The Religion of Islam is appropriate for every time, place, and condition – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

Allah says:

لِمَن شَاءَ مِنكُمْ أَن يَسْتَقِيمَ

For whoever wills among you to take the straight path (Surah al-Takwir Verse 28)

Here, the Arabic noun for the verb used is اِسْتِقَامَة (istiqāmah) which means “moderation.” And there is nothing more moderate or just than the justice found within Allah’s legislated religion. Previous legislations were suitable for earlier nations, appropriate for their time, place, and circumstances. Likewise, after the mission of the messenger Muhammad ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ), the legislation he brought is suitable and applicable to those to whom he was sent – everyone from the beginning of his mission until the end of this world.

There is a well-known saying in our religion: The religion of Islam is suitable and ensures the well-being of every time, place, and circumstance. When people stick to it, Allah corrects the affairs of creation.

Consider that a person is instructed to pray standing. If he is unable to stand, then sitting, and if unable to sit, he may pray lying down. In this way, the religion is suitable and easily applied—and progressive—according to the circumstances of each individual. This religion is appropriate for every time, place, and condition. Similarly, someone who washes for prayer may use water if he is able or has it. Otherwise, he may use clean sand or even pray without washing at all. This is because Allah’s religious legislation, all of it, is based on moderation and justice. There is no unfairness, discrimination, oppression, strictness or hardship in it. For this reason, Allah refers to it as “ the straight path ” .

The opposite of this istiqāmah, this moderation or “straightness,” is deviation – deviation to the side of extremism and intolerance or deviation to the side of negligence and slackness. So people follow three different paths regarding the religion of Allah: 1) the path of extremism, intolerance, or extravagance; 2) the path of negligence and carelessness, and 3) the path of moderation between the two extremes. This third path is the ” the straight path ” , the praiseworthy manner of following the religion of Allah.

As for the first and second paths, extremism and negligence, both lead to destruction. They destroy their followers with excessiveness or negligence. For example, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) forbade people from going to the extreme of intolerance and harshness; he said:

هَلَكَ الْمُتَنَطِّعُونَ ، هَلَكَ الْمُتَنَطِّعُونَ ، هَلَكَ الْمُتَنَطِّعُونَ

The harsh ones are destroyed, the harsh ones are destroyed, the harsh ones are destroyed.[54]

Harshness brings about hardship and causes people to leave the religion of Allah ( عزّ وجلّ ). The other extreme, that of negligence and carelessness, has also been criticized. Allah says, describing the hypocrites:

وَإِذَا قَامُوا إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ قَامُوا كُسَالَىٰ يُرَاءُونَ النَّاسَ وَلَا يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

And when they stand up for prayer, they stand with laziness and (only) to be seen of men, and they do not remember Allah but little. [Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:142]

The religion of Allah is one of moderation, between extremism and negligence, and this is why Allah says:

“For whoever wills among you to take the straight path”.

Whoever wills to take this path, let him not deviate right or left. He should constantly remain straight on his religion.

As for this “straightness” as it relates to behaving with the creator—which is to worship him alone—it also relates to one’s behavior with his creation. So your character toward people should be between these two extremes. Neither be harsh, intolerant, and overly strict; nor be careless, or behave as inferior or feeble. Rather, behave with seriousness though with leniency toward others.

Some scholars used to advise judges to be lenient yet without weakness, strong yet without harshness. One’s leniency and gentleness should not lead him to become weak, yet one’s strength should not lead him to behave harshly with others. Instead, a person should be lenient but not weak, strong without harshness so that he achieves moderation in all his affairs. You find some people always acting rough, inflexible, or confrontational as if he is above everyone else. This is wrong. Others you see them among people as if they were worthless, so humble that they belittle themselves. They behave totally indifferent or as if they have no dignity. This is also wrong.

People should be between the two extremes as was the guidance and character of the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ). He was tough in situations which called for that, gentle when gentleness was appropriate. So we should try to behave with others with seriousness and determination yet also with leniency and mercy.

Footnotes:

[54] Collected by Muslim. Imam al-Nawawī, in his explanation of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, explained the Arabic word in the ḥadīth المُتَنَطِّعُوْن (al-Mutanaṭṭi’ūn), to mean, “The extremists who go beyond the limits in their statements and actions.” In another ḥadīth collected by Muslim, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ رَفِيقٌ يُحِبُّ الرِّفْقَ ، وَيُعْطِي عَلَى الرِّفْقِ مَا لا يُعْطِي عَلَى الْعُنْفِ

Indeed, Allah is gentle and loves gentleness. He gives due to gentleness that which he does not give due to harshness.

Source:  Explaining Sūrah al-Takwīr – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison

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The Issue of Freewill & Allaah’s statement “You do not will unless Allah wills” – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

لِمَن شَاءَ مِنكُمْ أَن يَسْتَقِيمَ

For whoever wills among you to take the straight path (Surah al-Takwir Verse 28)

For whoever wills” is connected to what came before it, “It is only a reminder to the worlds, for whoever among you wills to take the straight path“. As for those who choose not to take the straight path, they neither accept the reminder, nor do they gain any benefit from it. Allah says about those who do accept the reminder:

إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَذِكْر َ لِمَن كَانَ لَهُ قَلْبٌ أَوْ أَلْقَى السَّمْعَ وَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ

In that is surely a reminder for whoever has a heart or listens while he is heedful. [Sūrah Qāf, 50:37]

For anyone who does not want to take this straight path, there is no way to benefit such a person with this Qur’an.

The Issue of Freewill:

Here is a question: Do people actually have freewill to do as they choose? Yes, people have the freedom to choose as they will. Allah (عزّ وجل) has allowed each person the freedom of choice and freewill; if he wants, he does something, if not he does not do it.

If this were not the case—if people had no freewill—then anyone to whom the messengers were sent would have an excuse against Allah to plead (because they disbelieved): “We had no choice in the matter.”

So yes, people certainly have the freedom to act on their choices. Each individual knows that if he decides, for example, to visit Mecca, Medina, or some other place, it is by his choice. Anytime a person makes a choice, it is by his own decision. He neither feels others force his choice on him or force him to prefer one thing over another.

Similarly, if an individual chooses to obey Allah, it is by his own choice. And should someone choose to commit a sin, it is also by his own choice. So people do have freewill yet we know with total certainty that people will never “will,” or actually make something happen (including his own actions), unless Allah has willed it to happen before it happens. For this reason, after “For whoever wills among you to take the straight path” Allah then clarifies: “And you do not will unless Allah wills“.

We do not will for anything to happen unless Allah has already allowed it to happen. So when anything happens, we know Allah has obviously allowed it to take place. If Allah had not allowed it to happen, we could not have willed it to occur ourselves as Allah  (تعالى) says:

وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا اقْتَتَلَ الَّذِينَ مِن بَعْدِهِم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ وَلَكِنِ اخْتَلَفُوا فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ آمَنَ وَمِنْهُم مَّن كَفَرَ ۖ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا اقْتَتَلُوا

If Allah had willed, those (generations) succeeding them would not have fought each other after the clear proofs had come to them. But they differed, so some of them believed and some of them disbelieved. And if Allah had willed, they would not have fought each other. [Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:253]

So after we have done anything, we know we chose to do it based on our will and choice, but we also know that this occurred by the will of Allah (عزّ وجل), If he had not willed it, we would not have accomplished it.

Now we come to another question: Based on the points above, we then have an excuse to commit sins because whatever happens, Allah allows it and has willed it. We say no, we have no justification for sinning because we have no way of knowing whether Allah has willed something or not until after we have done the deed – after we have chosen to do it. We cannot say, “Allah has willed this for me,” until the sin has already taken place. So once the sin does take place, once it is committed, why was it committed? Because of our freewill and our choice to do it. Therefore, sinners have no justification or excuse before Allah. He nullifies this claim by saying:

سَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا أَشْرَكْنَا وَلا آبَاؤُنَا وَلا حَرَّمْنَا مِن شَيْءٍ ۖ كَذَلِكَ كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ حَتَّى ذَاقُوا بَأْسَنَا 

Those who associated others (in worship) with Allah will say, “If Allah had willed, we would not have associated partners with him, nor would our fathers, and we would not have forbidden anything (against his will).” Likewise, those before them denied until they tasted our punishment. [Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:148]

If they had any justification for making their Shirk (worshipping others with Allah), then they would not have been punished by Allah; they would have been spared the punishment. But they had no right or excuse to worship others, so they were punished. As another example, consider that if someone were informed about a land, safe and peaceful, with sufficient provision and affluence for everyone, everywhere and with successful commerce and a strong economy not found in another land. At the same time, the person is also told of a land where people constantly fear for their lives, live in chaos, having no reliable economy, no law and order, no guaranteed safety for anyone. To which land would he choose to travel? Of course, he travels to the first land and he does not imagine someone, somewhere has forced him to make his decision. He chose the first land based on his own determination and freewill.

We have before us now a similar choice: a path to good and a path leading to evil. Allah has already clearly simplified the two for us: this is the path to Paradise, this one to Hell.

In addition, he explained some of what is waiting for us in Paradise of blessings and enjoyment and some punishments that await us in the fire. Which path do we take? Clearly, we would choose the path to Paradise just like we would choose to move to the peaceful land over the land in turmoil. Had we chosen the path to the fire, we alone would have justifiably been to blame. We would have made the worst, most foolish choice just as if we had decided to move to the land of fear and instability. Everyone would understandably hold us responsible for our own choice.

Therefore, in Allah’s statement “For whoever wills among you“, he confirms that each individual has the choice and will to decide his actions; he has freewill. Still, we know that even before we do or will anything, once it has happened, we know full well that Allah willed it to happen. Otherwise, it would not have occurred.

Many times, people become determined to do something, yet at the last minute they find themselves unable to do it for whatever reason. This is because Allah did not will such an action to take place. For example, we may decide to go to the mosque to attend a lecture, yet on our way there, we may then remember we have some other obligations which prevent us from attending.

As a final example, it is said that a common Bedouin, knowing little about the details of religion, was asked, “How do you know you have a Lord?” he answered, “By unfulfilled determination and changes in plans.” In other words, a person may be fully determined to do something, completely resolved and able to do it. Yet, something totally contradictory to his intentions occurs. Who changed his resolve? He does not think someone made him prefer something over his original decision. Instead, Allah simply did not will it to happen.

Similarly, a person may plan to do something and sets out to accomplish his plans, but he then finds within himself some reason not to carry out his plans. It may be something physically preventing him or simply a change of mind; he decides to do something else instead. All of this is from Allah (عزّ وجل).

Source : Explaining Sūrah al-Takwīr  – Shaykh Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn. Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison

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Explaining Sūrah al-Takwīr – Shaykh Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn

Bismillaah

Title: Explaining Sūrah al-Takwīr
Original Title: تفسير جزء عمّ
Original Author: Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn
Translator : Abu az-Zubayr Harrison – authentic-translations.com

Click on the below link to read or download the full article PDF:

Explaining Surah al-Takwir – Shaykh Uthaymeen [PDF] [45 Pages]

The following posts are extracted from this e-book:

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When does the first hour of the Friday prayer begin? – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

Q.316. When does the first hour of the Friday prayer begin?

A. The hours which the Messenger (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) has mentioned are five in number; he said:

Whoever bathed on Friday, performing the Ghusl of major ritual impurity (Janabah), then went (to the Masjid) in the first hour, he is like one who offers a camel as a sacrifice, and he who comes at the second hour is like one who offers a cow, and he who comes at the third hour is like one who offers a ram with horns, and he who comes at the fourth hour is like one who offers a hen, and he who comes at the fifth hour is like one who offers an egg.” [01]

So, he has divided the time from sunrise until the arrival of the Imam into five parts. Each part might be equivalent to the well known hour (i.e. 60 minutes), or the hour might be more or less, because the time changes, so the hours are five between the sunrise and the arrival of the Imam for the prayer. It begins from sunrise, although it has been said that it is from the start of Fajr, but the former is more likely, because before sunrise is the time for the Fajr prayer.

[01] Reported by Al-Bukhari in the Book of the Friday Prayer, in the Chapter: The Virtue of the Friday Prayer (881); and by Muslim in the Book of the Friday Prayer, in the Chapter: Perfume and Siwak on Friday (850).

Source: Fatwa Arkanul Islam, Volume 2 – Shaykh Uthaymeen, Dar-us-Salam English Publication

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“al-Ḥamdu lillāhi Rabbil-‘Ālamīn” – Explained by Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

The Explanation of Verse 1 of Sooratul Faatiha

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

(al-Ḥamdu lillāhi Rabbil-‘Ālamīn)
All praise and thanks are for Allah, the lord of all creations.

“All praise and thanks” (al-Ḥamd): This word الْحَمْدُ (al-Ḥamd) is used only to describe someone, out of love and honor, with complete perfection of self, attributes, and actions. So, Allah is perfect in his self, his attributes, and his actions. This praising, however, must be with a condition, it must be made with love and honor. The people of knowledge say that simply describing someone with perfection yet not out of real love and honor for the praised one is not called حَمْدُ (Ḥamd). Rather, in that case it would only be called مَدْح (Madḥ) (a lesser degree of praise or admiration). Therefore, this (second) type of praising occurs often from people while they may not really love the one they are praising. Often, they only want to gain something from them. For example, some poets stand before their government leaders and recite poetry of amazing praiseworthy descriptions of them yet void of any real love for them. The poets’ love is for the wealth they are given or they do this out of fear of the leaders. On the contrary, our praise for our lord is a form of praise out of love and honor. So, “All praise and thanks” is to praise the one described with total perfection out of love and honor for him.

The ال (al-) in الْحَمْدُ (al-Ḥamd) is inclusive, meaning that it includes all forms of praise and thanks.

“are for Allah” (lillāhi): The لِ (li) is to show possession and a sense of deserving. The name “Allah” is the proper name of our lord ( عزّ وجلّ ) and no one else is given this name; it means the one god that is worshipped out of love and honor.

“the lord” (Rabb): The word “lord” here includes three main descriptions: the creator, the owner, and the controller of all affairs. So, he is the creator of all that exists, the owner of all that exists, and the controller of everything.

“of all creations” (al-‘Ālamīn): As for the word “‘Ālamīn”, the scholars say it refers to anything and everything other than Allah. Everything else besides Allah is described with this word because the very existence of everything is a sign or indication (in Arabic: Ālam) that they have a creator (سبحانه وتعالى) In every form of creation there is a sign indicating the existence of its creator, his capability, wisdom, mercy, power, and the rest of his attributes of lordship.

Points of Benefit of al-Fātiḥah, Verse 1:

1. One of the beneficial points we gain from this verse is the affirmation of praise of perfection to Allah ( عزّ وجلّ ). This is shown by the “al-” in the word “al-Ḥamd” because this definite article in Arabic grammar is inclusive to include all forms or praise and gratitude.

2. It also shows that Allah alone deserves all forms of praise and gratitude. For this reason, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) used to say whenever something happened he was happy with:

الحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي بِنِعْمَتِهِ تُتِمُّ الصَّالِحَات

All praise and thanks are for Allah by whose favor righteous deeds are fulfilled.

And he would say when if something did not please him:

الحَمْدُ للهِ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ

All praise and thanks are for Allah in all situations.[18]

3. Another point of benefit from the verse is the description of Allah with his sole right to worship first before describing him with his lordship. This is either indicated because the name “Allah” is his proper name, specific to him and the source of all the rest of His names; or it is due to the fact that the people the messengers were sent to used to only deny Allah’s sole right to worship. Most of the people did not deny Allah’s lordship (that he is the creator, owner, and controller of everything).

4. This verse also proves Allah’s complete lordship over all of the creations due to his statement: “The lord of all creations.”

Footnotes:

[18] Recorded by Ibn Mājah (no. 3803) and al-Ḥākim in his “Mustadrak” (1/449) and he said, “This ḥadīth has an authentic chain of narrators.” adh-Dhahabī agreed with him. The famous ḥadīth scholar, al-Albānī, said it is “ḥasan” in “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Ibn Mājah” (no. 3066).

Posted from the article : Explaining Surah al-Fatihah – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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“Whoever conceals (the faults of) a Muslim, Allah will conceal him in this life and the hereafter” – Imam Ibn Rajab

Bismillaah

The Explanation of:

وَمَنْ سَتَرَ مُسْلِمًا سَتَرَهُ اللَّهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ

“Whoever conceals (the faults of) a Muslim, Allah will conceal him in this life and the hereafter.”

This is another point that is emphasized by other texts with similar meanings. Ibn Mājah recorded a ḥadīth from Ibn ‘Abbās ( رضي الله عنه ) that the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

مَنْ سَتَرَ عَوْرَةَ أَخِيهِ الْمُسْلِمِ سَتَرَ اللَّهُ عَوْرَتَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ، وَمَنْ كَشَفَ عَوْرَةَ أَخِيهِ الْمُسْلِمِ كَشَفَ اللَّهُ عَوْرَتَهُ حَتَّى يَفْضَحَهُ بِهَا فِي بَيْتِهِ

Whoever conceals the faults of his Muslim brother, Allah will conceal his faults on the Day of Resurrection. And whoever exposes the faults of his Muslim brother, Allah will expose his faults even by revealing those he committed in (the privacy of) his home.[22]

It is reported that some of the Salaf said something similar:

I have met people having no shameful faults but they began to mention the faults of others, so the people began discovering their faults. And I met people who had faults, yet they used to conceal other people’s faults, so their own faults were forgotten.

The ḥadīth of Abū Barzah ( رضي الله عنه ) also supports this in that the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

يَا مَعْشَرَ مَنْ آمَنَ بِلِسَانِهِ وَلَمْ يَدْخُلْ الإِيمَانُ قَلْبَهُ ، لا تَغْتَابُوا الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَلا تَتَّبِعُوا عَوْرَاتِهِمْ ، فَإِنَّهُ مَنْ اتَّبَعَ عَوْرَاتِهِمْ يَتَّبِعُ اللَّهُ عَوْرَتَهُ ، وَمَنْ يَتَّبِعْ اللَّهُ عَوْرَتَهُ يَفْضَحْهُ فِي بَيْتِهِ

Oh you who have believed with your tongues but faith has not yet entered your hearts, do not back-bite Muslims. Do not seek to discover their faults, for whoever seeks after their faults, Allah will seek his faults. And if Allah seeks after someone’s faults, he will expose him for even (what he committed) in his home. [23]

Imam al-Tirmidhī collected a ḥadīth with a similar meaning from Ibn ‘Umar ( رضي الله عنه ) [24]

And know that people or are two types in this regard:

1. People whose faults are not know to others in that they may have committed them in private but nothing of their sins is known. If they make a mistake or sin, it is not permissible to reveal or expose it or even speak about it. That would be the forbidden type of back-biting that has been condemned in the texts. Regarding this, Allah (عزّ وجلّ) said:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُحِبُّونَ أَن تَشِيعَ الْفَاحِشَةُ فِي الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ

Indeed, those who like that immorality should be spread and publicized among those who believe, there will be for them a painful punishment in this world and in the hereafter.[25]

This spreading and publicizing of such immorality from a believer could be regarding something the person actually did or something he is wrongly accused of, being innocent of it, such as the case with the famous story of the lie against ‘Āishah, the wife of the prophet (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم).

Some righteous officials used to instruct those who enjoin good upon people saying, “Try to conceal the sinners, for publicizing their sins is a means of showing the faults of the people of Islam, and the most important thing is to conceal people’s faults.”

Likewise, if a remorseful person comes repenting and admitting his crime, he is not to be exposed or inquired about. Rather, he is ordered to return and conceal his affair as the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) instructed Mā’iz and a Ghāmīdee woman. [26]

He ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) also did not inquire into the affair of the one who came to him saying, “I transgressed the prescribed limit, so establish the punishment upon me.” [27]

In the same way, if such a person were to be taken to account for his crime yet the news of which had not reached the leader, then intercession should be made on his part so that he would not inform the leader.

Similarly, there has come a ḥadīth in which the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

أَقِيلُوا ذَوِي الْهَيْئَاتِ عَثَرَاتِهِمْ إِلاّ الْحُدُودَ

Pardon those of prestigious character of their faults except the prescribed punishments. [28]

2. The second type of people with respect to sins is those who are well-known for their sins, those who openly and publicly commit them. They themselves are neither concerned at all with the sins they commit, nor with what people say about them. These are the wicked ones who openly display their crimes. Such people do not have the honor of others refraining from back-biting them as has been reported from al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī and others. Regarding such people, there is no problem with inquiring about their affairs in order to establish the prescribed rulings against them. Some of our companions have explicitly stated this, using as evidence the statement of the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) to Unays ( رضي الله عنه ):

وَاغْدُ يَا أُنَيْسُ إِلَى امْرَأَةِ هَذَا فَإِنْ اعْتَرَفَتْ فَارْجُمْهَا

Go in the morning, Unays, to the wife of this man (she was accused of adultery) and if she confesses, stone her.[29]

Also, regarding this type of people, intercession is not to be made on their behalf when taken to account even if the news has not reached the leader. Rather, they are left to have the prescribed penalties pronounced upon them so that their crime is known as a deterrent to others like them.

Imam Mālik said:

Whoever is not known for harming the people, yet may have made some errors or mistakes, then there is no problem with interceding and pleading on his behalf as long as his crimes have not already been conveyed to the leader. As for those who are known for their evil and corruption, I do not like that anyone should intercede or argue on their behalf. Rather they are left to have the sentences carried out upon them.

Ibn al-Mundhir and others have also reported this.

Imam Aḥmad also disliked that crimes should be raised up to the attention of the authorities in every circumstance because often they would not carry out the prescribed punishments as they should. For this he said, “If you know that the ruling will be (correctly) pronounced upon a person, then raise the matter (to the attention of the leaders).” It was mentioned that some people beat a man (as a punishment for a crime) until he died, while killing him was not permissible. If only the person would have repented from the time he committed the offense, it would have been better for him in that he repents for something between him and Allah, thereby concealing his own sin. As for his second offense, some people are of the opinion he should do the same—he should not disclose it. Still, others have said that even upon the first offense, a person should come to the leader and confess against himself in what requires a prescribed punishment so that he may be purified (of his crime).

Footnotes:

[22] Authentic: Recorded by Ibn Mājah (no. 2546) and al-Albānī said it is authentic in “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Ibn Mājah” (no. 2063).

[23] Authentic: Recorded by Abū Dāwūd (no. 4880) and Imam Aḥmad. al-Albānī said it is authentic (Hasan Ṣaḥīḥ) in “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Abī Dāwūd” (no. 4083).

[24] The ḥadīth collected by al-Tirmidhī (no. 2032) that Ibn Rajab is referring to is:

يَا مَعْشَرَ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ بِلِسَانِهِ وَلَمْ يُفْضِ الإِيمَانُ إِلَى قَلْبِهِ، لا تُؤْذُوا الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَلا تُعَيِّرُوهُمْ وَلا تَتَّبِعُوا عَوْرَاتِهِمْ، فَإِنَّهُ  مَنْ تَتَبَّعَ عَوْرَةَ أَخِيهِ الْمُسْلِمِ تَتَبَّعَ اللَّهُ عَوْرَتَهُ، وَمَنْ تَتَبَّعَ اللَّهُ عَوْرَتَهُ يَفْضَحْهُ وَلَوْ فِي جَوْفِ رَحْلِهِ

Oh you who have accepted Islam with their tongue yet faith has not reached your hearts, do not harm Muslims. Do not humiliate them, and do not seek to discover their faults. Whoever seeks after the faults of his Muslim brother, Allah will certainly seek his faults. And if Allah seeks his faults, he will expose him even if he were in the innermost privacy of his own home.

al-Albānī said this narration is authentic in “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan al-Tirmidhī” (no. 1655).

[25] Sūrah al-Nūr, 24:19.

[26] Authentic: This is a reference to the story in which the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) repeatedly refused to carry out the prescribed punishment upon a companion and kept asking for excuses for him. The ḥadīth is recorded by Muslim (no. 1695) from Sulaymān Ibn Buraydah who narrated from his father who said: Mā’iz Ibn Maalik ( رضي الله عنه ) came to the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and said, “Oh messenger of Allah, purify me (by establishing the prescribed punishment upon me).” He ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) replied:

وَيْحَكَ ارْجِعْ فَاسْتَغْفِرْ اللَّهَ وَتُبْ إِلَيْهِ

Woe to you. Seek forgiveness from Allah and repent to him.

He then returned and later came back and said the same thing to which the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) kept saying:

وَيْحَكَ ارْجِعْ فَاسْتَغْفِرْ اللَّهَ وَتُبْ إِلَيْهِ

Woe to you. Seek forgiveness from Allah and repent to him.

On the fourth time, he ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) asked him:

 فِيمَ أُطَهِّرُكَ 

For what should I purify you?

Mā’iz said, “For committing adultery.” So Allah’s messenger ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) asked (others about the man):

أَبِهِ جُنُونٌ 

Is there madness in him?

After being informed that the man is not crazy. He ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) further asked:

أَشَرِبَ خَمْرًا 

Did he drink alcohol?

A man stood up to him but did not find the smell of alcohol from him. Allah’s messenger ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) asked him:

 أَزَنَيْتَ 

Did you (really) commit adultery?

He replied, “Yes.” He ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) then instructed that he be stoned. So, the people differed amongst themselves about him into two groups: one saying, “He is ruined! His deeds are lost.” and another group saying, “What repentance could be better than the repentance of Mā’iz? He came (willingly) to the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ), put his hand in his hand, and said, ‘Kill me by the stone.’” So they remained in that state for two or three days. Then the messenger of Allah ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  came while they were sitting, greeted them and sat. He said:

اسْتَغْفِرُوا لِمَاعِزِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ

Ask for forgiveness for Mā’iz Ibn Mālik.

So they said, “May Allah forgive Mā’iz Ibn Mālik.” Allah’s messenger ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) then said:

لَقَدْ تَابَ تَوْبَةً لَوْ قُسِمَتْ بَيْنَ أُمَّةٍ لَوَسِعَتْهُمْ 

He repented with such repentance that if it were divided among the entire nation, it would encompass them all.

The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) did similarly with the pregnant woman who also came to confess committing adultery with Mā’iz.

[27] Authentic: This story was narrated in the ḥadīth collected by al-Bukhārī (no. 6823), Muslim (no. 2764), and Abū Dāwūd (no. 4381). Anas Ibn Mālik ( رضي الله عنه ) said:

I was with Allah’s messenger ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) when a man came to him and said, “Oh messenger of Allah, I have transgressed the limit, so establish the punishment upon me.” Yet he ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) did not ask about him (his crime). The prayer time came and he prayed with the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ). When the he ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) finished the prayer, the man stood and again said, “Oh messenger of Allah, indeed I transgressed the limit so establish the book of Allah upon me.” He صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) ) replied:

أَلَيْسَ قَدْ صَلَّيْتَ مَعَنَا 

Did you not pray with us?

He answered, “Yes.” He ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) then told him:

فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ غَفَرَ لَكَ ذَنْبَكَ أَوْ قَالَ حَدَّكَ 

Then indeed Allah has forgiven your sin (or he said:) your (transgression of the) prescribed law.

[28] Authentic: Recorded by Abū Dāwūd (no. 4375) and al-Albānī declared it to be authentic in “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Abī Dāwūd” (no. 3679).

[29] Authentic: Recorded by al-Bukhārī (no. 2315), Muslim (no. 1698), al-Tirmidhī (no. 1433), and Ibn Mājah (no. 2549).

Posted from: Relieving a Believers Hardships – Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali. Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison authentic-translations.com.  From Ibn Rajab al-Ḥanbalī’s book, “Jāmi’ al-‘Ulūm wal-Ḥikam,” an explanation of the forty-two famous ḥadīth collected by Imam al-Nawawi. The part of the ḥadīth explained in this article is the thirty-sixth one. “Whoever relieves a believer of a hardship of this life, Allah will relieve from him a  hardship of the Day of Resurrection…”

The Nature of this Life And A Believer’s perspective in it – Selected Ḥadīth of Raqāiq

Bismillaah

The Nature of this Life
And a Believer’s perspective in it

Selected Ḥadīth of Raqāiq from Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah
Collected by: Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī1

The ḥadīth in this article are from al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah collection. They are among several ḥadīth on the subject matter of Raqāiq, or heart-softening narrations. All ḥadīth here are considered authentic or reliable (or Ḥasan, Marfū’ etc.) by al-Albānī.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ḤADĪTH 1: “Oh Muhammad, live how you like for you will certainly die.”
ḤADĪTH 2: “Do you know what a bankrupt person is?”
ḤADĪTH 3: “Beware of oppression because oppression will be darkness on the Day of Resurrection.”
ḤADĪTH 4: “Construct between yourself and the fire a barrier even with half a date.”
ḤADĪTH 5: “When Allah wants good for a servant, He hastens his punishment in this life.”
ḤADĪTH 6: “When Allah wants good for a servant, He makes others pleased with him.”
ḤADĪTH 7: “If you see that Allah provides for a servant in this life from what he likes because of his sins, it is only Istidrāj.”
ḤADĪTH 8: “(It will be) when you see people being unconcerned about their…”
ḤADĪTH 9: “Whenever you make a sin, follow it up with a good deed which will erase it.”
ḤADĪTH 10: “Four things, if they are within you then nothing you missed in life will harm you…”
ḤADĪTH 11: “Guarantee me six things and I will guarantee you Paradise…”
ḤADĪTH 12: “Should I tell you who the best among you are?.”
ḤADĪTH 13: “Oh Allah, give me life as a poor person, give me death as a poor person…”
ḤADĪTH 14: “Allah (تبارك وتعالى) tests his worshipper with what He has given him.”
ḤADĪTH 15: “Allah says, ‘Oh son of Adam, free your time for My worship…’”
ḤADĪTH 16: “One of the first things for which a worshipper will be called to account…”
ḤADĪTH 17: “Some of the worst people of my nation are those who are nourished with all kinds of blessings…”
ḤADĪTH 18: “There are certainly some people who act as keys to good, locks to evil….”
ḤADĪTH 19: “The only true good is the good of the hereafter.”
ḤADĪTH 20: “Only someone who has been forgiven may truly relax.”
ḤADĪTH 21: “My brothers, prepare yourselves for a day like today.”
ḤADĪTH 22: “There are three things which destroy and three things which save.”
ḤADĪTH 23: “Unity is a mercy, and division is a punishment.”
ḤADĪTH 24: “The sweetness of this life becomes bitterness in the hereafter…”
ḤADĪTH 25: Allah (تعالى) said, “Oh son of Adam, stand before Me, I will walk to you.”
ḤADĪTH 26: Allah (عزّ وجلّ) said, “My servant, I am as you think of Me…”
ḤADĪTH 27: Allah (عزّ وجلّ) said, “By my honor, I do not combine for My servant two times of safety…”
ḤADĪTH 28: The prophet (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) used to accompany the weak Muslims.
ḤADĪTH 29: “For (kindness to) anything with a warm liver (i.e. any living creature), there is a reward.”
ḤADĪTH 30: “If you were to commit sins so much that your sins reached the sky but then you repented…”
ḤADĪTH 31: “Even if the son of Adam were to flee from his sustenance like he flees from death…”
ḤADĪTH 32: “If a man were to be dragged on his face for something in the pleasure of Allah…”
ḤADĪTH 33: “If worshippers did not commit sins, Allah (عزّ وجلّ) would create another creation that would commit sins…”
ḤADĪTH 34: “If you were to reply on Allah with the reliance He deserves, He would provide for you…”
ḤADĪTH 35: “Each of you should have a heart that is thankful, a tongue that mentions (Allah)…”
ḤADĪTH 36: “What do I have to do with this life? What am I regarding this life?”
ḤADĪTH 37: “Whoever would like to know what Allah has for him…” .
ḤADĪTH 38: “Whoever pleases Allah by angering people, Allah will suffice him from people.”
ḤADĪTH 39: “Anyone of you who wakes up safe with his family, healthy in his body…”
ḤADĪTH 40: “Whoever was two-faced in this life will have, on the Day of Resurrection, two tongues of fire.”
ḤADĪTH 41: “Whoever makes the hereafter his concern, Allah will place his richness in his heart.”
ḤADĪTH 42: “Be cautious of the prohibited things and you will be the most worshipping of people.”
ḤADĪTH 43: “All people are the children of Adam, and Adam was from dirt.” .
ḤADĪTH 44: “I swear by the One in whose hand is my soul, this worldly life is more insignificant…”
ḤADĪTH 45: “Allah does not cease to cultivate within this religion those He uses for his obedience.”


ḤADĪTH 1

The messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) said:

أتَانِي جِبْرِيْلُ ، فَقَالَ : يَا مُحَمَّدُ ، عِشْ مَا شِئْتَ فَإِنَّكَ مَيِّتٌ ، وَأَحْببْ مَنْ شِئْتَ فَإِنَّكَ مُفَارِقُهُ ، وَاعْمَلْ مَا شِئْتَ فَإِنَّكَ مَجْزِيٌّ بهِ ، وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ شَرَفَ الْمُؤْمِنِ قِيَامُ اللَّيْلِ ، وَعِزَّهُ اسْتِغْنَاؤُهُ عَنْ النَّاسِ

Jibrīl came to me and said, “Oh Muhammad, live how you like for you will certainly die. Love whom you like for you will certainly leave him. Do as you like for you will certainly be compensated for it. And know that the dignity of a believer is his standing at night (in prayer), and his honor is his managing himself without need of other people.”

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah (no. 831)]


ḤADĪTH 2

Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) reported that Allah’s messenger (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) asked:

 أَتَدْرُوْنَ مَا الْمُفْلِسُ 

Do you know what a bankrupt person is?

They replied, “A bankrupt person among us is the one with no money or possessions.”

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) continued:

إِنَّ الْمُفْلِسَ مِنْ أُمَّتِي يَأْتِي يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ بصَلاةٍ وَصِيَامٍ وَزَكَاةٍ، وَيَأْتِي قَدْ شَتَمَ هَذَا.، وَقَذَفَ هَذَا ، وَأَكَلَ مَالَ هَذَا ، وَسَفَكَ دَمَ هَذَا ، وَضَرَبَ هَذَا ، فَيُعْطَى هَذَا مِنْ حَسَنَاتِهِ ، وَهَذَا مِنْ حَسَنَاتِهِ ، فَإِنْ فَنِيَتْ حَسَنَاتُهُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُقْضَى مَا عَلَيْهِ ، أُخِذَ مِنْ خَطَايَاهِمْ فَطُرِحَتْ عَلَيْهِ ، ثُمَّ طُرِحَ فِي النَّارِ

The bankrupt person from my nation is the one who will come on the Day of Resurrection with prayer, fasting, and charity. But he had insulted this person, slandered that person, cheated this person out of money, spilled this person’s blood, and hit that person. Each of these people (he harmed) will then be given some of his good deeds. And if his good deeds run out before settling his affairs, their sins will be taken and put upon the man, then he will be thrown in the fire.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah (no. 847)]


ḤADĪTH 3

Jābir Ibn ‘Abdullah (رضي الله عنه) reported that the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

اِتَّقُوْا الظُّلْمَ ، فَإِنَّ الظُّلْمَ ظُلُمَاتٌ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ، وَاتَّقُوْا الشُحَّ ، فَإِنَّ الشُّحَّ أَهْلَكَ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ ، حَمَلَهُمْ عَلَى أَنْ سَفَكُوْا دِمَاءَهُمْ وَاسْتَحَلُّوْا مَحَارِمَهُمْ

Beware of oppression because oppression will become darkness on the Day of Resurrection. And beware of stinginess because stinginess destroyed those who came before you. It led them to shed each other’s blood and declare each other’s sanctity permissible to violate.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 858]


ḤADĪTH 4

Faḍālah Ibn ‘Ubayd reported in a marfū’[5] form:

اجْعَلُوْا بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَ النَّارِ حِجَابًا ، وَلَوْ بشِقِّ تَمْرَةٍ

Construct between yourself and the fire a barrier even with half a date (given in charity).

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 897]

[5] Ibn al-‘Uthaymīn, in Muṣṭalaḥ al-Ḥadīth, explained a marfū’ ḥadīth as one that is either raised to the status of being directly attributed to the prophet (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) as his explicit statement, action, approval, or as a physical or character description, or it is determined for a number of reasons that the statement carries the ruling of being attributed to the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)


ḤADĪTH 5

Anas (رضي الله عنه) reported in a marfū’ form:

إِذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهَ بعَبْدٍ خَيْرًا عَجَّلَ لَهُ العُقُوْبَةَ فِي الدُّنْيَا ، وَإِذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهَ بعَبْدٍ شَرًّا أَمْسَكَ عَلَيْهِ ذُنُوْبَهُ حَتَّى يُوَافِيْهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ

When Allah wants good for a servant, He hastens his punishment (for his sins) in this life. And if Allah wants bad for a servant, he preserves his sins for him until he meets Him on the Day of Resurrection.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 1220]


ḤADĪTH 6

‘Amr Ibn al-Ḥamaq (رضي الله عنه) reported in a marfū’ ḥadīth:

إِذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بعَبْدٍ خَيْرًا عَسَّلَهُ

When Allah wants good for a servant, He makes others pleased with him. It was asked, “And what is this pleasing respect others have for him, messenger of Allah?” He answered:

يَفْتَحُ لَهُ عَمَلاً صَالِحًا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ مَوْتِهِ حَتَّى يَرْضَى عَنْهُ مَنْ حَوْلَهُ

He makes the person able to do good deeds at the time of his death so that those around him are pleased with him.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 1114]


ḤADĪTH 7

‘Uqbah Ibn ‘Āmir (رضي الله عنه) reported in a marfū’ form:

إِذَا رَأَيْتَ اللَّهَ يُعْطِي الْعَبْدَ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا عَلَى مَعَاصِيْهِ مَا يُحِبُّ ، فَإِنَّمَا هُوَ اسْتِدْرَاجٌ

If you see that Allah provides for a servant in this life from what he likes because of his sins, it is only Istidrāj (allowing him to gradually increase in sin).

The messenger of Allah then recited the verse:

فَلَمَّا نَسُوْا مَا ذُكِّرُوا بهِ فَتَحْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ أَبْوَابَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ حَتَّى إِذَا فَرِحُوْا بمَا أُوْتُوْا أَخَذْنَاهُم بَغْتَةً فَإِذَا هُم مُّبْلِسُوْنَ

So when they forgot what they had been reminded about, We opened to them the doors of every (good) thing until, when they rejoiced in that which they were given, We seized them suddenly, and they were (then) in despair.

[The Quran, Sūrah al-Anām, 6:44]  [The ḥadīth is no. 413 in Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah.]


ḤADĪTH 8

‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Amr (رضي الله عنه) said, “Once we were around Allah’s messenger ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) when someone mentioned tribulations.” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) then said:

إِذَا رَأَيْتَ النَّاسَ قَدْ مَرِجَتْ عُهُوْدُهُمْ ، وَخَفَّتْ أَمَانَاتُهُمْ ، وَكَانُوْا هَكَذَا

(It will be) when you see people being unconcerned about their promises and their trustworthiness declines, and they (the people and tribulations) are like this—and he interlocked his fingers.

One of the ḥadīth narrators then stood and asked him, “What should I do at that time, may Allah ransom you with my life.” He (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) answered:

الْزَمْ بَيْتَكَ ، وَأَمْلِكْ عَلَيْكَ لِسَانَكَ ، وَخُذْ مَا تَعْرِفُ ، وَدَعْ مَا تُنْكِرُ ، وَعَلَيْكَ بأَمْرِ خَاصَّة نَفْسِكَ ، وَدَعْ عَنْكَ أَمْرَ الْعَامَّةِ

Remain in your house, preserve your tongue, take only what you know, leave what you are unsure about, be concerned only with your own affairs, and leave the affairs of the common people.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 205]


ḤADĪTH 9

Abū Dharr (رضي الله عنه) said, “Messenger of Allah, advise me.” He said ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)

إِذَا عَمِلْتَ سَيِّئَةً فَأَتْبعْهَا حَسَنَةً تَمْحُهَا 

Whenever you make a sin, follow it up with a good deed which will erase it. I asked, “Is saying, ‘Nothing should be worshipped but Allah’ considered a good deed?”

He answered:

هِيَ أَفْضَلُ الحَسَنَاتِ

It is the best of good deeds.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 1373]


ḤADĪTH 10

‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Amr Ibn al-‘Āṣ (رضي الله عنه) said in a marfū’ ḥadīth:

أَرْبَعٌ إِذَا كُنَّ فِيكَ فَلا عَلَيْكَ مَا فَاتَكَ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا : حِفْظُ أَمَانَةٍ ، وَصِدْقُ حَدِيْثٍ وَحُسْنُ خَلِيْقَةٍ ، وَعِفَّةٌ فِي طُعْمَةٍ

Four things, if they are within you then nothing you missed in life will harm you: preserving trustworthiness, honest speech, good manners, and caution regarding food (i.e., whether it is from permissible means or not).

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 733]


ḤADĪTH 11

Abū Umāmah al-Bāhilī (رضي الله عنه) said: I heard Allah’s messenger ( ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم say:

اُكْفُلُوْا لِي بسِتٍّ أَكْفُلُ لَكُمْ بالْجَنَّةِ : إذَا حَدَّثَ أَحَدُكُمْ فَلا يَكْذِبْ ، وَإِذَا اُؤْتُمِنَ فَلا يَخُنْ ، وَإِذَا وَعَدَ فَلا يُخْلِفْ ، غُضُّوْا أَبْصَارَكُمْ ، وَكُفُّوْا أَيْدِيَكُمْ ، وَاحْفَظُوْا فُرُوجَكُمْ

Guarantee me six things and I will guarantee you Paradise: If anyone of you speaks, let him not lie; if he is entrusted with something, let him not betray that trust; if he promises, let him not break his promise; lower your gaze, restrain your hands, and safeguard your private parts.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 1525]


ḤADĪTH 12

Anas (رضي الله عنه) said that the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) said:

أَلا أُنَبِّئُكُمْ بخِيَارِكُمْ ؟ خِيَارُكُمْ أَطْوَلُكُمْ أَعْمَارًا إِذَا سَدَّدُوْا 

Should I tell you who the best among you are? The best among you are the eldest in age if they have remained balanced and rightly-guided (throughout those years).

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 2498]


ḤADĪTH 13

Abū Sa’īd al-Khudrī (رضي الله عنه) reported in a marfū’ ḥadīth that the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

اللَّهُمَّ أَحْيِنِي مِسْكِيْنًا ، وَأَمِتْنِي مِسْكِيْنًا ، وَاحْشُرْنِي فِي زُمْرَةِ الْمَسَاكِيْنِ

“Oh Allah, give me life as a poor person, give me death as a poor person, and resurrect me among the company of the poor.”

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 308]


ḤADĪTH 14

One of Banī Salīm reported that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) said:

إنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى يَبْتَلِي عَبْدَهُ بمَا أَعْطَاهُ ، فَمَنْ رَضِيَ بمَا قَسَمَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَهُ بَارَكَ اللَّهُ لَهُ فِيْهِ وَوَسَّعَهُ ، وَمَنْ لَمْ يَرْضَ لَمْ يُبَارِكْ لَهُ فِيْهِ

Allah (تبارك وتعالى) tests his worshipper with what He has given him. So whoever is pleased with what Allah (عزّ وجلّ) has apportioned for him, Allah blesses and increases it for him. And whoever is displeased, it is not blessed for him.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 1658]


ḤADĪTH 15

Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) reported that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) said:

إنَّ اللَّهَ يَقُولُ : يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ ، تَفَرَّغْ لِعِبَادَتِي أَمْلأْ صَدْرَكَ غِنًى ، وَأَسُدَّ فَقْرَكَ ، وَإِنْ لا تَفْعَلْ مَلأْتُ يَدَيْكَ شُغْلاً ، وَلَمْ أَسُدَّ فَقْرَكَ

Allah says, “Oh son of Adam, free your time for My worship and I will fill your chest with sufficiency and I will prevent your poverty. But if you do not, I will fill your hands with occupation, and I will not prevent your poverty.”

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 1359]


ḤADĪTH 16

Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) reported in a marfū’ ḥadīth:

إِنَّ أَوَّلَ مَا يُحَاسَبُ بهِ العَبْدُ يَوْمَ القِيَامَةِ أَنْ يُقَالَ لَهُ : أَلَمْ أَصِحَّ لَكَ جِسْمَكَ وَأَرْوِكَ مِنَ المَاءِ البَارِدِ

One of the first things for which a worshipper will be called to account on the Day of Resurrection is that he will be asked, “Did I not make your body healthy and provide you with cool water?”

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 539]


ḤADĪTH 17

Fāṭimah ( رضي الله عنها ) narrated that Allah’s messenger (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) said:

إِنَّ مِنْ شِرَارِ أُمَّتِي الَّذِينَ غُذُّوْا بالنَّعِيْمِ ، الَّذِينَ يَطْلُبُوْنَ أَلْوَانَ الطَّعَامِ وَأَلْوَانَ الثِّيَابِ ، وَيَتَشَدَّقُوْنَ بالْكَلامِ

Some of the worst people of my nation are those who are nourished with all kinds of blessings – those who request all types of food and all types of clothes and brag about it.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 1891]


ḤADĪTH 18

Anas Ibn Mālik (رضي الله عنه) said that the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) said:

إِنَّ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَفَاتِيْحَ لِلْخَيْرِ مَغَالِيْقَ لِلشَّرِّ ، وَإِنَّ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَفَاتِيْحَ لِلشَّرِّ مَغَالِيْقَ لِلْخَيْرِ ، فَطُوْبَى لِمَنْ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ مَفَاتِيْحَ الْخَيْرِ عَلَى يَدَيْهِ ، وَوَيْلٌ لِمَنْ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ مَفَاتِيْحَ الشَّرِّ عَلَى يَدَيْهِ

There are certainly some people who act as keys (opening the doors) to good, locks to evil. And there are others among people who are keys to evil, locks to good. So Ṭūbá (a tree in Paradise, or “success”) is for those for whom Allah facilitates their hands to act as keys to goodness, and let those beware for whom Allah facilitates their hands to act as keys to evil.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 1332]


ḤADĪTH 19

The messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) was once brought some barley bread that had turned oily and rancid yet he still ate from it. He then said:

إِنَّمَا الخَيْرُ خَيْرُ الآخِرَةِ

The only true good is the good of the hereafter.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 1102]


ḤADĪTH 20

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) once said in a mursal ḥadīth:

إِنَّمَا يَسْتَرِيْحُ مَنْ غُفِرَ لَهُ

Only someone who has been forgiven may truly relax.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 1710]


ḤADĪTH 21

al-Barā Ibn Āzib said: We were once with the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) when he saw a gathering of people. He asked, “What have they gathered for?” to which someone replied, “They are digging a grave.” Allah’s messenger then hurried with his companions to the grave and then kneeled down beside it. Those around him faced him to see what he was going to do. He began crying until his tears moistened the ground. He then turned to us and said:

أَي إِخْوَانِي ! لِمِثْلِ اليَوْمِ فَأَعِدُّوْا

My brothers, prepare yourselves for a day like today.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 1751]


ḤADĪTH 22

Anas Ibn Mālik, ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbās, and others ( رضي الله عنهم ) reported that the prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) ) said:

ثَلاثٌ مُهْلِكَاتٌ وَثَلاثٌ مُنْجِيَاتٌ ، فَقَالَ : ثَلاثٌ مُهْلِكَاتٌ : شُحٌّ مُطَاعٌ ، وَهَوًى مُتَّبَعٌ ، وَإِعْجَابُ الْمَرْءِ بِنَفْسِهِ ، وَثَلاثٌ مُنْجِيَاتٌ : خَشْيَةُ اللَّهِ فِي السِّرِّ وَالعَلانِيَةِ.، وَالقَصْدُ فِي الفَقْرِ وَالغِنَى ، وَالعَدْلُ فِي الغَضَبِ وَالرِّضَا

There are three things which destroy and three things which save. The three destructive things are: stinginess that is obeyed, desires that are followed, and a person being too amazed with himself. The three things which save: fearing Allah in both private and in open, moderation in both poverty and richness, and fairness when both angry and happy.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 1802]


ḤADĪTH 23

al-Nu’mān Ibn Bashīr (رضي الله عنه) said that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) said:

الجَمَاعَةُ رَحْمَةٌ ، وَالفِرْقَةُ عَذَابٌ

Unity is a mercy, and division is a punishment.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 67]


ḤADĪTH 24

Abū Mālik al-Asha’rī (رضي الله عنه) said when death was upon him: Oh gathering of the al- Asha’rī family, let those present convey this to those who are absent. I heard the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) saying:

حُلْوَةُ الدُّنْيَا مُرَّةُ الآخِرَةِ ، وَمُرَّةُ الدُّنْيَا حُلْوَةُ الآخِرَةِ

The sweetness of this life becomes bitterness in the hereafter, and the bitterness of this life becomes sweetness in the hereafter.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 1817]


ḤADĪTH 25

One of the prophet’s companions reported that he (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) said:

قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى : يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ ، قُمْ إِلَيَّ أَمْشِ إِلَيْكَ ، وَامْشِ إِلَيَّ أُهَرْوِلْ إِلَيْكَ 

Allah (تعالى) said, “Oh son of Adam, stand before Me, I will walk to you. And walk to Me, I will run to you.”

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 2287]


ḤADĪTH 26

Anas (رضي الله عنه) reported in a marfū’ ḥadīth that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) said:

قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ : عَبْدِي ، أَنَا عِنْدَ ظَنِّكَ بي ، وَأَنَا مَعَكَ إِذَا ذَكَّرْتَنِي

Allah (عزّ وجلّ) said, “My servant, I am as you think of Me, and I am with you when you remember Me.”

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 2012]


ḤADĪTH 27

Shaddād Ibn ‘Aws (رضي الله عنه) narrated that the messenger of Allah ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ : وَعِزَّتِي لا أَجْمَعُ لِعَبْدِي أَمْنَيْنِ وَلا خَوْفَيْنِ ، إِنْ هُوَ أَمِنَنِي فِي الدُّنْيَا أَخَفْتُهُ يَوْمَ أَجْمَعُ فِيهِ عِبَادِي ، وَإِنْ هُوَ خَافَنِي فِي الدُّنْيَا أَمِنْتُهُ يَوْمَ أَجْمَعُفِيهِ عِبَادِي

Allah (عزّ وجلّ) said, “By my honor, I do not combine for My servant two times of safety and two times of fear. If he feels safe from Me in this life, I will make him fear Me the day on which I gather My servants. And if he fears Me in this life, I will make him feel safe the day on which I gather My servants.”

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 742]


ḤADĪTH 28

Abū Umāmah Ibn Sahl Ibn Ḥanīf (رضي الله عنه) reported from his father in a marfū’ narration that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) used to accompany the weak Muslims. He would visit them, see them when they become sick, and attend their funerals.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 2112]


ḤADĪTH 29

Sarāqah said: I once came upon Allah’s messenger (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) at al-Ja’rānah. I was not sure what to ask him about, so I said, “Oh messenger of Allah, sometimes I fill my watering hole (e.g. trough, etc.), waiting for my flock to return to me. But then other animals would come and drink from it. So is there a reward in that?” The messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) answered:

فِي كُلِّ ذَاتِ كَبدٍ حَرَّى أَجْرٌ 

For (kindness to) anything with a warm liver (i.e. any living creature), there is a reward.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 2152]


ḤADĪTH 30

Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) reported in a marfū’ narration:

لَوْ أَخْطَأْتُمْ حَتَّى تَبْلُغَ خَطَايَاكُمْ السَمَاءَ ثُمَّ تُبْتُمْ لَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ

If you were to commit sins so much that your sins reached the sky but then you repented, He (Allah) would accept your repentance.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 903]


ḤADĪTH 31

Jābir (رضي الله عنه) narrated a marfū’ ḥadīth:

لَوْ أَنَّ ابْنَ آدَمَ هَرَبَ مِنْ رِزْقِهِ كَمَا يَهْرُبُ مِنَ المَوْتِ ، لأَدْرَكَهُ رِزْقُهُ كَمَا يُدْرِكُهُ 
المَوْتُ

Even if the son of Adam were to flee from his sustenance like he flees from death, his sustenance would still reach him just like his death will reach him.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 952]


ḤADĪTH 32

‘Utbah Ibn ‘Abid (رضي الله عنه) said that the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) said:

لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلاً يُجَرُّ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ مِنْ يَوْمِ وُلِدَ إلَى يَوْمِ يَمُوتُ هَرَمًا فِي مَرْضَاةِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَحَقَّرَهُ يَوْمَ القِيَامَةِ

If a man were to be dragged on his face for something in the pleasure of Allah (عزّ وجلّ), from the day he was born until he dies of old age, he would still belittle that on the Day of Resurrection.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 446]


ḤADĪTH 33

‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar ( رضي الله عنهما ) reported a marfū’ narration:

لَوْ أَنَّ العِبَادَ لَمْ يُذْنِبُوْا لَخَلَقَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ خَلْقًا يُذْنِبُوْنَ ثُمَّ يَغْفِرُ لَهُمْ ، وَهُوَالغَفُوْرُ الرَّحِيْمُ

If worshippers did not commit sins, Allah (عزّ وجلّ) would create another creation that would commit sins then He would forgive them, for He is the Most Forgiving, the Most Merciful.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 967]


ḤADĪTH 34

‘Umar Ibn al-Khaṭṭāb (رضي الله عنه) said he heard the prophet of Allah ( ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم saying:

لَوْ أَنَّكُمْ تَتَوَكَّلُوْنَ عَلَى اللَّهِ حَقَّ تَوَكُّلِهِ ، لَرَزَقَكُمْ كَمَا يَرْزُقُ الطَّيْرَ ، تَغْدُوْ خِمَاصًا ، وَتَرُوْحُ بطَانًا

If you were to rely on Allah with the reliance He deserves, He would provide for you just as He provides for the birds; they leave in the morning hungry and return at night full.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 310]


ḤADĪTH 35

Thawbān (رضي الله عنه) narrated in a marfū’ form:

لِيَتَّخِذْ أَحَدُكُمْ قَلْبًا شَاكِرًا ، وَلِسَانًا ذَاكِرًا ، وَزَوْجَةً صَالِحَةً تُعِينُهُ عَلَى أَمْرِ الآخِرَةِ

Each of you should have a heart that is thankful, a tongue that mentions (Allah), and a righteous wife that helps him regarding the affairs of the hereafter.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 2176]


ḤADĪTH 36

‘Abdullah Ibn Mas’ūd (رضي الله عنه) said that once Allah’s messenger ( ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم slept on a straw mat which left marks on his side. When he woke up, he began rubbing his side and asked, “Messenger of Allah, would you allow us to spread something (softer) over your straw mat?” He (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) answered:

مَا لِي وَلِلدُّنْيَا ؟ مَا أَنَا وَالدُّنْيَا ؟ إِنَّمَا مَثَلِي وَمَثَلُ الدُّنْيَا كَرَاكِبٍ اسْتَظَلَّ تَحْتَ شَجَرَةٍ ، ثُمَّ رَاحَ وَتَرَكَهَا

What do I have to do with this life? What am I regarding this life? My example and that of this life is only as a rider who takes shade under a tree and then leaves it.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 438]


ḤADĪTH 37

Anas, Abū Hurayrah, and Samurah Ibn Jundub ( رضي الله عنهم ) reported that the prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) ) said:

مَنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَعْلَمَ مَا لَهُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ، فَلْيَنْظُرْ مَا لِلَّهِ عِنْدَهُ 

Whoever would like to know what Allah has for him then let him look to what he has for Allah.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 2310]


ḤADĪTH 38

Ā‘ishah ( رضي الله عنها ) narrated a marfū’ ḥadīth in which the prophet (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) said:

مَنْ أَرْضَى اللَّهَ بسَخَطِ النَّاسِ ، كَفَاهُ اللهُ النَّاسِ ، وَمَنْ أَسْخَطَ اللَّهَ برِضَى النَّاسِ ، وَكَلَهُ اللَّهُ إِلَى النَّاسِ

Whoever pleases Allah by angering people, Allah will suffice him from people. And whoever angers Allah by pleasing people, Allah will entrust him to the people.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 2311]


ḤADĪTH 39

‘Ubaydullah Ibn Muḥṣan and others ( رضي الله عنهم ) reported that the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

مَنْ أَصْبَحَ مِنْكُمْ آمِنًا فِي سِرْبهِ ، مُعَافًى فِي جَسَدِهِ ، عِنْدَهُ قُوْتُ يَوْمِهِ ، فَكَأَنَّمَا حِيْزَتْ لَهُ الدُّنْيَا بحَذَافِيْرِهَا

Anyone of you who wakes up safe with his family, healthy in his body, having sustenance for the day, it is as if he posses the worldly life entirely.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 2318]


ḤADĪTH 40

‘Ammār Ibn Yāsir (رضي الله عنه) narrated a marfū’ ḥadīth:

مَنْ كَانَ لَهُ وَجْهَانِ فِي الدُّنْيَا ، كَانَ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لِسَانَانِ مِنْ نَارٍ 

Whoever was two-faced in this life will have, on the Day of Resurrection, two tongues of fire.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 892]


ḤADĪTH 41

Anas (رضي الله عنه) narrated a marfū’ ḥadīth in which Allah’s messenger ( ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم said:

مَنْ كَانَتْ الآخِرَةُ هَمَّهُ ، جَعَلَ اللَّهُ غِنَاهُ فِي قَلْبهِ ، وَجَمَعَ لَهُ شَمْلَهُ ، وَأَتَتْهُ الدُّنْيَا وَهِيَ رَاغِمَةٌ ، وَمَنْ كَانَتْ الدُّنْيَا هَمَّهُ ، جَعَلَ اللَّهُ فَقْرَهُ بَيْنَ عَيْنَيْهِ ، وَفَرَّقَعَلَيْهِ شَمْلَهُ ، وَلَمْ يَأْتِهِ مِنْ الدُّنْيَا إِلاَّ مَا قُدِّرَ لَهُ

Whoever makes the hereafter his (main) concern, Allah will place his richness in his heart, organize his affairs, and the worldly life will come to him without seeking it. But whoever makes this life his concern, Allah will place his poverty before his eyes, scatter his affairs, and nothing of the worldly life will come to him except what has already been destined for him.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 949]


ḤADĪTH 42

Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) narrated a marfū’ narration in which the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) asked:

مَنْ يَأْخُذُ عَنِّي هَؤُلاءِ الكَلِمَاتِ فَيَعْمَلُ بهِنَّ أَوْ يُعَلِّمُ مَنْ يَعْمَلُ بهِنَّ 

Who will take these words from me and act upon them or teach them to others who may act upon them?

Abū Hurayrah said: I replied, “I will, messenger of Allah.” He (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) then took my hand and counted on five fingers, saying:

اِتَّقِ الْمَحَارِمَ تَكُنْ أَعْبَدَ النَّاسِ ، وَارْضَ بمَا قَسَمَ اللَّهُ لَكَ تَكُنْ أَغْنَى النَّاسِ وَأَحْسِنْ إِلَى جَارِكَ تَكُنْ مُؤْمِنًا ، وَأَحِبَّ لِلنَّاسِ مَا تُحِبُّ لِنَفْسِكَ تَكُنْ مُسْلِمًا ، وَلا تُكْثِرْ الضَّحِكَ ، فَإِنَّ كَثْرَةَ الضَّحِكِ تُمِيتُ القَلْبَ

Be cautious of the prohibited things and you will be the most worshipping of people. Be content with what Allah has destined for you and you will be the richest of people. Behave well toward your neighbor and you will be a true believer. Love for people what you love for yourself and you will be a Muslim. And do not laugh excessively, for excessive laughter kills the heart.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 930]


ḤADĪTH 43

Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) reported in a marfū’ ḥadīth:

النَّاسُ وَلَدُ آدمَ ، وَآدَمُ مِنْ تُرَابٍ 

All people are the children of Adam, and Adam was from dirt.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 1009]


ḤADĪTH 44

Ibn ‘Abbās (رضي الله عنه) said that once the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) passed by a dead sheep that had been left, discarded by its owner. He said:

وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بيَدِهِ ، لَلدُّنْيَا أَهْوَنُ عَلَى اللَّهِ مِنْ هَذِهِ الشَّاةِ عَلَى أَهْلِهَا

I swear by the One in whose hand is my soul, this worldly life is more insignificant to Allah than this sheep is to its owner.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 2482]


ḤADĪTH 45

Abū ‘Inabah al-Khawlānī (رضي الله عنه) reported that he heard Allah’s messenger ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) say:

لا يَزَالُ اللَّهُ يَغْرِسُ فِي هَذَا الدِّيْنِ غَرْسًا يَسْتَعْمِلُهُمْ بطَاعَتِهِ

Allah does not cease to cultivate within this religion those He uses for his obedience.

[al-Albānī’s Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah No. 2442]


Title: The Nature of This Life
Original Title: سلسلة الأحاديث الصّحيحة
Original Author: Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī
Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison authentic-translations.com

[Download PDF]

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Allah neither needs the obedience of His servants, nor harmed in any way by their disobedience – Imam Ibn Rajab

Bismillaah

Ibn Rajab al-Ḥanbalī’s book, “Jāmi’ al-‘Ulūm wal-Ḥikam,” is an explanation of the forty-two famous ḥadīth collected by Imām an-Nawawī. The part of the  ḥadīth explained in this article is ḥadīth number twenty-four of that book.

The Explanation of:

يَا عِبَادِي إِنَّكُمْ لَنْ تَبْلُغُوْا ضُرِّي فَتَضُرُّوْنِي، وَلَنْ تَبْلُغُوْا نَفْعِي فَتَنْفَعُوْنِي

Oh my servants, you will never be able to harm me, and you will never be able to benefit me.”

People are incapable of ever reaching a state in which they could benefit or harm Allah, for Allah is the Self-Sufficient, the Praiseworthy. He neither needs the obedience of his servants, nor does any benefit of such obedience reach him. It is only the servants who benefit from their obedience. Likewise, he is not harmed in any way by their disobedience, but it is they who harm themselves therewith. Allah ( تَعَالَى ) says:

وَلا يَحْزُنكَ الَّذِينَ يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْكُفْرِ إِنَّهُمْ لَن يَضُرُّوا اللَّهَ شَيْئًا

And do not be grieved by those who hasten into disbelief. They will certainly never harm Allah at all.[Sūrah Āli ‘Imrān, 3:176]

And he says:

وَمَن يَنقَلِبْ عَلَى عَقِبَيْهِ فَلَن يَضُرَّ اللَّهَ شَيْئًا

And he who turns back on his heels will never harm Allah at all.[Sūrah Āli ‘Imrān, 3:144]

And Allah ( عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ) says:

وَإِن تَكْفُرُوا فَإِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَنِيًّا حَمِيدًا

But if you disbelieve, then to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth. And ever is Allah free of need, praiseworthy. [Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:131]

And he says, quoting the prophet Moses:

وَقَالَ مُوسَى إِن تَكْفُرُوا أَنتُمْ وَمَن فِي الأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَغَنِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ

And Moses said, “If you should disbelieve, you and whoever is on the earth entirely, indeed, Allah is Free of need, praiseworthy.” [Sūrah Ibrāhīm, 14:8]

And Allah says:

وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ

And whoever disbelieves, certainly Allah free of need from all creations.[Sūrah Āli ‘Imrān, 3:97]

And:

لَن يَنَالَ اللَّهَ لُحُومُهَا وَلَا دِمَاؤُهَا وَلَٰكِن يَنَالُهُ التَّقْوَىٰ مِنكُمْ

Neither their meat, nor their blood (e.g., of animals slaughtered for charity) reaches Allah; but what reaches him is piety from you.[Sūrah al-Ḥajj, 22:37]

Allah ( تَعَالَى ) loves his servants to remain conscious of him and obey him, just as he dislikes them to disobey him. For this reason, Allah is happier with people’s repentance than the happiness felt by a person who, having lost his riding animal in a vast desert upon which are his food and drink, searches desperately for his mount to the point of exhaustion and finally, giving up all hope of ever finding it, gives in to certain despair that his life is as an end, and he abandons himself to death. As he succumbs to his exhaustion and sleeps, he later wakes up to find his riding animal standing right before him. This is one of the highest levels of happiness imaginable among creation.[51]

Allah is even happier than such a person despite the fact that he is in no way in need of his servants’ obedience or their repentance. Rather, he returns the benefit thereof back to them out his generosity and kindness toward his servants and his love for their well-being and his desire to prevent harm from reaching them. And in return, he loves for his servants to know him, love him, fear him, remain constantly aware of him, and to obey him and exert effort in getting closer to him. He loves for them to know that no one else can forgive their sins and that he is fully capable of showing forgiveness for the sins of his servants.

And in another narration of this ḥadīth from ‘Abdul Raḥmān Ibn Ghanam from Abū Dharr, it is reported that Allah said, “Whoever among you knows that I am capable of showing forgiveness and were he to ask for my forgiveness, I would forgive him and would not mind at all.”


The Explanation of:

يَا عِبَادِي لَو أَنَّ أَوَّلَكُمْ وآخِرَكُمْ وَإِنْسَكُمْ وَجِنَّكُمْ كَانُوْا عَلَى أَتْقَى قَلْبِ رَجُلٍ وَاحِدٍ مِنْكُمْ مَا زَادَ ذَلِكَ فِي مُلْكِي شَيْئًا، يَا عِبَادِي لَو أَنَّ أَوَّلَكُمْ وآخِرَكُمْ وَإِنْسَكُمْ وَجِنَّكُمْ كَانُوْا عَلَى أَفْجَرِ قَلْبِ رَجُلٍ وَاحِدٍ مِنْكُمْ مَا نَقَصَ ذَلِكَ مِنْ مُلْكِي شَيْئًا

“Oh my servants, if the first of you and the last of you, the people and jinn among you, were all to have hearts as righteous as the most righteous man among you, that would not increase my kingdom in anything. Oh my servants, if the first of you and the last of you, the people and jinn among you, were to have hearts as wicked as the most wicked man among you, that would not decrease my kingdom in anything.”

This shows that the kingdom of Allah will not increase in anything even if all creatures were as pious and had hearts as the most righteous person among them. Similarly, his kingdom will never decrease by the sins of sinners even if all the jinn and humans were to be as cruel and evil, having hearts as evil as the most wicked person among them. Allah ( سُبْحَانَهُ ) is self-sufficient, having no need whatsoever of anyone else. There is absolute perfection in his self, his characteristics, and in his actions. His dominion and authority is also perfect with no weakness or flaws to diminish it in any way.

Some people believe that the creations brought about by Allah – those present now – are the most perfect forms than had Allah created them in any other way. And the evil we witness among creation is a conditional type of evil dependent on some things within creation; it is not an absolute evil existing in creation such that its nonexistence would be better than its current existence under all circumstances. Rather, the fact that such aspects of evil are present is actually better than if they were not. They say that such an understanding is the meaning of Allah’s statement:

بِيَدِكَ الْخَيْرُ

In your hand is all good. [Sūrah Āli ‘Imrān, 3:26]

And this is the meaning of the prophet’s ( صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ) statement:

الشَّرُّ لَيْسَ إِلَيْكَ

Evil is not to be attributed to you. [Muslim (no. 771)]

Meaning: Absolute evil – that which the absent thereof would be better than its presence – is not present in your dominion. This kind of absolute evil is not to be found in Allah’s kingdom because Allah ( تَعَالَى ) brings about his creation and what it requires of wisdom and justice. Sometimes he distinguishes particular people (perhaps in this life or the next) with favors which he does not give others out of his justice and what that necessitates of complete wisdom.

Yet in such an understanding there is an issue which contradicts the point being made in the ḥadīth in that were all creations to have the best characteristics of piety and righteousness, that would not increase and improve his dominion at all. And were all the creations to have wicked characteristics that would lower the status and manner in which they were initially created, that would still not decrease the dominion of Allah in any way. [In other words, perhaps it is possible to become better or worse than one’s initial creation due to belief or disbelief in Allah, obedience or disobedience, etc.] And this (the fact that people have the choice to become better or worse) shows that Allah’s dominion and kingdom are still perfect in every way; it can neither be improved, nor perfected or completed even by obedience just as it cannot be decreased by disobedience. Nothing at all affects its perfection.

These statement (of the ḥadīth) mentioning the heart also indicate that the source of righteousness and wickedness is the heart. When the heart is pious and conscious of Allah, the (actions of the) limbs will be righteous, and when the heart is evil, the limbs will be likewise.[54]

Because of this, the prophet (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) said:

التَّقْوَى هَا هُنَا

Righteousness is right here.

And he pointed to his chest.[Muslim (no. 2564)]


Footnotes:

[51] This comparison is taken from a ḥadīth in which the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

لَلَّهُ أَشَدُّ فَرَحًا بِتَوْبَةِ عَبْدِهِ حِينَ يَتُوبُ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ أَحَدِكُمْ كَانَ عَلَى رَاحِلَتِهِ بِأَرْضِ فَلاةٍ فَانْفَلَتَتْ مِنْهُ وَعَلَيْهَا طَعَامُهُ وَشَرَابُهُ، فَأَيِسَ مِنْهَا، فَأَتَى شَجَرَةً فَاضْطَجَعَ فِي ظِلِّهَا قَدْ أَيِسَ مِنْ رَاحِلَتِهِ فَبَيْنَا هُوَ كَذَلِكَ إِذَا هُوَ بِهَا قَائِمَةً عِنْدَهُ فَأَخَذَ بِخِطَامِهَا ثُمَّ قَالَ مِنْ شِدَّةِ الْفَرَحِ: اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ عَبْدِي وَأَنَا رَبُّكَ! أَخْطَأَ مِنْ شِدَّةِ الْفَرَحِ

Allah is happier with the repentance of his servant when he repents to him than if one of you were traveling on his riding animal in a vast desert but it escapes while carrying his food and drink. After giving up all hope of catching it, the man then reclines in the shade of a tree, having despaired of finding his mount. While in such a state, he suddenly finds it standing right next to him so he takes its reins and cries out from sheer joy, “Oh Allah, you are my servant and I am your lord!” He makes such a mistake only from extreme happiness.

[Recorded by Muslim (no. 4939) and al-Bukāhrī” (no. 5863).]

[54] This point has been reported in a ḥadīth in al-Bukāhrī (no. 52) and Muslim (no. 1599) in which the prophet ( صلّى الله
عليه وسلّم ) said:

أَلا وَإنَّ فِي الْجَسَدِ مُضْغَةً إذَا صَلَحَتْ صَلَحَ الْجَسَدُ كُلُّهُ ، وَإِذَا فَسَدَتْ فَسَدَ الْجَسَدُ كُلُّهُ ، ألا وَهِيَ القَلْبُ

There is within the body an organ, if it is pure the entire body will be purified, and if it is corrupt, the entire body will be corrupted. It is certainly the heart.

Posted from: The Forbiddance of Oppression – Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison

Related Links:

Drawing Near To Allaah: The One Allaah Loves – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh As-Saleh [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Hadeeth No:38 from Imam Nawawi’s Forth Hadeeth

The explanation is based upon that of Shaykh Ibn Al-‘Uthaymeen rahimahullah

[Souncloud Audio Link]Attaining Nearness to Allah and His Love

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (radi Allaahu anhu) who said: The Messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,  “Verily Allah ta’ala has said:

‘Whosoever shows enmity to a wali (friend) of Mine, then I have declared war against him. And My servant does not draw near to Me with anything more loved to Me than the religious duties I have obligated upon him. And My servant continues to draw near to me with nafil (supererogatory) deeds until I Love him. When I Love him, I am his hearing with which he hears, and his sight with which he sees, and his hand with which he strikes, and his foot with which he walks. Were he to ask [something] of Me, I would surely give it to him; and were he to seek refuge with Me, I would surely grant him refuge.’

[Bukhari]

Posted from: Hadeeth – An Nawawi 40 Hadeeth – Dr. Saleh as-Saleh [Audio Series|En]

Related Links:

Seeking Refuge with Allaah from Devils when entering Washroom – Dr. Slaeh As-Saleh [Audio|En]

[Souncloud Audio Link]

Audio Source: Hadeeth # 11 from  Umdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

It is recommended for the person who wants to enter the toilet to say:

بِسْمِ الله ) اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْخُبُثِ وَالْخَبَائِثِ)

(Bismillaah),
(Allaahummaa innee a`oodhu bika minal-khubuthi wal-khabaa·ith)

(With the name of Allaah),
(O Allaah! I seek Your refuge from male and female devils).

This is because of the hadeeth of `Alee -radiyallaahu `anhu- that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<The screen between the jinn and the private-parts of the descendants of Aadam, when one of you enters the toilet, is that he says:‘Bismillaah’ (with the name of Allaah).>> [01]

And because of the hadeeth of Anas -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “When Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) went to the toilet he used to say:

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْخُبُثِ وَالْخَبَائِثِ

‘Allaahummaa innee a`oodhu bika minal-khubuthi wal-khabaa·ith
(O Allaah! I seek Your refuge from male and female devils).”  [02]

[01] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (3611); at-Tirmidhee (2/59/606)-and this is his wording; Ibn Maajah (1/109/297)…

[02] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/242/142), Muslim (1/283/375), Aboo Daawood (1/21/4), Ibn Maajah (1/109/298), at-Tirmidhee (1/76), an-Nasaa·ee (1/20)

[Translation taken from: Toilet Manners (Aadaabul-Khalaa)  – Dawood Burbank]

Related Links:

Two Rakat for Sunnah of Fajr prayer are better than the Dunyaa and everything that is in it – Dr. Saleh As-Saleh [Audio|En]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Book of Salah
Hadith No. 60

[Souncloud Audio Link]

Audio Posted from: Salah – Umdatul ah-Kaam – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio Series|En]


From Ayesha Radi Allaahu anha who said:

The Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- was not more concerned and did not pay attention to any of the optional prayers like he did for the two Rakat of Sunnah for the Fajr prayer.’ [Bukhari & Abu Dawood]

From Ayesha from the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- who said:

Two Rakat for Sunnah of Fajr prayer are better than the Dunyaa and everything that is in it.’ [Muslim, Tirmidhi & Nisa’ee]

From Ayesha Radi Allaahu anha who said from the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- that he said about the two Rakat when the Fajr prayer time comes in:

‘They are more beloved to me than the Dunyaa and everything that is in it.’ [Muslim]

[Source for the above translation: The Sunnah for the Fajr Prayer – Compiled by Abbas Abu Yahya]


Related Links:

Explaining Shirk: The Greatest Sin – Shaikh al-Uthaymeen & al-Fawzan

Title: Explaining Shirk: The Greatest Sin
Original Title: شرح ثلاثة الأصول، كتاب التوحيد، الإرشاد إلى صحيح الإعتقاد
Original Authors: Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn, Ṣāliḥ al-Fawzān
Translator : Abu az-Zubayr Harrison – authentic-translations.com

This article was compiled by Authentic-Translations.com, adapted from several books, the most notable: Sharḥ Thalāthah al-Uṣūl by Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn, Kitāb al-Tawḥīd and al-Irshād ilá Ṣaḥīḥ al-‘Itiqād, both by Ṣāliḥ al-Fawzān.

Table of contents

  • What Is shirk ?
  • Shirk in tawḥīd of lordship
  • Shirk in tawḥīd of names and descriptions
  • Describing Allah with descriptions of his creation
  • Describing creation with Allah’s descriptions
  • Shirk in tawḥīd of worship
  • Major shirk
  • Minor shirk
  • Reviewing shirk
  • Conclusion
  • A prayer for protection from shirk
  • Memorization chart

What is Shirk?

You may have already studied Tawḥīd. However, to truly understand Tawḥīd, its opposite, Shirk, must also be understood. The greatest thing Allah has commanded us to do is worship him alone, and the greatest sin he has forbidden is Shirk as He says:

وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئً

Worship Allah and do not make Shirk with anything along with him. [2]

So what is Shirk? Shirk (شِرْك) is an Arabic word which means sharing something with others that only Allah deserves. Worshipping others along with Allah is the main type of Shirk. The verse above means we must worship Allah and only him.

So whoever worships someone or something instead of Allah, he is a disbeliever in Allah who has refused to worship him alone. If someone worships Him but also worships someone else along with Allah, he is still a disbeliever in Allah, and it is this person who makes Shirk. As for someone who worships Allah alone, he is a Muslim who sincerely believes in Tawḥīd.

Shirk is the greatest sin against Allah and he says about it:

وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَى إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا

And whoever makes Shirk with Allah has certainly made up a great sin.[3]

Shirk is also the worst of all major sins. Prophet Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) once asked his companions:

أَلا أُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِأَكْبَرِ الْكَبَائِرِ

Should I tell you the greatest of all major sins?

His companions said, “Of course, messenger of Allah.” He then said:

الإِشْرَاكُ بِاللَّهِ وَعُقُوقُ الْوَالِدَيْنِ وَشَهَادَةُ الزُّورِ أَوْ قَوْلُ الزُّورِ

Making Shirk with Allah, disobeying parents, and lying.

He was laying back when he said that, but then he sat up and began repeating that over and over because of how serious Shirk and those other major sins are in Islam. [4]

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) was also asked, “What is the greatest sin?” He answered:

أَنْ تَجْعَلَ لِلَّهِ نِدًّا وَهُوَ خَلَقَكَ

That you make something equal to Allah while he is the (only) one who created you. [5]

Making someone or something equal to Allah is Shirk. It is to belittle Allah, believing him to be less than He is while believing others are equal to Him. About this, Allah says:

الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِرَبِّهِمْ يَعْدِلُونَ

Those who disbelieve think others are equal to their Lord.[6]

Even though Allah lets people choose to make Shirk and believe others are equal to Him, He does not like it and forbids us from doing so:

فَلا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَندَادًا وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

So do not make anything equal with Allah while you know (that he alone should be worshipped).[7]

Shirk is also to deny the very reason Allah created us which was to worship him alone as he says:

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالإِنسَ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ

I only created Jinn and people to worship me.[8]

So whoever worships others along with Allah, believing they deserve to be worshipped, they have made the creation equal to its creator. This is the worse comparison because it is to believe that people who are helpless and in need are equal to Allah, the one who is able to do anything and who needs nothing from any of his creation.

Shirk is the greatest crime of injustice and unfairness. This is because the greatest rights are the rights Allah deserves. Yet when people make Shirk, they are refusing to give him what he deserves most – Tawḥīd. This is the greatest form of injustice and unfairness just like Allah says:

إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ

Shirk is certainly a great crime of injustice.[9]

Shirk is also the greatest form of misguidance and straying from the right way of believing in Allah:

وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلالاً بَعِيدًا

And whoever makes Shirk with Allah has certainly gone far astray.[10]

In short, Shirk is to share something that only Allah deserves with others such as worshipping others or describing others with Allah’s descriptions. It is the greatest sin against Allah.

Review

1. What is Allah’s greatest command to us?
2. What is the greatest sin against Allah?
3. Explain in your own words the meaning of Shirk.

SHIRK IN TAWḤĪD OF LORDSHIP

If you learned about Tawḥīd, you may remember there are three main categories. Let us review the categories of Tawḥīd before moving on.

1. Tawḥīd of Lordship: Allah is the only one who creates, owns, and controls everything.
2. Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions: Allah is the only one who is described with his perfect names and descriptions.
3. Tawḥīd of Worship: Allah is the only one who deserves worship.

Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship is to believe that others besides Allah create or share control over his creation. This belief means that someone other than Allah can make good things happen or keep bad things from happening.

One example of this type of Shirk is to believe something brings good luck. People often have “good luck” rings or similar items they believe will help good things happen to them. Others tie special strings around them or their children, believing that if they recite the Qur’aan over the strings, they will protect from bad things happening. However, only Allah can protect us from bad things and we should only seek his protection in ways he mentions in the Qur’aan or the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) taught us in the ḥadīth.

Another common example of Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship today is when people believe others like themselves who are created and have no control in Allah’s universe can control what happens. Such people even wait until the ones they believe in are dead before worshipping them by praying to them. The act of praying to dead people is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Worship (which we will cover shortly), but the belief itself is also Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship because when people pray to dead people, they believe the souls of humans can control things in this life even after their death. This is completely wrong because the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) told us:

When a person dies, his actions come to an end except for (receiving rewards for) three things

When a person dies, his actions come to an end except for (receiving rewards for) three things: continuous charity, beneficial knowledge, or a righteous child who prays for him. [11]

While a person may still receive rewards from Allah for things he left behind after he died, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) clearly told us that after death, a human being’s actions stop. So how can dead people control whether good and bad things happen in life when they are not even in life anymore? Still, some people continue to pray to the dead, asking for their help in changing events in this life although only Allah can do this.

Even if a dead person was a righteous worshipper of Allah, believing that dead people or anyone else controls things in this life is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship.

Review

1. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship?
2. Give an example of Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship.

SHIRK IN TAWḤĪD OF NAMES AND DESCRIPTIONS

Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions is to believe that Allah is the only one who deserves to be described with perfect names and descriptions. Shirk in this category of Tawḥīd is to believe that Allah can be described with descriptions of the creation, or to believe that others besides Allah share in his descriptions. So believing that Allah is like his creation or that his creation is like Allah is Shirk.

Describing Allah with Descriptions of His Creation

When people describe Allah with the descriptions of creation or they believe Allah is similar to people, they have made Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions. There are several ways this type of Shirk is made. One example is when people make statues or paintings of God, claiming they are images of Allah. By doing so, they have described Allah in the image or form of people although Allah says:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ

There is nothing like him. [12]

Today, Christians fall into this type of Shirk when they believe Allah has a son. They believe the Messiah, Prophet Jesus the son of Mary, is his son. Allah knows they believe this and he says about this statement of Shirk and disbelief:

وَقَالُوا اتَّخَذَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ وَلَدًا لَّقَدْ جِئْتُمْ شَيْئًا إِدًّا تَكَادُ السَّمَاوَاتُ يَتَفَطَّرْنَ مِنْهُ وَتَنشَقُّ الْأَرْضُ وَتَخِرُّ الْجِبَالُ هَدًّا أَن دَعَوْا لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ وَلَدًا  وَمَا يَنبَغِي لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ وَلَدًا  إِن كُلُّ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ إِلَّا آتِي الرَّحْمَٰنِ عَبْدًا

And they say, “The Most-Merciful has a son.” You have said a terrible thing. The heavens are almost torn, the earth is split open, and the mountains almost fall in ruin because they claim the Most-Merciful has a son. But it is not suitable that the Most-Merciful has a son. There is no one in the heavens and earth except that will come to the Most-Merciful as a servant. [13]

Allah explains who Prophet Jesus truly is:

إِنَّمَا الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ

The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, was only a messenger of Allah. [14]

Another example of Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions is when many Jewish people claim that Allah likes the Jews more than all other people – just because they were born to a Jewish parent. This belief of theirs means that Allah is prejudice and unfair just like some people are, and this is describing Allah with descriptions of people.

Our belief in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions is that Allah is not like his creation. He alone deserves the highest descriptions. When someone believes that Allah is like his creation, they have made Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions by giving Allah the descriptions of his creation.

Describing Creation with Allah’s Descriptions

The belief that created beings or things share Allah’s names or descriptions is also Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions. This type of Shirk is when people raise other humans up to the level of Allah.

Today, some Christians describe people with Allah’s descriptions. They believe Prophet Jesus or saints can hear their prayers while Allah alone is the All-Hearing. Some Christians even believe Jesus was Allah in the form of a man. This is a form of describing Allah with descriptions of people as well as describing the creation with the descriptions of Allah. About this statement of Shirk and disbelief, Allah says:

لَقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ

They have surely disbelieved who say, “Allah is the Messiah, the son of Mary.” [15]

By believing that someone is nicer than Allah, more merciful, more forgiving, or treats others more fairly than Allah, this is giving created people Allah’s descriptions and this is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions.

Review

1. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions?
2. Give an example of Shirk by describing Allah with the descriptions of his creation.
3. Give an example of Shirk by describing the creation with the descriptions only Allah deserves.

SHIRK IN TAWḤĪD OF WORSHIP

Tawḥīd of Worship means we believe Allah is the only one who deserves worship. Since Shirk is the opposite of Tawḥīd, Shirk in Tawḥīd of Worship is worshipping others along with Allah. We must never share our worship with other than Allah. There are two types of Shirk in this category: Major Shirk and Minor Shirk.

It is important to remember that both types of Shirk, major and minor, may be in other categories of Tawḥīd as well as Tawḥīd of Worship. We should not become overwhelmed or confused deciding if a statement or action is Shirk in this category of Tawḥīd or that one. Instead, we simply should concentrate on believing in, describing, and worshipping Allah alone as Islam instructs us. Still, we will discuss some differences between Major Shirk and Minor Shirk.

Major Shirk

Major Shirk is any type of Shirk the Qur’aan or the ḥadīth explains that whoever does it is not considered a Muslim, not within the religion of Islam, and is not a true believer in Allah. Major Shirk dooms the person to live in Hell forever if he does not stop making Major Shirk before he dies. Any form of worship that is done for other than Allah is Major Shirk, such as praying to others besides Allah or hoping for things from others that only Allah can give (e.g. forgiveness, Paradise, etc.).

A common example of Major Shirk is when people pray to other people such as prophets or visit the graves of saints, believing those people hear or answer prayers.

This form of Shirk is the greatest sin and the most unfair way to behave toward the Lord of all creation. We will mention some of the results of Major Shirk if a person dies while believing in it and doing acts of Major Shirk in worship.

Major Shirk Removes Hope of Entering Paradise

Allah says about the punishment for someone who dies while making Major Shirk:

إِنَّهُ مَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَمَأْوَاهُ النَّارُ

Surely, whoever makes Shirk with Allah, Allah will make Paradise forbidden to him and his final home will be the fire. [16]

Major Shirk Guarantees Entrance into the Fire

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said about someone who meets Allah while making Shirk:

مَنْ لَقِيَ اللهَ لا يُشْرِكُ بِهِ شَيْئاً دَخَلَ الجَنَّةَ ، وَمَنْ لَقِيَهُ يُشْرِكُ بِهِ شَيْئاً دَخَلَ النَّار

Whoever meets Allah without making Shirk with him will enter Paradise, and whoever meets him making Shirk with him will enter the fire. [17]

We will meet Allah when we die, and one of the most common ways people make Major Shirk is by praying to and calling upon someone other than Allah. For this reason, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) clearly said:

مَنْ مَاتَ وَهْوَ يَدْعُو مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ نِدًّا دَخَلَ النَّارَ

Whoever dies while calling upon anything other than Allah, making them equal to Allah (in worship), he will enter the fire. [18]

Major Shirk Ruins All Good Deeds

If someone makes Major Shirk, all their good deeds may be ruined and lost. Allah says:

وَلَوْ أَشْرَكُوا لَحَبِطَ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

And if they had made Shirk, whatever (good) they used to do would be ruined. [19]

And he also says:

وَلَقَدْ أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ وَإِلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكَ لَئِنْ أَشْرَكْتَ لَيَحْبَطَنَّ عَمَلُكَ وَلَتَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

It has been revealed to you and to those before you, if you make Shirk, your deeds will be ruined and you will certainly be among the losers.[20]

Minor Shirk

Minor Shirk is any type of saying or action that the Qur’aan or ḥadīth describes as being Shirk but that the person who says or does it could still be considered a Muslim, still inIslam, and is still a believer in Allah. However, Minor Shirk does mean that the person’s belief in Tawḥīd may be incorrect.

Some actions or statements are considered Minor Shirk. For example, saying something like, “If it was not for Allah and you, something bad would have happened!” Someone once said to Prophet Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم), “Whatever Allah wants and you want (to happen will happen).” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) explained that such things are not correct to say; he said:

أَجَعَلْتَنِي مَعَ اللهِ عَدْلاً ؟ لا بَلْ : مَا شَاءَ اللهُ وَحْدَهُ

Have you made me an equal with Allah? No, instead say: “Whatever Allah alone wants (to happen will happen).” [21]

Some common superstitions are also Minor Shirk. For example, if someone believes Allah will allow bad things to happen if he does not wear a certain ring or hang verses from the Qur’aan in his car, this is a form of Minor Shirk because Allah has not made those things ways to prevent bad things from happening. However, if someone believes those things themselves actually prevent bad things from happening instead of Allah, then this becomes Major Shirk. Such a wrong belief would then mean there are other things besides Allah that control creation.

Another form of Minor Shirk is harder to recognize. This type of “hidden Shirk” is in a person’s intention, or the reason he does something. When someone does a good deed—which he should do for only Allah—yet he does his good deed just for people to think he is a good worshipper, this is a form of Minor Shirk. Examples of this may be if someone prays very well, raises his voice while remembering Allah or reading the Qur’aan, or gives charity but he does so only for people to think and say good things about him. About this type of showing off, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

إنَّ أَخْوَفَ مَا أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ الشِّرْكَ الأَصْغَرَ

The thing I fear for you the most is Minor Shirk.

His companions asked, “What is Minor Shirk, messenger of Allah?” He (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) answered:

الرِّيَاء ، يَقُوْلُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ : اِذْهَبُوْا إِلَى الَّذِيْنَ كُنْتُمْ تُرَاؤُوْنَ فِي الدُّنْيَا ،فَانْظُرُوْا هَلْ تَجِدُوْنَ عِنْدَهُمْ جَزَاءً

Showing off (riyā). Allah ( عزّ وجلّ ) will say, “Go to those you were showing off for during life and see if you can find any reward with them.” [22]

Minor Shirk Ruins Good Deeds Done for Showing Off

Good deeds will not be accepted if they are done for anyone other than Allah. While Major Shirk ruins all a person’s good deeds, Minor Shirk ruins only the deeds that were done for showing off. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) says about this Shirk in intention:

قَالَ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى : أَنَا أَغْنَى الشُّرَكَاءِ عَنْ الشِّرْكِ ، مَنْ عَمِلَ عَمَلاً أَشْرَكَ فِيهِ مَعِي غَيْرِي تَرَكْتُهُ وَشِرْكَهُ

Allah ( تبارك وتعالى ) said, “I am in no need of Shirk. Whoever does a deed but does so for someone else besides me, I will reject him and his Shirk”. [23]

One of the prophet’s companions named Abū Mūsá al-‘Ash’arī ( رضي الله عنه ) said: The messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) once gave us a talk and said:

أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ ، اتَّقُوا هَذَا الشِّرْكَ فَإِنَّهُ أَخْفَى مِنْ دَبِيبِ النَّمْلِ

Oh people, be afraid of this Shirk because it is more hidden than a creeping ant.

While Major Shirk is much worse than Minor Shirk, both are sins against Allah. For this reason, we should stay away from all forms of Shirk because Allah says:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ

Allah will not forgive that Shirk is made with him. [24]

Review

1. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Worship?
2. What is Major Shirk?
3. Give an example of Major Shirk.
4. How do we know Major Shirk removes hope of entering Paradise?
5. How do we know Major Shirk guarantees entrance into the fire?
6. How do we know Major Shirk ruins all good deeds?
7. What is Minor Shirk?
8. Give an example of Minor Shirk?
9. How do we know Minor Shirk ruins any good deed that is done for showing off?

REVIEWING SHIRK

1. What is Shirk?
2. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship?
3. Give an example of Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship.
4. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions?
5. Give an example of Shirk by describing Allah with the descriptions of his creation.
6. Give an example of Shirk by describing the creation with the descriptions only Allah deserves.
7. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Worship?
8. What is Major Shirk?
9. Give an example of Major Shirk.
10. What are some results for someone who dies making Major Shirk?
11. What is Minor Shirk?
12. Give an example of Minor Shirk?

CONCLUSION

We do not study Tawḥīd and Shirk simply to memorize detailed categories and types of Shirk. We learn Tawḥīd for the purpose of getting closer to Allah by believing in and worshipping him in the way he wants. And we do so only to make him happy with the hope of achieving his forgiveness and entering his Paradise. Similarly, we learn Shirk so we know what beliefs, statements, and actions make Allah unhappy. Remember, while learning the details of Tawḥīd and Shirk may help us know what Allah wants from us, he did not make our religion difficult upon us, he simply instructed us to:

وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئً

Worship Allah and do not make Shirk with anything along with him. [25]

The important thing to remember is that Allah is the only Lord, the only creator, owner, and controller of everything and everyone in the universe. He is the only one who we describe with the names and descriptions of perfection and we truly believe Allah is not like his creation and his creation is not like him. Allah tells us:

وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ

There is nothing equal or comparable to him. [26]

Because we believe Allah is the only Lord and only he deserves the highest descriptions, it only makes sense that we worship him and no one else. So do not let your study of Tawḥīd and Shirk become difficult or confusing. By simply reading about this knowledge, you have taken steps to get closer to Allah. Read what Allah says about those who try to come closer to Allah and those who avoid Shirk:

وَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ مِنِّي شِبْرًا تَقَرَّبْتُ مِنْهُ ذِرَاعًا ، وَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ مِنِّي ذِرَاعًا تَقَرَّبْتُ مِنْهُ بَاعًا ، وَمَنْ أتَانِي يَمْشِي أتَيْتُهُ هَرْوَلَةً ، وَمَنْ لَقِيني بِقُرَابِ الأرْض خَطِيئةً لا يُشْرِكُ بِي شَيئاً ، لَقِيتُهُ بِمِثْلِهَا مَغفِرَةً

“Whoever comes close to me a hand-span, I will come close to him an arm’s length; and whoever comes close to me an arm’s length, I will come close to him the distance of two outstretched arms. Whoever comes to me walking, I will come to him running. And whoever meets me with the earth full of sins but does not make Shirk in anything with me, I will meet him with as much forgiveness.” [27]

A PRAYER FOR PROTECTION FROM SHIRK

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) once said:

الشِّرْكُ فِيكُمْ أَخْفَى مِنْ دَبِيْبِ النَّمْلِ ، وَسَأَدُلُّكَ عَلَى شَيْ ء إِذَا فَعَلْتَهُ أَذْهَبَ عَنْكَ صِغَارَ الشِّرْكِ وَكِبَارَهُ ، تَقُولُ : اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوْذُ بِكَ أَنْ أُشْرِكَ بِكَ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ ، وَأَسْتَغْفِرُكَ لِمَا لا أَعْلَمُ

Shirk among you is more hidden than a creeping ant, but I will guide you to something that, if you do it, will remove from you Minor Shirk and its Major type. You should say, “Oh Allah, I ask for your protection from making Shirk with you while I know, and I ask your forgiveness for what I do not know.” [28]

Because our belief in Tawḥīd is that Allah is the only one who can help us and we only pray to him, we understand that only he can help us stay away from Shirk completely.

Because of this, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) taught us to ask his protection from knowingly making Shirk in belief, statement, or action. We must also ask for his forgiveness if we happen to make a mistake by believing, saying, or doing anything that is Shirk that we may not know.

To help memorize this very important prayer our messenger gave us, use the memorization chart on the next page.

A PRAYER FOR PROTECTION FROM SHIRK : Memorization Chart

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوْذُ بِكَ

Allāhumma innī, aū’dhu bika
Oh Allah, I ask for your protection

أَنْ أُشْرِكَ بِكَ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ

an ushrika bika wa ana ‘alam
from making Shirk with you while I know,

وَأَسْتَغْفِرُكَ لِمَا لا أَعْلَمُ

wa astaghfiruka limā lā ‘alam
and I ask your forgiveness for what I do not know.

Footnotes:

[2] The Qur’aan, Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:36
[3] Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:48
[4] Recorded by Muslim
[5] Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim
[6] Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:1
[7] Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:22
[8] Sūrah al-Dhāriyāt, 51:56
[9] Sūrah Luqmān, 31:13
[10] Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:116
[11] Recorded by Muslim
[12] Sūrah al-Shūrá, 42:11
[13] Sūrah Maryam, 19:88-93
[14] Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:171
[15] Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:72
[16] Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:72
[17] Recorded by Muslim
[18] Recorded by al-Bukhārī
[19] Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:88
[20] Sūrah al-Zumar, 39:65
[21] Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah (no. 139) by al-Albānī
[22] Recorded by Aḥmad, al-Ṭabarānī, and al-Bayhaqī. al-Albānī said it is ḥasan in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Targhīb wal-Tarhīb (no. 36)
[23] Recorded by Muslim
[24] Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:48
[25] Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:36
[26] Sūrah al-Ikhlāṣ, 112:4
[27] Recorded by Muslim
[28] al-Albānī said it is authentic in al-Jāmi’ al-Ṣaghīr wa Ziyādah (no. 6044)

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Explaining Shirk: The Greatest Sin – Shaikh al-Uthaymeen & al-Fawzan [PDF]

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Is the Basmalah an actual verse of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah or Not? – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

Question: Is the Basmalah (بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ) an actual verse of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah or Not?

Shaykh al-Uthaymeen:

The scholars hold differing opinions about this issue. Some say that it is definitely a verse from al-Fātiḥah and it should be recited aloud in those prayers which are recited out-loud. They believe it is not correct unless the Basmalah is recited since it is part of the entire chapter of al-Fātiḥah. Other scholars say that it is not a verse of al-Fātiḥah, but it is a separate verse from the book of Allah. This latter opinion is the correct one and is proven by other texts as well as the context of the chapter itself.

As for the textual proof, Abū Hurayrah ( رضي الله عنه ) narrated a ḥadīth in which the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

I have divided the prayer in two parts between myself and my servant

Allah ( تَعَالَى ) says,

“I have divided the prayer in two parts between myself and my servant.” When the servant recites, “All praise and thanks are to Allah, the lord of all creations”, Allah says, “My servant has praised me.” And when he recites, “The Most-Merciful, the Bestower of all mercy”, Allah says, “My servant has honored me.” When he recites, “The owner of the Day of Recompense”, Allah says, “My servant has glorified me.” When he recites, “You alone we worship and from you alone we seek help”, Allah replies, “This is two parts between my servant and I.” When he recites, “Guide us to the straight path…” until the end of the chapter, Allah replies, “This is for My servant and he will have what he asks for.”

[Recorded by Muslim (no. 395)]

This is a textual proof that the Basmalah is not an actual verse of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah (because it was not the first statement the servant says as mentioned in this ḥadīth).

There is another authentic statement of Anas ibn Mālik ( رضي الله عنه ) in “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim” in which he said:

I prayed behind the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ), Abū Bakr, and ‘Umar and none of them used to mention “In the name of Allah, the Most-Merciful, the Bestower of all mercy” at the beginning of their recitations (of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah) nor at the end of it.

[Recorded by Muslim (no. 399)]

What is meant is that each of them used not to mention it aloud. The fact that there is a distinction between it not being recited aloud as the rest of al-Fātiḥah is recited indicates that it is not actually a part of the chapter.

As for the proof from the context of the other verses’ meanings, Sūrah al-Fātiḥah consists of seven verses as is unanimously agreed upon. If you wanted to measure out seven verses as they pertain to the topics of the chapter, you will find that the middle verse is:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You alone we worship and from you alone we seek help. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:4]

This is the same verse about which Allah says, “This is two parts between my servant and I” in the previous ḥadīth. This is because the first verse is:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

All praise and thanks are for Allah, the Lord of all creations. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:1]

The second verse is:

الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيم

The Most Merciful, the Bestower of all mercy. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:2]

The third verse:

مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ

The owner of the Day of Recompense. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:3]

These three previous verses are all about the rights of Allah (his attribute, actions, etc.).

As for the verse:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You alone we worship, and from you alone we seek help.[Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:4]

This is the fourth verse and the half-way point and it too is even divided into two parts, one part for Allah (“You alone we worship…”) and one part for the servant (“…from you alone we seek help.”).

The following verses are:

اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ

Guide us to the straight path. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:5]

This is for the servant.

صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ

The path of those upon whom You bestowed Your grace. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:6]

This is also for the servant.

غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلا الضَّالِّينَ

Not of those who earned anger upon themselves, nor of those who are astray. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:7]

And finally, this last verse is also for the servant.

So, three verses are for Allah ( عزّ وجلّ ) and they are the first three. And three verses are for the servant and they are the last three. One verse is between both the servant and his lord and it is the fourth and middle verse.

As for the proof from the context of the wordings, if we say that the Basmalah is a verse of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, then the seventh verse would be very long – as long as two of the other verses (thus making the last and incomparably long verse, “The path of those upon whom you bestowed your grace, not of those who earned anger, nor of those who are astray.”). But it is known that the principle of the verses being similar to each other is also regarding their length.

So, the correct opinion no doubt is that the Basmalah is not a verse of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah just as it is not a verse (at the beginning) of every other chapter in the Qur’an.

Posted from the article : Explaining Surah al-Fatihah – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Whoever finds good, let him thank Allah, and whoever finds other than that, let him blame only himself – Ibn Rajab al-Ḥanbalī

Ibn Rajab al-Ḥanbalī’s book, “Jāmi’ al-‘Ulūm wal-Ḥikam,” is an explanation of the forty-two famous ḥadīth collected by Imām an-Nawawī.  In this article, last part of the  twenty-fourth ḥadīth of that book explained.

The Explanation of:

فَمَنْ وَجَدَ خَيْرًا فَلْيَحْمَدِ اللهَ، وَمَنْ وَجَدَ غَيْرَ ذَلِكَ فَلا يَلُوْمَنَّ إِلاّ نَفْسَهُ

“… So whoever finds good, let him thank Allah, and whoever finds other than that, let him blame only himself.”

This indicates that anything good is from Allah as a favor from himself to his worshipper even though the latter may not actually deserve it. And anything evil is from the children of Adam, from following their inclinations and desires as Allah ( عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ) says:

مَّا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ وَمَا أَصَابَكَ مِن سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِن نَّفْسِكَ

What comes to you of good is from Allah, but what comes to you of evil is from yourself. [Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:79]

‘Alī ( رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ ) once said, “A worshipper should hope from none but Allah and should fear nothing but his own sins.”

When Allah wants prosperity and guidance for someone, he facilitates a way for the individual to obey him, and this is a favor from Allah. But when Allah abandons someone, he entrusts all affairs of the person to the individual himself; Allah renounces the person by removing all connections between himself and the individual. So Satan is then able to deceive such a person so that he becomes negligent of remembering Allah. He follows his own inclinations and desires and consequently his affairs are lost and forsaken. All the while, this is still fair and just from Allah because the evidence has already been established upon the individual by the revelation of the Qur’aan and the sending of the messenger. So there is no excuse before Allah for any of mankind after the sending of the messengers.

If what is meant by “So whoever finds good” is whoever finds good in this life, then such a person is obliged to thank Allah, especially for the good reward of one’s good deeds that may be hastened in this life as Allah says:

مَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا مِّن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَى وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَلَنُحْيِيَنَّهُ حَيَاةً طَيِّبَةً وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْرَهُم بِأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

Whoever does righteousness, whether male or female, while he is a believer, we will surely cause him to live a good life. And we will surely give such individuals their reward according to the best of what they used to do. [Sūrah al-Naḥl, 16:97]

And (upon the understanding above) such a person would be obliged to blame himself for the negative consequences he may experience in the worldly life for the bad deeds he committed as Allah says:

وَلَنُذِيقَنَّهُم مِّنَ الْعَذَابِ الأَدْنَى دُونَ الْعَذَابِ الأَكْبَرِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

And we will surely let them taste the nearer punishment short of the greater punishment that perhaps they will repent. [Sūrah al-Sajdah, 32:21]

So for a true believer, when he is afflicted with any hardship in life, he looks inward, holding himself responsible. This in turn encourages him to return back to Allah with repentance and asking for forgiveness.

On the other hand, if what is meant by “So whoever finds good…whoever finds other than that” is in the hereafter, then this may be a way of Allah informing that those who find good in the hereafter will thank and praise Allah for that, and those who find otherwise should blame only themselves although at such a time blaming will be of no use. And this is an Arabic linguistic form in which the text is that of a command yet the meaning is actually to inform of a future event just as is the case with the ḥadīth in which the prophet ( صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) said:

مَنْ كَذَبَ عَلَيَّ مُتَعَمِّدًا فَلْيَتَبَوَّأْ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنْ النَّارِ

Whoever intentionally lies against me, let him occupy his seat in the fire.

[This ḥadīth is mutawātir, meaning that it has been narrated by so many different chains of narrators that it is considered authentic. See for example ḥadīth no.1841 of “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan al-Tirmidhī” by al-Albānī]

Meaning: Whoever lies against me will indeed occupy his seat in the Hellfire. [The text is in the form of a command but is a way of informing of a future occurrence.]

Allah has also informed us that the people of Paradise will thank Allah for that which he provides them of his bounty; he says:

وَنَزَعْنَا مَا فِي صُدُورِهِم مِّنْ غِلٍّ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهِمُ الأَنْهَارُ وَقَالُوا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي هَدَانَا لِهَذَا وَمَا كُنَّا لِنَهْتَدِيَ لَوْلا أَنْ هَدَانَا اللَّهُ

And we will have removed whatever is within their breasts of resentment, (while) flowing beneath them are rivers. And they will say, “Praise to Allah who has guided us to this, and we would never have been guided if Allah had not guided us.” [Sūrah al-‘Arāf, 7:43]

وَقَالُوا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي صَدَقَنَا وَعْدَهُ وَأَوْرَثَنَا الْأَرْضَ نَتَبَوَّأُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ حَيْثُ نَشَاءُ.

And they will say, “Praise to Allah who has fulfilled his promise to us and has made us inherit the earth (so) we may settle in Paradise wherever we will.” [Sūrah al-Zumar, 39:74]

And he ( تَعَالَى ) says:

وَقَالُوا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَذْهَبَ عَنَّا الْحَزَنَ إِنَّ رَبَّنَا لَغَفُورٌ شَكُورٌ  الَّذِي أَحَلَّنَا دَارَ الْمُقَامَةِ مِن فَضْلِهِ لا يَمَسُّنَا فِيهَا نَصَبٌ وَلا يَمَسُّنَا فِيهَا لُغُوبٌ

And they will say, “Praise to Allah who has removed from us sorrow. Indeed, our lord is forgiving and appreciative – he who has settled us in the home of duration out of his bounty. There touches us therein no fatigue, and there touches us therein no weariness (of mind).” [Sūrah al-Fāṭir, 35:34-35]

As for the people of the fire, Allah informs us they will be blaming themselves, disgusted with and hating of their own souls. Allah ( تَعَالَى ) says:

وَقَالَ الشَّيْطَانُ لَمَّا قُضِيَ الأَمْرُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَعَدَكُمْ وَعْدَ الْحَقِّ وَوَعَدتُّكُمْ فَأَخْلَفْتُكُمْ وَمَا كَانَ لِيَ عَلَيْكُم مِّن سُلْطَانٍ إِلاَّ أَن دَعَوْتُكُمْ فَاسْتَجَبْتُمْ لِي فَلا تَلُومُونِي وَلُومُوا أَنفُسَكُم

And Satan will say when the matter has been concluded, “Indeed, Allah had promised you the promise of truth. And I promised you, but I betrayed you. But I had no authority over you except that I invited you and you responded to me. So do not blame me, but blame yourselves.” [Sūrah Ibrāhīm, 14:22]

And Allah says:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُنَادَوْنَ لَمَقْتُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ مِن مَّقْتِكُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ إِذْ تُدْعَوْنَ إِلَى الإِيمَاَانِ فَتَكْفُرُونَ

Indeed, those who disbelieve will be addressed (in Hell), “The hatred of Allah was (even) greater than your hatred of yourselves when you were invited to faith, but you refused.” [Sūrah Ghāfir, 40:10]

The righteous predecessors used to strive in doing good deeds, fearing the time when deeds will come to an end and they may then blame themselves for their shortcomings.

It was once said to Masrūq, “If only you would ease up with some of your worship in which you exert yourself.” He replied, “By Allah, even if he came to me and told me he would not punish me, I would exert myself in worship (of him).” He was asked, “Why is that?” to which he said: So that my own soul would pardon me if it entered the fire and so I would not have to blame it. Has there not come to you the statement of Allah:

وَلا أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ

And I swear by the self-reproaching soul.[Sūrah al-Qiyāmah, 75:2]

They will blame and reproach themselves when they reach Hell. When the angels of punishment embrace them and stand between them and what they desire, when their hopes are cut off, and when mercy is withheld from them, every one of them will begin blaming and reproaching his own soul.

Muṭraf Ibn ‘Abdullah used to say:

Exert yourself in doing good deeds. If the decision is as we hope for—the mercy of Allah and his forgiveness—then for us will be levels (in Paradise). And if the decision is severe as we fear and of which we are cautious, let us not then say:

رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا نَعْمَلْ صَالِحًا غَيْرَ الَّذِي كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ

“Our Lord, remove us; we will do righteousness other than what we used to do.” [Sūrah Fāṭir, 35:37]

We will then say, “We did deeds but they did not benefit us.”

Posted from the article : The Forbiddance of Oppression –  Ibn Rajab al-Ḥanbalī rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Day of Resurrection: Allāh Judges the Creation – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

The Eight Event

Allāh Judges Creation

The Arabic word commonly used here, مُحَاسَبَة (muḥāsabah) or حِسَاب (ḥisāb), “judging,” “reckoning,” or “taking to account” is when people will be called to recollect, admit, and be judged on the Day of Resurrection for the actions they did in this life.

As far religious evidence for this event, it is confirmed by the Qur’aan, the Sunnah, the consensus of mainstream Muslims, and even suggested by one’s intellect.


In the Qur’aan, Allah (تعالى) says:

إِنَّ إِلَيْنَا إِيَابَهُمْ  ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا حِسَابَهُم

Certainly, to us is their return, then certainly upon us is their reckoning.[Sūrah al-Ghāshiyah, 88:25-26]

And:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابًا يَسِيرًا

Then as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will be judged with an easy reckoning. [Sūrah al-Inshiqāq, 84:7-8]


As for the Sunnah, numerous ḥadīth have been authentically reported from the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) that Allah will judge his creations. For example, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) used to say in some of his prayers:

اللَّهُمَّ حَاسِبْنِي حِسَابًا يَسِيْرًا 

Oh Allah, call me to account with an easy reckoning.

Upon hearing this, ‘Āishah (رضي الله عنها) asked, “What is an easy reckoning?” He answered:

أَنْ يَنْظُرَ فِي كِتَابِهِ فَيَتَجَاوَزُ عَنْهُ

That he looks into his book but pardons him (or finds in his book that he has been pardoned).[86]


As for the consensus among mainstream Muslims, the entire nation of believers has always agreed that Allah will judge creation.

And as for the intellect, it is understood that Allah will judge us because we have been made responsible for actions: obligated to do some, obligated to avoid some, and obligated to hold certain beliefs. Intellect and wisdom dictates that anyone made responsible for something will be held accountable for it and judged for it.

There are, however, some people who will be exempt from being judged; they will be allowed to enter Paradise without judgment or punishment. This has been confirmed in “Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī” and “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim.” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

عُرِضَتْ عَلَيَّ الأُمَمُ فَأَخَذَ النَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّ مَعَهُ الأُمَّةُ وَالنَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّ مَعَهُ النَّفَرُ وَالنَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّمَعَهُ الْعَشَرَةُ وَالنَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّ مَعَهُ الْخَمْسَةُ وَالنَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّ وَحْدَهُ ، فَنَظَرْتُ فَإِذَا سَوَادٌ كَثِيرٌ قُلْتُ : يَا جِبْرِيلُ هَؤُلاءِ أُمَّتِي ؟ قَالَ : لا وَلَكِنْ انْظُرْ إِلَى الأُفُقِ ، فَنَظَرْتُ فَإِذَا سَوَادٌ كَثِيرٌ ، قَالَ : هَؤُلاءِ أُمَّتُكَ وَهَؤُلاءِ سَبْعُونَ أَلْفًا قُدَّامَهُمْ لا حِسَابَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلا عَذَابَ ، قُلْتُ : وَلِمَ ؟ قَالَ : كَانُوا لا يَكْتَوُونَ وَلا يَسْتَرْقُونَ وَلا يَتَطَيَّرُونَ وَعَلَى رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ

I was shown the nations (of prophets) and I saw a prophet with an entire nation with him, a prophet with only a single follower, a prophet with ten followers, a prophet with five, and a prophet with none. I then saw a huge crowd and asked, “Oh (Angel) Gabriel, is this my nation?” to which he replied, “No, but look to the horizon.” I then looked and saw a huge nation (of followers). Gabriel said, “This is your nation and in front of them are seventy thousand who will have no judgment and no punishment.” I asked, “Why?” He answered, “They did not practice cauterization, did not seek ruqyá (incantations, healings with Qur’aan recitations), did not believe in good or bad omens, and they relied exclusively on their Lord.”

After hearing this, a companion named ‘Ukkāshah Ibn Miḥṣan stood and said to the prophet, “Pray to Allah to make me one of those.” So the prophet said:

اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْهُ مِنْهُمْ

Oh Allah, make him one of them.

Then another man stood and he too asked, “Pray to Allah to make me one of them,” but the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) replied:

سَبَقَكَ بِهَا عُكَّاشَةُ

‘Ukkāshah beat you to it. [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

There is even a narration recorded by Imam Aḥmad (5/280, 281) in which these seventy thousand will each have with them an additional seventy thousand, and all of them (70,000 x 70,000) will enter Paradise without judgment or punishment.

The creations to be judged will also include the Jinn, the creatures created by Allah that are unseen by mankind, because they too are held accountable for their beliefs and actions. So like a human, a disbelieving Jinn will enter the fire:

قَالَ ادْخُلُوا فِي أُمَمٍ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِكُم مِّنَ الْجِنِّ وَالإِنسِ فِي النَّارِ

(Allah) will say, “Enter among nations which had passed on before you of Jinn and mankind into the fire.” [Sūrah al-A’rāf, 7:38]

…and a believing Jinn will enter Paradise according to the opinion of most scholars, and this position is correct as indicated by the statement of Allah about two particular gardens given to those who will enter paradise:

فِيهِنَّ قَاصِرَاتُ الطَّرْفِ لَمْ يَطْمِثْهُنَّ إِنسٌ قَبْلَهُمْ وَلا جَانٌّ

In them are women limiting (their) glances, untouched before them by man or Jinn. [Sūrah al-Raḥmān, 55:56]

Here is a question: Will animals be judged and held accountable?

The answer is as far as judging between them to establish justice and fairness for what occurred between them, then yes, they will be judged because the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

لَتُؤَدُّنَّ الْحُقُوقَ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ حَتَّى يُقَادَ لِلشَّاةِ الْجَلْحَاءِ مِنْ الشَّاةِ الْقَرْنَاءِ 

The rights of justice will be established among those who deserve them on the Day of Resurrection so much so that a ram without horns will be given its rights taken from it by a ram with horns. [Recorded by Muslim.]

But again, this is only for ensuring that complete fairness and justice is finally established. As far as being judged for actions they were responsible for carrying out, then no, animals will not be held accountable as they are not responsible for such actions. They will have neither reward nor punishment.

A Believer’s Judgment

Describing the manner in which Allah will judge a believer and take him to account, Ibn ‘Umar (رضي الله عنهما) narrated that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) described the private counsel to be held between a true believer and his Lord:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُدْنِي الْمُؤْمِنَ فَيَضَعُ عَلَيْهِ كَنَفَهُ وَيَسْتُرُهُ ، فَيَقُولُ : أَتَعْرِفُ ذَنْبَ كَذَا أَتَعْرِفُ ذَنْبَ كَذَا ؟ فَيَقُولُ : نَعَمْ أَيْ رَبِّ ، حَتَّى إِذَا قَرَّرَهُ بِذُنُوبِهِ وَرَأَى فِي نَفْسِهِ أَنَّهُ هَلَكَ قَالَ : سَتَرْتُهَا عَلَيْكَ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَأَنَا أَغْفِرُهَا لَكَ الْيَوْمَ

Allah will draw a believer close, placing him under his care and screening him. Allah will say to him, “Do you remember this sin and that sin?” The person will answer, “Yes, my Lord.” After he is made to confess all of his sins and he sincerely believes he is ruined, Allah will say, “I concealed them for you in life and I forgive you for them today.” [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

While speaking with his servant, Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) will screen him so that no one will see or hear him during their private conversation. This is a way of Allah (عزّ وجلّ) favoring and showing kindness to a true believer in him. When people make someone confess their crimes publicly in front of everyone, even if they pardon the individual for them, there is still an aspect of scandal and humiliation that remains. Yet if such proceedings were held privately, then this would be a better way of concealing and protecting people from that.

A Disbeliever’s Judgment

Describing a disbeliever’s judgment, Ibn Taymiyyah, said:

“As for a disbeliever, they will not be judged in the same manner as someone who has his good and bad deeds weighed. This is because those who disbelieve in Allah have no good deeds at all. Still, their deeds will be counted and they will be held responsible for them; they will be made to confess them and will be humiliated.”

The meaning of this has come in the same ḥadīth of Ibn ‘Umar previously mentioned in which the prophet spoke about how Allah will conceal a believer and speak privately with him. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then said:

وَأَمَّا الْكُفَّارُ وَالْمُنَافِقُونَ فَيُنَادَى بِهِمْ عَلَى رُءُوسِ الْخَلائِقِ : هَؤُلاءِ الَّذِينَ كَذَبُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ

But as for the disbelievers and hypocrites, they will be publicly called out in front of all creation and it will be announced, “These are the ones who lied against Allah.” [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

Also in “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim,” Abū Hurayrah narrated that the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَيَلْقَى الْعَبْدَ فَيَقُولُ : أَيْ فُلْ أَلَمْ أُكْرِمْكَ وَأُسَوِّدْكَ وَأُزَوِّجْكَ وَأُسَخِّرْ لَكَ الْخَيْلَ وَالإِبِلَ وَأَذَرْكَ تَرْأَسُ وَتَرْبَعُ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : بَلَى ، قَالَ : فَيَقُولُ : أَفَظَنَنْتَ أَنَّكَ مُلاقِيَّ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : لا ، فَيَقُولُ : فَإِنِّي أَنْسَاكَ كَمَا نَسِيتَنِي ،

 ثُمَّ يَلْقَى الثَّانِيَ فَيَقُولُ : أَيْ فُلْ أَلَمْ أُكْرِمْكَ وَأُسَوِّدْكَ وَأُزَوِّجْكَ وَأُسَخِّرْ لَكَ الْخَيْلَ وَالإِبِلَ وَأَذَرْكَ تَرْأَسُ وَتَرْبَعُ ؟ فَيَقُولُ.: بَلَى أَيْ رَبِّ ، فَيَقُولُ : أَفَظَنَنْتَ أَنَّكَ مُلاقِيَّ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : لا ، فَيَقُولُ : فَإِنِّي أَنْسَاكَ كَمَا نَسِيتَنِي ، 

ثُمَّ يَلْقَى الثَّالِثَ ، فَيَقُولُ لَهُ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ ، فَيَقُولُ : يَا رَبِّ آمَنْتُ بِكَ وَبِكِتَابِكَ وَبِرُسُلِكَ وَصَلَّيْتُ وَصُمْتُ وَتَصَدَّقْتُ وَيُثْنِي بِخَيْرٍ مَا اسْتَطَاعَ ، فَيَقُولُ : هَاهُنَا إِذًا ،قَالَ : ثُمَّ : يُقَالُ لَهُ : الآنَ نَبْعَثُ شَاهِدَنَا عَلَيْكَ ، وَيَتَفَكَّرُ فِي نَفْسِهِ مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَشْهَدُ عَلَيَّ ، فَيُخْتَمُ عَلَى فِيهِ ، وَيُقَالُ لِفَخِذِهِ وَلَحْمِهِ وَعِظَامِهِ : انْطِقِي ، فَتَنْطِقُ فَخِذُهُ وَلَحْمُهُ وَعِظَامُهُ بِعَمَلِهِ ، وَذَلِكَ لِيُعْذِرَ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ وَذَلِكَ الْمُنَافِقُ وَذَلِكَ الَّذِي يَسْخَطُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ

Allah will meet with a servant, asking, “Oh so-and-so, did I not honor you, give you authority, give you a spouse, give you control over horses and camels, and made you a leader (or allowed you to live a comfortable life)?” The person will reply, “You did.” Allah will ask him, “Did you think you would ever meet me?” and he will answer, “No.” So Allah will say, “Then I will forget you as you forgot me.”

Then Allah will meet with a second person and ask, “Oh so-and-so, did I not honor you, give you authority, give you a spouse, give you control over horses and camels, and made you a leader (or allowed you to live a comfortable life)?” The person will reply, “You did, my Lord.” Allah will ask him, “Did you think you would ever meet me?” and he will answer, “No.” So Allah will say, “Then I will forget you as you forgot me.”

Allah will then meet with a third person and will ask him similarly as he did with the others, but this person will say, “My Lord, I believed in you, in your book, and in your messengers. I prayed, fasted, and gave charity.” And he will continue praising the good (he did) as much as he can. Allah will say, “(Stop) then. Now we will bring forth our witness against you.” The person will think to himself about who this witness could be to testify against him. His mouth will then be sealed and his legs, his flesh and bones will be told, “Speak.” His legs, flesh, and bones will then speak about what he did. That is the person who will have no excuse for himself; that is the hypocrite, and that is the one with whom Allah is angry. [Recorded by Muslim.]

On the Day of Judgment, the first people to be judged will be this nation, the Muslims who followed Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم), based on the prophet’s statement:

نَحْنُ الآخِرُوْنَ السَّابِقُوْنَ يَوْمَ القِيَامَةِ المَقْضِيُّ بَيْنَهُمْ قَبْلَ الخَلائِقِ

We are the last ones (in this life) but the first ones on the Day of Resurrection to have their accounts settled before the rest of creation. [94]

Similarly, Ibn ‘Abbās (رضي الله عنهما) narrated that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

نَحْنُ آخِرُ الأُمَمِ وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ يُحَاسَبُ ، يُقَالُ : أَيْنَ الأُمَّةُ الأُمِّيَّةُ وَنَبِيُّهَا ؟ فَنَحْنُ الآخِرُونَ الأَوَّلُونَ

We are the last religious nation (in this life) but the first to be judged. It will be said, “Where is the illiterate nation and its prophet?” So we are the last ones yet the first ones.[95]

The first thing for which a worshipper of Allah will be judged and called to account regarding the rights of Allah will be his prayer based on the statement of the prophet :(صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)

أَوَّلُ مَا يُحَاسَبُ بِهِ الْعَبْدُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ الصَلاة ، فَإِنْ صَلُحَتْ صَلُحَ سَائِرُ عَمَلِهِ ،  وَإِنْ فَسَدَتْ فَسَدَ سَائِرُ عَمَلِهِ

The first thing for which a worshipper will be judged on the Day of Resurrection will be prayer. If it is sound, the rest of his deeds will be sound, but if it is bad, the rest of his deeds will be bad. [96]

However, the first crimes to be judged regarding the rights of other people will be those pertaining to bloodshed as he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

أَوَّلَ مَا يُقْضَى بَيْنَ النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِي الدِّمَاءِ 

The first thing to be settled between people on the Day of Resurrection will be (crimes of) bloodshed.[97]

This is because prayer is the best bodily act of worship related to the rights of Allah, and bloodshed is the greatest violation of communal rights related to mankind.

Footnotes:

[86] Recorded by Aḥmad (6/48) and Ibn Abī ‘Āṣim in “Kitāb al-Sunnah” (no. 885). al-Albānī said it is authentic in his checking of “Kitāb al-Sunnah” (2/429).

[94] Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim. In a similar ḥadīth, also recorded by them both, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

نَحْنُ الآخِرُونَ السَّابِقُونَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِنَا وَأُوتِينَاهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ ، فَهَذَا الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ فَهَدَانَا اللَّهُ فَغَدًا لِلْيَهُودِ وَبَعْدَ غَدٍ لِلنَّصَارَى

We are the last ones but the first ones on the Day of Resurrection. They were given the scripture before us and we were given it after them. So this is the day they differed about, but Allah has guided us. So tomorrow is for the Jews, and the day after is for the Christians.

[95] Recorded by Ibn Mājah, Aḥmad, and al-Bayhaqī. al-Albānī said it is authentic in “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Ibn Mājah” (no. 3463).

[96] Recorded by al-Tirmidhī, al-Nasāī, Ibn Mājah, and al-Ṭabarānī. The text is from al-Ṭabarānī and al-Albānī said it is authentic in “Ṣaḥīḥ al-Targhīb wal-Tarhīb” (1/185).

[97] Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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The Righteous Wife (Sifāt Zawjatus Sālihah) – Muhammad Shūmān | Dāwūd Burbānk

The Righteous Wife

By Muhammad Shūmān
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank (rahimahullaah)

Contents

  • Introduction to the English Edition
  • Author’s Foreword
  • The Seriousness of the Rights of the Husband
  • Encouragement of Obedience to the Husband and Seeking to Please Him
  • The Warning Against Causing the Husband to Become Angry, Disobeying his Orders and Neglecting his Rights
  • The Excellence of a Righteous Wife
  • Attributes of a Righteous Wife
  • Means to Help the Wife to Attain these Attributes
  • Epilogue

Introduction to the English Edition

All praise and thanks are due to Allaah, Lord of the worlds. May His peace and prayers be upon Muhammad and upon those who follow his Sunnah.

More than likely this book shall attract much attention. Perhaps it shall be a gift from a husband to his wife or perhaps those of us awaiting marriage will eagerly study these few pages to better understand what is expected of us and how we can strive towards it. Nevertheless there will be some who shall huff and utter annoyances under their breath claiming that yet again this is targeted at women (not men), censuring and restricting them. Unfortunately such people will rarely study the text but on flicking through these pages shall come to the conclusion that this has been written by a fanatical male Muslim to tyrannise and discredit the role of women.

In six short, concise chapters Muhammad Shūmān has brought together a collection of authentic ahaadeeth and many Aayaat to aid the Muslimah towards righteousness and advise and encourage her with regards to her husbands rights upon her and how she can attain the pleasure of her Creator by doing so. You may find some of the wording harsh, or even strange, but the fault isn’t in the text, rather in ourselves due to this society where the ‘choices’ are only the western liberal choices and hence we have become accustomed to moulding ourselves in a particular way – sometimes quite alien from Islaam.

Our duty above all is to worship Allaah, obedience to Him taking precedence over the rest of creation. If He asks us to do something then that should become an aim we try our hardest to fulfill. With this in mind, when we now approach the issue of marriage then it should be made clear that obedience to one’s husband is an Islamic duty and hence earns the pleasure of our Lord. It must be pointed out that the author has kept his own words to a minimum and instead has based this book on the Sayings of Allaah and His Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) (with the explanation of some prominent scholars) – thus the Believer has no choice but to submit to it wholeheartedly. Allaah, the Most High says,

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ ۗ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا

“It is not fitting for any believing man or woman, when Allaah and His Messenger have decreed any matter that they should have any option in their affair, and whoever disobeys Allaah and His Messenger has strayed in plain error.” (Soorah al-Ahzaab 33:36)

If we read this and digest it with a sincere heart and recognise that there isn’t hardship imposed on the woman and ease for the man, rather that which is mentioned shall only lead to greater comfort, ease and satisfaction for both parties. A marriage which starts on the right footing where the husband and wife identify their own roles and compliment each other according to what is contained in the Qur’aan and Sunnah then theirs shall be the marriage in which there is happiness and joy – success in both worlds, for they have put their entire trust in Allaah, He who knows what benefits and rectifies the servants and what harms and corrupts them.

Although the pages are few, the lessons are many and even if we were to act on half of them we would feel an immediate change in ourselves and our homes. It is about time that a book of this nature and dealing with such an important topic has become available to the Muslim women in the west where we are in much need of instruction from the Qur’aan and Sunnah so that we can easily reject western models and replace them with the best of examples.

We hope that this book will not be misused by husbands but rather that it will serve as a reminder to them also and a warning that they are not left to their customary conduct in this affair. There is advise and encouragement for the husband to live with his wife in a good and honourable manner, taking care of her – highlighting that the success and tranquility of the marriage does not just fall upon his wife, rather it is a shared responsibility.

We ask Allaah to reward the author for this service and his efforts, and may all the Muslim women who read this try to mould their characteristics upon this noble way and may all the Muslim men help and encourage us towards attaining the rewards and excellence for being a righteous wife.

Written by
Umm Nusaybah
31st Otober 1996

Author’s Foreword

All praise is for Allaah. We praise Him, we seek His aid and we ask for His forgiveness. We seek Allaah’s refuge from the evils of ourselves and from our evil actions. Whosoever Allaah guides, there is no one who can misguide him; and whosoever Allaah misguides, there is no one who can guide him.

I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, who has no partner; and I testify that Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) is His slave and Messenger.

This treatise, “The Righteous Wife” is concise in its wording, important in its subject and valuable for the points of benefit it contains. We ask Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, to make this treatise of benefit to our Muslim sisters, and to all those who read it, and that He makes it a work done purely and sincerely to seek His Face. Indeed He is the one who gives bounteously and generously.

Written by
Muhammad Shūmān
1st Dhul-Qa’dah 1410H.

The Seriousness of the Rights of the Husband

Allaah, the Most High, says:

الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ

“The men have authority over the women due to the excellence which Allaah has given to the man over the woman, and due to the wealth that they spend upon them.” [01]

Ibn Katheer says, “The man is in charge (qayyim) of the woman, i.e. he is the one in-charge of her, her chief, the one having authority over her and the one who corrects her if she inclines away from what is correct.” [02]

Abdur-Rahmaan as-Sa’ dee said (regarding the above mentioned Aayah),

“That is due to the excellence of men over women, and the eminence which they have been given over them. So the pre-eminence of the men over the women is from many aspects: holding positions of leadership and authority is particular to men, likewise Prophethood and Messengership. They are also particularised by many acts of worship such as jihaad , the eids and the Jum’ah prayers. Also due to the characteristics given to them by Allaah, the like of which are not possessed by women such as sound intellect, composure, patience and endurance. Likewise they are particularised with having to spend upon their wives, and indeed spending in many ways which are particular to the men – which distinguish them from the women. So perhaps this is the reason for His saying: وَبِمَا أَنفَقُوا  “…due to the wealth that they spend…” – and exactly what they spend is not stated to indicate that the spending referred to is general. So from all this it is known that the man is like a governor and master for his wife, and she is with him like a captive. So his role is to take care of that which Allaah has placed him in-charge of, and her role is to be obedient to her Lord and to obey her husband.” [03]

Al-Qaasimee said,

الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ ” ‘The men have authority (qawwaamoon) over the women’ [04] – qawwaamoon is the plural of qawwaam. Qawwaam is the one who is responsible for taking care of their welfare, managing their affairs and disciplining them. That is, they are in-charge of and are to take care of the manners and behaviour of the women; ordering them and forbidding them, just as the ruler is responsible for his subjects. This is due to two reasons: (i) Due to the nature which Allaah gave them, and (ii) due to the role which they carry out.

The first is indicated by the Saying of Allaah:

بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ

“Due to the excellence which Allaah has given to the man over the woman.” [05]

This refers to the relation between the men and women, and means that the men have a position of dominance over them due to the superiority which Allaah has given to the men over the women.” [06]

Allaah, the Most High, says:

وَلِلرِّجَالِ عَلَيْهِنَّ دَرَجَةٌ

“Men have a degree over the women.” [07]

Ibn Katheer said, “Meaning: in excellence; in the nature given to them; in manners; in status; in the obedience due to them; in their spending and taking care of the (women’s) welfare; and in excellence in this life and the Hereafter.” [08]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

Every soul from the children of Aadam is a master; so the man is the master of his family, and the woman is the mistress of her household. ” [09]

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If I were to order anyone to prostrate to other than Allaah, I would have ordered the woman to prostrate to her husband. By Him in whose Hand is the soul of Muhammad, the woman will not fulfill the rights of her Lord until she fulfills the rights of her husband; and even if he were to request her for herself (i.e. to have intercourse with her) whilst she was sitting upon a camel’s saddle [10], she should not refuse him.” [11]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“It is not right that any human being should prostrate to another human being, and if it were right for a human being to prostrate to another human being I would have ordered the woman to prostrate to her husband due to the greatness of his right upon her. By Him in whose Hand is my soul, if from his foot to the crown of his head there was a wound pouring forth pus, and she (the wife) came and licked that, then she would (still) not have fulfilled his right. “ [12]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“The right of the husband over the wife is such that if he had a wound, or his nostrils were pouring forth pus or blood, then she were to swallow that down – then she would (still) not have fulfilled his right.” [13]

Aboo Hurayrah, radiyAllaahu ‘anhu, reports that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“It is not right for a woman to fast [14] whilst the husband is present except with his permission; [15] and whatever wealth she spends in charity without his order, then half of the reward is for him. ” [16]

Shaykh al-Albaanee said, “Since it is an obligation upon the woman to obey her husband with regard to fulfillment of his desire with her, then it is even more fitting that it is obligatory upon her to obey him with regard to that which is even more important than that – such as what pertains to bringing up the children, correcting her family and the like – all such rights and obligations.” [17]

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr said, “The hadeeth shows that the right of the husband upon the wife has priority over her performing optional good deeds, since his right is an obligation, and fulfillment of an obligation takes precedence over carrying out something optional.” [18]

Also Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah, rahimahullaah, was asked about a man who has a wife who fasts during the day and stands in prayer throughout the nights. Whenever he calls her to his bed she refuses and gives precedence to praying in the night and fasting during the day over obedience to the husband. So is this permissible? Shaykhul-Islaam replied, “That is not permissible for her by agreement of the Muslims. Rather it is obligatory upon her to obey when he calls her to the bed, this is a binding obligation upon her. However standing the night in prayer and fasting during the day is optional, so how can a believing woman give precedence to something optional over an obligation… and there is no right, after the rights of Allaah and His Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) more binding upon the woman than the rights of the husband.” [19]

Mu’aadh ibn Jabal, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If the woman knew the right of the husband, she would not sit when his morning and evening meals were presented until he finished. “ [20]

Encouragement of Obedience to the Husband and Seeking to Please Him

Aboo Hurayrah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If a woman prays her five (daily prayers), fast her month (i.e. Ramadaan), guards her private parts, and obeys her husband, it will be said to her, ‘Enter Paradise through whichever of the gates of Paradise you wish.'” [21]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Your women from the people of Paradise are the beloved and fertile, the one who is an asset to her husband, who if her husband becomes angry- comes and places her hand in the hand of her husband and says, ‘I will not taste sleep until you are pleased (with me). “‘ [22]

The Warning Against Causing the Husband to Become Angry, Disobeying His Orders and Neglecting His Rights

Fadaalah ibn ‘Ubayd, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“There are three who are not to be asked about: [23] A man who abandon s the Jamaa’ah [24] and disobeys his ruler [25] and dies in a state of disobedience – so do not ask about him; a female slave or a male slave who flees from his master; and a woman whose husband is away, and he has provided for her worldly needs, yet she adorns and displays herself [26] and roams around freely [27] without him – so do not ask about them. ” [28]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“There are three whose prayers will not be raised above their ears: the runaway slave until he returns; a woman who spends the night whilst her husband is angry with her; [29] and one who leads a people in prayer and they dislike him.[30] [31]

The Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Allaah will not Look at a woman who does not give thanks to her husband and she cannot do without him. “ [32]

Aboo Hurayrah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, reports that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“By Him in whose Hand is my soul, there is no man who calls his wife to his bed and she refuses him except that the One who is in the heaven is angry with her until he (her husband) is pleased with her. “ [33]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“When a woman spends the night forsaking the bed of her husband, then the angels curse her until she returns. “ [34]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If a man calls his wife to his bed and she refuses, and he spends the night angry with her, then the angels curse her until morning. “ [35]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said to a woman, “Indeed he is your Paradise and your Fire.” [36] Meaning her husband.

So whichever woman obeys Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, with regard to her husband and fulfills his rights, then he will be her Paradise – meaning he will be a cause for her entering Paradise; and if she is disobedient to her husband – then the Fire.

Mu’aadh ibn Jabal, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“A woman does not harm her husband in this world except that his wife from the large eyed hooris (al-Hoorul ‘Een) [37] says, ‘Do not harm him, may Allaah kill you,for he is just a passing guest with you and is about to leave you and come to us.’ “[38]

The Excellence of a Righteous Wife

‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“All of this world is a utility and the best utility is a righteous wife. “ [39]

Sa’d ibn Abee Waqqaas, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Four things are from prosperity: a righteous woman, a spacious dwelling, a righteous neighbour and an agreeable riding beast; and four things are from adversity: an evil neighbour, an evil woman, a bad riding beast and a cramped dwelling. “ [40]

Thawbaan, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, nararted, “When revelation was sent down concerning silver and gold, [41] they said, ‘So which wealth shall we possess?’ ‘Umar said, ‘I shall find this out for you.’ So he hastened upon his camel and went to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and I followed him. So he said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, which wealth shall we possess?’ So he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

Let one of you possess a heart which is thankful, a tongue which makes mention of(Allaah), and a believing wife who helps one of you upon the affairs of the Hereafter.‘” [42]

The righteous wife is the one whom the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) advised should be obtained right from the beginning. As Aboo Hurayrah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, narrated from the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) that he said,

“A woman is married for four reasons: for her wealth; for her lineage; for her beauty; and for her religion (Deen). So marry the one who is good in her religion (Deen) – may your hands be covered in dust.” [43]  [44]

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr said, “The meaning is that what is fitting for a person upon the religion and of good manners is that the religion should be the aim which he gives importance to in all of his affairs – particularly those affairs which he will be involved in for a long period of time. So the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) commanded him to obtain a woman who is good in her practice of the religion – which is the goal that is desired.” [45]

Attributes of the Righteous Wife

1. Devotion and obedience to Allaah, the Most High, such that she fulfills His rights, such as the prayer, fasting, chastity, covering herself, withholding her gaze and so on.

2. Obedience to her husband in that which does not involve disobedience to Allaah, the Most High, such that she fulfills his rights completely, and fro m them are what has proceeded in the first chapter.

3. That she guards and preserves herself and her honour, in the absence of her husband, from the hand of anyone wishing to touch her, the eye of anyone wishing to look upon her, and the ear of anyone wishing to listen to her.

Likewise that she preserves her husband’s children, home and wealth.

Allaah, the Most High, says:

فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ

“Therefore the righteous women are obedient to Allaah and their husbands, and guard that which Allaah has ordered them to guard (their chastity and their husbands property) in the absence of their husbands.” [46]

As-Sa’dee said, فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ meaning they are obedient to Allaah, the Most High; حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ meaning they are obedient to their husbands even when the husbands are absent, she guards herself and her husband’s property.” [47]

The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If a woman prays her five (daily prayers), fasts her month (i.e. Ramadaan), guards her private parts, and obeys her husband, it will be said to her, ‘Enter Paradise through whichever of the gates of Paradise you wish. ‘” [48]

4. Serving her husband. First of all by carrying out what is required in his house, such as bringing up and educating the children, preparing the meals and the beds and so on.

From Husayn ibn Mihsan who said that my paternal aunt said,

“I came to Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) for some need, so he asked, ‘You there! Are you married?’ I replied, ‘Yes.’ He then asked, ‘How are you towards your husband?’ She responded, ‘I do not fall short in his service except with regard to what I am unable to do. ‘ He said, ‘Then look to your standing with him, for indeed he is your Paradise and your Fire .”‘ [49]

Here is an example of how Asmaa’ bint Abee Bakr, radiyallaahu ‘anhumaa, served her husband. She said,

“Az-Zubayr married me and he did not have any property or slaves or anything upon the earth except for a camel which drew water from the well and his horse. So I used to feed his horse, draw the water, stitch his water bucket, and prepare the dough, but I was not proficient in baking bread – so ladies from the Ansaar who were my neighbours and were honourable used to bake the bread for me. I also used to carry the date-stones upon my head, from the land given to az-Zubayr by Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) – and it was about two miles away. One day when I was coming with the date-stones on my head, I met Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and a group of the Ansaar were with him. So he called me and said, ‘Ikh, ikh.’ [50] in order to carry me behind him upon the camel. But I felt shy to proceed along with the men, and I thought of az-Zubayr and his sense of jealousy, and he was one of the most jealous of the people. So Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) saw my shyness and so passed on. So I came to az-Zubayr and said, ‘Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) met me while I was carrying the date stones upon my head and with him were a group of his Companions. He caused his riding camel to kneel, but I felt shy and remembered your sense of jealousy.’ So he said, ‘By Allaah your having to carry the date-stones is harder upon me than that you should ride along with him.”‘ She said, “Then later on Aboo Bakr sent me a servant to look after the horse, so it was as if he had set me free.” [51]

The scholars differ with regard to the ruling about a woman serving her husband. Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah said, “The scholars differed about whether she has to serve her husband with regard to the like of household bedding, preparing food and drinks, baking the bread, grinding the corn, and providing food for his slaves and cattle – such as providing fodder for his riding beast and so on. “Some of them say: It is not obligatory for her to serve him – and this is a weak saying, like the weakness of the saying that it is not obligatory upon her to live together with him and have intercourse with him! However what is correct is that it is obligatory to serve him, since the husband is her master according to the Book of Allaah, and she is a captive with him according to the Sunnah of the Prophet [52] (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم), and the captive and the slave have to serve – and this is something known.

…the Saying of Allaah, the Most High,

فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ

“Therefore the righteous women are obedient to Allaah and their husbands, and guard that which Allaah has ordered them to guard (their chastity and their husbands property) in the absence of their husbands.” [53]

“This Aayah shows that it is obligatory upon her to serve her husband unrestrictedly, including: serving him, travelling along with him , making herself available to him, and so on – just as it is obligatory to obey the parents, since the obedience due from her to the parents transfers to the husband.” [54]

5. Keeping the husbands secrets. Particularly what occurs between him and her in private – with regard to sexual matters and the private affairs within the marriage. Disclosing the husbands secrets will hurt him and anger him and this contradicts obedience to him and seeking to please him. Furthermore preserving his secrets is one of the duties of the righteous and obedient women, as described in the Saying of Allaah,

حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ

“Guarding that which (Allaah has commanded them to guard) in the absence of their husbands.” [55]

Part of their guarding what they are to guard in the absence of their husbands is that they should not broadcast their secrets.

From Asmaa’ bint Yazeed, radiyallaahu ‘anhaa, who said that she was in the company of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and men and women were sitting, and he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Perhaps a man mentions that which he did with his wife, and perhaps a woman informs of what she does with her husband?!” So the people were silent, so I said, “Yes, by Allaah, O Messenger of Allaah! The women certainly do that, and the men certainly do that.” He (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said, “Then do not do so, since that is just like a male devil meeting a female devil upon the way, and he has intercourse with her while the people are watching. “ [56]

6. She should appear before the husband in the best appearance, such that if he looks at her it pleases him. Aboo Hurayrah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, narrates the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) was asked,

“Which of the women is the best?” He replied, “The one who gives him [57] pleasure when he looks;[58] obeys him when he orders; and does not go against his wishes with regard to herself or her wealth by doing that which he dislikes. “ [59]

7. She should not spend any of his wealth or her wealth except with his permission.

From ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘ Aas, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

” It is not permissible for a woman to give a gift except with the permission of her husband. “ [60]

Al-Albaanee said, “However it is not becoming for the husband – if he is a sincere Muslim – that he should use this ruling to play the tyrant with his wife and to prevent her from utilizing her wealth in a manner which will not harm either of them. Indeed this right is very similar to the right of the girls guardian – who is such that she cannot get herself married except with his permission. But if he unjustly prevents her, then the matter is raised to the Islamic judge for justice to be attained. Likewise is the ruling with regard to a woman’s wealth if her husband oppresses her and prevents her from spending her wealth in a lawful and prescribed manner – then the judge will also bring about justice for her. So there is no problem with the ruling itself, rather the problem is in how it is misused.” [61]

8. She should not permit anyone to enter her husbands house except with his permission.

From Aboo Hurayrah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“It is not permissible for a woman to fast when her husband is present except with his permission; nor may she permit anyone to enter his house except with his permission; and whatever she spends in charity without his order – then half of the reward is for him. “ [62]

9. She should not ask her husband for divorce without a reason necessitating that.

From Thawbaan, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Whichever woman asks her husband for divorce without a strong reason – then the fragrance of Paradise will be forbidden for her. “ [63]

10. Avoidance of cursing.

Aboo Sa’eed al-Khudree, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said

“The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) went out to the prayer-ground for the (prayer of) Adhaa or Fitr, and he passed by the women and said, ‘O women! Give in charity,for I have been shown that you shall be the majority of the people of the Fire .’ So they asked, ‘Why is that, 0 Messenger of Allaah?’ He replied, ‘You curse frequently and are ungrateful to your husbands. ‘” [64]

11. Being thankful to the husband for the good he does and for his good treatment of his wife.

This is accomplished by good words, and by her obedience to him in what is good, and by not forgetting his good treatment and avoiding denying this, since that is one of the reasons which brings about entry into the Fire.

From Ibn ‘Abbaas, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“I was shown the Fire and found that the majority of its inhabitants were women, due to ingratitude. It was said: “Is it that they disbelieve in Allaah?” He said: They are ungrateful to their husbands and deny the good they do. If you were to treat one of them well always, and she then saw something (displeasing) from you she would say: ‘I have never seen any good from you. ‘” [65]

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Allaah will not look at a woman who is not thankful to her husband and she cannot do without him.” [66]

12. She should not remove her clothes outside her husbands house.

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Whichever woman removes her clothes in other than her house, then Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, will tear down His cover from her. “ [67]

Al-Manaawee said, ‘”Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, will tear down His cover from her’ since because she has failed to take care of what she has been commanded with regard to covering herself from strangers, then this is the recompense she receives, the recompense being of the type of the action. What is apparent is that removal of her clothing means uncovering herself to strange males, for the purpose of sexual intercourse or that which leads to it. As opposed to the case if she were to remove her clothes amongst women, whilst covering her private parts, since there is no reason for that to enter into this warning.” [68]

13. Striving to please the husband by every possible means.

The hadeeth has already preceded containing the saying of the righteous wife, “… I will not taste sleep until you are pleased (with me).”

There also occurs in al-Kabaa’ir of adh-Dhahabee, “What is obligatory upon the woman is that she seeks the pleasure of her husband, and avoids angering him, and does not refuse him whenever he wants her. The woman must also know that she is like a slave to her husband, so she should not do anything affecting herself or her husbands wealth except with his permission. She should give precedence to his rights over her rights, and the rights of his relatives over the rights of her relatives, and she should keep herself clean and be ready for him to enjoy her. She should not boast at his expense of her beauty, nor rebuke him for any ugliness found in him. The woman must also be always modest and reserved in the presence of her husband, lower her eyes in front of him, obey his commands, remain silent when he speaks, keep far away from everything which angers him, avoid treachery when he is absent, with regard to his bed, his wealth and his house. She should ensure that her aroma is pleasant, be accustomed to using musk and perfume and cleaning her mouth with siwaak. She should be constant in adorning herself in his presence and not when he is absent. She should treat his family and relatives honourably, and consider something small from him as something great.” [69]

Means to Help the Wife to Attain These Attributes

Knowing the greatness and exaltedness of Allaah, the Most High, and that He is the True God, the One who watches over His creation, and that His Religion is the true and straight way, and the laws He had prescribed are the straight path, and to know the perfectness of His Wisdom in whatever He orders and forbids, and whatever He decrees and chooses.

Furthermore that His knowledge comprehends everything to be known, what is apparent and what is hidden: so He knows what benefits the servants and what harms them. He knows what will rectify them and what will ruin and corrupt them. He, the One free of all imperfections, is also the Most Merciful of all those who show mercy, so He does not order His servants except with that which is good for them in their Religion and their worldly-life, and brings about felicity for them in this world and the Hereafter; and He does not forbid them except from that which will bring misery for them in this world and the Hereafter.

So whatever He, the One free of all imperfections, has prescribed is a mercy and a blessing; and whoever proceeds upon that way and follows it will be one of those who are happy and successful in both worlds, and will live a fine life filled with happiness and joy, they will not be miserable at all except in those things where they contradict the commandments of their Lord, the Mighty and Majestic. Allaah, the Most High, says:

مَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا مِّن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَلَنُحْيِيَنَّهُ حَيَاةً طَيِّبَةً ۖ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْرَهُم بِأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

“Whoever does a righteous deed, whether male or female, and is a true-Believer, we will give him a good life (by granting him contentment) and we will reward them in the Hereafter in accordance with the best of what they used to do.” [70]

He, the One free of all imperfections, says:

وَمَنْ أَعْرَضَ عَن ذِكْرِي فَإِنَّ لَهُ مَعِيشَةً ضَنكًا

“And whoever turns away from my reminder, then there is for him a life of hardship and wretchedness.” [71]

So if the wife is aware of the greatness of Allaah, the Most High, and His perfect wisdom, and His all-encompassing knowledge, and His extensive mercy, then she will strive to obey Him, the Majestic and Most High, and to be obedient to her husband as He has commanded her. She will hasten to fulfill his rights without hesitation or laziness, and she will not say: ‘why is it the case that the man is in authority over me?!’ ‘why do I have to obey him?!’ ‘why … why?!’

Allaah, the Most High, says:

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ ۗ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا

“It is not for any believing man or woman, when Allaah and His Messenger have decreed any matter that they should have any option in their affair, and whoever disobeys Allaah and His Messenger has strayed in plain error.” [72]

And He, the One free of all imperfections, says:

فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا

“So no, by your Lord, they cannot be Believers until they make you, 0 Muhammad, judge in all disputes between them, then they do not find any opposition in themselves against your judgements, and they accept them with full submission.” [73]

And from the means which will help her to attain the attribute of the righteous women is:

• Desire for that which Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, has prepared for the righteous women in Paradise

The comprehensive good and the huge reward which is such as has been seen by no eye, heard by no ear, nor imagined by any human heart.

• Fear of the retribution and Anger of Allaah, the One free of all imperfections and the Most High

Fear of all that He has prepared for the disobedient in the Hereafter with regard to punishment, disgrace, and severe and painful torment, may Allaah save us from that, by His grace and favour.

We have also already brought two chapters: one in encouragement of looking after the rights of the husband, and the other warning against neglecting his rights.

• Seeking the Aid of Allaah, the Most High

Since the attainment of the smallest good is not possible unless Allaah, the Most High, guides and sets one straight. Concerning this Allaah, the Exalted, says:

فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ

“Therefore the righteous women are obedient to Allaah and their husbands, and guard that which Allaah has ordered them to guard (their chastity and their husbands property) in the absence of their husbands.” [74]

So the meaning of  بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ  is:’by Allaah’s guarding and protecting them when they become like that.’ This is what at-Tabaree [75] and a group of the scholars of tafseer said.

From the greatest aids to a wife’s righteousness is:

• That she keeps company with righteous and pious women, that she listens to them, and seeks to be like them; and that she avoids the company of corrupt women, and avoids sitting with them and listening to them.

Indeed she should beware of observing their making a display of themselves, and showing their nakedness, and their evil manners, whether this is seen by means of television, video or whatever.

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“The example of the righteous companion and the evil companion is like that of a seller of musk and the blacksmiths bellows. From the musk seller you will either buy some musk or at least enjoy its good smell. But the bellows of the blacksmith will either burn your house or your clothes, or at least you will receive a bad smell from it. “ [76]

An-Nawawee said, “It shows the excellence of sitting with the righteous, and the people of good, and those possessing good character and fine manners and piety, and the people of knowledge and refinement; and the forbiddence of sitting with the people of evil, and the people of innovation, and those who backbite the people, or those who are commonly involved in shamelessness and idleness, and such reprehensible folk.” [77]

Ar-Raaghib said, “This hadeeth indicates that it is a duty upon a person to strive to the utmost of his ability to accompany and sit with good people, since this may cause a bad person to become a person of good, just as accompanying evil people may turn a person from good to bad. So just as it is seen that water and air can be corrupted by being next to a rotting corpse, then what do you think will be the effect upon human souls which are such that they accept and take on the good and the evil which they see?!” [78]

Also from that which will make it easier for a woman to attain the attributes of the righteous women: is that she should choose a righteous husband, and the woman should straight away reject any proposal of marriage unless they come from a person who is good in his practice of the Religion and his manners, who is such that he will assist her upon the affairs of the Hereafter.

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If there comes to you [79] one [80] whose character and Religion are pleasing to you, then marry (her) to him; if you do not do so it will result in tribulation upon the earth and widespread corruption.” [81]

Epilogue

As it is the case that the woman is commanded to be obedient to her husband, and to seek to please him, and to take care of his rights, then it is also the case that the husband is commanded to treat her well, and with kindness, and to have patience with any bad characteristics and the like that may be seen from her. He must give her rights of provision and clothing, and that he lives with her in a good and honourable manner, as Allaah, the Most High, says:

وَعَاشِرُوهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ

“And live with them in a good manner.” [82]

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said, “Take care of the women.” [83]

He (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said, “The most complete of the Believers are the best of them in manners, and the best of them are those who are best to their women.” [84]

From Iyaas ibn ‘ Abdullaah ibn Abee Dhubaab, radiyallaahu ‘anhu , who said that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

”Do not beat the female servants of Allaah. So ‘Umar came to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and said: “O Messenger of Allaah! The women have become emboldened towards their husbands. [85] So he gave permission to strike them, so they were struck. Then many women came to the wives of Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) (complaining about their husbands), so in the morning he said: Seventy women have this night visited the family of Muhammad, each of them complaining about her husband. So you will not find those [86] [87] men to be the best amongst you.”

This concludes what we wished to draw attention to in this brief treatise, which, if Allaah wills, will be beneficial. “How free and far removed from all imperfections You are, O Allaah, and all praise is for You. I declare You free of all defects and praise You alone. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but You. I seek Your forgiveness and turn in repentance to You.” [88]

Footnotes:

[1] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[2] Tafseerul-Qur ‘aanil-Adheem ( 1/194).

[3] Tayseerul-Kareemir-Rahmaan ( 1/344).

[4] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[5] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[6] Mahaasinut-Ta ‘weel (abridged) (5/1 30).

[7] Soorah al-Baqarah (2):228.

[8] Tafseerul-Qur’aanil-Adheem ( 1/271).

[9] Reported by Ibn as-Sunnee in ‘Amalul Yawmwal Laylah and it occurs in Saheehul Jaami’is Sagheer (no. 4565).

[10] They used to sit upon that whilst giving birth – as is mentioned in an-Nihaayah: “Its meaning is an exhortation for the women to be obedient to their husbands, and that it is not for them to refuse them even if they are in that state – so how about at other times? !”

[11] Reported by Ibn Maajah (no. 1853), Ibn Hibbaan (6/1 86 – Ihsaan) and Ahmad (4/381) from ‘Abdullaah ibn Awfaa. Shaykh al-Albaanee declared the chain of narration of Ahmad to be saheeh to the standard of Muslim in as-Saheehah (3/ 202).

[12] Reported by Ahmad (3/159) and others. Its chain of narration is declared to be good by al-Mundhiree in at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (3/75), and it occurs in Saheehul Jamni’ (no. 7250).

[13] Al-Bazzaar reports it (no. 1465: al-Kashf) from Aboo Sa’eed al-Khudree, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, with a good chain of narration whose narrators are reliable and famous – as declared by al-Mundhiree in at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (3/74). Also reported by Ibn Hibbaan (6/184, Ihsaan), al-Haakim (2/189) and others, and it occurs in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no. 3148).

[14] Translator’s note: i.e. optional fast.

[15] An-Nawawee said (Sharh Saheeh Muslim [7/115]), “Its reason is that the husband has the right to enjoy his wife on all days, and his right is an immediate obligation and not to be denied him due to something optional nor something obligatory which may be performed at any time.”

[16] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/94/no. 123).

[17] Aadaabuz Zifaaf, p.282, Ist. Edition.

[18] Al-Fath (9/296).

[19] Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa (32/274-275).

[20] Reported by al-Bazzaar (al-Kashf, 2/1 80) and others. It occurs in Saheehul Jaami ‘ (no. 5259).

[21] Reported by Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh (6/184 – Ihsaan) and others. Declared saheeh due to witnessing narrations in Aadaabuz Zifaaf, p.286.

[22] Sisilatul Ahaadeethis Saheehah (no. 287).

[23] This contains a warning of the seriousness of their crimes.

[24] i.e. the Sunnah and its people.

[25] The Khaleefah or those in authority on his behalf.

[26] Showing her adornment to strangers in order to commit adultery, or that which leads to it, such as seeing and touching and the like.

[27] Roaming around as she pleases intending evil.

[28] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in al-Adabul Mufrad (no. 590), Ibn Hibbaan (no. 50 of al-Mawaarid) and others. It occurs in as-Saheehah (no. 542).

[29] Due to a valid reason, such as evil manners or disobedience.

[30] Due to something that is blameworthy and censured in the Sharee’ah.

[31] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no. 360) and others from Aboo Umaamah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu – and it is a saheeh hadeeth as mentioned by Ahmad Shaakir.

[32] Silsilatul Ahaadeethis Saheehah (no. 289).

[33] Saheeh Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/732/no. 3367).

[34] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/93/no.1 22).

[35] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/93/no. 12 1).

[36] Saheeh, reported by al-Haakim (2/1 89).

[37] The women of Paradise.

[38] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no. I 174), Ibn Maajah (no. 2014) and others. It occurs in as –Silsilatus Saheehah (no. 173).

[39] Reported by Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/752/no. 3465), an-Nasaa’ee (6/69) (the wording is his), and others.

[40] Reported by Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh (no. 1232, al-Mawaarid) and others. Its chain of narration is declared saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaanee and to be of the standard of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim in as-Saheehah ( I/509).

[41] Meaning the Saying of Allaah, the Most High,  “Those who hoard gold and silver…” Soorah at-Tawbah (9):34.

[42] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no. 3094), Ibn Maajah (no. 1856), Ahmad (5/282) and others from other than Thawbaan, and the wording of at-Tirmidhee is, “‘If we were to know which wealth to possess?’ So he said, ‘The most excellent of it is a tongue which remembers (Allaah), a heart which is thankful, and a wife who helps him with his eemaan. ‘”

[43] A phrase indicating encouragement and incitement.

[44] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/18/27) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/749/3457).

[45] Fathhul Baaree (91135).

[46] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[47] Tayseerul-Kareemir-Rahmaan (1/344).

[48] Saheeh due to supporting narrations as has preceded.

[49] Reported by al-Haakim (2/189) and others, he declared it saheeh and adh-Dhahabee agreed; and Shaykh al-Albaanee agreed with them in Aadaabuz-Zifaaf (p.285).

[50] A word said to make the camel kneel down

[51] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7 / 111/no. 151) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 3/1 190/no. 5417) and others.

[52] As the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said in the sermon of the Farewell Pilgrimage, “…treat your women well,for they are captives with you. ” Reported with this wording by at-Tirmidhee (no. l 163) and he said , “hasan saheeh. ” and Ibn Maajah (no. 185 l). Declared strong by al-Albaanee in Irwaa ‘ul Ghaleel (7/52).

[53] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[54] Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa (abridged) (34/90).

[55] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[56] Reported by Ahmad (6/456) and there are witnessing narrations which raise it to the level of being saheeh or hasan at the very least. These are mentioned by al-Albaanee in Aadaabuz Zifaaf(p.144).

[57] i.e. the husband.

[58] Meaning when he looks at her outer beauty, or at the inner beauty of her good character and how she devotes herself to obedience to Allaah and taqwaa … (As-Sindees commentary on an-Nasaa’ee).

[59] Reported by an-Nasaa’ee (6/68), al-Haakim (2/61) and Ahmad (2/25 1, 432 and 438). Al-Haakim said, “Saheeh to the standard of Muslim” and adh-Dhahabee agreed. Al-‘Iraaqee declared its chain of narration to be saheeh in Takhreejul-Ihyaa’ (2/39) and al-Albaanee declares it hasan in as-Saheehah (4/453).

[60] Reported with this wording by Aboo Daawood (Eng. transl. 2/1007/no. 3540), an-Nasaa’ee (5/65-66) and Ahmad (2.1 79 & 184). Al-Albaanee declares it hasan in as -Saheehah (2/493).

[61] Silsilatul Ahaadeethis Saheehah (2/420).

[62] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/94/no. 123) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/491/no. 2238).

[63] Reported by Aboo Daawood (Eng. transl. 2/600/no. 2218), at-Tirmidhee (no. 1187) who declared it hasan, ad-Daarimee (2/162), Ibn Maajah (no, 2055) and others. AI-Albaanee declares it to be saheeh to the standard of Muslim in al-Irwaa’ (7/100).

[64] Repo1ted by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 1/181/no. 30 I & 2/313/no. 541) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/418/no. 1931) and others.

[65] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 1/29/no.28; 2/91-92/no.16 & 7/95-96/ no.125) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/43 1-432/no.1982) and others.

[66] Silsilatul-Ahaadeethis-Saheehah (no. 289).

[67] Reported by al-Haakim (4/289) and others, and it occurs in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no.2708).

[68] Faydul-Qadeer (3/1 47).

[69] pp. 188-190, abridged.

[70] Soorah an-Nahl ( 16):97.

[71] Soorah Taa Haa (20): 124.

[72 Soorah al-Ahzaab (33):36.

[73] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):65.

[74] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[75] Jaami’ul-Bayaan (5/39).

[76]Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 3/179/no.314; and 7/315/no.442) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 4/1383/no.6361) and others.

[77] Sharh Muslim (16/178).

[78]Quoted in Faydul-Qadeer (5/507).

[79]i.e. to the guardians of marriageable women.

[80] i.e. one asking for the girls hand in marriage.

[81] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no. 1084), Ibn Maajah (no. 1967) and others, from Aboo Hurayrah, radi yallaahu ‘anhu. Shaykh al-Albaanee declares it hasan due to supports in as-Saheehah (3/20).

[82] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4): 19.

[83] Part of a hadeeth reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/8 l/no. 114) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/752/no.3468) and others.

[84] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no.1162), and he said: “Hasan Saheeh “, and Ahmad (2/250 &472) and others from Aboo Hurayrah, radiy Allaahu ‘anhu, and al-Albaanee declared it hasan in Aadaabuz-Zifaaf(p.281).

[85] i.e. become bold and disobedient, and this is to be rectified by admonition, then if necessary by abandoning them in their beds, then if necessary by striking them lightly, not in the opposite order as is done by some husbands [and see Aayah 34 of Sooratun-Nisaa].

[86] i.e. those men who beat their wives severely and frequently.

[87] Reported by Aboo Daawood (Eng. transl. 2/575/no.2141), Ibn Maajah and others. al-Albaanee said of it in Saheeh Ibn Maajah: “Hasan Saheeh”.

[88] Reported by al-Haakim ( I/537) and others from Jubayr ibn Mut’im, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Whoever says, ‘How free and far removed from all imperfections You are, 0 Allaah, and all praise is for You. I declare You free of all defects and praise You alone. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but You. I seek Your forgiveness and turn in repentance to You’, saying it in a sitting of remembrance (of Allaah), then it will be like a seal upon it, and whoever says it in a sitting of loose talk, then it will be an expiation for it. ”

AI-Haakim said: “Saheeh to the standard of Muslim” and adh-Dhahabee agreed, and al-Albaanee agreed in Silsilatul-Ahaadeethis-Saheehah (no.8 1).

Related Links:

Day of Resurrection: The Books of Deeds are Distributed – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

Bismillaah

The Seventh Event

The Books of Deeds are Distributed

People’s books of deeds will be distributed, open for them to read. An individual’s book of deeds is the register with every action he did in life written inside. These deeds are being written now by the angels entrusted with recording the actions of all the children of Adam. Allah (تعالى) says:

وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَافِظِينَ كِرَامًا كَاتِبِينَ يَعْلَمُونَ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ

And indeed, (appointed) over you are keepers, honorable recorders. They know whatever you do. [Surah al-Isrā, 82:10-12][69]

These angels record in a book everything a person does because they are always with him. And on the Day of Resurrection, Allah will bring forth this book, making it known to the person as he says:

وَكُلَّ إِنسَانٍ أَلْزَمْنَاهُ طَائِرَهُ فِي عُنُقِهِ وَنُخْرِجُ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كِتَابًا يَلْقَاهُ مَنشُورًا اقْرَأْ كِتَابَكَ كَفَى بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا

Every person, we have imposed his fate upon his neck. And we will produce for him, on the Day of Resurrection, a record which he will find spread open. (It will be said to him,) “Read your book. You are sufficient today as a reckoner against yourself. [Surah al-Isrā, 17:13-14.]

The Recording of Good Deeds

Both good deeds and bad deeds are written in these books. As for the good deeds, the actions a person actually does are recorded, as are his good intentions and even those deeds he intends to do but may not have actually done them. So there are three types of rewarded behavior: 1) good deeds performed, 2) good intentions, and 3) good deeds intended but not performed.

1. Good Deeds: It is clear that a person’s good deeds are written.

2. Good Intentions: Intending to do a good deed is also recorded in a person’s favor.

But a reward is given for only the intention and not necessarily the action intended. This is based on the hadith of a rich man who spends his wealth in charity and a poor man who says, “If I had wealth, I would do what he does.” About these two, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَأَجْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ

He is rewarded for his intention, and the reward is the same for both.[71]

So both the rich and poor are equally rewarded in intention but not in action. This is also confirmed by the narration in which the poor immigrants of Medina complained to the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) saying, “Oh messenger of Allah, the wealthy have overtaken us (in reward).” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said (as a way to catch up with the wealthy in rewards):

تُسَبِّحُونَ وَتُكَبِّرُونَ وَتَحْمَدُونَ دُبُرَ كُلِّ صَلاةٍ ثَلاثًا وَثَلاثِينَ مَرَّة

Glorify Allah, declare his greatness, and thank him after each prayer thirty-three times.

But when this advice reached the wealthy, they too did likewise. So the poor returned, complaining to the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) again that the rich are now doing both— giving charity and praising Allah after the prayers. He (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then said:

ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ

That is the favor of Allah he gives to whom he wishes. [Recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim]

The prophet did not reply the second time that the poor, despite their sincere intentions, would have the same reward as the rich in deed. And this is fair because a man who does not perform a certain deed is not the same as the one who actually does it, yet he may still get a similar reward for the intention alone.

3. Good Deeds Intended but Not Performed: The third type of rewarded behavior which a person may find written in his book of deeds is the actions he may sincerely intend to do but did not actually do them. The difference between this type and the second is that for these intentions, he does receive a reward for the action itself. These are the deeds that an individual may intend to do and perhaps he does as much as he is able to of such deed. Then something prevents him from completing the deed. In such case, a full good deed will be recorded based on the statement of Allah:

وَمَن يَخْرُجْ مِن بَيْتِهِ مُهَاجِرًا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ يُدْرِكْهُ الْمَوْتُ فَقَدْ وَقَعَ أَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ

And whoever leaves his home as an emigrant to Allah and his messenger and then death overtakes him, his reward has already become incumbent upon Allah.[Surah al-Nisa, 4:100]

In this is also good news for students of religious knowledge. For example, if someone intends to study religious knowledge for the purpose of benefiting others with such information, defending the Sunnah of the messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and spreading Allah’s religion throughout the earth, yet he is unable to complete his studies—perhaps he dies in the process, for example—he will still have those good deeds recorded for him and he will achieve its rewards.

Even if a person has a habit of performing a particular good deed but for some reason he is unable to do it under certain circumstances, he still has the good deed recorded for him. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

إِذَا مَرِضَ الْعَبْدُ أَوْ سَافَرَ كُتِبَ لَهُ مِثْلُ مَا كَانَ يَعْمَلُ مُقِيمًا صَحِيحًا

When a servant becomes sick or travels, whatever he used to do while residing at home or healthy will still be recorded for him. [Recorded by al-Bukhari]

The Recording of Bad Deeds

As for bad deeds, they are written against a person if: 1) he actually does a bad deed, 2) he intends and hopes to do the bad deed, and 3) he intends to do the bad deed and tries to commit it but for some reason he is unable to.

1. Bad Deeds: This is clear; if someone does a bad deed, he has it recorded against him.

2. Bad Intentions: Sins an individual intends or hopes to do are also written against him. But like good intentions, he has a bad deed recorded for the intention and not a full bad deed for the action intended. The proof of this is in the same hadith mentioned about good intentions. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) spoke about a person Allah had provided wealth but no knowledge so that he aimlessly wasted his wealth. A person Allah had given neither wealth nor knowledge then said, “If I had wealth, I would do what he does,” admiring the former’s wasteful spending. So the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَوِزْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ

He is recorded for his intention, and the sin is the same for both of them. [75]

As for an individual intending to do a bad deed but refrains from it, this is of three types:

  • 1) If the person does not do the deed because he was unable though he tried to do it, he is just like a person who actually did the bad deed,
  • 2) If he refrains from doing the deed for the sake of Allah, he is rewarded, and
  • 3) If he simply decides not to do it (but not for the sake of Allah) or even if committing the deed did not seriously cross his mind, then he has neither sin nor reward written for him.

3. Bad Deeds Intended but Not Performed: These are also recorded against a person as complete bad deeds if the person tried his utmost to do them based on the statement (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) of the prophet:

ذَا تَوَاجَهَ الْمُسْلِمَانِ بِسَيْفَيْهِمَا فَكِلاهُمَا مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ

If two Muslims face off with their swords (i.e. if they fight to the death), both of them are people of the fire.

After hearing this, the companions asked, “Messenger of Allah, we understand about the killer, but why the one killed too?” He replied:

إِنَّهُ أَرَادَ قَتْلَ صَاحِبِهِ

He also wanted to kill his opponent.[Recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim.]

Similarly, if someone wanted to drink alcohol but something happened so that he was unable to do it, it is still recorded against him as a bad deed because he tried as much as he could to commit it.

To conclude this topic we must know that Allah rewards good deeds with rewards greater than the original good deed, but He recompenses a bad deed only equivalent to the original sin; He says (تعالى) :

مَن جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أَمْثَالِهَا وَمَن جَاءَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ فَلا يُجْزَى إِلاَّ مِثْلَهَا وَهُمْ لا يُظْلَمُونَ

Whoever comes (on the Day of Judgment) with a good deed will have ten times the like thereof, and whoever comes with an evil deed will not be recompensed except the like thereof, and they will not be wronged. [77]

Receiving the Books of Deeds

About the distribution of these books and the ways in which people will receive them, Allah (تعالى) says:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابًا يَسِيرًا وَيَنقَلِبُ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ مَسْرُورًا وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ وَرَاءَ ظَهْرِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَدْعُو ثُبُورًا وَيَصْلَى سَعِيرًا

Then as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will be judged with an easy reckoning, and he will return to his people in happiness. But as for he who is given his record behind his back, he will cry out for destruction, and he will burn in a blaze.[Surah al-Inshiqaq, 84:7-12]

And he says:

وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِشِمَالِهِ فَيَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي لَمْ أُوتَ كِتَابِيَهْ

But as for he who is given his record in his left hand, he will say, “Oh, I wish I had never been given my record.” [Surah al-Haqqah, 69:25]

On the Day of Judgment, people will receive their books of deeds in different ways. Some will be given their books in their right hands – these are the believers. In this is also an indication that the right hand is more honorable and so a believer is given his book in his right hand. When the believer receives his book of deeds, he will take it with his right hand, rejoice, then cry out:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَيَقُولُ هَاؤُمُ اقْرَءُوا كِتَابِيَهْ

So as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will say, “Here,read my record!” [Surah al-Haqqah, 69:19]

But as for a disbeliever in Allah, he receives his book of deeds in his left hand or from behind his back. He will then cry out for destruction:

وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِشِمَالِهِ فَيَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي لَمْ أُوتَ كِتَابِيَهْ وَلَمْ أَدْرِ مَا حِسَابِيَهْ

But as for he who is given his record in his left hand, he will say, “Oh, I wish I had never been given my record and had never known what my account was.[Surah al-Haqqah, 69:25-26.]

So the manner in which people receive their books of deeds is of three types: in the right hand, in the left hand, and behind the back. But these three types are only different in description and are not three separate ways books will be distributed. This is because if an individual receives his book of deeds from behind his back, he is at the same time given his book in his left hand—he takes it with his left hand, reaching his hand behind him. And since he receives his book with his left hand, he is known as one of the “People of the Left.” [82] He receives his book behind his back because during his life, he turned his back on the book of Allah. So it is only befitting that in return, he is given his book of deeds from behind his back, and Allah knows best.

To conclude, Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) says:

وَكُلَّ إِنسَانٍ أَلْزَمْنَاهُ طَائِرَهُ فِي عُنُقِهِ وَنُخْرِجُ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كِتَابًا يَلْقَاهُ مَنشُورًا اقْرَأْ كِتَابَكَ كَفَى بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا

Every person, we have imposed his fate upon his neck. And we will produce for him, on the Day of Resurrection, a record which he will find spread open. (It will be said to him,) “Read your book. You are sufficient today as a reckoner against yourself. [Surah al-Isra, 17:13-14.]

As for his fate (i.e. his deeds) imposed on his neck, this is the most befitting attachment for a person’s deeds – bound to his neck – because he will never be separated from them until he dies. He will find his book open; he neither expends effort nor does he find difficulty in opening it. “Read your book” Read what has been written for or against you. “Your own self is sufficient as a reckoner against you today“. This is the perfection of justice and fairness – that the individual will be responsible for taking himself to account.

We have in front of us now a door we may close on every bad deed, every sin: repentance. Regardless of how great a sin may be, when someone repents to Allah, he will forgive him. Even if a person continuously repeated the same sin but he repents, Allah will forgive him. The matter is still within our hands, so we must ensure that nothing is written in this book except righteous deeds before Allah judges creation.

Footnotes:

[69] Surah al-Isrā, 82:10-12.

In Surah Qaf, 50:17-18, Allah informs us that the angels are seated on the right and left of us:

إِذْ يَتَلَقَّى الْمُتَلَقِّيَانِ عَنِ الْيَمِينِ وَعَنِ الشِّمَالِ قَعِيدٌ مَّا يَلْفِظُ مِن قَوْلٍ إِلاَّ لَدَيْهِ رَقِيبٌ عَتِيدٌ

When the two receivers receive, seated on the right and on the left. Not a word does he utter but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it).

[71] Recorded by al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah and al-Albani said it is authentic in “Sahih Sunan al-Tirmidhi” (no. 1894).

The full text of the hadith is:

ثَلاثَةٌ أُقْسِمُ عَلَيْهِنَّ وَأُحَدِّثُكُمْ حَدِيثًا فَاحْفَظُوهُ ، قَالَ : مَا نَقَصَ مَالُ عَبْدٍ مِنْ صَدَقَةٍ ، وَلا ظُلِمَ عَبْدٌ مَظْلَمَةً فَصَبَرَ عَلَيْهَا إِلاَّ زَادَهُ اللَّهُ عِزًّا ، وَلا فَتَحَ عَبْدٌ بَابَ مَسْأَلَةٍ إِلاَّ فَتَحَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ بَابَ فَقْرٍ – أَوْ كَلِمَةً نَحْوَهَا – وَأُحَدِّثُكُمْ حَدِيثًا فَاحْفَظُوهُ ، قَالَ : إِنَّمَا الدُّنْيَا لأَرْبَعَةِ نَفَرٍ : عَبْدٍ رَزَقَهُ اللَّهُ مَالاً وَعِلْمًا فَهُوَ يَتَّقِي فِيهِ رَبَّهُ وَيَصِلُ فِيهِ رَحِمَهُ ، وَيَعْلَمُ لِلَّهِ فِيهِ حَقًّا فَهَذَا بِأَفْضَلِ الْمَنَازِلِ ، وَعَبْدٍ رَزَقَهُ اللَّهُ عِلْمًا وَلَمْ يَرْزُقْهُ مَالاً فَهُوَ صَادِقُ النِّيَّةِ يَقُولُ : لَوْ أَنَّ لِي مَالاً لَعَمِلْتُ بِعَمَلِ فُلانٍ ، فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَأَجْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ ، وَعَبْدٍ رَزَقَهُ اللَّهُ مَالاً وَلَمْ يَرْزُقْهُ عِلْمًا فَهُوَ يَخْبِطُ فِي مَالِهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ لا يَتَّقِي فِيهِ رَبَّهُ وَلا يَصِلُ فِيهِ رَحِمَهُ وَلا يَعْلَمُ لِلَّهِ فِيهِ حَقًّا فَهَذَا بِأَخْبَثِ الْمَنَازِلِ ، وَعَبْدٍ لَمْ يَرْزُقْهُ اللَّهُ مَالاً وَلا عِلْمًا فَهُوَ يَقُولُ : لَوْ أَنَّ لِي مَالاً لَعَمِلْتُ فِيهِ بِعَمَلِ فُلانٍ ، فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَوِزْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ 

There are three things that I attest to; I will mention them so remember them.

  • 1) Charity will never decrease a person’s wealth,
  • 2) no servant is wronged and patiently endures that except that Allah will increase him in honor, and
  • 3) no servant opens the door of begging except that Allah will open the door of poverty (or he said similarly).

And I will mention something else so remember it.

The world is for four types of people:

  • 1) a person Allah has provided with wealth and knowledge so he is conscientious of his Lord regarding them and thus gains his mercy therewith. He knows Allah has a right upon him with regards to them, and this is the best of the (four) types.
  • 2) A person Allah has provided with knowledge but not wealth, yet he is truthful in his intention when he says, “If I had wealth, I would do what so-and-so does (the first type of person).” So he is rewarded for his intention, and the reward is the same for both of them.
  • 3) A person Allah has provided wealth but no knowledge so that he aimlessly wastes his wealth without knowledge. He is neither conscientious of his Lord with it nor does he achieve his mercy. He does not even know that Allah has a right upon him regarding it, and this is the worst of the (four) types.
  • 4) A person Allah has provided no wealth and no knowledge. But he says, “If I had wealth, I would do what so-and-so does (the third type of person).” So he is also recorded for his intention, and the sin is the same for both of them.

[75] Recorded by al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah and al-Albani said it is authentic in “Sahih Sunan al-Tirmidhi” (no. 1894). See page 53 for the full hadith.

[77] Surah al-Anaam, 6:160.

Evidence from the Sunnah of a ten-fold reward for a good deed and only a single recompense for a bad deed is the hadith recorded by Muslim in which the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

يقول الله : مَنْ جَاء بالحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أمْثَالِهَا أَوْ أزْيَد ، وَمَنْ جَاءَ بالسَيِّئَةِ فَجَزاءُ سَيِّئَةٍ سَيِّئَةٌ مِثْلُهَا أَوْ أغْفِرُ . وَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ مِنِّي شِبْرًا تَقَرَّبْتُ مِنْهُ ذِرَاعًا ، وَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ مِنِّي ذِرَاعًا تَقَرَّبْتُ مِنْهُ بَاعًا ، وَمَنْ أتَانِي يَمْشِي أتَيْتُهُ هَرْوَلَةً ، وَمَنْ لَقِيني بِقُرَابِ الأرْض خَطِيئةً لا يُشْرِكُ بِي شَيئاً ، لَقِيتُهُ بِمِثْلِهَا مَغفِرَةً

Allah says, “Whoever does a good deed will have ten times reward for it or even more. And whoever does a bad deed will have a single bad deed for it or I will forgive it. Whoever comes close to me a hand-span, I will come close to him an arm’s length; and whoever comes close to me an arm’s length, I will come close to him the distance of two outstretched arms. Whoever comes to me walking, I will come to him running. And whoever meets me with the earth full of sins but associated nothing with me in worship, I will meet him with as much forgiveness.”

[82] A similar description is used in the Surah al-Waqi’ah, 56:8-9:

فَأَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ مَا أَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ وَأَصْحَابُ الْمَشْأَمَةِ مَا أَصْحَابُ الْمَشْأَمَةِ

The Companions of the Right – what are the Companions of the Right? And the Companions of the Left – what re the Companions of the Left?

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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“iyyāka na’budu wa iyyāka nasta’īn” – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

The Explanation of Verse 4 of Sooratul Faatiha

 إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ 

iyyāka na’budu wa iyyāka nasta’īn

You alone we worship, and from you alone we seek help.

“You alone” (iyyāka): This is a case in grammar when the direct object comes before the verb, “we worship” (na’budu). In Arabic grammar, when the direct object precedes the verb, it gives a sense of restriction, so the meaning would be, “We do not worship anyone or anything except you alone.”

“we worship” (na’budu): Meaning: We humble ourselves to you in complete humility.

In this way, you find the believers placing the most honorable part of their bodies (their faces) at the level of their feet in humility to Allah (عزّ وجلّ). They prostrate on the ground, covering their foreheads with dirt. This is from their humbleness before Allah. And if another person were to say, “I will give you the whole world and what it contains, just prostrate to me once,” you will never find true believers accepting this because this type of humility is a form of worship specifically for Allah alone.

The word “worship” includes doing everything Allah commands and avoiding everything he forbids. Whoever is not in accordance with this, not carrying out what he is commanded to do and avoiding what he is forbidden to do then he is not a true worshipper and servant. A worshipper is someone who obeys the one he worships in whatever he legislates. So, worship requires that mankind carry out everything they are commanded to do and avoid everything they are forbidden from doing. However, it is not possible to fulfill all of these duties without the help and assistance of Allah. Because of this, Allah ( سبحانه وتعالى ) then says:

“and from you alone we seek help” (wa iyyāka nasta’īn): Meaning, “We do not seek the help of anyone else in worship or in anything else.” This “seeking of help” is to request the help and assistance, and Allah combines between worship and the seeking of assistance or reliance in many places the noble Qur’an. This is because worship could not be completely established except with the help of Allah by entrusting one’s affairs to him, and relying on him.

Points of Benefit of al-Fātiḥah, Verse 4:

1. From the virtues of this verse is the sincerity in worship that is due to Allah alone as he says, “You alone we worship“. It shows that this worship is due only to Allah by the direct object (“You”) coming before the verb (“we worship”) according to the rules of Arabic grammar.

2. Another point is that seeking help is also sincerely and solely for Allah based on the statement, “and from you alone we seek help“. Likewise, the direct object precedes the verb indicating a sense of restriction just like in the first part of the verse.

Those points being said, what if someone asks:

How is it that seeking help is exclusively for Allah alone when there has come in another verse:

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى 

And help one another in righteousness and piety.[Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:2]

So, how do we understand the previous statements about seeking help only from Allah when, here in this verse, Allah confirms that seeking help from other than himself is permissible (rather it is a command here)? Also, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

 تُعِيْنُ الرَّجُلَ فِي دَابَّتِهِ، فَتَحْمِلُهُ عَلَيْهَا، أَوْ تَرْفَعُ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا مَتَاعَهُ صَدَقَةٌ 

Helping someone onto his riding animal, carrying him on it, or lifting his belongings up to him while he is on it – all of these are (considered) acts of charity. [Recorded by Al-Bukhaaree (no. 2891) and Muslim (no. 1009)]

The answer to this question is that the act of seeking help and assistance is of two types. The first type is to request help while entrusting all affairs to the one you ask from. For example, you rely completely on Allah and you realize that any result you seek will not come from your own power or capability. This type of seeking help is specific for Allah ( تعالى ); he alone deserves this type.

The second type is to request help or cooperation in something you want to accomplish. This type is permissible as long as the one being requested is living and capable of doing what is asked of him. This is not considered a form of worship. This is the type that Allah refers to when saying:

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى

And help one another in righteousness and piety. [Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:2]

If it is further asked, “Is seeking help from the creation permissible at all times and in all situations?

The answer is no. Requesting help from the creation is only allowed when the one being asked is fully capable of what he is being asked for, otherwise seeking his help is not permissible. An example would be asking help from someone dead in his grave; this is prohibited, rather it is major Shirk (the associating of partners with Allah in worship)! This is because the person in his grave does not even have the ability to help himself, so how could he help someone else? Similarly, if someone seeks the help of another person who is not present with him such as a person believing that someone else in the far eastern part of the world could help him with something in his (the one seeking help) land – this is also major Shirk because the person whose help is sought is not capable of helping the seeker while they are in different lands.

If it is now asked, “So, is it permissible to seek help from the creation if these conditions are met?

The answer is that it is better not to ask anyone for any help unless it is absolutely necessary or if it is known that the person would be happy to provide help. In this case, one could request his assistance in order to please him. The act that you seek another’s help in fulfilling must also not be something sinful and prohibited.

Posted from the article : Explaining Surah al-Fatihah – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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The Believers will see their Lord in the Hereafter – Shaykh ‘Uthaymīn

The Fifteenth Event

The Believers See Their Lord

وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَّاضِرَةٌ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ

(Some) faces that day will be radiant, looking at their Lord. [Sūrah al-Qiyāmah, 75:22-23]

To explain the verse, “faces that day” means on the last day, the Day of Resurrection. “radiant” here includes beauty because the word used in the verse comes from the Arabic word نَضَارَة (naḍārah) which means beauty. This meaning is also indicated in the statement of Allah (in which a similar form of the same word is used):

فَوَقَاهُمُ اللَّهُ شَرَّ ذَٰلِكَ الْيَوْمِ وَلَقَّاهُمْ نَضْرَةً وَسُرُورًا

So Allah will protect them from the evil of that day and give them radiance and happiness. [Sūrah al-Insān, 76:11]

In other words: beauty in their faces and happiness in their hearts.

As for “looking at their Lord“, it is real sight which occurs from the faces and by the eyes. This is different from insight that may occur within the heart (similar to the English usage, “I will look into it.”) which means thinking about or considering something. Here, however, the looking occurs from the faces and is directed toward the Lord (عزّ وجلّ) just as is explicitly indicated by “at their Lord“.

This noble verse means that these radiant, beautiful faces will be looking directly at their Lord (عزّ وجلّ) and, consequently, will increase in beauty. Look at how these faces were prepared, made ready to look at Allah (عزّ وجلّ) – they will have been made bright and beautiful in preparation to look upon the face of Allah.

This verse is a clear proof that Allah will actually be seen with actual eyes and this is the position of mainstream Muslims who follow the Sunnah (Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamā’ah).

They have proven this with the same verses mentioned herein and they also learn this from the numerous statements of the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) transmitted to the companions and to their followers and so on. So these texts are explicitly clear as evidence confirming this (the believers seeing Allah in the hereafter) because they are within the book of Allah (تعالى) and the Sunnah of his messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and they are reported by many different chains of narration.

So mainstream Muslims who follow the Sunnah hold the belief that the looking, the sight mentioned here, is real. It does not mean “perception” or “complete awareness” because Allah says:

لَّا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَبْصَارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الْأَبْصَارَ

Vision does not perceive him. [Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:103]

Just as knowing with one’s heart does not necessarily equate to perceiving his true reality. Allah (تعالى) says:

يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْمًا

But they do not encompass him with knowledge. [Sūrah ṬāHā, 20:110]

We know our Lord with our hearts yet we still do not know exactly how he is. Similarly, on the Day of Resurrection we will see our Lord with our own eyes, yet our sight will still not completely perceive him.

The second verse indicating that believers will see their Lord is the statement of Allah:

عَلَى الْأَرَائِكِ يَنظُرُونَ

On thrones, looking. [Sūrah al-Muṭaffifīn, 83:23]

Allah did not mention in this verse specifically what they are looking at so it is general, including anything that is pleasing to look at. The greatest and most pleasing sight is to look upon Allah (تعالى) as he says in the very next verse:

تَعْرِفُ فِي وُجُوهِهِمْ نَضْرَةَ النَّعِيمِ

You will recognize in their faces the radiance of pleasure. [Sūrah al-Muṭaffifīn, 83:24]

So the context of the verse is similar to the first one, “faces that day will be radiant, looking at their Lord” and they will be looking at everything that pleases them.

The third verse regarding the believers looking at Allah is:

لِّلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا الْحُسْنَىٰ وَزِيَادَةٌ

For those who have done good is the best (reward) and even more. [Sūrah Yūnus, 10:26]

As for “the best”, it is Paradise and “even more” is the believers looking at the face of Allah. This is how the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) explained this verse as is confirmed in the ḥadīth recorded by Muslim and others:

إِذَا دَخَلَ أَهْلُ الْجَنَّةِ الْجَنَّةَ ، قَالَ : يَقُولُ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى : تُرِيدُونَ شَيْئًا أَزِيدُكُمْ.؟ فَيَقُولُونَ : أَلَمْ تُبَيِّضْ وُجُوهَنَا ؟ أَلَمْ تُدْخِلْنَا الْجَنَّةَ وَتُنَجِّنَا مِنْ النَّارِ ؟ قَالَ : فَيَكْشِفُ الْحِجَابَ فَمَا أُعْطُوا شَيْئًا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْهِمْ مِنْ النَّظَرِ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ

When the people of Paradise have entered Paradise, Allah (تبارك وتعالى) will ask, “Do you want me to give you something more?” They will say, “Have you not brightened our faces? Have you not already admitted us into Paradise and saved us from the fire?” He will then remove the covering and they will not have been given anything more beloved to them than looking at their Lord (عزّ وجلّ) [Recorded by Muslim]

After saying that, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then recited the verse, “For those who have done good is the best (reward) and even more.” So this verse is evidence of seeing Allah as the messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) has explained, and no doubt, he is the most knowledgeable person of the Quran’s meanings. He explained that it means looking at the face of Allah and this is the “even more” reward the believers will be given in addition to the previous delights of Paradise.

Therefore, this blessing is not the same types of blessing as are well-known of Paradise. Many of the delights of Paradise are physical in nature: rivers to enjoy, physical rewards, fruits, pure spouses, etc. Then the blessings and pleasures of the heart follow. But looking at Allah is a direct delight pleasing to the heart. The people of Paradise will have never seen anything more enjoyable or satisfying than that. We ask Allah to make us those who see him.

This blessing is in no way comparable to anything else, not the fruits of Paradise, its rivers, or anything else. Because of this, Allah said “For those who have done good is the best (reward) and even more.” because it is in addition to even the best rewards of Paradise.

The fourth verse is:

لَهُم مَّا يَشَاءُونَ فِيهَا وَلَدَيْنَا مَزِيدٌ

There they will have all that they desire and with us is even more. [Sūrah Qāf, 50:35]

Many scholars have explained “but with us is even more” just how the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) explained it – that it is looking at the face of Allah.

So those are the four verses the author (Ibn Taymiyyah) mentions as proof of the believers seeing Allah. There is also a fifth verse from which Imam al-Shāfi’ī deduced that the believers will see Allah. It is the statement of Allah (تعالى) about the wicked sinners:

كَلَّا إِنَّهُمْ عَن رَّبِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لَّمَحْجُوبُونَ

No! Surely, they will be veiled from (seeing) their Lord that day. [Sūrah al-Muṭaffifīn, 83:15]

The point he makes from the verse is that since such people will be veiled from Allah due to his anger with them, then it can be understood that those with whom he is pleased will not be veiled. So if the people who gain his anger are veiled from Allah then the people who gain his pleasure will see Him (عزّ وجلّ)

This deduction of Imam al-Shāfi’ī is definitely very strong because if everyone was going to be veiled, prevented from seeing their Lord, then there would have been no reason to specifically mention only the wicked people in the verse.

We also believe that seeing Allah in this life is impossible. This is because the current nature and condition of humans is one that cannot bear looking at Allah (عزّ وجلّ). How could it when the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) told us about his Lord:

حِجَابُهُ النُّورُ ، لَوْ كَشَفَهُ لأَحْرَقَتْ سُبُحَاتُ وَجْهِهِ مَا انْتَهَى إِلَيْهِ بَصَرُهُ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ

His veil is light. If he were to remove it, the splendor of his face would burn his creation, consuming it as far as his sight reaches.[Recorded by Muslim]

But as for seeing Allah in the hereafter, it is certainly possible because people that day will be in a different world. Their nature and condition will be different than they are in this life. And this is known from all the texts of the Quran and Sunnah that tell about how people will be, what they will experience during the events of the resurrection and of their final abode in either the home of bliss or Hell.

About the believers seeing their Lord, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) was once with his companions on a night when the full moon was out. He looked up at the moon and said:

إِنَّكُمْ سَتَرَوْنَ رَبَّكُمْ كَمَا تَرَوْنَ هَذَا الْقَمَرَ ، لا تُضَامُونَ فِي رُؤْيَتِهِ ، فَإِنْ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَنْ  لا تُغْلَبُوا عَلَى صَلاةٍ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَصَلاةٍ قَبْلَ غُرُوبِ الشَّمْسِ فَافْعَلُوا

You will certainly see your Lord just as you can see this moon; you will have no trouble in seeing him. So if you can avoid missing a prayer before the sun rises and a prayer before it sets, then do so. [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

The statement, “You will certainly see your Lord” is addressed to the believers. As for “just as you can see this moon,” this is a real, actual seeing because when we see the moon, it is actual sight with our eyes. The comparison here is between the sight of the moon and the sight of Allah, and it is not a comparison between the moon and Allah because there is nothing like or comparable to Allah.

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) would sometimes try to bring the meaning of what he is talking about closer to people by mentioning what they understand of perceptible things.

For example, Abū Razīn al-‘Uqaylī, a companion of the messenger, once asked him, “Messenger of Allah, will each one of us see his Lord, individually on the Day of Resurrection? And what is a sign similar to that among his creation?” He ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم .) said:

يَا أَبَا رَزِينٍ ، أَلَيْسَ كُلُّكُمْ يَرَى الْقَمَرَ لَيْلَةَ الْبَدْرِ مُخْلِيًا بِهِ

Abū Razīn, do you not each individually see the full moon?

Abū Razīn answered, “Yes.” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then told him:

فَاللَّهُ أَعْظَمُ ، فَإِنَّمَا هُوَ خَلْقٌ مِنْ خَلْقِ اللَّهِ ، فَاللَّهُ أَجَلُّ وَأَعْظَمُ 

Allah is even greater. That (the moon) is only a single creation from Allah’s creation, but Allah is even more exalted and greater.

[Recorded by Imām Aḥmad (4/11) and Abū Dāwūd (no. 4731). al-Albānī said it is authentic in “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Abī Dāwūd” (3957)]

As for “you will have no trouble in seeing him” in the earlier ḥadīth, different wordings have come in similar narrations, but the point is that no one will prevent another from seeing Allah due to crowding or anything else. Each person will see him ( (سبحانه وتعالى while he is in the utmost state of tranquility and peace.

As for “So if you can avoid missing a prayer before the sun rises and a prayer before it sets, then do so,” the prayer before sunrise is Fajr, the morning prayer, and before sunset is ‘Aṣr, the afternoon prayer. ‘Aṣr is even better than Fajr because it is the middle prayer which Allah has specifically told us to safeguard after mentioning prayers in general.[167] But Fajr is better than ‘Aṣr from a different perspective in that it is the prayer that is specifically witnessed by the angels as Allah says:

أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا

Keep up prayer from the declining of the sun till the darkness of night and the morning recitation; surely the morning recitation is witnessed. [Sūrah al-Isrā, 17:78]

There also occurs in an authentic ḥadīth:

مَنْ صَلَّى الْبَرْدَيْنِ دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ 

Whoever prayers the two cool ones will enter Paradise.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

The two cool prayers are Fajr and ‘Aṣr.

What practical benefit do we gain from knowing these verses (and ḥadīth) about the believers seeing their Lord in Paradise? There is no greater effect on a person’s behavioral approach and direction in life than this. When anyone realizes that his main objective, the height of his reward is to look upon the face of his Lord, this life and everything in it then becomes almost worthless to him in comparison. Nothing else would compare or be as precious to him as reaching that moment of seeing Allah (عزّ وجلّ). It is the goal of every seeker; it is the final achievement.

If you know that you will one day see your Lord with your own eyes, then by Allah this life would not mean a thing to you.

Everything of this world is nothing in comparison because the sight of Allah’s face is the prize for which the competitors compete, the goal to which the racers race, and it is the greatest triumph of everything.

So if you know this, will you strive to reach it or not?

Footnotes:

[167] This occurs in Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:238:

حَافِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْوُسْطَىٰ وَقُومُوا لِلَّهِ قَانِتِينَ

Attend constantly to prayers and (in particular) to the middle prayer, and stand up truly obedient to Allah.

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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