And His saying:

مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ

«Muhammad is not the father of any of your men.» [33:40]

And His saying:

«And those who have eemaan (truly believe) and perform righteous deeds, and believe in that which was sent down upon Muhammad (sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam), for it is the truth from their Lord.» [40:2]

So, Allaah mentioned his name Muhammad in a number of aayaahs.

From his names is Ahmad. Allaah mentioned in His saying regarding the glad tidings given by al-Maseeh `alaihissalaam:

وَإِذْ قَالَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُم مُّصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيَّ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَمُبَشِّرًا بِرَسُولٍ يَأْتِي مِن بَعْدِي اسْمُهُ أَحْمَدُ

«And remember when `Eesaa ibn Maryam, said: “O Children of Israa.eel! I am Allaah’s Messenger to you confirming what came before me from the Tauraat, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger who will come after me, whose name will be Ahmad.» [61:6]

So, he is Muhammad and Ahmad. The meaning of that is one abundant in praise, `alaihissalaatu wa salaam, and abundant in attributes for which he is to be praised.

From his names are: the Prophet of Mercy (نبي الرحمة), the Prophet of Great War (نبي الملحمة) – meaning jihaad in Allaah’s Cause – the one after whom the people will be resurrected (الحاشر), and the final Prophet (والعاقب), `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. The one who is such that the people will be resurrected after his being sent as a Prophet, because he is the last of the Messengers, sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. So, there is nothing after him except for the establishment of the Hour. After his Messenger-ship, the Hour will be established and the people will be resurrected for recompensing and accounting.

Whoever wants to get knowledge of these matters (Names and Meanings) , let him refer back to the Book Jalaa.ul-Afhaam fee asSalaati was-Salaam `alaa Khayril-Anaam of the Imaam Ibnul-Qayyim (rahimahullaah).

As for his lineage: He is Muhammad, the son of `Abdullaah, the son of `Abdul-Muttalib, the son of Haashim, the son of `Abdul-Manaaf, the son of Qusay, the son of Kilaab.

He was from the tribe of Quraysh which is the noblest of the tribes, and Quraysh are from the descendants of Ismaa`eel `alaihissalaatu wasalaam.

The Arabs are of two categories upon the most famous saying:

  • The original Arabs: They were the descendants of Qahtaan.
  • The assimilated Arabs: They were the descendants of `Adnaan from the descendants of Ismaa`eel `alaihissalaam, the son of Ibraaheem, al-Khaleel, `alaihissalaam. They were called al-Musta`rabah (the assimilated Arabs) because they learned the Arabic language from the original Arabs.

When the tribe of Jurhum came and settled in Makkah beside Haajir, the mother of Ismaa`eel and her son Ismaa`eel whilst he was young – when they found the well of Zamzam, they settled there and made an agreement with Haajir that they should settle beside her and that she should permit them to take water from the well. Ismaa`eel `alaihissalaam was a suckling infant at that time, then he grew older and took the Arabic language from the tribe of Jurhum, and they were from the original Arabs. He married from the tribe of Jurhum and descendants came from him who learnt the Arabic language. They grew up with the Arabs and became Arabs themselves by assimilation. They are the descendants of `Adnaan. As for the original Arabs, then they are the descendants of Qahtaan whose origin was from Yemen.

Some of the scholars said: The original Arabs themselves were of two categories: Arabs who became extinct and Arabs who remained.

The Arabs who became extinct were the ones who were destroyed. They were the people of Nooh, `Aad, and Thamood, and Shu`ayb.

As for the remaining Arabs, then they are those who are divided into the original Arabs and the assimilated Arabs.

The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was from the descendants of Haashim (the tribe of Haashim), and Haashim was from the descendants of Ismaa`eel, `alaihissalaatu wa salaam. His name was Muhammad, the son of `Abdullaah, the son of `Abdul-Muttalib.

And [regarding] `Abdul-Muttalib, this was not his name, his name was Shaybah. However, he was called `Abdul-Muttalib because his paternal uncle, al-Muttalib, the son of Manaaf, brought him from al-Madeenah whilst he was little from his maternal uncles, Banoo an-Najaar. So, when the people saw him being dark from travelling, they thought he was a slave owned by al-Muttalib. So, they said: `Abdul-Muttalib (the slave of Muttalib), the son of Haashim, the son of `Abdul-Manaaf. `Abdul-Manaaf had four sons: Haashim who was the grandfather of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam, al-Muttalib, `Abd-Shams, and Nawfal.

Banoo Haashim are called the Haashimiyyoon and Banoo Muttalib are called the Muttallibiyyoon.

As for  `Abd- Shams, then from them was `Uthmaan –radiyallaahu `anh and Banoo `Umay-yah. They were all from `Abd- Shams.

As for Nawfal, he had descendents, from them: Jubayr bin Mut`im and Hakeem ibn Hizaam.

Ibraaheem `alaihissalaatu wasalaam had Ismaa`eel and he was the eldest. He is the grandfather of the Arab descendants of `Adnaan. And Ishaaq is the grandfather of the children of Israa.eel, and all of the Prophets were from the descendants of Ishaaq, except for our Prophet `alaihissalaatu wasalaam, he was from the descendants of Ismaa`eel, he was the final prophet.

As for his birth: He sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam was born in the year of the elephant. It is the year when Abrahah, the King of Yemen came towards Makkah. He was sent on a mission by the (christian) King of the Abyssinians to demolish the Ka`bah. With him, there was a very large elephant, so when he reached the place which is called al-Mughamas, nothing remained except for him to enter Makkah and demolish the Ka`bah. The people of Makkah had already separated and climbed into the mountains because they had no strength to oppose him. So, he wanted to go on to the Ka`bah, but the elephant was held back and it refused to get up from the ground. Allaah held it back. When he turned it in the direction other than the direction of Makkah, it would get up and trod. And when he pointed it in the direction of Makkah, it was prevented and unable to walk, and whilst they were in that condition, they saw two flocks of birds coming from the direction of the ocean and they had with them stones. Each bird had two stones with it, a stone in its beak and a stone between its feet. They threw these little stones down and they would strike the head of the man and it would come out from his anus and split him in two halves. So, Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, destroyed him.

Allaah sent down, with regard to that, reminding the Quraysh, Sooratul-Feel:

أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّكَ بِأَصْحَابِ الْفِيلِ – أَلَمْ يَجْعَلْ كَيْدَهُمْ فِي تَضْلِيلٍ – وَأَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ طَيْرًا أَبَابِيلَ – تَرْمِيهِم بِحِجَارَةٍ مِّن سِجِّيلٍ

«Do you not see how your Lord dealt with the Companions of the Elephant? Did He not make their plan go astray? And He sent against them birds, in flocks, striking them with stones of clay.» [105:1-4]

[The stones were] from Hell, and Allaah’s refuge is sought.

فَجَعَلَهُمْ كَعَصْفٍ مَّأْكُولٍ

«So He made them like straws of corn devoured.» [105:5]

They became like dry straw which have been eaten by animals and excreted.

This was the story of the elephant, so Allaah defended His Sacred House and destroyed this tyrant Abrahah, and in this year, Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was born. There appeared along with his birth signs; light appeared along with him which caused the castles of Shaam to shine. In the night of his birth, the idols shook. The throne room of Kisraa (the emperor of Persians) shook and some balconies from it fell down in the night the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was born. These were signs of the descending of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam as a Prophet. The devils were thrown into commotion in that tremendous night.

He was born in the mountain-pass of `Alee, he was born in Makkah (close to the Ka’bah) . However, the precise location of the house is not confirmed.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/muhammad

Al-ihsaan (Perfection) : It’s Categories and Levels – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 36 – Part B & Lesson 37
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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The Third Level is al-Ihsaan 

The Definition of Ihsaan 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

:المرتبة الثالثة : الإحسان ، ركن واحد ، وهو 

أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه ، فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه يراك

The third level is al-ihsaan. It is a single pillar and it is: «That you worship Allaah as if you were seeing Him, and even though you do not see Him, He certainly sees you.»46


[46]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Al-Ihsaan in the language means to perfect something and complete it. It is derived from al-husun which means al-jamaal (beauty), the opposite of ugliness.

And it is divided into (three) categories: 

  • Firstly: Al-Ihsaan (Perfection) of what lies between the servant and his Lord. This is what is meant (in this book here). 
  • Secondly: Al-Ihsaan (Perfection) of what is between the servant and the rest of the people. 
  • Thirdly: Doing well and perfecting what you do. When a person makes something or does an action, then it is obligatory upon him that he perfects it and does it completely. 

[1] Ihsaan (perfection) of what lies between the servant and his Lord


The first type is ihsaan (perfection) of what lies between the servant and his Lord. The Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam explained it when Jibreel asked him in the presence of the companions as will follow. He said:

«Ihsaan is that you worship Allaah as if you were seeing Him,
and even though you do not see Him, He certainly sees you

So ihsaan between the servant and his Lord is his perfecting the action which Allaah has made a duty upon him, that he does it correctly, purely and sincerely for the Face of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

So, an action in which there is ihsaan between the servant and his Lord is that which is done sincerely for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and done with the following of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.

Al- ihsaan is of two levels :

The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam made clear that ihsaan is of two levels, one of them being higher than the other: 

The first level is that you worship Allaah as if you were seeing Him such that your certainty and eemaan in Allaah reaches such a level that it is as if you are actually seeing Allaah with your eyes. You have no hesitancy or doubt, rather it is as if Allaah is in front of you, He the Perfect and Most High, and you are seeing Him openly. Whoever reaches this level has reached the limit of ihsaan. You worship Allaah as if you are seeing Him on account of the completeness of certainty and sincerity, which is as if you are seeing Allaah with your eyes.

Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, will not be seen in this world, rather He will only be seen in the Hereafter. However, you see Him with your heart to the extent that it is as if you are seeing Him with your eyes. Therefore, He will reward the people of ihsaan in the Hereafter that they will see Him, He the Perfect and Most High. This is since they used to worship Him as if they were seeing Him in this world. So, Allaah rewards them by giving them the opportunity to see Him with their eyes in the abode of bliss. He, the Most High, said:

لِّلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا الْحُسْنَىٰ وَزِيَادَةٌ

«For the people of ihsaan there will be the best reward of Paradise and something extra.» [10:26]

Something extra is looking upon the Face of Allaah. The reason is that they perfected their deeds in this world, so Allaah gave them the best reward which is Paradise. And He will give them an increase which is seeing Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. So therefore, you worship Allaah as if you are actually witnessing Him, upon love and longing to meet Him, He the Perfect and Most High. You feel delight in obedience to Him and you feel calm and obedience to Him, He the Perfect and Most High. You eagerly desire obedience to Him. This is the path of the people of ihsaan. 

The second level: If you do not reach this tremendous level (first level), then you worship Him upon the path of al-muraqabah (watchfulness) such that you know that Allaah sees you, knows your condition, and knows what lies within yourself. Therefore, it is not befitting that you should disobey Him and contradict His command when He sees and observes you. This is a good state, however, it is less than the first one. So, as long as you know that He sees you, then you therefore perfect your worship of Him and you do it well, because you know that Allaah is seeing you. And for Allaah is the Highest example. If you were in front of a created being who had status and he commanded you with a command, and you were carrying this matter out in front of him and he was looking at you, would it be befitting that you be negligent in the performance of this action? 

So in summary, ihsaan is of two levels: 

  • The level of witnessing with the heart: It is that you worship Allaah as if you are seeing Him from the strength of certainty and eemaan. It is as you are seeing Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, with your eyes. 
  • The second level: It is that you worship Allaah knowing that He sees you and observes you, therefore, you do not disobey Him and contradict His command, He the Perfect and Most High.

This is the level of al-ihsaan and it is highest of the levels of the religion. Whoever reaches it has reached the highest of the levels of the religion. Before it is the level of eemaan, and before that is the level of al-Islaam.

The deen has a number of domains: 

The first domain: al-Islaam. It is wide to such an extent that the hypocrite enters within it and is called a Muslim and is treated like a Muslim, because he has submitted to Islaam outwardly. So therefore, he enters within the domain of Islaam. And the person who is weak in eemaan [enters the domain of Islaam], but he has nothing from eemaan except a mustard seed of it. 

The second domain: It is more restricted and more specific – the domain of al-eemaan. The hypocrite in belief does not enter into it whatsoever. Rather, only the people of eemaan enter into it, and they are two categories: those who are complete in eemaan and those who are deficient in eemaan. So, the sinful believer and dutiful believer both enter into it. 

The third domain: It is more restricted than the second one – the domain of al-ihsaan. It just as the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam made clear. No one will enter into it except the people of complete eemaan.


The Evidence for al-Ihsaan 

And the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا وَّالَّذِينَ هُم مُّحْسِنُونَ

«Allaah is with those who fear Him and are dutiful to Him; and He is with those who are people of ihsaan.» [16:128]

And His saying, He the Most High:

وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى الْعَزِيزِ الرَّحِيمِ الَّذِي يَرَاكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ وَتَقَلُّبَكَ فِي السَّاجِدِينَ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

«And place your reliance upon the All-Mighty, the Bestower of Mercy. He who sees you when you stand to pray. And who sees your movements along with those who pray along with you. Indeed! He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.» [26:217-220]

And His saying, He the Most High:

وَمَا تَكُونُ فِي شَأْنٍ وَمَا تَتْلُو مِنْهُ مِن قُرْآنٍ وَلَا تَعْمَلُونَ مِنْ عَمَلٍ إِلَّا كُنَّا عَلَيْكُمْ شُهُودًا إِذْ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا يَعْزُبُ عَن رَّبِّكَ مِن مِّثْقَالِ ذَرَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي السَّمَاءِ وَلَا أَصْغَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ وَلَا أَكْبَرَ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ

«And you are not (O Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam) engaged in any matter nor do you recite the Book of Allaah, – nor do you do any action (O people), except that We are witness in your deeds when you do them. And not even that which is of the weight of the tiniest ant is hidden from your Lord on the earth or in the heavens. Nor is there anything smaller than that or greater than it except that it is written in a Clear Book [10:61] [47]


[47] : Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

This is the proof for the first level of al-ihsaan:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا وَّالَّذِينَ هُم مُّحْسِنُونَ

«Allaah is with those who fear Him and are dutiful to Him, and He is with those who are people of ihsaan.» [16:128]

The aayah proves that Allaah is with the people of ihsaan. They are those who worship Allaah as if they were seeing Him, so Allaah is with them in a specific sense of Ma`iyyah (Allah being with creation) – the Ma`iyyah with regard to aiding, helping, and tawfeeq (guiding them to and granting them attainment of correctness).

And His saying, He the Most High:

وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى الْعَزِيزِ الرَّحِيمِ الَّذِي يَرَاكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ وَتَقَلُّبَكَ فِي السَّاجِدِينَ

«And place your reliance upon the All-Mighty, the Bestower of Mercy. He who sees you when you stand to pray. And who sees your movements along with those who pray along with you.» [26:217-219]

This is a proof for the second level. This is a proof for his saying [sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam]: «Then, He certainly sees you

«And place your reliance» Meaning: trust your affairs «to the All-Mighty, the Bestower of Mercy» He is Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

«When you stand to pray» You stand for worship and the prayer.

«And who sees your movements along with those who pray along with you» He sees you whilst you are performing your rukoo` (bowing) and whilst you are performing your sajdah (prostration). He sees you in all the states of worship; standing, bowing, and prostrating. He, the Perfect and Most High, sees you.

«Indeed! He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing» The One who hears your sayings. The One who knows your sayings, He the Perfect and Most High.

And His saying, He the Most High:

وَمَا تَكُونُ فِي شَأْنٍ وَمَا تَتْلُو مِنْهُ مِن قُرْآنٍ وَلَا تَعْمَلُونَ مِنْ عَمَلٍ إِلَّا كُنَّا عَلَيْكُمْ شُهُودًا إِذْ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ

«And you (O Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam) are not engaged in any matter nor do you recite the Book of Allaah, – nor do you do any action (O people), except that We are witness in your deeds when you do them.» [10:61]

This is a proof for the second level.

«And you (O Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam) are not engaged in any matter» This is an address to the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam. In any affair from your affairs, from the affairs of worship or other than it – all of your actions and your movements – you will not be engaged in any affair at all.

«Nor do you recite from it (i.e. Book of Allaah)» Meaning: from Allaah, because the Qur`aan is from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Or the pronoun could refer back to the affair, so the meaning would be: From the affairs which you are engaged in is recitation of the Qur`aan.

«Nor do you do (O people)» This is [an address] for all of the nation, for the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and other than him.

«Any action» Meaning: Any action from the actions, whether good or bad.

«Except that We are witness [in your deeds]» We are seeing you, observing you, and witnessing you. This is a proof for his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam: «Then indeed, He sees you

«When you do them» You are carrying it out and you are doing it. So, this gives a proof for the second level from the levels of ihsaan, in that He, the Majestic and Most High, witnesses the action of every doer of an action. He, the Perfect and Most High, sees him, knows him, and observes him. Nothing is hidden from him.

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَخْفَىٰ عَلَيْهِ شَيْءٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي السَّمَاءِ

«Nothing whatsoever in the earth or in the heavens is hidden from Allaah.» [3:5]


[2] Ihsaan between the person and rest of the creation


As for ihsaan between the servant and the creation, then its meaning is: doing good to them and withholding from harming them.

Such that you feed the hungry person, cloth the person without clothing, assist the needy person with your position, and that you intercede for the one who needs to be interceded for. You do that which is good with all the different aspects of good. You are hospitable to the guest and you are generous towards the neighbor. Nothing but good emanates from you towards the neighbor, and you withhold harming him. So, no harm comes from you towards him or towards anyone else.

  1. From the people, there are who are such that nothing but harm comes from them, and
  2. From the people there are those whom harm and good comes. And
  3. From the people, there are those whom nothing but good comes from them. This is the highest of the levels.

Doing good towards the people and withholding harm from them is ihsaan (good and fine treatment) towards the people:

أَحْسِنُوا ۛ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

«Do good. Allaah loves al-Muhsineen (the doers of good).» [2:195]

Even towards the animals, it is obligatory that you treat them well and make available for them whatever they need and that you withhold harming them and that you are gentle with them. This is from ihsaan towards the animals.

Even a person who is going to be rightfully executed, you should not torture him, rather, you should execute him in a fine and tranquil manner. A person who is obligatory to execute, and someone it is obligatory to carry a hadd (prescribed punishment) upon, then it is carried out upon him with gentleness. There is to be no mutilation, no torture, and no beating to death.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

»إن الله كتب الإحسان على كل شيء ، فإذا قتلتم فأحسنوا القتلة ، وإذا ذبحتم فأحسنوا الذبح«

«Allaah has obligated ihsaan with regard to everything. So, when you kill, then kill in a fine manner. And when you slaughter an animal, then slaughter in a good manner

[Reported by Muslim no. 1955 as a hadeeth of Shaddaad bin Aws, radiy Allaahu `anhu.]

So, [the principle of ihsaan applies] to execution or other than it from that which necessitates prescribed punishment.

«When you slaughter» Meaning: when you slaughter animals which are to be eaten, then slaughter in a fine manner:

» وليحد  أحدكم شفرته ، وليرح ذبيحته «

«Let one of you sharpen his knife and give relief to the animal which he is slaughtering

Therefore, you are to treat with ihsaan even the animals. Allaah forgave the prostitute woman from the People of Israaeel on account that she gave a drink of water to a dog which had its tongue hanging out from thirst. So, she gave it water to drink and Allaah thanked her for that and forgave her, her sin.[2] This is a tremendous sin and it is prostitution, meaning: zinaa (fornication). But Allaah forgave her on account of that – because she treated the thirsty animal in a fine manner.

So how about something other than a dog? If you were to treat a hungry person from the Muslims with ihsaan, or from the descendants of Aadam, even if he is a disbeliever – if you were to treat him well, then Allaah, the Majestic and Most High will thank you for that fine treatment. He, the Most High, said:

أَحْسِنُوا ۛ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

«Do good. Allaah loves al-Muhsineen (the doers of good).» [2:195]


[3] Ihsaan (Perfection) of the Action


The third type: It is perfection of the action. Whatever action you do, it is obligatory that you perfect it and not so that it should be said: “So-and-so has done such-and-such very well.” There occurs in the hadeeth:

» إن الله يحب إذا عمل أحدكم عملا أن يتقنه «

«Allaah loves that one when one of you does an action that he perfects it

[Reported by al-Bayhaqee in Shu`ab al-Eemaan 4/334 no. 5313 and no. 5314 from a hadeeth of `Aa.ishah, radiy Allaahu `anha. [Declared hasan (good) by Shaikh al-Albaanee in Saheeh al-Jaami`. He spoke about it in Silsilatul-Ahaadeeth asSaheehah no. 1113].


Footnotes:

[2] Refer to al-Bukhaaree no. 3467, Muslim no. 2245 as a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah, radiy Allaahu `anhu.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

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Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 32 – Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

The Second Level is Eemaan  

المرتبة الثانية : الإيمان : وهو بضع وسبعون شعبة ، فأعلاها قول : لا إله إلا الله ، وأدناها إماطة الأذى عن الطريق ، والحياء شعبة من الإيمان 

The second level is al-Eemaan (true faith) and it has seventy and odd branches, its highest of them is the saying of “Laa ilaaha illAllaah” and the lowest of them is removal of that which is harmful from the path; and al-hayaa (a sense of shame) is a branch of eemaan.[42]


[42] : Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Eemaan is more inclusive than Islaam, so every believer is a Muslim, but not every Muslim is a believer. So eemaan is more inclusive with respect to itself, and it is more specific with regard to its people.

Eemaan in the language is at-tasdeeq (to believe, to attest with the heart).

He the Most High, said upon the tongue of the brothers of Yoosuf:

 وَمَا أَنتَ بِمُؤْمِنٍ لَّنَا

Meaning: you won’t believe us. (12:17)

As for [the meaning of] eemaan in the legislation, then it is as explained by the people of the Sunnah and Jamaa`ah:

Speech of the tongue, belief of the heart, and action of the limbs.
It increases with obedience, and it decreases through sin.

It is with this explanation, a reality relating to the legislation, because realities are three: a reality which relates to the language, a reality with regards to the legislation, and a reality relating to people’s custom.

So the explanation of eemaan with this explanation is a reality relating to the legislation. So, eemaan moves from the meaning in language to the meaning in Islaamic legislation.

So, eemaan is: speech upon the tongue – there has to be speech and acknowledgment with the tongue. And it is belief in the heart, when a person speaks upon his tongue, he must be believing it in his heart, otherwise he will be just like the hypocrites, those who: 

 يَقُولُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِم مَّا لَيْسَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ

They say with their tongues that which is not in their hearts. [48:11]

And speech upon the tongue, and belief in the heart will not suffice, rather there must be action on the limbs also, and carrying out the obligatory duties is essential, and avoiding the prohibitions. So the person does the acts of obedience and he avoids the forbidden acts, all of this is from eemaan. With this definition, it comprises the whole of the religion. However, these acts of obedience and these many legislated duties, some of them are a part of the reality of eemaan, and some of them are things which are a completion of eemaan.

Eemaan has pillars and branches, and the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam explained them in two hadeeth. He explained the arkaan (pillars) of eemaan in the hadeeth of Jibreel, and he explained the branches of eemaan in the hadeeth of «Eemaan is seventy and odd branches». This will follow in shaa’ Allaah.

Eemaan and Islaam, if they are mentioned together, then each of them has its own meaning. When only one of them is mentioned, then it enters along with the other. If they are mentioned together, then Islaam is explained to be the outward actions, and they are the five pillars of Islaam, and eemaan is explained to be the inward actions which are the six pillars, and their places are in the heart. All of these must be found together in a Muslim. The Muslim must be one who has eemaan and who establishes the pillars of Islaam and the pillars of eemaan – he must gather all of them.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

»الإيمان بضع وسبعون شعبة ، أو بضع وستون شعبة«

«Eemaan is of seventy and odd branches, or sixty and odd branches.» There are two narrations.

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (9) with the wording «sixty and odd» and Muslim (35) with both wordings from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radi Allaahu `anhu.]

His saying «odd»: it is a number between three and nine. So if it is said: «ten and odd,» then it means a number between thirteen until nineteen, and if it is said «odd» on its own, then it means something between three and nine.

His saying «branches»: a branch is a part of the thing, meaning that the pillars have seventy and odd parts or sections.

His saying «the highest one of them»: meaning: the highest of the branches is the saying Laa ilaaha illaAllaah.  It is the head of Islaam and it is the head of eemaan, it is the first pillar, and it is the entry point of the religion.

His saying «the lowest one of them»: meaning: the last of them and the least one of them.

His saying «removing that which is harmful from the path»: meaning: removing that which is harmful from the path which is walked upon. And «that which is harmful» is everything which causes harm to the people, whether it be thorns, rocks, filthy things or refuse, everything which causes harm to people upon their path. And placing that which is harmful upon their path is forbidden, because the path is for those who wish to precede upon it, and harm impedes those who want to proceed, or puts them in danger, such as stopping his car upon the road, this is from causing harm – and letting water flow out from the house unto the path, this is from harm – and putting rubbish upon the pathway, this is from causing harm, whether it be upon the road, the town, or in the countryside – placing a rock, pieces of timber, iron upon the pathways of the people, digging holes in the roads of the people – all of this is from causing harm. So if a Muslim comes and removes this harm, and clears the path of it, then this is a proof for his eemaan. So, placing that which is harmful upon the path is from the branches of kufr, and removing harm from the path is from the branches of eemaan.

His saying «al-hayaa (true sense of shame is a branch of eemaan)»: al-hayaa is a characteristic which Allaah places in a person which leads him to carry out whatever will beautify and adorn him; and which prevents him from things which will contaminate and disfigure him. And al-hayaa which leads a person to perform that which is good, and to withhold from that which is evil is praiseworthy. As for shame or shyness which prevents a person from doing something good, from seeking knowledge, and from asking about things which are a problem to his understanding, then this is blameworthy shyness. This is because it is blameworthy embarrassment.

And the pillars of eemaan are many as you have come to know there are seventy and odd. Al-Imaam al-Bayhaqee wrote a large work in which he mentioned the branches of eemaan, it has an abridgment which has been printed.

From the proofs of the scholars that eemaan is speech upon the tongue, belief in the heart and action on the limbs is his saying sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam:

» أعلاها لا إله إلا الله «

« The highest of them is none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah. » This is a proof for sayings. And his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam:

» أدناها إماطة الأذى عن الطريق «

« And removal of that which is harmful from the path » is an action. It proves that actions are from eemaan. And his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam:

» الحياء شعبة من الإيمان «

« al-hayaa is a branch from eemaan .» This is something in the heart, al-hayaa is in the heart. This is a proof that eemaan is sayings upon the tongue, belief in the heart, and actions upon the limbs.

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Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 29
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the Proof for the testification that ‘Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah’ is His saying:

لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُم بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ

There has indeed come to you a Messenger from Allaah from amongst yourselves; it grieves him that you undergo suffering. He is eager and anxious for your guidance and he is full of compassion and mercy for the believers. [9:128] 37


[37] : Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

The first pillar of the pillars of Islaam is composed of two matters:

  1. The first: The testification Laa ilaaha illaAllaah (none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah).
  2. The second: The testification ‘Muhammadan rasoolullaah‘ (Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah).

So these two are a single pillar. The first part means making ones worship purely and sincerely. And the second part means following the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.

The proof for the testification that ‘Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah’ is His saying:  

لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُم بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ

There has indeed come to you a Messenger from Allaah from amongst yourselves; it grieves him that you undergo suffering. He is eager and anxious for your guidance and he is full of compassion and mercy for the believers. [9:128]

And the proofs for the testification that ‘Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah’ are many in the Book and the Sunnah, as well as the amazing miracles which prove his sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam‘s Messenger-ship.

And from the Book is this aayah:

لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُم بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ

There has indeed come to you a Messenger from Allaah from amongst yourselves; it grieves him that you undergo suffering. He is eager and anxious for your guidance and he is full of compassion and mercy for the believers. [9:128]

So this is a witness from Allaah for this Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, for his Messenger-ship and it is an description of his characteristics.

His saying, He the Most High:

لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ

There has indeed come to you. [9:128]

The ‘Laam’ is a Laam to indicate an oath. So therefore, it carries along with it an oath which is understood (in the meaning) and is taken to be wallaahi (by Allaah) ‘there has certainly come to you.’

قَدْ

is a particle for confirmation and emphasis.

جَاءَكُمْ

He has come to you. [9:128]

O Mankind! This is an address to the whole of mankind, because his sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam‘s Messenger-ship was general to all of the thaqalayn (two species), mankind and jinn.

رَسُولٌ

A Messenger. [9:128]

He was one who had a revealed law sent to him by revelation and he was commanded to convey it. He was called a Messenger because he was mursal (sent) with a Message by Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ

From your own selves. [9:128]

From your own species and your own type, from human-kind. He was not an angel from the angels. And this was the Way of Allaah the Perfect and Most High – that He would send to mankind, Messengers from them, in order to make their affair clear and in order for them to speak with them and because they would know them. If He had sent, as a Messenger to them, an angel, they would have not been able to speak with him because he would have not been from their type of being. Also, they would have not be able to see the angel, because he would have not been from their type of being. So from His Mercy, He the Perfect and Most High, is that He sent as a Messenger to mankind a Messenger from their own type. Indeed he was from the Arabs, and from the most noble of the houses of the Arabs in lineage, from the tribe of Baanee Haashim, who are the most honorable in lineage of Quraysh, and Quraysh are the most honorable of the Arabs in lineage.

So, he was the specially chosen from the best of people. They knew him and they knew of his personality, his lineage, tribe, and his town. If they had not known him, then how could they attest to his truthfulness? And if he came with other than their language, then how could they understand his speech?

عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ

It grieves him greatly that you should suffer. [9:128]

His saying:

عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ

Meaning: It troubled him sallallaahu‘alaihiwasallam.

مَا عَنِتُّمْ

Meaning: Whatever troubles you.

Meaning: Inconvenience and hardship. The Messenger sallallaahu‘alaihiwasallam was troubled by whatever caused trouble to his nation. He had not used to want hardship for them. Rather, he wanted ease and easiness. And therefore, his revealed law sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam came as something easy and easy-going.

He, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said:

بعثت بالحنيفية السمحة

I was sent with the Straight and true religion; the religion of ease.[1] [2]

[1] Ahmad (5/266). [2] Reported by Ahmad 23/623 (22291) from the hadeeth of Abu Umaamah Al-Baahilee, radiallaahu ‘anhu. [Shaikh Al-Albaanee declared this hadeeth as strong in As-Saheehah no. 2924]

He the Most High said:

وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ

And He did not place upon you any hardship in the religion. [22:78]

And He said:

مَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ حَرَجٍ

Allaah does not wish to place any hardship upon you. [5:6]

So His revealed Way is easy, it goes along with the capability of the people and with what those given duties, are able to do, and it does not burden them with things they are not capable of. Therefore, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam used to love to make things easy for them. He was never given a choice between two matters except that he chose the easiest one of the two as long as it was not sinful. He used to love to perform an action but he would leave it out of compassion for his Nation. He would leave the action even though he loved it, from the righteous deeds in order that he should not put difficulty upon his nation. These were from his characteristics, that whatever caused difficulty for his nation was a difficulty he felt himself, and he would become pleased with whatever was pleasing to them, and he would be joyful with whatever caused them to be joyful.

Whoever has these as his characteristics, then there is no doubt that he will not bring except that which is khayr (good) and Rahmah (mercy), sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. 

حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُم

He is eager and anxious for you. [9:128]

Meaning: For your guidance and that you are taken out from the darkness into the light. Therefore, he himself bore difficulty in calling the people, seeking that they should be guided, and seeking to take them out from darkness into light to such an extent that Allaah said to him:

لَعَلَّكَ بَاخِعٌ نَّفْسَكَ أَلَّا يَكُونُوا مُؤْمِنِينَ

Perhaps you will destroy yourself with grief that they are not believing. [26:3]

Meaning: Perhaps you would bring about your own destruction that they do not believe, because of grief. So do not grieve for them. And this was from the completeness of his sincerity, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. 

He was compassionate and merciful towards the believers. [9:128]

Meaning: ra’oof is from ra’fah (compassion), and it means tenderness and kindness.

Meaning: He described him with Rahmah (mercy), so he was not harsh. 

فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لَانفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ

So by mercy from Allaah you were gentle with them, and if you had been severe and hard-hearted, they would have dispersed from around you. [3:159]

He  sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam was humble and gentle with the believers, he would lower his wing in gentleness, and he would meet them with a smiling face, and love, affection, and fine treatment. These were from his  sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam characteristics.

Allaah mentioned five attributes for this Messenger  sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam:

  1. First: He was from amongst you.
  2. Second: He was troubled by whatever troubled you.
  3. Third: He was eager and anxious for you.
  4. Fourth: He was compassionate towards the believers.
  5. Fifth: He was merciful.

Five characteristics from the characteristics of this Prophet  sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. And compassion and mercy were mentioned specifically for the believers since he  sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam was stern upon the people of shirk and the obstinate and willful rejecters of the truth.

He would become angry for that which angered Allaah the Perfect and Most High, just as He the Most High said:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ

O Prophet! Strive against the unbelievers and the hypocrites, and be stern against them. And their dwelling place will be the Hell-Fire, what an evil destination! [9:73]

The mercy and compassion was specific for the believers. Likewise the believers are to be the same with each other.

مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah and those who are with him are stern against the unbelievers, merciful amongst themselves. [48:29]

These were his sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam characteristics.

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Breaking the Fast with Dates or Water

[Translation Source: Darussalam English Publication of Bulugh al-Maraam]

Explained by Dr. Saleh as Saleh rahimahullaah based on the explanation of Shaykh Uthaymeen rahimahullaah

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Related Links:

 

The True Meaning of “Laa ilaaha illAllaah” and It’s Explanation from the Qur’an – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 27 Part B & Lesson 28
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

ومعناها لا معبودَ بحقٍّ إلا اللهُ وحده؛ (لا إله) نافيًا جميعَ مَا يُعْبدُ مِنْ دونِ اللهِ (إلا الله) مُثْبِتًا العبادةَ له وحدَهُ لا شريكَ لهُ في عبادتِهِ، كما أنَّه ليس له شريك في مُلْكِه

And its meaning is none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah; laa ilaaha (nothing has the right to be worshipped) is a negation of everything which is worshipped besides Allaah. Illallaah (except Allaah) affirms worship for Allaah Alone, and that none is given any share of worship along with Him, just as He has no sharer in His Sovereignty.34


[34]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, “And its meaning is none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah”: the meaning of laa ilaaha illAllaah is not as is said by the people of falsehood: “there is no creator and there is no provider except Allaah”, because this is tawheed-ur-Ruboobiyyah (tawheed of Lordship), the people of shirk agreed to that, but they would not say laa ilaaha illAllaah. He the Most High said:

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا إِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ

وَيَقُولُونَ أَئِنَّا لَتَارِكُو آلِهَتِنَا لِشَاعِرٍ مَّجْنُونٍ

When it was said to them, “laa ilaaha illAllaah(none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah), they became proud, and they say, “are we to abandon worshipping our gods for a crazy poet?” [37:35-36]

“Aalihatinaa” means: those things which we worship.

لِشَاعِرٍ مَّجْنُونٍ ..

… in favour of a crazy poet?” [37:35-36]

They meant the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, they described him with poetry and madness, because he had said to them, “Say: laa ilaaha illAllaah”, and he forbade them from the worship of idols.

And when he said to them, “Say: laa ilaaha illAllaah”, they said:

أَجَعَلَ الْآلِهَةَ إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا ۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ عُجَابٌ

Has he made all of the objects of worship a single One to be worshipped? This is something very strange [38:5]

They thought that there were many gods to be worshipped.

So therefore this shows that its meaning is – nothing truly deserves worship except Allaah. Whereas if its meaning were – there is no creator and there is provider except Allaah – then they agreed to that, and they did not question it. So if that were its meaning they would not have refused to say laa ilaaha illAllaah, because they used to say when they were asked, “Who created the heavens and the earth?”, they used to say, “Allaah”. And when they were asked, “Who creates? Who gives provision? Who gives life and gives death and who controls the earth?”, they used to say , “Allaah”. They acknowledged this. So if that were the meaning of laa ilaaha illAllaah then they would have consented to it. However its meaning is, “None has the right to be worshipped except Allaah”.

If you were to say, “Nothing is worshipped except Allaah”, this would be a great error, because then all the objects of worship would be Allaah, High and Exalted is Allaah above this. Rather if you restrict it and you say, “bihaqq” (nothing is deservedly worshipped), then all the objects of worship are negated except Allaah the Perfect and Most High. You must therefore say, None has the right to be worshipped truly, meaning none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah. Then he explained that in accordance with the wording of the saying:

laa ilaaha: is a negation, it negates the right to worship from everything besides Allaah.

illAllaah: this is affirmation of worship for Allaah alone with no partner.

So laa ilaaha illAllaah includes negation and affirmation, and tawheed has to have negation and affirmation both. Affirmation alone will not suffice; and negation would not suffice on its own. There must be negation and affirmation, just as He the Most High said:

فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ

So whoever rejects the false objects of worship, and truly believes in and worships Allaah [2:256]

وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا

And worship Allaah and do not associate anything in worship along with Him [4:36]

So if you say, “Allaah is One who deserves worship”, this will not suffice, because Al-Laat is one who was worshipped, and Al-‘Uzza is one who was worshipped, and Manaat was an object of worship, all of the idols were called gods, or objects of worship. So therefore you must say, “laa ilaaha illAllaah”, none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah – there must be combination between negation and affirmation so that therefore tawheed is actualized and shirk is negated.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

: وتفسيرها الذي يوضحها قوله تعالى

And its explanation which will make it clear is His saying, He the Most High:

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ إِنَّنِي بَرَاءٌ مِّمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ

إِلَّا الَّذِي فَطَرَنِي فَإِنَّهُ سَيَهْدِينِ

وَجَعَلَهَا كَلِمَةً بَاقِيَةً فِي عَقِبِهِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

And remember when Ibraaheem said to his father and to his people “I am totally free of everything that you worship except for the One who created me, for He will guide me”. And Allaah made it a saying to persist amongst his progeny so that they might remember and return to obedience to their Lord. [43:26-28] 35


[35Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

The best thing to explain the Qur’aan is the Qur’aan. So laa ilaaha illAllaah has been explained by Allaah in the Qur’aan, and that is in the saying of His Khaleel, His specially chosen One (Ibraheem ‘alaihisalaatu wassalaam), in that which Allaah mentioned from him: 

إِنَّنِي بَرَاءٌ

I am totally free [43:26]

This is negation; it has the same meaning of laa ilaaha (none has the right to be worshipped): 

إِلَّا الَّذِي فَطَرَنِي

Except for the One who created me [43:27]

Meaning: except for Allaah. This is affirmation.

So this aayah is a complete and full explanation of the meaning of laa ilaaha illAllaah.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And His saying, He the Most High:

قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ

Say : O people of the Scripture, come to a word of justice between us that we will single out Allaah with all worship and will not worship anything else besides Him, nor will we take one another as lords besides Allaah. Then if they turn away then say bear witness that we are Muslims submitting to Allaah and making our worship purely and sincerely for him. [3:64] 36


[36]  Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

And His saying, He the Most High:

قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا

Say: O people of the Scripture, come to a word of justice between us that we will single out Allaah with all worship and will not worship anything else besides Him. [3:64]

This aayah from Soorah Aal-i-‘Imraan came down with regard to the deputation of Najraan, the Christians who came to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam and debated him and asked him questions, and a long conversation occurred between them and him. They were Christians from the Christians of the Arabs. And in the end, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam requested from them Al-Mubaahala (calling down Allaah’s curses upon whoever was lying):

 فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءَنَا وَأَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَنِسَاءَنَا وَنِسَاءَكُمْ وَأَنفُسَنَا وَأَنفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَل لَّعْنَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِينَ

Then say: Come, let us call our children and your children, our womenfolk and your womenfolk, ourselves and yourselves – then let us invoke and call down Allaah’s Curse upon the liars. [3:61]

So when he requested al-Mubaahalah (calling down curses upon the liars), they feared and they did not engage in calling down the curses along with him, ‘alaihisalaatu wassalaam. Rather, they handed over the Jizyah because they knew that they were upon falsehood, and that he was the Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.

نبتهل: Meaning, let us call the curse down upon the liar from us. They knew that they were the ones who were the liars, and if they had engaged in calling down curses, fire would have descended upon them and consumed them in their places. Therefore they said no, we won’t do so – rather, we will hand over the Jizyah (special tax) and we will not engage in calling Allaah’s curses down upon the liars. So the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam accepted the payment of Jizyah from them.  And it had become clear to them that Allaah had indeed commanded him with what was contained in this aayah.

This aayah contains the meaning of laa ilaaha illAllaah (none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah). His saying:

أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ

That we will not worship [3:64]

This is a negation. And His saying:

إِلَّا اللَّهَ

Except Allaah. [3:62]

This is affirmation.

And this is the ‘Adl (justice) for which the heavens and the earth are established. So the heavens and the earth are established upon tawheed (singling out Allaah with all worship) and upon al-‘Adl. So we do not associate anything in worship along with Him, neither with the Messiah, whom they claim is a lord and whom they worship besides Allaah, nor anyone besides the Messiah, not even Muhammad ‘alaihisalaatu wassalaam, and not any one from the Prophets, not anyone from the righteous, nor anyone from the awliyaa (beloved servants of Allaah):

أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا

That we will not worship except Allaah, and we will not associate anything at all with Him. [3:64]

وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ

And we will not take one another as lords besides Allaah. [3:64]

Meaning: Just as you (i.e. the people of the Book) have taken the Rabbis and monks as lords besides Allaah the Most High:

اتَّخَذُوا أَحْبَارَهُمْ وَرُهْبَانَهُمْ أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَالْمَسِيحَ ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا

They took their rabbis and their monks as lords besides Allaah and (they) also (took as their Lord) the Messiah, son of Maryam, and they were not commanded except that they should worship a single God. [9:31]

The taking of rabbis and monks as lords besides Allaah is something which Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam explained as being their obedience to them in declaring lawful that which Allaah has made forbidden and making forbidden that which Allaah had made lawful.[1] This is the meaning of their taking them as lords besides Allaah, since they used to declare lawful that which Allaah has made forbidden, and  declare forbidden which Allaah has made lawful. So the people obeying them upon that is taking them as Lords. This is because the One who legislates for the people and declares things to be lawful and forbidden for the people is Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا

So, if they turn away. [3:64]

Meaning: (They) do not accept the call to tawheed:

فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ

Then say: Bear witness that we are Muslims (obedient to Allaah, worshiping Him alone). [3:64]

They call them to bear witness that they were muwahiduun (people of tawheed) and that they were kuffaar (unbelievers).  So they made clear to them the falsity of what they were upon. And this aayah shows Al-Baraa’a (freeing oneself) from the religion of the people of shirk and it clearly states “(We) bear witness that we are Muslims.” This contains the obligation of clearly announcing the falsity of what the people of shirk are upon and not remaining silent about it, and of clearly announcing the falsity of shirk and of refuting its people.

In summary:

Laa ilaaha illAllaah (none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah) has two pillars, and they are:

  1. An-Nafee (negation) and
  2. Al-Ithbaat (affirmation).

So if it is said to you: What are the pillars of laa ilaaha illAllaah? Then say, negation and affirmation.

Its conditions are seven, and it (saying the shahadah) will not benefit except with these conditions; someone has written them in a line of poetry and said:

Knowledge, certainty, purity and sincerity and your being truthful

                             Along with love, compliance, and acceptance of them

1.Knowledge: Its opposite is ignorance, so the person who says Laa ilaaha illAllaah with his tongue, but is ignorant of its meaning, then laa ilaaha illAllaah will not benefit him.

2.Certainty: Such that he does not have any doubt. This is because some people may know its meaning, however, they have a doubt about it, so his knowledge is not correct. He must have certainty of laa ilaaha illAllaah and that it is true.

3.Purity and Sincerity: Its opposite is ash-Shirk. Some people say laa ilaaha illAllaah, but they do not abandon shirk as is presently the case today with the worshippers of the graves. Those people will not be benefited by (saying) laa ilaaha illAllaah because from its conditions is abandoning shirk.

4.Being truthful: Its opposite is falsehood and lying. This is because the munaafiquun say laa ilaaha illAllaah, but they are liars in their hearts; they do not believe its meaning. Allaah the Most High said:

إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ قَالُوا نَشْهَدُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُهُ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لَكَاذِبُونَ

اتَّخَذُوا أَيْمَانَهُمْ جُنَّةً

When the hypocrites come to you, they say: “We bear witness that you are the Messenger of Allaah indeed.” But Allaah knows that you are indeed His Messenger, and Allaah bears witness that the hypocrites are liars. They take their oaths as a shield to screen them. [63:1-2]

5.Love: That the person loves this saying and is an ally to its people. As for the person who does not love it or does not love its people, then it will not benefit him.

6.Compliance: It is the opposite of turning away from it and abandoning it, and it is complying with what it (this saying) indicates with regard to worshipping Allaah Alone and not associating anything with Him, and it is complying with His commands. Since you have acknowledged and have borne witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah Alone, then it becomes binding upon you to comply with His rulings and His religion. As for your saying laa ilaaha illAllaah, and you do not comply with His legislations, then laa ilaaha illAllaah will not benefit you.

7.Acceptance: Acceptance which negates Ar-Rad (rejection) – such that you do not reject anything from the rights of laa ilaaha illAllaah and whatever it indicates. Rather, you accept everything which laa ilaaha illAllaah indicates and you accept it correctly.

And an eighth condition is added:

And the eighth is added; rejecting whatever things are 

worshipped besides the One who is truly worshipped

Meaning: 8.Freeing oneself from shirk. So a person will not be a muwahid (a person of tawheed) until he frees himself from shirk. 

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ إِنَّنِي بَرَاءٌ مِّمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ

And when Ibraaheem said to his father and his people: I am totally free of whatever you worship. [43:26]

These are the conditions of laa ilaaha illAllaah – eight conditions.

Footnotes:

[1] Refer to the hadeeth of ‘Alee ibn Haatim radiy Allaahu ‘anhu that was reported by At-Tirmidhee (3095). In it Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

“They did not used to directly worship them, but rather, when they (priests or monks) declared something lawful for them, they (the people) would then declare it lawful. And when they declared something forbidden for them, they would take it as being forbidden.”

[Shaikh Al-Albaanee rahimahullaah declared this hadeeth as hasan (good)].

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Intention For Voluntary Fast – Bulugh al-Marâm | Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

BismillaahIntention For Voluntary Fast
[Translation Source: Darussalam English Publication of Bulugh al-Maraam]

Explained by Dr. Saleh as Saleh rahimahullaah based on the explanation of Shaykh Uthaymeen rahimahullaah

[Souncloud Audio Link

Related Links:

Allaah bears witness that “Lā ilāha illā Huwa”. Likewise the Angels & the people of knowledge bear witness – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 27 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

So the proof for the shahaadah (testification) is:

شَهِدَ اللَّهُ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَأُولُو الْعِلْمِ قَائِمًا بِالْقِسْطِ ۚ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

Allaah bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped but Him; and likewise the Angels and the people of knowledge bear witness. He Who maintains justice, none has the right to be worshipped but Him, the All-Mighty the All-Wise [3:18]33


[33]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, He the Most High, “He testified“: meaning He judged and He decreed and He informed and He made clear and He made it binding.

So bearing witness from Allaah revolves around these five meanings: judging and decreeing and and informing and clarifying and making binding. So the meaning of, “He testified”, is He the Perfect and Most High decreed it upon His servants and He calls them to know of it and He informed them and He made it binding upon them that none has the right to be worshipped except Him.

laa ilaaha”, (none had the right to be worshipped): this is a negating ‘laa’ which negates everything which is worshipped besides Allaah

illaahu”, (except for Him): this affirms worship for Allaah alone.

And the meaning of, “annahu laailaaha illaahu”, (none has the right to be worshipped but him): it means there is nothing that is worshipped rightfully except  Allaah the Perfect and Most High. As for those who are worshipped besides Allaah, then worship of it is false because of His saying He the Most High:

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرُ

That is because Allaah, He is the true God deserving all worship and those whom they call upon besides Him are futile and false and Allaah He is the Most High the Most Great [22:62]

He the Perfect and Most High testifies to His unity and the right to all worship and He is the most truthful One Who speaks and His bearing witness He the Perfect and Most High is the truest testification there can be because it comes from One Who is All-Wise, All-Aware, All-Knowing, he knows everything so therefore it is a testification which is true.

And the Angels“: they testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Him and they are a species of beings whom Allaah created to worship Him. They are honourable Angels, honoured servants, Allaah created them to worship Him. They declare His perfection night and day, and they never slacken. And also Allaah created them to carry out His commands in the creation, He entrusted them with implementing whatever He commanded, He the Perfect and Most High, from the affairs of the creation. So every Angel from them is entrusted with a duty. And their testification is a true testification, because they are people of knowledge, and of ‘ibaadah (worship) and of ma‘rifah (awareness) of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And they are from the most excellent of the creation, along with the point of disagreement which is are the righteous humans more excellent than the Angels, or are the Angels more excellent than the righteous humans there being disagreement about that point.

And the people of knowledge”: they are of two categories: the Angels, and the second category are the Possessors of Knowledge from mankind. And the Possessors of Knowledge do not testify except with something that is true, contrary to the case with those who are ignorant people, for their testification is not counted. And every species from the creation of Allaah bears witness for Allaah of His Unity and that none has the right to be worshipped but Him. And this is a case of showing the honour and nobility of the people of knowledge since Allaah joined their testification along with His testification, He the Perfect and Most High, and with the testification of His Angels. He counted the testification of the people of knowledge from the creation, and this shows their excellence and their nobility and their status, and they are testifying to the greatest matter that can be testified to, and it is at-Tawheed.

And what is meant by the Possessors of Knowledge – are the people of knowledge of the Legislation (i.e. Islamic knowledge), not as is said by some people that people of knowledge means the people of industry and agriculture, so those people, it is not said about them that they are People of Knowledge unrestrictedly, because their knowledge is limited in scope and is restricted, rather it is to be said, “this person is knowledgeable about arithmetic, this person is knowledgeable about engineering, this person is knowledgeable about medicine”, but it is not said about them that they are the People of Knowledge unrestrictedly. Because this term is not used unrestrictedly except for the people who have Islamic knowledge. And also most of those people are people who have only worldly knowledge, and amongst them are atheists whose knowledge mostly only increases them in ignorance concerning Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and in self delusion and in atheism as you can see today in the disbelieving nations, that they are advanced with regards to industries and with regards to agriculture, however they are disbelievers. So how could it be said that they are the People of Knowledge, those whom Allaah has mentioned in His saying, “and the Possessors of Knowledge”. This is not at all feasible.

And likewise His saying:

إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ

It is only those who have Knowledge amongst His slaves that fear Allaah [35:28]

What is meant is the scholars of Islamic knowledge, those who truly know Allaah and who truly worship Him and who fear Him. As for those people, then most of them do not fear Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Rather they disbelieve in Allaah and deny Him, and they claim that the world has no Lord and that rather nature brought it about and controls it, as is the case with the communists – they reject the Lord, the Perfect and Most High, even though they have worldly knowledge. So how then could we say – those people, they are the People of Knowledge? This is an error. So the term ‘Knowledge’ is not applied unrestrictedly except to its true people, and it is a noble title which cannot be applied to atheists and disbelievers, such that it is said, “they are the people of Knowledge”.

So the Angels and the possessors of Knowledge, they bear witness to Allaah’s Unity and sole right to worship. Therefore the saying of others besides them from the atheists and the people of shirk and the Sabeans, those who disbelieve in Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, is not counted. Those people, they are not counted, neither they nor their saying, because it is something contrary to the testification of Allaah and the testification of His Angels and the testification of those possessing knowledge from His Creation.

And His saying,Qaa’imam bil-Qist, (maintaining justice): this phrase is in the accusative case indicating a state along with, ‘He bore witness’ – meaning whilst establishing justice, He the Perfect and Most High. And the word, “al-Qist”, means al-‘adl (justice) – meaning Allaah the Perfect and Most High establishes justice in everything, and al-‘adl (justice) is the opposite of al-jawr (injustice), and He the Perfect and Most High is a just judge, nothing but justice comes from Him in everything.

Laa ilaaha illahu”, (none has the right to be worshipped but Him): this emphasizes the first sentence.

Al-‘Azeez-ul-Hakeem”, (the Almighty the All-Wise): these are two Names of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, comprising two Attributes from His Attributes, and they are al-‘Izzah (Might) and al-Hikmah (Wisdom).

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

The Meaning of Ad-Deen Al-Islam (The Religion of Islam), its Levels and Pillars – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 25 Part D & Lesson 26
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Second Fundamental Principle: Knowledge of the Religion of Islaam 

The Definition of the Religion (Ad-Deen)

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

الأصلُ الثَّاني: معرفةُ دينِ الإسلامِ بالأدلةِ

The second fundamental principle: knowledge of the religion of Islaam with its proofs.27


[27]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

The Shaikh, having finished explaining knowledge of the first fundamental principle, which was knowledge of Allaah the Perfect and Most High, with the evidences, he now moves on to explaining the second fundamental principle, and it is knowledge of the religion of Islaam with the proofs.

So therefore he said, “The second fundamental principle: knowledge and awareness of the religion of Islaam with the proofs.” Then he mentioned its definition and he explained its meaning and then he mentioned its levels.

And his saying rahimahullaah, “knowledge of the Deen of Islaam”. Ad-Deen – it means obedience, for it is said about a person, daana lahu, when he obeys him with regard to what he commanded, and he abandons what he forbade.

And the word Ad-Deen is used to mean al-Hisaab (bringing to account or reckoning), just as occurs in His saying:

مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ

The Sovereign Owner of the Day of Reckoning [1:4]

And it is said, “daanahu”, meaning he brought him to account, just as He the Most High said:

وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ

ثُمَّ مَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ

And what will cause you to understand what is the Day of the Reckoning? Then what will cause you to understand what is the Day of the Reckoning? [82:17-18]

Meaning: the Day of the Reckoning.

يَوْمَ لَا تَمْلِكُ نَفْسٌ لِّنَفْسٍ شَيْئًا ۖ وَالْأَمْرُ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلَّهِ

On the Day when no soul will possess any benefit for any other soul, and the whole affair on that Day will be for Allaah. [82:19]

His saying, “with the proofs”, meaning: knowledge of the religion of Islaam cannot be by way of blind following, or by way of conjecture from the person. The religion must be based upon proofs from the Book and the Sunnah. As for the person who does not know his religion, rather he just blindly follows the rest of the people and he is just a follower of whatever the rest of the people do, then this person does not know his religion as he should, and it is quite appropriate that when he is asked in the grave, that he should say:

هاه ، هاه ، لا أدري ، سمعت الناس يقولون شي ئا فقلته

“Haa, Haa, I do not know. I heard the people saying something, so I said it.”

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (1338) and by Muslim (2870) in abridged form from a hadeeth of Anas radiy Allaah ‘anhu. The full version of the hadeeth is reported by Aboo Daawood (4753) from a hadeeth of al-Baraa’ ibn ‘Aazib radiy Allaah‘ anhu.]

So it is obligatory on a person that he should gain knowledge and awareness of his religion with the proofs from the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, and he will not know this except through learning.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

وهو الاستسلامُ له بالتوحيدِ، والانقيادِ له بالطاعةِ، والبراءةُُ مِنَ الشِّركِ وأهلِهِ

And it is to submit to Him with tawheed and to yield to Him with obedience and to free oneself from shirk and its people.28


[28]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Islaam is derived from, “aslama lish-shay”, meaning he submitted to it. As it is said in the language, “aslama nafsahu lilqatl”, (he submitted himself to being killed)”, meaning that he submitted to being killed. So a person did islaam of himself, means that he submitted to that thing.

So therefore Islaam is submitting one’s face and one’s purpose and resolve and one’s intention to Him, he the Mighty and Majestic.

وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ دِينًا مِّمَّنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ وَاتَّبَعَ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا

And who is better in religion than one who submits his face to Allaah and he is the doer of the good which Allaah legislated and he follows the religious way of Ibraaheem, upright and upon his way, turning away from shirk [4:125]

بَلَىٰ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ

Rather whoever submits his face to Allaah [2:112]

Meaning: he makes his deeds purely and sincerely for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and he yields to Allaah obediently and by choice and with desire and out of love.

Submitting to Allaah with tawheed”: and it is to single out Allaah the majestic and most high with worship, and this is the meaning of tawheed. So whoever worships Allaah alone without attributing a partner to Him, then he has indeed submitted to Him.

His saying, “And yielding to Him, He the Perfect with obedience“: regarding whatever He has commanded you with and whatever He has forbidden you from. So whatever He commanded you with then you do it and whatever He forbids you from then you avoid it, in obedience to Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

His saying, “and freeing oneself from shirk and its people“: freeing oneself means cutting off from and separating from and being far removed from shirk and from the people of shirk, such that you believe the falsity of shirk and keep away from it. And you believe in the obligation of having enmity towards the people of shirk because they are enemies to Allaah, the mighty and majestic, so therefore you do not take them as beloved friends and allies, rather you take them as enemies because they are enemies to Allaah and to his Messenger and to His religion so therefore you do not have love for them and you do not have love and alliance with them rather you cut off from them with regard to the religion and you distance yourself from them and you believe in the falseness of what they are upon so therefore you do not love then with your heart and you do not aid them with your sayings and your actions, because they are enemies to your Lord, and enemies to your religion so how can you have love and alliance with them when they are enemies of Islaam?

It is not sufficient that you submit to Allaah and yield to him with obedience but do not free yourself from shirk and nor from the people of shirk, this will not suffice, you will not be counted as being a Muslim until you have these characteristics:

  • Firstly: submitting to Allaah with tawheed.
  • Secondly: yielding to him with obedience
  • Thirdly: freeing oneself from that which opposes tawheed and that which opposes obedience and it is shirk.
  • Fourthly: freeing oneself from the people of shirk.

By actualizing these characteristics you will be a Muslim, as for if you miss out on a single characteristic from them then you will not be a Muslim. So in these three words the Shaikh summarized the definition of Islaam and how many a person does not know the meaning of Islaam because he has not learned this thing, and if it were said to him, “What is Islaam?“, he will not give you a correct response.


The Levels of the Religion 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

وهو ثلاثُ مراتبَ: الإسلامُ، والإيمانُ، والإحسانُ 

And it is of three levels: Al-Islaam,29 Al-Eemaan and Al-Ihsaan 30


[29]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

The meaning of levels is ascending levels because we have said Islaam is of three levels, some of them being higher than others. The first level from the levels of the religion is Islaam, then after it comes eemaan, then after it comes ihsaan. So therefore Islaam is broader, and eemaan is something more restricted than Islaam, and ihsaan is more restricted than eemaan.

So the sphere of Islaam is wide, the hypocrites, they enter within it if they outwardly comply with Islaam and they outwardly display it and they outwardly adhere to it. If they pray along with the Muslims and they give the zakaat and they do the outward actions, then they are called Muslims and the rulings of the Muslims apply upon them in this world, so they have whatever the Muslims have and upon them will be whatever is upon the Muslims. However in the Hereafter they will be in the lowest depths of the fire because they do not have eemaan rather they just have outward apparent Islaam only.


[30]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, “Al-Eemaan“: this is the second level, and the people who have eemaan they vary in their levels so from them are Al-Muqarraboon (those who draw especially close through good deeds), and from them are Al-Abraar (the righteous ones). Al-Muqarraboon – they are the people of the highest of the levels, and Al-Abraar are lesser than them, and from them there are those who are the person who is one who wronged himself, and he is the one who commits major sins which are less than shirk. Then he is a sinful believer or he is a believer who is deficient in eemaan.

He the Most High said:

ثُمَّ أَوْرَثْنَا الْكِتَابَ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَيْنَا مِنْ عِبَادِنَا ۖ فَمِنْهُمْ ظَالِمٌ لِّنَفْسِهِ وَمِنْهُم مُّقْتَصِدٌ وَمِنْهُمْ سَابِقٌ بِالْخَيْرَاتِ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَضْلُ الْكَبِيرُ

Then we gave the Scripture as inheritance to those whom we chose from our servants. So from them are those who wrong themselves and from them are those who take a middle course and from them are those who are foremost upon good deeds by the permission of Allaah, and that is the great bounty [35:32]

His saying, “Al-Ihsaan”: this is the third level and it is Al-Ihsaan, and it is that the servant does well with regards to what is between him and Allaah, he does well in the worship of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And the Prophet sallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam mentioned Al-Ihsaan:

الإحسان أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه ، فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه يراك

“Al-Ihsaan is that you worship Allaah as if you are seeing him and even though you do not see him then he certainly sees you”

[A part of the long hadeeth reported by al-Bukhaaree (50) and by Muslim (9 and 10) from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiy Allaahu ‘anhu]

Meaning: you have certain knowledge that Allaah sees you wherever you may be.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

وكلُّ مرتبةٍ لها أركانٌ

And every level has pillars.31


[31]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, “and every level has pillars“: pillars is the plural of a pillar, and it is that which something stands upon.

So the pillars of something are its aspects which it stands upon, and it cannot stand without them, and they are within the thing itself, contrary to conditions, for they are outside the thing. For example the conditions of the prayer then they are outside the prayer and come before it. And as for the pillars of the prayer, then they are inside it such as the initial takbeer of the prayer and the recitation of al-Faatihah, so if anything from them is missing, then the prayer will not be correct, just as if there was something missing from the pillars which hold up a building then it will not stand and will not be supported.


The pillars of Islaam

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

فأركانُ الإسلامِ خمسةٌ: شهادةُ أنْ لا إله إلاّ اللهُ، وأنَّ محمدًا رسولُ اللهِ، وإقامُ الصلاةِ، وإيتاءُ الزكاةِ، وصومُ رمضانَ، وحجُّ بيتِ اللهِ الحرامِ

So the pillars of Islaam are five, the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and establishing the prayer, and giving the zakaat and fasting Ramadaan and performing Hajj to Allaah’s sacred house 32


[32]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Islaam will not stand except with these pillars, if they are missing than Islaam will not be upright and the rest of the acts of obedience are matters of completion for these pillars. All the actions of obedience and all good deeds are all actions of completion of these pillars and therefore when Jibreel ‘alaihissalaam asked Allaah’s Messenger sallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam in the presence of the Companions saying:

أخبرني عن الإسلام ، قال : الإسلام أن تشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله ، وتقيم الصلاة ، وتؤتي الزكاة ، وتصوم رمضان ، وتحج البيت إن استطعت إليه سبيلا

“Inform me about Islaam. He replied: Islaam is that you bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and that you establish the prayer and that you give the zakaat and that you fast Ramadaan and that you perform Hajj to the house if you are able to make your way to it”

So he explained Islaam to be these five pillars, however the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar makes it clear that these five are the foundations of Islaam so he sallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

بني الإسلام على خمس

“Islaam is built upon five” 

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (8) and by Muslim (16) from a hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar radiy Allaahu ‘anhu ]

Meaning: that these five are not the whole of Islaam rather they are its pillars and its foundations which it rests upon and the rest of the legislated matters are things which perfect and complete these pillars.

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Breaking Fast When Hardship During Travel – Bulugh al-Marâm | Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

BismillaahBreaking Fast When Hardship During TravelBreaking Fast When Hardship During TravelBreaking Fast When Hardship During Travel
[Translation Source: Darussalam English Publication of Bulugh al-Maraam]

Explained by Dr. Saleh as Saleh rahimahullaah based on the explanation of Shaykh Uthaymeen rahimahullaah

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Do not fast on the Day of Doubt Concerning the Start of Ramadân – Bulugh al-Marâm | Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Bismillaah
Do not fast on the Day of Doubt (Ramadhan)Do not fast on the Day of Doubt (Ramadhan) - Footnotes

[Translation Source: Darussalam English Publication of Bulugh al-Maraam]

Explained by Dr. Saleh as Saleh rahimahullaah based on the explanation of Shaykh Uthaymeen rahimahullaah

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Applying Kohl (Ithmid) While Fasting in Ramadhan – Bulugh al-Marâm | Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

BismillaahKohl-Fasting-Bulugh al Maraam

[Translation Source: Darussalam English Publication of Bulugh al-Maraam]

Explained by Dr. Saleh as Saleh rahimahullaah based on the explanation of Shaykh Uthaymeen rahimahullaah

[Souncloud Audio Link

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Bad Deeds While Fasting – Bulugh al-Marâm | Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

BismillaahBad Deeds while Fasting

[Translation Source: Darussalam English Publication of Bulugh al-Maraam]

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Unintentional Eating or Drinking While Fasting – 3 Cases (Forgetfulness, Ignorance, Compulsion) – Bulugh al-Marâm | Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

 

BismillaahUnintentional Eating or Drinking While Fasting – Bulugh al-Marâm

Footnote:
[2] We are thus informed that the eating or drinking out of forgetfulness does nor invalidate fasting. Neither one is obliged to observe a compensational fast (Al-Qadâ) nor pay any expiation.
[Translation Source: Darussalam English Publication of Bulugh al-Maraam]

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Hastening To Break the Fast – Bulugh al-Marâm | Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

BismillaahHastening To Break the Fast

Footnote:
[4] As long as one is absolutely sure about the setting of the sun, he must not delay breaking his fast, as a delayed breaking of fast is the practice of Jews and Christians.

[Translation Source: Darussalam English Publication of Bulugh al-Maraam]

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Smelling or applying liquid-based perfumes or incense while Fasting – Ibn Baz & Uthaymeen

BismillaahThe ruling on using Perfume and Incense during Ramadhan

Question:

Is it permissible to use perfume, like Uud oil, cologne and incense, during the month of Ramadhan?

Answer:

Yes it is permissible to use it under the condition that one does not inhale the incense smoke

Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz
Fatawa Islamiyah Page n. 265 Vol: 2
DarusSalam English Publication


The ruling on using Perfume during the Daytime in Ramadhan

Question:

What is the ruling of the fasting person using perfumed fragrances during the daytime in Ramadhan?

Answer:

There is no harm in using them during the daytime in Ramadhan and inhaling them, except for the incense smoke. The person should not inhale it because it has smoke substance to it that reaches the stomach, which is the smoke.

Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-`Uthaymeen
Fatawa Islamiyah Page no. 264 Vol: 2
DarusSalam English Publication


A Fasting Person Using Perfumes

Question:

What is the ruling on a fasting person using perfumes?

Answer:

There is no objection to a fasting person using them during the daytime in Ramadan or sniffing them, apart from incense, which he should not sniff, because it has some substance which reaches the stomach, and that is the smoke.

Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-`Uthaymeen
Fatawa Arkaanul-Islaam, Vol.2, p.664
DarusSalam English Publication


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