Day of Resurrection: Allāh Judges the Creation – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

The Eight Event

Allāh Judges Creation

The Arabic word commonly used here, مُحَاسَبَة (muḥāsabah) or حِسَاب (ḥisāb), “judging,” “reckoning,” or “taking to account” is when people will be called to recollect, admit, and be judged on the Day of Resurrection for the actions they did in this life.

As far religious evidence for this event, it is confirmed by the Qur’aan, the Sunnah, the consensus of mainstream Muslims, and even suggested by one’s intellect.


In the Qur’aan, Allah (تعالى) says:

إِنَّ إِلَيْنَا إِيَابَهُمْ  ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا حِسَابَهُم

Certainly, to us is their return, then certainly upon us is their reckoning.[Sūrah al-Ghāshiyah, 88:25-26]

And:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابًا يَسِيرًا

Then as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will be judged with an easy reckoning. [Sūrah al-Inshiqāq, 84:7-8]


As for the Sunnah, numerous ḥadīth have been authentically reported from the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) that Allah will judge his creations. For example, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) used to say in some of his prayers:

اللَّهُمَّ حَاسِبْنِي حِسَابًا يَسِيْرًا 

Oh Allah, call me to account with an easy reckoning.

Upon hearing this, ‘Āishah (رضي الله عنها) asked, “What is an easy reckoning?” He answered:

أَنْ يَنْظُرَ فِي كِتَابِهِ فَيَتَجَاوَزُ عَنْهُ

That he looks into his book but pardons him (or finds in his book that he has been pardoned).[86]


As for the consensus among mainstream Muslims, the entire nation of believers has always agreed that Allah will judge creation.

And as for the intellect, it is understood that Allah will judge us because we have been made responsible for actions: obligated to do some, obligated to avoid some, and obligated to hold certain beliefs. Intellect and wisdom dictates that anyone made responsible for something will be held accountable for it and judged for it.

There are, however, some people who will be exempt from being judged; they will be allowed to enter Paradise without judgment or punishment. This has been confirmed in “Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī” and “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim.” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

عُرِضَتْ عَلَيَّ الأُمَمُ فَأَخَذَ النَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّ مَعَهُ الأُمَّةُ وَالنَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّ مَعَهُ النَّفَرُ وَالنَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّمَعَهُ الْعَشَرَةُ وَالنَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّ مَعَهُ الْخَمْسَةُ وَالنَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّ وَحْدَهُ ، فَنَظَرْتُ فَإِذَا سَوَادٌ كَثِيرٌ قُلْتُ : يَا جِبْرِيلُ هَؤُلاءِ أُمَّتِي ؟ قَالَ : لا وَلَكِنْ انْظُرْ إِلَى الأُفُقِ ، فَنَظَرْتُ فَإِذَا سَوَادٌ كَثِيرٌ ، قَالَ : هَؤُلاءِ أُمَّتُكَ وَهَؤُلاءِ سَبْعُونَ أَلْفًا قُدَّامَهُمْ لا حِسَابَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلا عَذَابَ ، قُلْتُ : وَلِمَ ؟ قَالَ : كَانُوا لا يَكْتَوُونَ وَلا يَسْتَرْقُونَ وَلا يَتَطَيَّرُونَ وَعَلَى رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ

I was shown the nations (of prophets) and I saw a prophet with an entire nation with him, a prophet with only a single follower, a prophet with ten followers, a prophet with five, and a prophet with none. I then saw a huge crowd and asked, “Oh (Angel) Gabriel, is this my nation?” to which he replied, “No, but look to the horizon.” I then looked and saw a huge nation (of followers). Gabriel said, “This is your nation and in front of them are seventy thousand who will have no judgment and no punishment.” I asked, “Why?” He answered, “They did not practice cauterization, did not seek ruqyá (incantations, healings with Qur’aan recitations), did not believe in good or bad omens, and they relied exclusively on their Lord.”

After hearing this, a companion named ‘Ukkāshah Ibn Miḥṣan stood and said to the prophet, “Pray to Allah to make me one of those.” So the prophet said:

اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْهُ مِنْهُمْ

Oh Allah, make him one of them.

Then another man stood and he too asked, “Pray to Allah to make me one of them,” but the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) replied:

سَبَقَكَ بِهَا عُكَّاشَةُ

‘Ukkāshah beat you to it. [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

There is even a narration recorded by Imam Aḥmad (5/280, 281) in which these seventy thousand will each have with them an additional seventy thousand, and all of them (70,000 x 70,000) will enter Paradise without judgment or punishment.

The creations to be judged will also include the Jinn, the creatures created by Allah that are unseen by mankind, because they too are held accountable for their beliefs and actions. So like a human, a disbelieving Jinn will enter the fire:

قَالَ ادْخُلُوا فِي أُمَمٍ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِكُم مِّنَ الْجِنِّ وَالإِنسِ فِي النَّارِ

(Allah) will say, “Enter among nations which had passed on before you of Jinn and mankind into the fire.” [Sūrah al-A’rāf, 7:38]

…and a believing Jinn will enter Paradise according to the opinion of most scholars, and this position is correct as indicated by the statement of Allah about two particular gardens given to those who will enter paradise:

فِيهِنَّ قَاصِرَاتُ الطَّرْفِ لَمْ يَطْمِثْهُنَّ إِنسٌ قَبْلَهُمْ وَلا جَانٌّ

In them are women limiting (their) glances, untouched before them by man or Jinn. [Sūrah al-Raḥmān, 55:56]

Here is a question: Will animals be judged and held accountable?

The answer is as far as judging between them to establish justice and fairness for what occurred between them, then yes, they will be judged because the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

لَتُؤَدُّنَّ الْحُقُوقَ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ حَتَّى يُقَادَ لِلشَّاةِ الْجَلْحَاءِ مِنْ الشَّاةِ الْقَرْنَاءِ 

The rights of justice will be established among those who deserve them on the Day of Resurrection so much so that a ram without horns will be given its rights taken from it by a ram with horns. [Recorded by Muslim.]

But again, this is only for ensuring that complete fairness and justice is finally established. As far as being judged for actions they were responsible for carrying out, then no, animals will not be held accountable as they are not responsible for such actions. They will have neither reward nor punishment.

A Believer’s Judgment

Describing the manner in which Allah will judge a believer and take him to account, Ibn ‘Umar (رضي الله عنهما) narrated that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) described the private counsel to be held between a true believer and his Lord:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُدْنِي الْمُؤْمِنَ فَيَضَعُ عَلَيْهِ كَنَفَهُ وَيَسْتُرُهُ ، فَيَقُولُ : أَتَعْرِفُ ذَنْبَ كَذَا أَتَعْرِفُ ذَنْبَ كَذَا ؟ فَيَقُولُ : نَعَمْ أَيْ رَبِّ ، حَتَّى إِذَا قَرَّرَهُ بِذُنُوبِهِ وَرَأَى فِي نَفْسِهِ أَنَّهُ هَلَكَ قَالَ : سَتَرْتُهَا عَلَيْكَ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَأَنَا أَغْفِرُهَا لَكَ الْيَوْمَ

Allah will draw a believer close, placing him under his care and screening him. Allah will say to him, “Do you remember this sin and that sin?” The person will answer, “Yes, my Lord.” After he is made to confess all of his sins and he sincerely believes he is ruined, Allah will say, “I concealed them for you in life and I forgive you for them today.” [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

While speaking with his servant, Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) will screen him so that no one will see or hear him during their private conversation. This is a way of Allah (عزّ وجلّ) favoring and showing kindness to a true believer in him. When people make someone confess their crimes publicly in front of everyone, even if they pardon the individual for them, there is still an aspect of scandal and humiliation that remains. Yet if such proceedings were held privately, then this would be a better way of concealing and protecting people from that.

A Disbeliever’s Judgment

Describing a disbeliever’s judgment, Ibn Taymiyyah, said:

“As for a disbeliever, they will not be judged in the same manner as someone who has his good and bad deeds weighed. This is because those who disbelieve in Allah have no good deeds at all. Still, their deeds will be counted and they will be held responsible for them; they will be made to confess them and will be humiliated.”

The meaning of this has come in the same ḥadīth of Ibn ‘Umar previously mentioned in which the prophet spoke about how Allah will conceal a believer and speak privately with him. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then said:

وَأَمَّا الْكُفَّارُ وَالْمُنَافِقُونَ فَيُنَادَى بِهِمْ عَلَى رُءُوسِ الْخَلائِقِ : هَؤُلاءِ الَّذِينَ كَذَبُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ

But as for the disbelievers and hypocrites, they will be publicly called out in front of all creation and it will be announced, “These are the ones who lied against Allah.” [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

Also in “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim,” Abū Hurayrah narrated that the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَيَلْقَى الْعَبْدَ فَيَقُولُ : أَيْ فُلْ أَلَمْ أُكْرِمْكَ وَأُسَوِّدْكَ وَأُزَوِّجْكَ وَأُسَخِّرْ لَكَ الْخَيْلَ وَالإِبِلَ وَأَذَرْكَ تَرْأَسُ وَتَرْبَعُ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : بَلَى ، قَالَ : فَيَقُولُ : أَفَظَنَنْتَ أَنَّكَ مُلاقِيَّ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : لا ، فَيَقُولُ : فَإِنِّي أَنْسَاكَ كَمَا نَسِيتَنِي ،

 ثُمَّ يَلْقَى الثَّانِيَ فَيَقُولُ : أَيْ فُلْ أَلَمْ أُكْرِمْكَ وَأُسَوِّدْكَ وَأُزَوِّجْكَ وَأُسَخِّرْ لَكَ الْخَيْلَ وَالإِبِلَ وَأَذَرْكَ تَرْأَسُ وَتَرْبَعُ ؟ فَيَقُولُ.: بَلَى أَيْ رَبِّ ، فَيَقُولُ : أَفَظَنَنْتَ أَنَّكَ مُلاقِيَّ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : لا ، فَيَقُولُ : فَإِنِّي أَنْسَاكَ كَمَا نَسِيتَنِي ، 

ثُمَّ يَلْقَى الثَّالِثَ ، فَيَقُولُ لَهُ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ ، فَيَقُولُ : يَا رَبِّ آمَنْتُ بِكَ وَبِكِتَابِكَ وَبِرُسُلِكَ وَصَلَّيْتُ وَصُمْتُ وَتَصَدَّقْتُ وَيُثْنِي بِخَيْرٍ مَا اسْتَطَاعَ ، فَيَقُولُ : هَاهُنَا إِذًا ،قَالَ : ثُمَّ : يُقَالُ لَهُ : الآنَ نَبْعَثُ شَاهِدَنَا عَلَيْكَ ، وَيَتَفَكَّرُ فِي نَفْسِهِ مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَشْهَدُ عَلَيَّ ، فَيُخْتَمُ عَلَى فِيهِ ، وَيُقَالُ لِفَخِذِهِ وَلَحْمِهِ وَعِظَامِهِ : انْطِقِي ، فَتَنْطِقُ فَخِذُهُ وَلَحْمُهُ وَعِظَامُهُ بِعَمَلِهِ ، وَذَلِكَ لِيُعْذِرَ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ وَذَلِكَ الْمُنَافِقُ وَذَلِكَ الَّذِي يَسْخَطُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ

Allah will meet with a servant, asking, “Oh so-and-so, did I not honor you, give you authority, give you a spouse, give you control over horses and camels, and made you a leader (or allowed you to live a comfortable life)?” The person will reply, “You did.” Allah will ask him, “Did you think you would ever meet me?” and he will answer, “No.” So Allah will say, “Then I will forget you as you forgot me.”

Then Allah will meet with a second person and ask, “Oh so-and-so, did I not honor you, give you authority, give you a spouse, give you control over horses and camels, and made you a leader (or allowed you to live a comfortable life)?” The person will reply, “You did, my Lord.” Allah will ask him, “Did you think you would ever meet me?” and he will answer, “No.” So Allah will say, “Then I will forget you as you forgot me.”

Allah will then meet with a third person and will ask him similarly as he did with the others, but this person will say, “My Lord, I believed in you, in your book, and in your messengers. I prayed, fasted, and gave charity.” And he will continue praising the good (he did) as much as he can. Allah will say, “(Stop) then. Now we will bring forth our witness against you.” The person will think to himself about who this witness could be to testify against him. His mouth will then be sealed and his legs, his flesh and bones will be told, “Speak.” His legs, flesh, and bones will then speak about what he did. That is the person who will have no excuse for himself; that is the hypocrite, and that is the one with whom Allah is angry. [Recorded by Muslim.]

On the Day of Judgment, the first people to be judged will be this nation, the Muslims who followed Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم), based on the prophet’s statement:

نَحْنُ الآخِرُوْنَ السَّابِقُوْنَ يَوْمَ القِيَامَةِ المَقْضِيُّ بَيْنَهُمْ قَبْلَ الخَلائِقِ

We are the last ones (in this life) but the first ones on the Day of Resurrection to have their accounts settled before the rest of creation. [94]

Similarly, Ibn ‘Abbās (رضي الله عنهما) narrated that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

نَحْنُ آخِرُ الأُمَمِ وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ يُحَاسَبُ ، يُقَالُ : أَيْنَ الأُمَّةُ الأُمِّيَّةُ وَنَبِيُّهَا ؟ فَنَحْنُ الآخِرُونَ الأَوَّلُونَ

We are the last religious nation (in this life) but the first to be judged. It will be said, “Where is the illiterate nation and its prophet?” So we are the last ones yet the first ones.[95]

The first thing for which a worshipper of Allah will be judged and called to account regarding the rights of Allah will be his prayer based on the statement of the prophet :(صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)

أَوَّلُ مَا يُحَاسَبُ بِهِ الْعَبْدُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ الصَلاة ، فَإِنْ صَلُحَتْ صَلُحَ سَائِرُ عَمَلِهِ ،  وَإِنْ فَسَدَتْ فَسَدَ سَائِرُ عَمَلِهِ

The first thing for which a worshipper will be judged on the Day of Resurrection will be prayer. If it is sound, the rest of his deeds will be sound, but if it is bad, the rest of his deeds will be bad. [96]

However, the first crimes to be judged regarding the rights of other people will be those pertaining to bloodshed as he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

أَوَّلَ مَا يُقْضَى بَيْنَ النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِي الدِّمَاءِ 

The first thing to be settled between people on the Day of Resurrection will be (crimes of) bloodshed.[97]

This is because prayer is the best bodily act of worship related to the rights of Allah, and bloodshed is the greatest violation of communal rights related to mankind.

Footnotes:

[86] Recorded by Aḥmad (6/48) and Ibn Abī ‘Āṣim in “Kitāb al-Sunnah” (no. 885). al-Albānī said it is authentic in his checking of “Kitāb al-Sunnah” (2/429).

[94] Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim. In a similar ḥadīth, also recorded by them both, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

نَحْنُ الآخِرُونَ السَّابِقُونَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِنَا وَأُوتِينَاهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ ، فَهَذَا الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ فَهَدَانَا اللَّهُ فَغَدًا لِلْيَهُودِ وَبَعْدَ غَدٍ لِلنَّصَارَى

We are the last ones but the first ones on the Day of Resurrection. They were given the scripture before us and we were given it after them. So this is the day they differed about, but Allah has guided us. So tomorrow is for the Jews, and the day after is for the Christians.

[95] Recorded by Ibn Mājah, Aḥmad, and al-Bayhaqī. al-Albānī said it is authentic in “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Ibn Mājah” (no. 3463).

[96] Recorded by al-Tirmidhī, al-Nasāī, Ibn Mājah, and al-Ṭabarānī. The text is from al-Ṭabarānī and al-Albānī said it is authentic in “Ṣaḥīḥ al-Targhīb wal-Tarhīb” (1/185).

[97] Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

Related Links:

The Righteous Wife (Sifāt Zawjatus Sālihah) – Muhammad Shūmān | Dāwūd Burbānk

The Righteous Wife

By Muhammad Shūmān
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank (rahimahullaah)

Contents

  • Introduction to the English Edition
  • Author’s Foreword
  • The Seriousness of the Rights of the Husband
  • Encouragement of Obedience to the Husband and Seeking to Please Him
  • The Warning Against Causing the Husband to Become Angry, Disobeying his Orders and Neglecting his Rights
  • The Excellence of a Righteous Wife
  • Attributes of a Righteous Wife
  • Means to Help the Wife to Attain these Attributes
  • Epilogue

Introduction to the English Edition

All praise and thanks are due to Allaah, Lord of the worlds. May His peace and prayers be upon Muhammad and upon those who follow his Sunnah.

More than likely this book shall attract much attention. Perhaps it shall be a gift from a husband to his wife or perhaps those of us awaiting marriage will eagerly study these few pages to better understand what is expected of us and how we can strive towards it. Nevertheless there will be some who shall huff and utter annoyances under their breath claiming that yet again this is targeted at women (not men), censuring and restricting them. Unfortunately such people will rarely study the text but on flicking through these pages shall come to the conclusion that this has been written by a fanatical male Muslim to tyrannise and discredit the role of women.

In six short, concise chapters Muhammad Shūmān has brought together a collection of authentic ahaadeeth and many Aayaat to aid the Muslimah towards righteousness and advise and encourage her with regards to her husbands rights upon her and how she can attain the pleasure of her Creator by doing so. You may find some of the wording harsh, or even strange, but the fault isn’t in the text, rather in ourselves due to this society where the ‘choices’ are only the western liberal choices and hence we have become accustomed to moulding ourselves in a particular way – sometimes quite alien from Islaam.

Our duty above all is to worship Allaah, obedience to Him taking precedence over the rest of creation. If He asks us to do something then that should become an aim we try our hardest to fulfill. With this in mind, when we now approach the issue of marriage then it should be made clear that obedience to one’s husband is an Islamic duty and hence earns the pleasure of our Lord. It must be pointed out that the author has kept his own words to a minimum and instead has based this book on the Sayings of Allaah and His Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) (with the explanation of some prominent scholars) – thus the Believer has no choice but to submit to it wholeheartedly. Allaah, the Most High says,

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ ۗ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا

“It is not fitting for any believing man or woman, when Allaah and His Messenger have decreed any matter that they should have any option in their affair, and whoever disobeys Allaah and His Messenger has strayed in plain error.” (Soorah al-Ahzaab 33:36)

If we read this and digest it with a sincere heart and recognise that there isn’t hardship imposed on the woman and ease for the man, rather that which is mentioned shall only lead to greater comfort, ease and satisfaction for both parties. A marriage which starts on the right footing where the husband and wife identify their own roles and compliment each other according to what is contained in the Qur’aan and Sunnah then theirs shall be the marriage in which there is happiness and joy – success in both worlds, for they have put their entire trust in Allaah, He who knows what benefits and rectifies the servants and what harms and corrupts them.

Although the pages are few, the lessons are many and even if we were to act on half of them we would feel an immediate change in ourselves and our homes. It is about time that a book of this nature and dealing with such an important topic has become available to the Muslim women in the west where we are in much need of instruction from the Qur’aan and Sunnah so that we can easily reject western models and replace them with the best of examples.

We hope that this book will not be misused by husbands but rather that it will serve as a reminder to them also and a warning that they are not left to their customary conduct in this affair. There is advise and encouragement for the husband to live with his wife in a good and honourable manner, taking care of her – highlighting that the success and tranquility of the marriage does not just fall upon his wife, rather it is a shared responsibility.

We ask Allaah to reward the author for this service and his efforts, and may all the Muslim women who read this try to mould their characteristics upon this noble way and may all the Muslim men help and encourage us towards attaining the rewards and excellence for being a righteous wife.

Written by
Umm Nusaybah
31st Otober 1996

Author’s Foreword

All praise is for Allaah. We praise Him, we seek His aid and we ask for His forgiveness. We seek Allaah’s refuge from the evils of ourselves and from our evil actions. Whosoever Allaah guides, there is no one who can misguide him; and whosoever Allaah misguides, there is no one who can guide him.

I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, who has no partner; and I testify that Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) is His slave and Messenger.

This treatise, “The Righteous Wife” is concise in its wording, important in its subject and valuable for the points of benefit it contains. We ask Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, to make this treatise of benefit to our Muslim sisters, and to all those who read it, and that He makes it a work done purely and sincerely to seek His Face. Indeed He is the one who gives bounteously and generously.

Written by
Muhammad Shūmān
1st Dhul-Qa’dah 1410H.

The Seriousness of the Rights of the Husband

Allaah, the Most High, says:

الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ

“The men have authority over the women due to the excellence which Allaah has given to the man over the woman, and due to the wealth that they spend upon them.” [01]

Ibn Katheer says, “The man is in charge (qayyim) of the woman, i.e. he is the one in-charge of her, her chief, the one having authority over her and the one who corrects her if she inclines away from what is correct.” [02]

Abdur-Rahmaan as-Sa’ dee said (regarding the above mentioned Aayah),

“That is due to the excellence of men over women, and the eminence which they have been given over them. So the pre-eminence of the men over the women is from many aspects: holding positions of leadership and authority is particular to men, likewise Prophethood and Messengership. They are also particularised by many acts of worship such as jihaad , the eids and the Jum’ah prayers. Also due to the characteristics given to them by Allaah, the like of which are not possessed by women such as sound intellect, composure, patience and endurance. Likewise they are particularised with having to spend upon their wives, and indeed spending in many ways which are particular to the men – which distinguish them from the women. So perhaps this is the reason for His saying: وَبِمَا أَنفَقُوا  “…due to the wealth that they spend…” – and exactly what they spend is not stated to indicate that the spending referred to is general. So from all this it is known that the man is like a governor and master for his wife, and she is with him like a captive. So his role is to take care of that which Allaah has placed him in-charge of, and her role is to be obedient to her Lord and to obey her husband.” [03]

Al-Qaasimee said,

الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ ” ‘The men have authority (qawwaamoon) over the women’ [04] – qawwaamoon is the plural of qawwaam. Qawwaam is the one who is responsible for taking care of their welfare, managing their affairs and disciplining them. That is, they are in-charge of and are to take care of the manners and behaviour of the women; ordering them and forbidding them, just as the ruler is responsible for his subjects. This is due to two reasons: (i) Due to the nature which Allaah gave them, and (ii) due to the role which they carry out.

The first is indicated by the Saying of Allaah:

بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ

“Due to the excellence which Allaah has given to the man over the woman.” [05]

This refers to the relation between the men and women, and means that the men have a position of dominance over them due to the superiority which Allaah has given to the men over the women.” [06]

Allaah, the Most High, says:

وَلِلرِّجَالِ عَلَيْهِنَّ دَرَجَةٌ

“Men have a degree over the women.” [07]

Ibn Katheer said, “Meaning: in excellence; in the nature given to them; in manners; in status; in the obedience due to them; in their spending and taking care of the (women’s) welfare; and in excellence in this life and the Hereafter.” [08]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

Every soul from the children of Aadam is a master; so the man is the master of his family, and the woman is the mistress of her household. ” [09]

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If I were to order anyone to prostrate to other than Allaah, I would have ordered the woman to prostrate to her husband. By Him in whose Hand is the soul of Muhammad, the woman will not fulfill the rights of her Lord until she fulfills the rights of her husband; and even if he were to request her for herself (i.e. to have intercourse with her) whilst she was sitting upon a camel’s saddle [10], she should not refuse him.” [11]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“It is not right that any human being should prostrate to another human being, and if it were right for a human being to prostrate to another human being I would have ordered the woman to prostrate to her husband due to the greatness of his right upon her. By Him in whose Hand is my soul, if from his foot to the crown of his head there was a wound pouring forth pus, and she (the wife) came and licked that, then she would (still) not have fulfilled his right. “ [12]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“The right of the husband over the wife is such that if he had a wound, or his nostrils were pouring forth pus or blood, then she were to swallow that down – then she would (still) not have fulfilled his right.” [13]

Aboo Hurayrah, radiyAllaahu ‘anhu, reports that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“It is not right for a woman to fast [14] whilst the husband is present except with his permission; [15] and whatever wealth she spends in charity without his order, then half of the reward is for him. ” [16]

Shaykh al-Albaanee said, “Since it is an obligation upon the woman to obey her husband with regard to fulfillment of his desire with her, then it is even more fitting that it is obligatory upon her to obey him with regard to that which is even more important than that – such as what pertains to bringing up the children, correcting her family and the like – all such rights and obligations.” [17]

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr said, “The hadeeth shows that the right of the husband upon the wife has priority over her performing optional good deeds, since his right is an obligation, and fulfillment of an obligation takes precedence over carrying out something optional.” [18]

Also Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah, rahimahullaah, was asked about a man who has a wife who fasts during the day and stands in prayer throughout the nights. Whenever he calls her to his bed she refuses and gives precedence to praying in the night and fasting during the day over obedience to the husband. So is this permissible? Shaykhul-Islaam replied, “That is not permissible for her by agreement of the Muslims. Rather it is obligatory upon her to obey when he calls her to the bed, this is a binding obligation upon her. However standing the night in prayer and fasting during the day is optional, so how can a believing woman give precedence to something optional over an obligation… and there is no right, after the rights of Allaah and His Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) more binding upon the woman than the rights of the husband.” [19]

Mu’aadh ibn Jabal, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If the woman knew the right of the husband, she would not sit when his morning and evening meals were presented until he finished. “ [20]

Encouragement of Obedience to the Husband and Seeking to Please Him

Aboo Hurayrah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If a woman prays her five (daily prayers), fast her month (i.e. Ramadaan), guards her private parts, and obeys her husband, it will be said to her, ‘Enter Paradise through whichever of the gates of Paradise you wish.'” [21]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Your women from the people of Paradise are the beloved and fertile, the one who is an asset to her husband, who if her husband becomes angry- comes and places her hand in the hand of her husband and says, ‘I will not taste sleep until you are pleased (with me). “‘ [22]

The Warning Against Causing the Husband to Become Angry, Disobeying His Orders and Neglecting His Rights

Fadaalah ibn ‘Ubayd, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“There are three who are not to be asked about: [23] A man who abandon s the Jamaa’ah [24] and disobeys his ruler [25] and dies in a state of disobedience – so do not ask about him; a female slave or a male slave who flees from his master; and a woman whose husband is away, and he has provided for her worldly needs, yet she adorns and displays herself [26] and roams around freely [27] without him – so do not ask about them. ” [28]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“There are three whose prayers will not be raised above their ears: the runaway slave until he returns; a woman who spends the night whilst her husband is angry with her; [29] and one who leads a people in prayer and they dislike him.[30] [31]

The Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Allaah will not Look at a woman who does not give thanks to her husband and she cannot do without him. “ [32]

Aboo Hurayrah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, reports that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“By Him in whose Hand is my soul, there is no man who calls his wife to his bed and she refuses him except that the One who is in the heaven is angry with her until he (her husband) is pleased with her. “ [33]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“When a woman spends the night forsaking the bed of her husband, then the angels curse her until she returns. “ [34]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If a man calls his wife to his bed and she refuses, and he spends the night angry with her, then the angels curse her until morning. “ [35]

The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said to a woman, “Indeed he is your Paradise and your Fire.” [36] Meaning her husband.

So whichever woman obeys Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, with regard to her husband and fulfills his rights, then he will be her Paradise – meaning he will be a cause for her entering Paradise; and if she is disobedient to her husband – then the Fire.

Mu’aadh ibn Jabal, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“A woman does not harm her husband in this world except that his wife from the large eyed hooris (al-Hoorul ‘Een) [37] says, ‘Do not harm him, may Allaah kill you,for he is just a passing guest with you and is about to leave you and come to us.’ “[38]

The Excellence of a Righteous Wife

‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“All of this world is a utility and the best utility is a righteous wife. “ [39]

Sa’d ibn Abee Waqqaas, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Four things are from prosperity: a righteous woman, a spacious dwelling, a righteous neighbour and an agreeable riding beast; and four things are from adversity: an evil neighbour, an evil woman, a bad riding beast and a cramped dwelling. “ [40]

Thawbaan, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, nararted, “When revelation was sent down concerning silver and gold, [41] they said, ‘So which wealth shall we possess?’ ‘Umar said, ‘I shall find this out for you.’ So he hastened upon his camel and went to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and I followed him. So he said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, which wealth shall we possess?’ So he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

Let one of you possess a heart which is thankful, a tongue which makes mention of(Allaah), and a believing wife who helps one of you upon the affairs of the Hereafter.‘” [42]

The righteous wife is the one whom the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) advised should be obtained right from the beginning. As Aboo Hurayrah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, narrated from the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) that he said,

“A woman is married for four reasons: for her wealth; for her lineage; for her beauty; and for her religion (Deen). So marry the one who is good in her religion (Deen) – may your hands be covered in dust.” [43]  [44]

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr said, “The meaning is that what is fitting for a person upon the religion and of good manners is that the religion should be the aim which he gives importance to in all of his affairs – particularly those affairs which he will be involved in for a long period of time. So the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) commanded him to obtain a woman who is good in her practice of the religion – which is the goal that is desired.” [45]

Attributes of the Righteous Wife

1. Devotion and obedience to Allaah, the Most High, such that she fulfills His rights, such as the prayer, fasting, chastity, covering herself, withholding her gaze and so on.

2. Obedience to her husband in that which does not involve disobedience to Allaah, the Most High, such that she fulfills his rights completely, and fro m them are what has proceeded in the first chapter.

3. That she guards and preserves herself and her honour, in the absence of her husband, from the hand of anyone wishing to touch her, the eye of anyone wishing to look upon her, and the ear of anyone wishing to listen to her.

Likewise that she preserves her husband’s children, home and wealth.

Allaah, the Most High, says:

فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ

“Therefore the righteous women are obedient to Allaah and their husbands, and guard that which Allaah has ordered them to guard (their chastity and their husbands property) in the absence of their husbands.” [46]

As-Sa’dee said, فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ meaning they are obedient to Allaah, the Most High; حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ meaning they are obedient to their husbands even when the husbands are absent, she guards herself and her husband’s property.” [47]

The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If a woman prays her five (daily prayers), fasts her month (i.e. Ramadaan), guards her private parts, and obeys her husband, it will be said to her, ‘Enter Paradise through whichever of the gates of Paradise you wish. ‘” [48]

4. Serving her husband. First of all by carrying out what is required in his house, such as bringing up and educating the children, preparing the meals and the beds and so on.

From Husayn ibn Mihsan who said that my paternal aunt said,

“I came to Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) for some need, so he asked, ‘You there! Are you married?’ I replied, ‘Yes.’ He then asked, ‘How are you towards your husband?’ She responded, ‘I do not fall short in his service except with regard to what I am unable to do. ‘ He said, ‘Then look to your standing with him, for indeed he is your Paradise and your Fire .”‘ [49]

Here is an example of how Asmaa’ bint Abee Bakr, radiyallaahu ‘anhumaa, served her husband. She said,

“Az-Zubayr married me and he did not have any property or slaves or anything upon the earth except for a camel which drew water from the well and his horse. So I used to feed his horse, draw the water, stitch his water bucket, and prepare the dough, but I was not proficient in baking bread – so ladies from the Ansaar who were my neighbours and were honourable used to bake the bread for me. I also used to carry the date-stones upon my head, from the land given to az-Zubayr by Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) – and it was about two miles away. One day when I was coming with the date-stones on my head, I met Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and a group of the Ansaar were with him. So he called me and said, ‘Ikh, ikh.’ [50] in order to carry me behind him upon the camel. But I felt shy to proceed along with the men, and I thought of az-Zubayr and his sense of jealousy, and he was one of the most jealous of the people. So Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) saw my shyness and so passed on. So I came to az-Zubayr and said, ‘Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) met me while I was carrying the date stones upon my head and with him were a group of his Companions. He caused his riding camel to kneel, but I felt shy and remembered your sense of jealousy.’ So he said, ‘By Allaah your having to carry the date-stones is harder upon me than that you should ride along with him.”‘ She said, “Then later on Aboo Bakr sent me a servant to look after the horse, so it was as if he had set me free.” [51]

The scholars differ with regard to the ruling about a woman serving her husband. Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah said, “The scholars differed about whether she has to serve her husband with regard to the like of household bedding, preparing food and drinks, baking the bread, grinding the corn, and providing food for his slaves and cattle – such as providing fodder for his riding beast and so on. “Some of them say: It is not obligatory for her to serve him – and this is a weak saying, like the weakness of the saying that it is not obligatory upon her to live together with him and have intercourse with him! However what is correct is that it is obligatory to serve him, since the husband is her master according to the Book of Allaah, and she is a captive with him according to the Sunnah of the Prophet [52] (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم), and the captive and the slave have to serve – and this is something known.

…the Saying of Allaah, the Most High,

فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ

“Therefore the righteous women are obedient to Allaah and their husbands, and guard that which Allaah has ordered them to guard (their chastity and their husbands property) in the absence of their husbands.” [53]

“This Aayah shows that it is obligatory upon her to serve her husband unrestrictedly, including: serving him, travelling along with him , making herself available to him, and so on – just as it is obligatory to obey the parents, since the obedience due from her to the parents transfers to the husband.” [54]

5. Keeping the husbands secrets. Particularly what occurs between him and her in private – with regard to sexual matters and the private affairs within the marriage. Disclosing the husbands secrets will hurt him and anger him and this contradicts obedience to him and seeking to please him. Furthermore preserving his secrets is one of the duties of the righteous and obedient women, as described in the Saying of Allaah,

حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ

“Guarding that which (Allaah has commanded them to guard) in the absence of their husbands.” [55]

Part of their guarding what they are to guard in the absence of their husbands is that they should not broadcast their secrets.

From Asmaa’ bint Yazeed, radiyallaahu ‘anhaa, who said that she was in the company of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and men and women were sitting, and he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Perhaps a man mentions that which he did with his wife, and perhaps a woman informs of what she does with her husband?!” So the people were silent, so I said, “Yes, by Allaah, O Messenger of Allaah! The women certainly do that, and the men certainly do that.” He (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said, “Then do not do so, since that is just like a male devil meeting a female devil upon the way, and he has intercourse with her while the people are watching. “ [56]

6. She should appear before the husband in the best appearance, such that if he looks at her it pleases him. Aboo Hurayrah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, narrates the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) was asked,

“Which of the women is the best?” He replied, “The one who gives him [57] pleasure when he looks;[58] obeys him when he orders; and does not go against his wishes with regard to herself or her wealth by doing that which he dislikes. “ [59]

7. She should not spend any of his wealth or her wealth except with his permission.

From ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘ Aas, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

” It is not permissible for a woman to give a gift except with the permission of her husband. “ [60]

Al-Albaanee said, “However it is not becoming for the husband – if he is a sincere Muslim – that he should use this ruling to play the tyrant with his wife and to prevent her from utilizing her wealth in a manner which will not harm either of them. Indeed this right is very similar to the right of the girls guardian – who is such that she cannot get herself married except with his permission. But if he unjustly prevents her, then the matter is raised to the Islamic judge for justice to be attained. Likewise is the ruling with regard to a woman’s wealth if her husband oppresses her and prevents her from spending her wealth in a lawful and prescribed manner – then the judge will also bring about justice for her. So there is no problem with the ruling itself, rather the problem is in how it is misused.” [61]

8. She should not permit anyone to enter her husbands house except with his permission.

From Aboo Hurayrah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“It is not permissible for a woman to fast when her husband is present except with his permission; nor may she permit anyone to enter his house except with his permission; and whatever she spends in charity without his order – then half of the reward is for him. “ [62]

9. She should not ask her husband for divorce without a reason necessitating that.

From Thawbaan, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said that the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Whichever woman asks her husband for divorce without a strong reason – then the fragrance of Paradise will be forbidden for her. “ [63]

10. Avoidance of cursing.

Aboo Sa’eed al-Khudree, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said

“The Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) went out to the prayer-ground for the (prayer of) Adhaa or Fitr, and he passed by the women and said, ‘O women! Give in charity,for I have been shown that you shall be the majority of the people of the Fire .’ So they asked, ‘Why is that, 0 Messenger of Allaah?’ He replied, ‘You curse frequently and are ungrateful to your husbands. ‘” [64]

11. Being thankful to the husband for the good he does and for his good treatment of his wife.

This is accomplished by good words, and by her obedience to him in what is good, and by not forgetting his good treatment and avoiding denying this, since that is one of the reasons which brings about entry into the Fire.

From Ibn ‘Abbaas, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“I was shown the Fire and found that the majority of its inhabitants were women, due to ingratitude. It was said: “Is it that they disbelieve in Allaah?” He said: They are ungrateful to their husbands and deny the good they do. If you were to treat one of them well always, and she then saw something (displeasing) from you she would say: ‘I have never seen any good from you. ‘” [65]

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Allaah will not look at a woman who is not thankful to her husband and she cannot do without him.” [66]

12. She should not remove her clothes outside her husbands house.

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Whichever woman removes her clothes in other than her house, then Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, will tear down His cover from her. “ [67]

Al-Manaawee said, ‘”Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, will tear down His cover from her’ since because she has failed to take care of what she has been commanded with regard to covering herself from strangers, then this is the recompense she receives, the recompense being of the type of the action. What is apparent is that removal of her clothing means uncovering herself to strange males, for the purpose of sexual intercourse or that which leads to it. As opposed to the case if she were to remove her clothes amongst women, whilst covering her private parts, since there is no reason for that to enter into this warning.” [68]

13. Striving to please the husband by every possible means.

The hadeeth has already preceded containing the saying of the righteous wife, “… I will not taste sleep until you are pleased (with me).”

There also occurs in al-Kabaa’ir of adh-Dhahabee, “What is obligatory upon the woman is that she seeks the pleasure of her husband, and avoids angering him, and does not refuse him whenever he wants her. The woman must also know that she is like a slave to her husband, so she should not do anything affecting herself or her husbands wealth except with his permission. She should give precedence to his rights over her rights, and the rights of his relatives over the rights of her relatives, and she should keep herself clean and be ready for him to enjoy her. She should not boast at his expense of her beauty, nor rebuke him for any ugliness found in him. The woman must also be always modest and reserved in the presence of her husband, lower her eyes in front of him, obey his commands, remain silent when he speaks, keep far away from everything which angers him, avoid treachery when he is absent, with regard to his bed, his wealth and his house. She should ensure that her aroma is pleasant, be accustomed to using musk and perfume and cleaning her mouth with siwaak. She should be constant in adorning herself in his presence and not when he is absent. She should treat his family and relatives honourably, and consider something small from him as something great.” [69]

Means to Help the Wife to Attain These Attributes

Knowing the greatness and exaltedness of Allaah, the Most High, and that He is the True God, the One who watches over His creation, and that His Religion is the true and straight way, and the laws He had prescribed are the straight path, and to know the perfectness of His Wisdom in whatever He orders and forbids, and whatever He decrees and chooses.

Furthermore that His knowledge comprehends everything to be known, what is apparent and what is hidden: so He knows what benefits the servants and what harms them. He knows what will rectify them and what will ruin and corrupt them. He, the One free of all imperfections, is also the Most Merciful of all those who show mercy, so He does not order His servants except with that which is good for them in their Religion and their worldly-life, and brings about felicity for them in this world and the Hereafter; and He does not forbid them except from that which will bring misery for them in this world and the Hereafter.

So whatever He, the One free of all imperfections, has prescribed is a mercy and a blessing; and whoever proceeds upon that way and follows it will be one of those who are happy and successful in both worlds, and will live a fine life filled with happiness and joy, they will not be miserable at all except in those things where they contradict the commandments of their Lord, the Mighty and Majestic. Allaah, the Most High, says:

مَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا مِّن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَلَنُحْيِيَنَّهُ حَيَاةً طَيِّبَةً ۖ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْرَهُم بِأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

“Whoever does a righteous deed, whether male or female, and is a true-Believer, we will give him a good life (by granting him contentment) and we will reward them in the Hereafter in accordance with the best of what they used to do.” [70]

He, the One free of all imperfections, says:

وَمَنْ أَعْرَضَ عَن ذِكْرِي فَإِنَّ لَهُ مَعِيشَةً ضَنكًا

“And whoever turns away from my reminder, then there is for him a life of hardship and wretchedness.” [71]

So if the wife is aware of the greatness of Allaah, the Most High, and His perfect wisdom, and His all-encompassing knowledge, and His extensive mercy, then she will strive to obey Him, the Majestic and Most High, and to be obedient to her husband as He has commanded her. She will hasten to fulfill his rights without hesitation or laziness, and she will not say: ‘why is it the case that the man is in authority over me?!’ ‘why do I have to obey him?!’ ‘why … why?!’

Allaah, the Most High, says:

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ ۗ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا

“It is not for any believing man or woman, when Allaah and His Messenger have decreed any matter that they should have any option in their affair, and whoever disobeys Allaah and His Messenger has strayed in plain error.” [72]

And He, the One free of all imperfections, says:

فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا

“So no, by your Lord, they cannot be Believers until they make you, 0 Muhammad, judge in all disputes between them, then they do not find any opposition in themselves against your judgements, and they accept them with full submission.” [73]

And from the means which will help her to attain the attribute of the righteous women is:

• Desire for that which Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, has prepared for the righteous women in Paradise

The comprehensive good and the huge reward which is such as has been seen by no eye, heard by no ear, nor imagined by any human heart.

• Fear of the retribution and Anger of Allaah, the One free of all imperfections and the Most High

Fear of all that He has prepared for the disobedient in the Hereafter with regard to punishment, disgrace, and severe and painful torment, may Allaah save us from that, by His grace and favour.

We have also already brought two chapters: one in encouragement of looking after the rights of the husband, and the other warning against neglecting his rights.

• Seeking the Aid of Allaah, the Most High

Since the attainment of the smallest good is not possible unless Allaah, the Most High, guides and sets one straight. Concerning this Allaah, the Exalted, says:

فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ

“Therefore the righteous women are obedient to Allaah and their husbands, and guard that which Allaah has ordered them to guard (their chastity and their husbands property) in the absence of their husbands.” [74]

So the meaning of  بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ  is:’by Allaah’s guarding and protecting them when they become like that.’ This is what at-Tabaree [75] and a group of the scholars of tafseer said.

From the greatest aids to a wife’s righteousness is:

• That she keeps company with righteous and pious women, that she listens to them, and seeks to be like them; and that she avoids the company of corrupt women, and avoids sitting with them and listening to them.

Indeed she should beware of observing their making a display of themselves, and showing their nakedness, and their evil manners, whether this is seen by means of television, video or whatever.

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“The example of the righteous companion and the evil companion is like that of a seller of musk and the blacksmiths bellows. From the musk seller you will either buy some musk or at least enjoy its good smell. But the bellows of the blacksmith will either burn your house or your clothes, or at least you will receive a bad smell from it. “ [76]

An-Nawawee said, “It shows the excellence of sitting with the righteous, and the people of good, and those possessing good character and fine manners and piety, and the people of knowledge and refinement; and the forbiddence of sitting with the people of evil, and the people of innovation, and those who backbite the people, or those who are commonly involved in shamelessness and idleness, and such reprehensible folk.” [77]

Ar-Raaghib said, “This hadeeth indicates that it is a duty upon a person to strive to the utmost of his ability to accompany and sit with good people, since this may cause a bad person to become a person of good, just as accompanying evil people may turn a person from good to bad. So just as it is seen that water and air can be corrupted by being next to a rotting corpse, then what do you think will be the effect upon human souls which are such that they accept and take on the good and the evil which they see?!” [78]

Also from that which will make it easier for a woman to attain the attributes of the righteous women: is that she should choose a righteous husband, and the woman should straight away reject any proposal of marriage unless they come from a person who is good in his practice of the Religion and his manners, who is such that he will assist her upon the affairs of the Hereafter.

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“If there comes to you [79] one [80] whose character and Religion are pleasing to you, then marry (her) to him; if you do not do so it will result in tribulation upon the earth and widespread corruption.” [81]

Epilogue

As it is the case that the woman is commanded to be obedient to her husband, and to seek to please him, and to take care of his rights, then it is also the case that the husband is commanded to treat her well, and with kindness, and to have patience with any bad characteristics and the like that may be seen from her. He must give her rights of provision and clothing, and that he lives with her in a good and honourable manner, as Allaah, the Most High, says:

وَعَاشِرُوهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ

“And live with them in a good manner.” [82]

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said, “Take care of the women.” [83]

He (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said, “The most complete of the Believers are the best of them in manners, and the best of them are those who are best to their women.” [84]

From Iyaas ibn ‘ Abdullaah ibn Abee Dhubaab, radiyallaahu ‘anhu , who said that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

”Do not beat the female servants of Allaah. So ‘Umar came to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and said: “O Messenger of Allaah! The women have become emboldened towards their husbands. [85] So he gave permission to strike them, so they were struck. Then many women came to the wives of Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) (complaining about their husbands), so in the morning he said: Seventy women have this night visited the family of Muhammad, each of them complaining about her husband. So you will not find those [86] [87] men to be the best amongst you.”

This concludes what we wished to draw attention to in this brief treatise, which, if Allaah wills, will be beneficial. “How free and far removed from all imperfections You are, O Allaah, and all praise is for You. I declare You free of all defects and praise You alone. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but You. I seek Your forgiveness and turn in repentance to You.” [88]

Footnotes:

[1] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[2] Tafseerul-Qur ‘aanil-Adheem ( 1/194).

[3] Tayseerul-Kareemir-Rahmaan ( 1/344).

[4] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[5] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[6] Mahaasinut-Ta ‘weel (abridged) (5/1 30).

[7] Soorah al-Baqarah (2):228.

[8] Tafseerul-Qur’aanil-Adheem ( 1/271).

[9] Reported by Ibn as-Sunnee in ‘Amalul Yawmwal Laylah and it occurs in Saheehul Jaami’is Sagheer (no. 4565).

[10] They used to sit upon that whilst giving birth – as is mentioned in an-Nihaayah: “Its meaning is an exhortation for the women to be obedient to their husbands, and that it is not for them to refuse them even if they are in that state – so how about at other times? !”

[11] Reported by Ibn Maajah (no. 1853), Ibn Hibbaan (6/1 86 – Ihsaan) and Ahmad (4/381) from ‘Abdullaah ibn Awfaa. Shaykh al-Albaanee declared the chain of narration of Ahmad to be saheeh to the standard of Muslim in as-Saheehah (3/ 202).

[12] Reported by Ahmad (3/159) and others. Its chain of narration is declared to be good by al-Mundhiree in at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (3/75), and it occurs in Saheehul Jamni’ (no. 7250).

[13] Al-Bazzaar reports it (no. 1465: al-Kashf) from Aboo Sa’eed al-Khudree, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, with a good chain of narration whose narrators are reliable and famous – as declared by al-Mundhiree in at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (3/74). Also reported by Ibn Hibbaan (6/184, Ihsaan), al-Haakim (2/189) and others, and it occurs in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no. 3148).

[14] Translator’s note: i.e. optional fast.

[15] An-Nawawee said (Sharh Saheeh Muslim [7/115]), “Its reason is that the husband has the right to enjoy his wife on all days, and his right is an immediate obligation and not to be denied him due to something optional nor something obligatory which may be performed at any time.”

[16] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/94/no. 123).

[17] Aadaabuz Zifaaf, p.282, Ist. Edition.

[18] Al-Fath (9/296).

[19] Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa (32/274-275).

[20] Reported by al-Bazzaar (al-Kashf, 2/1 80) and others. It occurs in Saheehul Jaami ‘ (no. 5259).

[21] Reported by Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh (6/184 – Ihsaan) and others. Declared saheeh due to witnessing narrations in Aadaabuz Zifaaf, p.286.

[22] Sisilatul Ahaadeethis Saheehah (no. 287).

[23] This contains a warning of the seriousness of their crimes.

[24] i.e. the Sunnah and its people.

[25] The Khaleefah or those in authority on his behalf.

[26] Showing her adornment to strangers in order to commit adultery, or that which leads to it, such as seeing and touching and the like.

[27] Roaming around as she pleases intending evil.

[28] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in al-Adabul Mufrad (no. 590), Ibn Hibbaan (no. 50 of al-Mawaarid) and others. It occurs in as-Saheehah (no. 542).

[29] Due to a valid reason, such as evil manners or disobedience.

[30] Due to something that is blameworthy and censured in the Sharee’ah.

[31] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no. 360) and others from Aboo Umaamah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu – and it is a saheeh hadeeth as mentioned by Ahmad Shaakir.

[32] Silsilatul Ahaadeethis Saheehah (no. 289).

[33] Saheeh Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/732/no. 3367).

[34] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/93/no.1 22).

[35] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/93/no. 12 1).

[36] Saheeh, reported by al-Haakim (2/1 89).

[37] The women of Paradise.

[38] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no. I 174), Ibn Maajah (no. 2014) and others. It occurs in as –Silsilatus Saheehah (no. 173).

[39] Reported by Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/752/no. 3465), an-Nasaa’ee (6/69) (the wording is his), and others.

[40] Reported by Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh (no. 1232, al-Mawaarid) and others. Its chain of narration is declared saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaanee and to be of the standard of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim in as-Saheehah ( I/509).

[41] Meaning the Saying of Allaah, the Most High,  “Those who hoard gold and silver…” Soorah at-Tawbah (9):34.

[42] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no. 3094), Ibn Maajah (no. 1856), Ahmad (5/282) and others from other than Thawbaan, and the wording of at-Tirmidhee is, “‘If we were to know which wealth to possess?’ So he said, ‘The most excellent of it is a tongue which remembers (Allaah), a heart which is thankful, and a wife who helps him with his eemaan. ‘”

[43] A phrase indicating encouragement and incitement.

[44] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/18/27) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/749/3457).

[45] Fathhul Baaree (91135).

[46] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[47] Tayseerul-Kareemir-Rahmaan (1/344).

[48] Saheeh due to supporting narrations as has preceded.

[49] Reported by al-Haakim (2/189) and others, he declared it saheeh and adh-Dhahabee agreed; and Shaykh al-Albaanee agreed with them in Aadaabuz-Zifaaf (p.285).

[50] A word said to make the camel kneel down

[51] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7 / 111/no. 151) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 3/1 190/no. 5417) and others.

[52] As the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said in the sermon of the Farewell Pilgrimage, “…treat your women well,for they are captives with you. ” Reported with this wording by at-Tirmidhee (no. l 163) and he said , “hasan saheeh. ” and Ibn Maajah (no. 185 l). Declared strong by al-Albaanee in Irwaa ‘ul Ghaleel (7/52).

[53] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[54] Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa (abridged) (34/90).

[55] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[56] Reported by Ahmad (6/456) and there are witnessing narrations which raise it to the level of being saheeh or hasan at the very least. These are mentioned by al-Albaanee in Aadaabuz Zifaaf(p.144).

[57] i.e. the husband.

[58] Meaning when he looks at her outer beauty, or at the inner beauty of her good character and how she devotes herself to obedience to Allaah and taqwaa … (As-Sindees commentary on an-Nasaa’ee).

[59] Reported by an-Nasaa’ee (6/68), al-Haakim (2/61) and Ahmad (2/25 1, 432 and 438). Al-Haakim said, “Saheeh to the standard of Muslim” and adh-Dhahabee agreed. Al-‘Iraaqee declared its chain of narration to be saheeh in Takhreejul-Ihyaa’ (2/39) and al-Albaanee declares it hasan in as-Saheehah (4/453).

[60] Reported with this wording by Aboo Daawood (Eng. transl. 2/1007/no. 3540), an-Nasaa’ee (5/65-66) and Ahmad (2.1 79 & 184). Al-Albaanee declares it hasan in as -Saheehah (2/493).

[61] Silsilatul Ahaadeethis Saheehah (2/420).

[62] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/94/no. 123) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/491/no. 2238).

[63] Reported by Aboo Daawood (Eng. transl. 2/600/no. 2218), at-Tirmidhee (no. 1187) who declared it hasan, ad-Daarimee (2/162), Ibn Maajah (no, 2055) and others. AI-Albaanee declares it to be saheeh to the standard of Muslim in al-Irwaa’ (7/100).

[64] Repo1ted by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 1/181/no. 30 I & 2/313/no. 541) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/418/no. 1931) and others.

[65] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 1/29/no.28; 2/91-92/no.16 & 7/95-96/ no.125) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/43 1-432/no.1982) and others.

[66] Silsilatul-Ahaadeethis-Saheehah (no. 289).

[67] Reported by al-Haakim (4/289) and others, and it occurs in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no.2708).

[68] Faydul-Qadeer (3/1 47).

[69] pp. 188-190, abridged.

[70] Soorah an-Nahl ( 16):97.

[71] Soorah Taa Haa (20): 124.

[72 Soorah al-Ahzaab (33):36.

[73] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):65.

[74] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):34.

[75] Jaami’ul-Bayaan (5/39).

[76]Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 3/179/no.314; and 7/315/no.442) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 4/1383/no.6361) and others.

[77] Sharh Muslim (16/178).

[78]Quoted in Faydul-Qadeer (5/507).

[79]i.e. to the guardians of marriageable women.

[80] i.e. one asking for the girls hand in marriage.

[81] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no. 1084), Ibn Maajah (no. 1967) and others, from Aboo Hurayrah, radi yallaahu ‘anhu. Shaykh al-Albaanee declares it hasan due to supports in as-Saheehah (3/20).

[82] Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4): 19.

[83] Part of a hadeeth reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 7/8 l/no. 114) and Muslim (Eng. transl. 2/752/no.3468) and others.

[84] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no.1162), and he said: “Hasan Saheeh “, and Ahmad (2/250 &472) and others from Aboo Hurayrah, radiy Allaahu ‘anhu, and al-Albaanee declared it hasan in Aadaabuz-Zifaaf(p.281).

[85] i.e. become bold and disobedient, and this is to be rectified by admonition, then if necessary by abandoning them in their beds, then if necessary by striking them lightly, not in the opposite order as is done by some husbands [and see Aayah 34 of Sooratun-Nisaa].

[86] i.e. those men who beat their wives severely and frequently.

[87] Reported by Aboo Daawood (Eng. transl. 2/575/no.2141), Ibn Maajah and others. al-Albaanee said of it in Saheeh Ibn Maajah: “Hasan Saheeh”.

[88] Reported by al-Haakim ( I/537) and others from Jubayr ibn Mut’im, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,

“Whoever says, ‘How free and far removed from all imperfections You are, 0 Allaah, and all praise is for You. I declare You free of all defects and praise You alone. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but You. I seek Your forgiveness and turn in repentance to You’, saying it in a sitting of remembrance (of Allaah), then it will be like a seal upon it, and whoever says it in a sitting of loose talk, then it will be an expiation for it. ”

AI-Haakim said: “Saheeh to the standard of Muslim” and adh-Dhahabee agreed, and al-Albaanee agreed in Silsilatul-Ahaadeethis-Saheehah (no.8 1).

Related Links:

Day of Resurrection: The Books of Deeds are Distributed – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

Bismillaah

The Seventh Event

The Books of Deeds are Distributed

People’s books of deeds will be distributed, open for them to read. An individual’s book of deeds is the register with every action he did in life written inside. These deeds are being written now by the angels entrusted with recording the actions of all the children of Adam. Allah (تعالى) says:

وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَافِظِينَ كِرَامًا كَاتِبِينَ يَعْلَمُونَ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ

And indeed, (appointed) over you are keepers, honorable recorders. They know whatever you do. [Surah al-Isrā, 82:10-12][69]

These angels record in a book everything a person does because they are always with him. And on the Day of Resurrection, Allah will bring forth this book, making it known to the person as he says:

وَكُلَّ إِنسَانٍ أَلْزَمْنَاهُ طَائِرَهُ فِي عُنُقِهِ وَنُخْرِجُ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كِتَابًا يَلْقَاهُ مَنشُورًا اقْرَأْ كِتَابَكَ كَفَى بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا

Every person, we have imposed his fate upon his neck. And we will produce for him, on the Day of Resurrection, a record which he will find spread open. (It will be said to him,) “Read your book. You are sufficient today as a reckoner against yourself. [Surah al-Isrā, 17:13-14.]

The Recording of Good Deeds

Both good deeds and bad deeds are written in these books. As for the good deeds, the actions a person actually does are recorded, as are his good intentions and even those deeds he intends to do but may not have actually done them. So there are three types of rewarded behavior: 1) good deeds performed, 2) good intentions, and 3) good deeds intended but not performed.

1. Good Deeds: It is clear that a person’s good deeds are written.

2. Good Intentions: Intending to do a good deed is also recorded in a person’s favor.

But a reward is given for only the intention and not necessarily the action intended. This is based on the hadith of a rich man who spends his wealth in charity and a poor man who says, “If I had wealth, I would do what he does.” About these two, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَأَجْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ

He is rewarded for his intention, and the reward is the same for both.[71]

So both the rich and poor are equally rewarded in intention but not in action. This is also confirmed by the narration in which the poor immigrants of Medina complained to the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) saying, “Oh messenger of Allah, the wealthy have overtaken us (in reward).” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said (as a way to catch up with the wealthy in rewards):

تُسَبِّحُونَ وَتُكَبِّرُونَ وَتَحْمَدُونَ دُبُرَ كُلِّ صَلاةٍ ثَلاثًا وَثَلاثِينَ مَرَّة

Glorify Allah, declare his greatness, and thank him after each prayer thirty-three times.

But when this advice reached the wealthy, they too did likewise. So the poor returned, complaining to the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) again that the rich are now doing both— giving charity and praising Allah after the prayers. He (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then said:

ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ

That is the favor of Allah he gives to whom he wishes. [Recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim]

The prophet did not reply the second time that the poor, despite their sincere intentions, would have the same reward as the rich in deed. And this is fair because a man who does not perform a certain deed is not the same as the one who actually does it, yet he may still get a similar reward for the intention alone.

3. Good Deeds Intended but Not Performed: The third type of rewarded behavior which a person may find written in his book of deeds is the actions he may sincerely intend to do but did not actually do them. The difference between this type and the second is that for these intentions, he does receive a reward for the action itself. These are the deeds that an individual may intend to do and perhaps he does as much as he is able to of such deed. Then something prevents him from completing the deed. In such case, a full good deed will be recorded based on the statement of Allah:

وَمَن يَخْرُجْ مِن بَيْتِهِ مُهَاجِرًا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ يُدْرِكْهُ الْمَوْتُ فَقَدْ وَقَعَ أَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ

And whoever leaves his home as an emigrant to Allah and his messenger and then death overtakes him, his reward has already become incumbent upon Allah.[Surah al-Nisa, 4:100]

In this is also good news for students of religious knowledge. For example, if someone intends to study religious knowledge for the purpose of benefiting others with such information, defending the Sunnah of the messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and spreading Allah’s religion throughout the earth, yet he is unable to complete his studies—perhaps he dies in the process, for example—he will still have those good deeds recorded for him and he will achieve its rewards.

Even if a person has a habit of performing a particular good deed but for some reason he is unable to do it under certain circumstances, he still has the good deed recorded for him. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

إِذَا مَرِضَ الْعَبْدُ أَوْ سَافَرَ كُتِبَ لَهُ مِثْلُ مَا كَانَ يَعْمَلُ مُقِيمًا صَحِيحًا

When a servant becomes sick or travels, whatever he used to do while residing at home or healthy will still be recorded for him. [Recorded by al-Bukhari]

The Recording of Bad Deeds

As for bad deeds, they are written against a person if: 1) he actually does a bad deed, 2) he intends and hopes to do the bad deed, and 3) he intends to do the bad deed and tries to commit it but for some reason he is unable to.

1. Bad Deeds: This is clear; if someone does a bad deed, he has it recorded against him.

2. Bad Intentions: Sins an individual intends or hopes to do are also written against him. But like good intentions, he has a bad deed recorded for the intention and not a full bad deed for the action intended. The proof of this is in the same hadith mentioned about good intentions. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) spoke about a person Allah had provided wealth but no knowledge so that he aimlessly wasted his wealth. A person Allah had given neither wealth nor knowledge then said, “If I had wealth, I would do what he does,” admiring the former’s wasteful spending. So the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَوِزْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ

He is recorded for his intention, and the sin is the same for both of them. [75]

As for an individual intending to do a bad deed but refrains from it, this is of three types:

  • 1) If the person does not do the deed because he was unable though he tried to do it, he is just like a person who actually did the bad deed,
  • 2) If he refrains from doing the deed for the sake of Allah, he is rewarded, and
  • 3) If he simply decides not to do it (but not for the sake of Allah) or even if committing the deed did not seriously cross his mind, then he has neither sin nor reward written for him.

3. Bad Deeds Intended but Not Performed: These are also recorded against a person as complete bad deeds if the person tried his utmost to do them based on the statement (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) of the prophet:

ذَا تَوَاجَهَ الْمُسْلِمَانِ بِسَيْفَيْهِمَا فَكِلاهُمَا مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ

If two Muslims face off with their swords (i.e. if they fight to the death), both of them are people of the fire.

After hearing this, the companions asked, “Messenger of Allah, we understand about the killer, but why the one killed too?” He replied:

إِنَّهُ أَرَادَ قَتْلَ صَاحِبِهِ

He also wanted to kill his opponent.[Recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim.]

Similarly, if someone wanted to drink alcohol but something happened so that he was unable to do it, it is still recorded against him as a bad deed because he tried as much as he could to commit it.

To conclude this topic we must know that Allah rewards good deeds with rewards greater than the original good deed, but He recompenses a bad deed only equivalent to the original sin; He says (تعالى) :

مَن جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أَمْثَالِهَا وَمَن جَاءَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ فَلا يُجْزَى إِلاَّ مِثْلَهَا وَهُمْ لا يُظْلَمُونَ

Whoever comes (on the Day of Judgment) with a good deed will have ten times the like thereof, and whoever comes with an evil deed will not be recompensed except the like thereof, and they will not be wronged. [77]

Receiving the Books of Deeds

About the distribution of these books and the ways in which people will receive them, Allah (تعالى) says:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابًا يَسِيرًا وَيَنقَلِبُ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ مَسْرُورًا وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ وَرَاءَ ظَهْرِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَدْعُو ثُبُورًا وَيَصْلَى سَعِيرًا

Then as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will be judged with an easy reckoning, and he will return to his people in happiness. But as for he who is given his record behind his back, he will cry out for destruction, and he will burn in a blaze.[Surah al-Inshiqaq, 84:7-12]

And he says:

وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِشِمَالِهِ فَيَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي لَمْ أُوتَ كِتَابِيَهْ

But as for he who is given his record in his left hand, he will say, “Oh, I wish I had never been given my record.” [Surah al-Haqqah, 69:25]

On the Day of Judgment, people will receive their books of deeds in different ways. Some will be given their books in their right hands – these are the believers. In this is also an indication that the right hand is more honorable and so a believer is given his book in his right hand. When the believer receives his book of deeds, he will take it with his right hand, rejoice, then cry out:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَيَقُولُ هَاؤُمُ اقْرَءُوا كِتَابِيَهْ

So as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will say, “Here,read my record!” [Surah al-Haqqah, 69:19]

But as for a disbeliever in Allah, he receives his book of deeds in his left hand or from behind his back. He will then cry out for destruction:

وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِشِمَالِهِ فَيَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي لَمْ أُوتَ كِتَابِيَهْ وَلَمْ أَدْرِ مَا حِسَابِيَهْ

But as for he who is given his record in his left hand, he will say, “Oh, I wish I had never been given my record and had never known what my account was.[Surah al-Haqqah, 69:25-26.]

So the manner in which people receive their books of deeds is of three types: in the right hand, in the left hand, and behind the back. But these three types are only different in description and are not three separate ways books will be distributed. This is because if an individual receives his book of deeds from behind his back, he is at the same time given his book in his left hand—he takes it with his left hand, reaching his hand behind him. And since he receives his book with his left hand, he is known as one of the “People of the Left.” [82] He receives his book behind his back because during his life, he turned his back on the book of Allah. So it is only befitting that in return, he is given his book of deeds from behind his back, and Allah knows best.

To conclude, Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) says:

وَكُلَّ إِنسَانٍ أَلْزَمْنَاهُ طَائِرَهُ فِي عُنُقِهِ وَنُخْرِجُ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كِتَابًا يَلْقَاهُ مَنشُورًا اقْرَأْ كِتَابَكَ كَفَى بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا

Every person, we have imposed his fate upon his neck. And we will produce for him, on the Day of Resurrection, a record which he will find spread open. (It will be said to him,) “Read your book. You are sufficient today as a reckoner against yourself. [Surah al-Isra, 17:13-14.]

As for his fate (i.e. his deeds) imposed on his neck, this is the most befitting attachment for a person’s deeds – bound to his neck – because he will never be separated from them until he dies. He will find his book open; he neither expends effort nor does he find difficulty in opening it. “Read your book” Read what has been written for or against you. “Your own self is sufficient as a reckoner against you today“. This is the perfection of justice and fairness – that the individual will be responsible for taking himself to account.

We have in front of us now a door we may close on every bad deed, every sin: repentance. Regardless of how great a sin may be, when someone repents to Allah, he will forgive him. Even if a person continuously repeated the same sin but he repents, Allah will forgive him. The matter is still within our hands, so we must ensure that nothing is written in this book except righteous deeds before Allah judges creation.

Footnotes:

[69] Surah al-Isrā, 82:10-12.

In Surah Qaf, 50:17-18, Allah informs us that the angels are seated on the right and left of us:

إِذْ يَتَلَقَّى الْمُتَلَقِّيَانِ عَنِ الْيَمِينِ وَعَنِ الشِّمَالِ قَعِيدٌ مَّا يَلْفِظُ مِن قَوْلٍ إِلاَّ لَدَيْهِ رَقِيبٌ عَتِيدٌ

When the two receivers receive, seated on the right and on the left. Not a word does he utter but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it).

[71] Recorded by al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah and al-Albani said it is authentic in “Sahih Sunan al-Tirmidhi” (no. 1894).

The full text of the hadith is:

ثَلاثَةٌ أُقْسِمُ عَلَيْهِنَّ وَأُحَدِّثُكُمْ حَدِيثًا فَاحْفَظُوهُ ، قَالَ : مَا نَقَصَ مَالُ عَبْدٍ مِنْ صَدَقَةٍ ، وَلا ظُلِمَ عَبْدٌ مَظْلَمَةً فَصَبَرَ عَلَيْهَا إِلاَّ زَادَهُ اللَّهُ عِزًّا ، وَلا فَتَحَ عَبْدٌ بَابَ مَسْأَلَةٍ إِلاَّ فَتَحَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ بَابَ فَقْرٍ – أَوْ كَلِمَةً نَحْوَهَا – وَأُحَدِّثُكُمْ حَدِيثًا فَاحْفَظُوهُ ، قَالَ : إِنَّمَا الدُّنْيَا لأَرْبَعَةِ نَفَرٍ : عَبْدٍ رَزَقَهُ اللَّهُ مَالاً وَعِلْمًا فَهُوَ يَتَّقِي فِيهِ رَبَّهُ وَيَصِلُ فِيهِ رَحِمَهُ ، وَيَعْلَمُ لِلَّهِ فِيهِ حَقًّا فَهَذَا بِأَفْضَلِ الْمَنَازِلِ ، وَعَبْدٍ رَزَقَهُ اللَّهُ عِلْمًا وَلَمْ يَرْزُقْهُ مَالاً فَهُوَ صَادِقُ النِّيَّةِ يَقُولُ : لَوْ أَنَّ لِي مَالاً لَعَمِلْتُ بِعَمَلِ فُلانٍ ، فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَأَجْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ ، وَعَبْدٍ رَزَقَهُ اللَّهُ مَالاً وَلَمْ يَرْزُقْهُ عِلْمًا فَهُوَ يَخْبِطُ فِي مَالِهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ لا يَتَّقِي فِيهِ رَبَّهُ وَلا يَصِلُ فِيهِ رَحِمَهُ وَلا يَعْلَمُ لِلَّهِ فِيهِ حَقًّا فَهَذَا بِأَخْبَثِ الْمَنَازِلِ ، وَعَبْدٍ لَمْ يَرْزُقْهُ اللَّهُ مَالاً وَلا عِلْمًا فَهُوَ يَقُولُ : لَوْ أَنَّ لِي مَالاً لَعَمِلْتُ فِيهِ بِعَمَلِ فُلانٍ ، فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَوِزْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ 

There are three things that I attest to; I will mention them so remember them.

  • 1) Charity will never decrease a person’s wealth,
  • 2) no servant is wronged and patiently endures that except that Allah will increase him in honor, and
  • 3) no servant opens the door of begging except that Allah will open the door of poverty (or he said similarly).

And I will mention something else so remember it.

The world is for four types of people:

  • 1) a person Allah has provided with wealth and knowledge so he is conscientious of his Lord regarding them and thus gains his mercy therewith. He knows Allah has a right upon him with regards to them, and this is the best of the (four) types.
  • 2) A person Allah has provided with knowledge but not wealth, yet he is truthful in his intention when he says, “If I had wealth, I would do what so-and-so does (the first type of person).” So he is rewarded for his intention, and the reward is the same for both of them.
  • 3) A person Allah has provided wealth but no knowledge so that he aimlessly wastes his wealth without knowledge. He is neither conscientious of his Lord with it nor does he achieve his mercy. He does not even know that Allah has a right upon him regarding it, and this is the worst of the (four) types.
  • 4) A person Allah has provided no wealth and no knowledge. But he says, “If I had wealth, I would do what so-and-so does (the third type of person).” So he is also recorded for his intention, and the sin is the same for both of them.

[75] Recorded by al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah and al-Albani said it is authentic in “Sahih Sunan al-Tirmidhi” (no. 1894). See page 53 for the full hadith.

[77] Surah al-Anaam, 6:160.

Evidence from the Sunnah of a ten-fold reward for a good deed and only a single recompense for a bad deed is the hadith recorded by Muslim in which the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

يقول الله : مَنْ جَاء بالحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أمْثَالِهَا أَوْ أزْيَد ، وَمَنْ جَاءَ بالسَيِّئَةِ فَجَزاءُ سَيِّئَةٍ سَيِّئَةٌ مِثْلُهَا أَوْ أغْفِرُ . وَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ مِنِّي شِبْرًا تَقَرَّبْتُ مِنْهُ ذِرَاعًا ، وَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ مِنِّي ذِرَاعًا تَقَرَّبْتُ مِنْهُ بَاعًا ، وَمَنْ أتَانِي يَمْشِي أتَيْتُهُ هَرْوَلَةً ، وَمَنْ لَقِيني بِقُرَابِ الأرْض خَطِيئةً لا يُشْرِكُ بِي شَيئاً ، لَقِيتُهُ بِمِثْلِهَا مَغفِرَةً

Allah says, “Whoever does a good deed will have ten times reward for it or even more. And whoever does a bad deed will have a single bad deed for it or I will forgive it. Whoever comes close to me a hand-span, I will come close to him an arm’s length; and whoever comes close to me an arm’s length, I will come close to him the distance of two outstretched arms. Whoever comes to me walking, I will come to him running. And whoever meets me with the earth full of sins but associated nothing with me in worship, I will meet him with as much forgiveness.”

[82] A similar description is used in the Surah al-Waqi’ah, 56:8-9:

فَأَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ مَا أَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ وَأَصْحَابُ الْمَشْأَمَةِ مَا أَصْحَابُ الْمَشْأَمَةِ

The Companions of the Right – what are the Companions of the Right? And the Companions of the Left – what re the Companions of the Left?

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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“iyyāka na’budu wa iyyāka nasta’īn” – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

The Explanation of Verse 4 of Sooratul Faatiha

 إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ 

iyyāka na’budu wa iyyāka nasta’īn

You alone we worship, and from you alone we seek help.

“You alone” (iyyāka): This is a case in grammar when the direct object comes before the verb, “we worship” (na’budu). In Arabic grammar, when the direct object precedes the verb, it gives a sense of restriction, so the meaning would be, “We do not worship anyone or anything except you alone.”

“we worship” (na’budu): Meaning: We humble ourselves to you in complete humility.

In this way, you find the believers placing the most honorable part of their bodies (their faces) at the level of their feet in humility to Allah (عزّ وجلّ). They prostrate on the ground, covering their foreheads with dirt. This is from their humbleness before Allah. And if another person were to say, “I will give you the whole world and what it contains, just prostrate to me once,” you will never find true believers accepting this because this type of humility is a form of worship specifically for Allah alone.

The word “worship” includes doing everything Allah commands and avoiding everything he forbids. Whoever is not in accordance with this, not carrying out what he is commanded to do and avoiding what he is forbidden to do then he is not a true worshipper and servant. A worshipper is someone who obeys the one he worships in whatever he legislates. So, worship requires that mankind carry out everything they are commanded to do and avoid everything they are forbidden from doing. However, it is not possible to fulfill all of these duties without the help and assistance of Allah. Because of this, Allah ( سبحانه وتعالى ) then says:

“and from you alone we seek help” (wa iyyāka nasta’īn): Meaning, “We do not seek the help of anyone else in worship or in anything else.” This “seeking of help” is to request the help and assistance, and Allah combines between worship and the seeking of assistance or reliance in many places the noble Qur’an. This is because worship could not be completely established except with the help of Allah by entrusting one’s affairs to him, and relying on him.

Points of Benefit of al-Fātiḥah, Verse 4:

1. From the virtues of this verse is the sincerity in worship that is due to Allah alone as he says, “You alone we worship“. It shows that this worship is due only to Allah by the direct object (“You”) coming before the verb (“we worship”) according to the rules of Arabic grammar.

2. Another point is that seeking help is also sincerely and solely for Allah based on the statement, “and from you alone we seek help“. Likewise, the direct object precedes the verb indicating a sense of restriction just like in the first part of the verse.

Those points being said, what if someone asks:

How is it that seeking help is exclusively for Allah alone when there has come in another verse:

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى 

And help one another in righteousness and piety.[Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:2]

So, how do we understand the previous statements about seeking help only from Allah when, here in this verse, Allah confirms that seeking help from other than himself is permissible (rather it is a command here)? Also, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

 تُعِيْنُ الرَّجُلَ فِي دَابَّتِهِ، فَتَحْمِلُهُ عَلَيْهَا، أَوْ تَرْفَعُ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا مَتَاعَهُ صَدَقَةٌ 

Helping someone onto his riding animal, carrying him on it, or lifting his belongings up to him while he is on it – all of these are (considered) acts of charity. [Recorded by Al-Bukhaaree (no. 2891) and Muslim (no. 1009)]

The answer to this question is that the act of seeking help and assistance is of two types. The first type is to request help while entrusting all affairs to the one you ask from. For example, you rely completely on Allah and you realize that any result you seek will not come from your own power or capability. This type of seeking help is specific for Allah ( تعالى ); he alone deserves this type.

The second type is to request help or cooperation in something you want to accomplish. This type is permissible as long as the one being requested is living and capable of doing what is asked of him. This is not considered a form of worship. This is the type that Allah refers to when saying:

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى

And help one another in righteousness and piety. [Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:2]

If it is further asked, “Is seeking help from the creation permissible at all times and in all situations?

The answer is no. Requesting help from the creation is only allowed when the one being asked is fully capable of what he is being asked for, otherwise seeking his help is not permissible. An example would be asking help from someone dead in his grave; this is prohibited, rather it is major Shirk (the associating of partners with Allah in worship)! This is because the person in his grave does not even have the ability to help himself, so how could he help someone else? Similarly, if someone seeks the help of another person who is not present with him such as a person believing that someone else in the far eastern part of the world could help him with something in his (the one seeking help) land – this is also major Shirk because the person whose help is sought is not capable of helping the seeker while they are in different lands.

If it is now asked, “So, is it permissible to seek help from the creation if these conditions are met?

The answer is that it is better not to ask anyone for any help unless it is absolutely necessary or if it is known that the person would be happy to provide help. In this case, one could request his assistance in order to please him. The act that you seek another’s help in fulfilling must also not be something sinful and prohibited.

Posted from the article : Explaining Surah al-Fatihah – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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The Believers will see their Lord in the Hereafter – Shaykh ‘Uthaymīn

The Fifteenth Event

The Believers See Their Lord

وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَّاضِرَةٌ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ

(Some) faces that day will be radiant, looking at their Lord. [Sūrah al-Qiyāmah, 75:22-23]

To explain the verse, “faces that day” means on the last day, the Day of Resurrection. “radiant” here includes beauty because the word used in the verse comes from the Arabic word نَضَارَة (naḍārah) which means beauty. This meaning is also indicated in the statement of Allah (in which a similar form of the same word is used):

فَوَقَاهُمُ اللَّهُ شَرَّ ذَٰلِكَ الْيَوْمِ وَلَقَّاهُمْ نَضْرَةً وَسُرُورًا

So Allah will protect them from the evil of that day and give them radiance and happiness. [Sūrah al-Insān, 76:11]

In other words: beauty in their faces and happiness in their hearts.

As for “looking at their Lord“, it is real sight which occurs from the faces and by the eyes. This is different from insight that may occur within the heart (similar to the English usage, “I will look into it.”) which means thinking about or considering something. Here, however, the looking occurs from the faces and is directed toward the Lord (عزّ وجلّ) just as is explicitly indicated by “at their Lord“.

This noble verse means that these radiant, beautiful faces will be looking directly at their Lord (عزّ وجلّ) and, consequently, will increase in beauty. Look at how these faces were prepared, made ready to look at Allah (عزّ وجلّ) – they will have been made bright and beautiful in preparation to look upon the face of Allah.

This verse is a clear proof that Allah will actually be seen with actual eyes and this is the position of mainstream Muslims who follow the Sunnah (Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamā’ah).

They have proven this with the same verses mentioned herein and they also learn this from the numerous statements of the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) transmitted to the companions and to their followers and so on. So these texts are explicitly clear as evidence confirming this (the believers seeing Allah in the hereafter) because they are within the book of Allah (تعالى) and the Sunnah of his messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and they are reported by many different chains of narration.

So mainstream Muslims who follow the Sunnah hold the belief that the looking, the sight mentioned here, is real. It does not mean “perception” or “complete awareness” because Allah says:

لَّا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَبْصَارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الْأَبْصَارَ

Vision does not perceive him. [Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:103]

Just as knowing with one’s heart does not necessarily equate to perceiving his true reality. Allah (تعالى) says:

يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْمًا

But they do not encompass him with knowledge. [Sūrah ṬāHā, 20:110]

We know our Lord with our hearts yet we still do not know exactly how he is. Similarly, on the Day of Resurrection we will see our Lord with our own eyes, yet our sight will still not completely perceive him.

The second verse indicating that believers will see their Lord is the statement of Allah:

عَلَى الْأَرَائِكِ يَنظُرُونَ

On thrones, looking. [Sūrah al-Muṭaffifīn, 83:23]

Allah did not mention in this verse specifically what they are looking at so it is general, including anything that is pleasing to look at. The greatest and most pleasing sight is to look upon Allah (تعالى) as he says in the very next verse:

تَعْرِفُ فِي وُجُوهِهِمْ نَضْرَةَ النَّعِيمِ

You will recognize in their faces the radiance of pleasure. [Sūrah al-Muṭaffifīn, 83:24]

So the context of the verse is similar to the first one, “faces that day will be radiant, looking at their Lord” and they will be looking at everything that pleases them.

The third verse regarding the believers looking at Allah is:

لِّلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا الْحُسْنَىٰ وَزِيَادَةٌ

For those who have done good is the best (reward) and even more. [Sūrah Yūnus, 10:26]

As for “the best”, it is Paradise and “even more” is the believers looking at the face of Allah. This is how the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) explained this verse as is confirmed in the ḥadīth recorded by Muslim and others:

إِذَا دَخَلَ أَهْلُ الْجَنَّةِ الْجَنَّةَ ، قَالَ : يَقُولُ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى : تُرِيدُونَ شَيْئًا أَزِيدُكُمْ.؟ فَيَقُولُونَ : أَلَمْ تُبَيِّضْ وُجُوهَنَا ؟ أَلَمْ تُدْخِلْنَا الْجَنَّةَ وَتُنَجِّنَا مِنْ النَّارِ ؟ قَالَ : فَيَكْشِفُ الْحِجَابَ فَمَا أُعْطُوا شَيْئًا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْهِمْ مِنْ النَّظَرِ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ

When the people of Paradise have entered Paradise, Allah (تبارك وتعالى) will ask, “Do you want me to give you something more?” They will say, “Have you not brightened our faces? Have you not already admitted us into Paradise and saved us from the fire?” He will then remove the covering and they will not have been given anything more beloved to them than looking at their Lord (عزّ وجلّ) [Recorded by Muslim]

After saying that, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then recited the verse, “For those who have done good is the best (reward) and even more.” So this verse is evidence of seeing Allah as the messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) has explained, and no doubt, he is the most knowledgeable person of the Quran’s meanings. He explained that it means looking at the face of Allah and this is the “even more” reward the believers will be given in addition to the previous delights of Paradise.

Therefore, this blessing is not the same types of blessing as are well-known of Paradise. Many of the delights of Paradise are physical in nature: rivers to enjoy, physical rewards, fruits, pure spouses, etc. Then the blessings and pleasures of the heart follow. But looking at Allah is a direct delight pleasing to the heart. The people of Paradise will have never seen anything more enjoyable or satisfying than that. We ask Allah to make us those who see him.

This blessing is in no way comparable to anything else, not the fruits of Paradise, its rivers, or anything else. Because of this, Allah said “For those who have done good is the best (reward) and even more.” because it is in addition to even the best rewards of Paradise.

The fourth verse is:

لَهُم مَّا يَشَاءُونَ فِيهَا وَلَدَيْنَا مَزِيدٌ

There they will have all that they desire and with us is even more. [Sūrah Qāf, 50:35]

Many scholars have explained “but with us is even more” just how the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) explained it – that it is looking at the face of Allah.

So those are the four verses the author (Ibn Taymiyyah) mentions as proof of the believers seeing Allah. There is also a fifth verse from which Imam al-Shāfi’ī deduced that the believers will see Allah. It is the statement of Allah (تعالى) about the wicked sinners:

كَلَّا إِنَّهُمْ عَن رَّبِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لَّمَحْجُوبُونَ

No! Surely, they will be veiled from (seeing) their Lord that day. [Sūrah al-Muṭaffifīn, 83:15]

The point he makes from the verse is that since such people will be veiled from Allah due to his anger with them, then it can be understood that those with whom he is pleased will not be veiled. So if the people who gain his anger are veiled from Allah then the people who gain his pleasure will see Him (عزّ وجلّ)

This deduction of Imam al-Shāfi’ī is definitely very strong because if everyone was going to be veiled, prevented from seeing their Lord, then there would have been no reason to specifically mention only the wicked people in the verse.

We also believe that seeing Allah in this life is impossible. This is because the current nature and condition of humans is one that cannot bear looking at Allah (عزّ وجلّ). How could it when the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) told us about his Lord:

حِجَابُهُ النُّورُ ، لَوْ كَشَفَهُ لأَحْرَقَتْ سُبُحَاتُ وَجْهِهِ مَا انْتَهَى إِلَيْهِ بَصَرُهُ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ

His veil is light. If he were to remove it, the splendor of his face would burn his creation, consuming it as far as his sight reaches.[Recorded by Muslim]

But as for seeing Allah in the hereafter, it is certainly possible because people that day will be in a different world. Their nature and condition will be different than they are in this life. And this is known from all the texts of the Quran and Sunnah that tell about how people will be, what they will experience during the events of the resurrection and of their final abode in either the home of bliss or Hell.

About the believers seeing their Lord, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) was once with his companions on a night when the full moon was out. He looked up at the moon and said:

إِنَّكُمْ سَتَرَوْنَ رَبَّكُمْ كَمَا تَرَوْنَ هَذَا الْقَمَرَ ، لا تُضَامُونَ فِي رُؤْيَتِهِ ، فَإِنْ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَنْ  لا تُغْلَبُوا عَلَى صَلاةٍ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَصَلاةٍ قَبْلَ غُرُوبِ الشَّمْسِ فَافْعَلُوا

You will certainly see your Lord just as you can see this moon; you will have no trouble in seeing him. So if you can avoid missing a prayer before the sun rises and a prayer before it sets, then do so. [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

The statement, “You will certainly see your Lord” is addressed to the believers. As for “just as you can see this moon,” this is a real, actual seeing because when we see the moon, it is actual sight with our eyes. The comparison here is between the sight of the moon and the sight of Allah, and it is not a comparison between the moon and Allah because there is nothing like or comparable to Allah.

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) would sometimes try to bring the meaning of what he is talking about closer to people by mentioning what they understand of perceptible things.

For example, Abū Razīn al-‘Uqaylī, a companion of the messenger, once asked him, “Messenger of Allah, will each one of us see his Lord, individually on the Day of Resurrection? And what is a sign similar to that among his creation?” He ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم .) said:

يَا أَبَا رَزِينٍ ، أَلَيْسَ كُلُّكُمْ يَرَى الْقَمَرَ لَيْلَةَ الْبَدْرِ مُخْلِيًا بِهِ

Abū Razīn, do you not each individually see the full moon?

Abū Razīn answered, “Yes.” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then told him:

فَاللَّهُ أَعْظَمُ ، فَإِنَّمَا هُوَ خَلْقٌ مِنْ خَلْقِ اللَّهِ ، فَاللَّهُ أَجَلُّ وَأَعْظَمُ 

Allah is even greater. That (the moon) is only a single creation from Allah’s creation, but Allah is even more exalted and greater.

[Recorded by Imām Aḥmad (4/11) and Abū Dāwūd (no. 4731). al-Albānī said it is authentic in “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Abī Dāwūd” (3957)]

As for “you will have no trouble in seeing him” in the earlier ḥadīth, different wordings have come in similar narrations, but the point is that no one will prevent another from seeing Allah due to crowding or anything else. Each person will see him ( (سبحانه وتعالى while he is in the utmost state of tranquility and peace.

As for “So if you can avoid missing a prayer before the sun rises and a prayer before it sets, then do so,” the prayer before sunrise is Fajr, the morning prayer, and before sunset is ‘Aṣr, the afternoon prayer. ‘Aṣr is even better than Fajr because it is the middle prayer which Allah has specifically told us to safeguard after mentioning prayers in general.[167] But Fajr is better than ‘Aṣr from a different perspective in that it is the prayer that is specifically witnessed by the angels as Allah says:

أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا

Keep up prayer from the declining of the sun till the darkness of night and the morning recitation; surely the morning recitation is witnessed. [Sūrah al-Isrā, 17:78]

There also occurs in an authentic ḥadīth:

مَنْ صَلَّى الْبَرْدَيْنِ دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ 

Whoever prayers the two cool ones will enter Paradise.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

The two cool prayers are Fajr and ‘Aṣr.

What practical benefit do we gain from knowing these verses (and ḥadīth) about the believers seeing their Lord in Paradise? There is no greater effect on a person’s behavioral approach and direction in life than this. When anyone realizes that his main objective, the height of his reward is to look upon the face of his Lord, this life and everything in it then becomes almost worthless to him in comparison. Nothing else would compare or be as precious to him as reaching that moment of seeing Allah (عزّ وجلّ). It is the goal of every seeker; it is the final achievement.

If you know that you will one day see your Lord with your own eyes, then by Allah this life would not mean a thing to you.

Everything of this world is nothing in comparison because the sight of Allah’s face is the prize for which the competitors compete, the goal to which the racers race, and it is the greatest triumph of everything.

So if you know this, will you strive to reach it or not?

Footnotes:

[167] This occurs in Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:238:

حَافِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْوُسْطَىٰ وَقُومُوا لِلَّهِ قَانِتِينَ

Attend constantly to prayers and (in particular) to the middle prayer, and stand up truly obedient to Allah.

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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The Creed of Imām al-Bukhārī – Shaykh Ādil Mansoor | Abu Remlah Ādam [Audio Series – Ar|En]


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Audio Courtesy: Masjid Uthmaan bin Affaan رضي الله عنه Sri Lanka. Delivered by Shaykh Adil Mansoor (hafidhahullaah), Live translated in to English by brother Abu Remlah Adam (hafidhahullaah). Sri Lankan Tour Jan 2018

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Our Lord descends every night to the sky of this world when the last third of the night remains – Shaykh ‘Uthaymīn

Our Lord’s Descent

The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said in an authentic ḥadīth:

يَنْزِلُ رَبُّنَا تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا حِينَ يَبْقَى ثُلُثُ اللَّيْلِ الآخِرُ ، يَقُولُ : مَنْ يَدْعُونِي فَأَسْتَجِيبَ لَهُ ؟ مَنْ يَسْأَلُنِي فَأُعْطِيَهُ ؟ مَنْ يَسْتَغْفِرُنِي ؟ فَأَغْفِرَ لَهُ

Our Lord, the blessed and exalted, descends every night to the sky of this world when the last third of the night remains. He asks, “Who is calling on me so I can answer him? Who is asking me (for anything) so I can give (it to) him? Who is asking for my forgiveness so I can forgive him?”

[Recorded by al-Bukhārī (no. 1145) and Muslim (no. 758)]

This ḥadīth is a proof confirming the descent of Allah to the lowest heaven, the sky of this world.

Some people of knowledge said this ḥadīth has come with many different chains of narration, and the scholars have always agreed that it is one of the famous ḥadīth often mentioned by the scholars of the Sunnah.

The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) says,  “Our Lord descends every night to the sky of this world.” Allah’s descent is real and actual because, as we have mentioned before, anything mentioned with a pronoun that refers back to Allah, it must be attributed to him in a real, actual manner.

So we should believe in it and accept it as truth, saying just as the ḥadīth says, “Our Lord descends to the sky of this world,” to the lowest heaven closest to the earth. There are seven heavens, and Allah (عزّ وجلّ) descends at this time during the night to be near his worshippers just as he does during the afternoon on the Day of ‘Arafah (during the pilgrimage), praising and boasting to the angels about his worshippers. [41]

As for “every night” it is general to include every single night of the year. “when the last third of the night remains“. In Islamic legislation, the night begins at sunset and this is unanimously agreed upon. The difference (among scholars) however comes with regards to when the night ends. Does it end with the appearance of first light or the actual rising of the sun? Apparently, the night, according to legislation, ends with the appearance of first light, and the common, “astral” night ends with sunrise. Allah asks, ” “Who is calling on me…”. This is a question yet really intended as an encouragement and motivation rather than expecting an actual answer. It is like his statement (in the Qur’an):

هَلْ أَدُلُّكُمْ عَلَى تِجَارَةٍ تُنجِيكُم مِّنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ

Shall I guide you to a transaction that will save you from a painful punishment? [Sūrah al-Ṣaf, 61:10]

…calling on me…” saying, “Oh Lord…”

…so I can answer him?” This is the result and reward for doing the first part – calling on Allah.

 “Who is asking me (for anything) so I can give (it to) him?” such as saying, “I ask You for Paradise,” or similar things.

Who is asking for my forgiveness…” saying, “Oh Allah, forgive me,” or “I seek your forgiveness, Allah.”

…so I can forgive him?” Forgiveness means to conceal one’s sins and overlook them.

With this, it should be clear to every person who reads this ḥadīth that what is meant by “descends” here is that Allah Himself descends. We do not even need to say He descends “personally” because as long as the verb is associated with Him, then He himself does it. Still, some scholars did say, “He personally descends.” They resorted to saying that, compelled to adding “personally” only because there are those people who twist the meaning of ḥadīth, claiming that what really descends is the decision and decree of Allah. Others say it is Allah’s mercy that descends, and even others say it is one of his angels that descends.

All of these are incorrect. For one thing, Allah’s decision and decree are constantly descending, and not only during the last third of night as he ( تعالى ) says generally:

يُدَبِّرُ الأَمْرَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ إِلَى الأَرْضِ ثُمَّ يَعْرُجُ إِلَيْهِ

He arranges each matter from the heaven to the earth then it will ascend to him.[Sūrah al-Sajdah, 32:5]

And he says:

وَإِلَيْهِ يُرْجَعُ الأَمْرُ كُلُّهُ

And to him the matter will return, all of it.[Sūrah Hūd, 11:123]

As for their statement that it is really only the mercy of Allah that descends to the worldly sky when the last third of night remains, Allah is above such deficiencies and insults! Mercy does not descend except at that time?! Allah ( تعالى ) says:

وَمَا بِكُم مِّن نِّعْمَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ

And whatever you have of blessing, it is from Allah. [Sūrah al-Naḥl, 16:53]

Every blessing and favor is from Allah, and they are the results of his mercy; they can be witnessed at all times.

We could then ask: What good does it do for us if mercy descends only down to the sky (and no further)?

As for those who say it is really only an angel that descends, we ask: Does it make sense that an angel would say, “Who is calling on me so I can answer him? Who is asking me for anything…”?!

So it is clear that these claims are distorted meanings, they are incorrect and proven so by the ḥadīth itself.

By Allah, such people who claim these things do not know more about Allah than Allah’s messenger, they are certainly not more sincere in advising the servants of Allah than his messenger, and they are not more precise and eloquent in speech than the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم).

Some people also ask: How can you say Allah descends? If He does so, then what about His being high above everything? What about His being over the throne? If He descends, this would involve movement and relocation. Also, if He descends, this would be an action that happens and anything that happens must have a cause.

To this we say: This is baseless and pointless arguing. There is no reason not to say that Allah’s descent is real. Do you know what Allah deserves (of characteristics and descriptions) more than the companions of the messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)?

The companions never made any of these false assumptions and conjectures. Instead they listened, they believed, they accepted, and they trusted it as absolute truth. Yet now, you people come and challenge the meanings, arguing for the sake of falsehood, asking, “How? Why?”

We say Allah descends, and we do not delve into asking, “What about his throne? Does this mean he leaves it or not?”

As for his being above, we say he descends and yet he is still high above his creation because “descent” here does not necessarily mean that he is surrounded by the lowest heaven to which he descends while the other heavens are above him. Rather, he is not contained within anything of his creation.

So Allah actually descends in a real manner while he is actually high above in a real manner, and nothing is similar to him.

Rising over the throne is an action, not a permanent, personal characteristic. We should not, as far as I am concerned, begin asking whether he leaves the throne or not. Instead, we should keep silent about it just as the companions did, may Allah be pleased with them all.

However, the scholars of those who follow the Sunnah take one of three positions regarding the issue of whether Allah leaves his throne during his descent. Some say he leaves the throne, others say he does not leave it, and others say we should remain silent and not delve into the issue.

Ibn Taymiyyah says in his al-Risālah al-‘Arshiyyah that Allah does not leave the throne (during his descent) because the evidence confirming he is on the throne is strong and explicit just as this ḥadīth is also a strong, explicit proof of his descent. The actions and characteristics of Allah (عزّ وجلّ) are not to be measured by those of creation. So we should leave the texts of his being on the throne confirmed as they are just as we leave the text of his descent confirmed as it is. We say he is established on his throne and yet he still descends to the sky of this world; Allah alone knows the “how” of it. Our minds are too deficient and incomplete to know everything about Allah, the Most High.

The second position is that Allah leaves the throne during his descent and the third position is to remain silent – in other words, not to say whether he does or does not leave his throne.

Some people more recently bring up yet another point of confusion. Since the earth is round and revolves around the sun, they ask how Allah can descend during the last third of the night when the last third is a constant time. For example, when the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia leaves this time, Europe and surrounding countries enter it. So is Allah constantly and forever descending?

In reply, we say: First and foremost, you should simply believe and accept that Allah descends during this specific time. If you do believe in it, then there is nothing else required from you. Do not go into asking, “How?” Instead, accept that when the last third of night remains in Saudi Arabia, then Allah descends, and when it remains in America, Allah also descends. And His descent finishes when the light of morning appears in any place, respective to it.

To conclude, our position is that we believe and accept everything that has come to us from Allah’s messenger, Muhammad ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) in that Allah comes down to the sky of this world, the lowest heaven, when the last third of night remains and he asks, “Who is calling on me so I can answer him? Who is asking me (for anything) so I can give (it to) him? Who is asking for my forgiveness so I can forgive him?”

Beneficial Points We Learn from This Ḥadīth

This amazing ḥadīth:

  • Confirms that Allah is high above creation based on the words, “Our Lord descends.”
  • Confirms that Allah does actions by his choice and will—these are known as “action” characteristics (see footnote no. 7 of the main article)—based on the statement, “Our Lord descends…when the last third of the night remains..”
  • Confirms that Allah speaks based on the statement, “He asks…
  • Confirms Allah’s kindness and generosity based on his questions, “Who is calling on me…? Who is asking me…? Who is asking for my forgiveness…?”

People should take advantage of this part of the night, asking for whatever they need from Allah, calling upon him, and asking his forgiveness as he asks, “Who is calling on me…? Who is asking me…? Who is asking for my forgiveness…?” And again, the word “Who” here is presented in the form of a question but is actually intended to motivate rather than ask.

So we should take advantage of this chance because nothing that has passed of your life is in your favor except the times you spent in obedience to Allah. Perhaps more days may pass you by, but when death comes it will be as if you were only born that minute. At that time, everything of one’s past life will mean nothing to him.

Footnotes:

[41] The ḥadīth about this is recorded by Muslim (no. 1348). The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

مَا مِنْ يَوْمٍ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ أَنْ يُعْتِقَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ عَبْدًا مِنْ النَّارِ مِنْ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ وَإِنَّهُ لَيَدْنُو ثُمَّ يُبَاهِي بِهِمْ الْمَلائِكَةَ ، فَيَقُولُ :  مَا  أَرَادَ هَؤُلاءِ

There is no day on which Allah frees more servants from the fire than the Day of ‘Arafah. He comes near (them) and praises and boasts about them to the angels, saying, “What do these want?” (or “Anything they want!”)

Posted from the appendix of the article : In the Company of Allaah: Confirming Allaah is with His Creation – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Day of Resurrection: The Bridge (As-Ṣirāṭ) – Shaykh Uthaymeen

The Day of Resurrection: The Tenth Event

The Bridge

The Arabic word صِرَاط (Ṣirāṭ) is the bridge stretched over Hell over which people will cross to get to Paradise. About it, Allah ( تعالى ) says:

وَإِن مِّنكُمْ إِلَّا وَارِدُهَا ۚ كَانَ عَلَىٰ رَبِّكَ حَتْمًا مَّقْضِيًّا

And there is none of you except that he will pass over it. This is with your Lord a decree which must be accomplished.[Sūrah Maryam, 19:71]

‘Abdullāh Ibn Mas’ūd, Qatādah, and Zayd Ibn Aslam explained this verse to mean the crossing of the bridge. Others, including Ibn ‘Abbās, explained that it describes those who will enter the fire but will be saved from it.

The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

ثُمَّ يُضْرَبُ الْجِسْرُ عَلَى جَهَنَّمَ ، وَتَحِلُّ الشَّفَاعَةُ وَيَقُولُونَ : اللَّهُمَّ سَلِّمْ سَلِّمْ

Then the bridge will be placed over Hell and intercession will be permitted. They (the messengers) will say, “Oh Allah, save (us), save (us).” [113]

Scholars have differed as to the exact nature of this bridge. Some say it is a wide path over which people will cross according to the deeds they did in this life. They say it is wide because the word “bridge,” taken at face value, means just that and because Allah’s messenger ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) described it as being slippery and elusive. They understood that the bridge must be somewhat wide because a very narrow path would not be described with the specific Arabic words (slippery and elusive) that the prophet used. When asked about the bridge, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

مَدْحَضَةٌ مَزِلَّةٌ عَلَيْهِ خَطَاطِيفُ وَكَلالِيبُ وَحَسَكَةٌ مُفَلْطَحَةٌ لَهَا شَوْكَةٌ عُقَيْفَاءُ

It is slippery, elusive with hooks and grapples, and broad spikes and curved thorns.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

And in the ḥadīth narrated by Abū Hurayrah, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

وَبِهِ كَلالِيبُ مِثْلُ شَوْكِ السَّعْدَانِ غَيْرَ أَنَّهَا لا يَعْلَمُ قَدْرَ عِظَمِهَا إِلاَّ اللَّهُ فَتَخْطَفُ النَّاسَ بِأَعْمَالِهِمْ

It has hooks like the thorns of al-Sa’dān (a place in Najd) except that no one but Allah knows the huge size of them. They will seize people according to their deeds.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

Other scholars said no, it is actually a very narrow bridge just as has come in a ḥadīth narrated by Abū Sa’īd al-Khudrī ( رضي الله عنه ) in which he said:

بَلَغَنِي أَنَّ الصِّرَاطَ أَحَدُّ مِنَ السَّيْفِ وَأَدَقُّ مِنَ الشَّعْرَةِ

He informed (or: It has reached) me that the bridge is sharper that a sword and thinner than a hair.[116]

Here we come to a question: How is it possible for people to actually pass over a bridge like this? The answer is that the events and things to occur in the hereafter cannot be compared to or measured based solely on what we know of things of this life. Allah is capable of anything, and we do not know exactly how people will cross it. Will they cross in groups or one at a time? Allah knows best.

But regarding this issue—whether the bridge is wide or narrow—it is not incumbent on people to accept one position over the other because both groups of scholars have strong points.

Crossing the Bridge

No one will cross the bridge except the believers. As for the disbelievers, they will be taken straight to the fire. The believers will cross it according to their deeds based on the ḥadīth narrated by Abū Sa’īd al-Khudrī ( رضي الله عنه ) that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَيَمُرُّ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ كَطَرْفِ الْعَيْنِ وَكَالْبَرْقِ وَكَالرِّيحِ وَكَالطَّيْرِ وَكَأَجَاوِيدِ الْخَيْلِ  وَالرِّكَابِ فَنَاجٍ مُسَلَّمٌ وَمَخْدُوشٌ مُرْسَلٌ وَمَكْدُوسٌ فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ

The believers will cross: some as fast as the blink of an eye, some like lightning, some like the wind, some like a bird, some like horses, and some as fast as camels. Some people will be safe a secure, some will be scratched but delivered, and others will fall into the fire of Hell.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

The speed at which a person crosses is obviously not by his choice. If it were, naturally everyone would want to cross quickly. Rather, the passage across is according to the speed at which he used to accept religious teachings in this life. So whoever was always quick to accept the teachings of the messengers, he will pass quickly over the bridge. Whoever was slow to accept them will pass slowly over the bridge. It is a suitable reward and the reward is according to the deed.

Some people will be seized by hooks that are on the bridge and, again, this will only be according to their deeds. As for the prophet’s statement, “others will fall into the fire of Hell,” it is understood that the fire into which sinners will fall is the same fire the disbelievers will be in. However, these believing sinners will still not experience the same punishment as disbelievers will. Some scholars have even said that this fire will be cool and safe for them just as the fire was cool and peaceful on Prophet Abraham. [118]

However, what is more apparent is that this is not the case; the fire will likely be hot and painful but not as intense as the heat the disbelievers in Allah will experience. As a side note, the points on the body upon which believers prostrate during prayer will never be touched by the fire just as it has been reported by the prophet in “Ṣaḥīḥ al- Bukhārī” and “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim.” [119] The places of prostration are those that touch the ground: the forehead, nose, palms, knees, and the toes.

In a ḥadīth in “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim,” the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) also said:

تَجْرِي بِهِمْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ وَنَبِيُّكُمْ قَائِمٌ عَلَى الصِّرَاطِ يَقُولُ : رَبِّ سَلِّمْ سَلِّمْ حَتَّى تَعْجِزَ أَعْمَالُ الْعِبَادِ حَتَّى يَجِيءَ الرَّجُلُ فَلا يَسْتَطِيعُ السَّيْرَ إِلاَّ زَحْفًا

Their deeds will carry them (over the bridge) while your prophet is standing on the bridge saying, “My Lord, save (them), save (them).” Some servants’ deeds will hinder them so much that a man will be unable to pass over except while crawling. [Recorded by Muslim.]

And in “Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī:”

حَتَّى يَمُرَّ آخِرُهُمْ يُسْحَبُ سَحْبًا

…until the last of them crosses being dragged.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī]

The first of the prophets to cross the bridge will be Muhammad ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and the first of all religious nations will be his nation as the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

فَأَكُونُ أَنَا وَأُمَّتِي أَوَّلَ مَنْ يُجِيزُهَا ، وَلا يَتَكَلَّمُ يَوْمَئِذٍ إِلاَّ الرُّسُلُ ، وَدَعْوَى الرُّسُلِ يَوْمَئِذٍ : اللَّهُمَّ سَلِّمْ سَلِّمْ

I and my nation will be the first to be allowed to cross it. On that day, no one will speak except the messengers and the prayer of the messengers that day will be, “Oh Allah, save (us), save (us)! [Recorded by al-Bukhārī]

Ibn Taymiyyah says, “After they cross, they will stop at a bridge/platform between Paradise and the fire and they will settle any unresolved issues between themselves.”

This area is a small bridge or platform, and this settling of disagreements between them is not the major settling of affairs and retribution that occurs between people on the Day of Resurrection. Instead, this particular reconciliation is to resolve any bad feelings, grudges, or anger that may still remain in people’s hearts. So in a sense, this is a period of purification because the major settling of disagreements does not necessarily remove all feelings of resentment within people’s hearts.

So this bridge or platform between Paradise and Hell is to purify the hearts so that the believers enter Paradise having no bad feelings for one another as Allah ( تعالى ) says:

ادْخُلُوهَا بِسَلَامٍ آمِنِينَ وَنَزَعْنَا مَا فِي صُدُورِهِم مِّنْ غِلٍّ إِخْوَانًا عَلَىٰ سُرُرٍ مُّتَقَابِلِينَ

Enter it with peace, safe and secure. And we will remove whatever is in their breasts of resentment, (so they will become) brothers, on thrones facing each other.[Sūrah al-Ḥijr, 15:46-47]

About this bridge before Paradise, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

إِذَا خَلَصَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ مِنَ النَّارِ ، حُبِسُوا بِقَنْطَرَةٍ بَيْنَ الْجَنَّةِ وَالنَّارِ ، فَيَتَقَاصُّونَ مَظَالِمَ كَانَتْ بَيْنَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا ، حَتَّى إِذَا نُقُّوا وَهُذِّبُوا أُذِنَ لَهُمْ بِدُخُولِ الْجَنَّةِ ،فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ لأَحَدُهُمْ بِمَسْكَنِهِ فِي الْجَنَّةِ أَدَلُّ بِمَنْزِلِهِ كَانَ فِي الدُّنْيَا

When the believers are delivered from the fire, they will be detained at the bridge between Paradise and the fire to settle whatever injustices may have occurred between them in life. When they have all become refined and purified, entrance into Paradise will be granted. And I swear by the one in whose hand is Muhammad’s life, each individual will recognize his home in Paradise even more so than he does his home in this life. [Recorded by al-Bukhārī]

Footnotes

[113] Recorded by by al-Bukhārī and Muslim. The wording of Muslim is above; the wording of al-Bukhārī is:

يُضْرَبُ جِسْرُ جَهَنَّمَ ، فَأَكُونُ أَوَّلَ مَنْ يُجِيزُ ، وَدُعَاءُ الرُّسُلِ يَوْمَئِذٍ : اللَّهُمَّ سَلِّمْ سَلِّمْ

The bridge of Hell will be placed and I will be the first to be permitted. The supplication of the messengers that day will be, “Oh Allah, save (us), save (us).”

[116] Recorded by Imām Aḥmad in a marfū’ form meaning some ḥadīth scholars accept it as being “raised” to the status of an actual statement of the prophet himself ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ). Imam Muslim also mentioned it in his authentic collection as a comment to another ḥadīth.

[118] This is when the disbelieving people attempted to burn Abraham for destroying their idols. About this, Allah says in Sūrah al-Anbiyā, 21:68-69:

قَالُوا حَرِّقُوهُ وَانصُرُوا آلِهَتَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ فَاعِلِينَ قُلْنَا يَا نَارُ كُونِي بَرْدًا وَسَلَامًا عَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ

They said, “Burn him and support your gods if you are to act.” We (Allah) said, “Fire, be coolness and safety upon Abraham.”

[119] The ḥadīth, recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim, is:

إِذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ رَحْمَةَ مَنْ أَرَادَ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ أَمَرَ اللَّهُ الْمَلائِكَةَ أَنْ يُخْرِجُوا مَنْ كَانَ يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ فَيُخْرِجُونَهُمْ وَيَعْرِفُونَهُمْ بِآثَارِ السُّجُودِ وَحَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَلَى النَّارِ أَنْ تَأْكُلَ أَثَرَ السُّجُودِ

When Allah wants mercy for someone from the people of the fire, he commands the angels to take out whoever used to worship Allah. So they (the angels) will recognize them by the marks of prostration because Allah has forbidden the fire from destroying the marks of prostration.

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Day of Resurrection: The Scales are Placed & Deeds are Weighed – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

The Sixth Event

The Scales are Placed & Deeds are Weighed

In one of the verses that proves the scales will be setup on the Day of Resurrection, Allah says:

فَمَن ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

And those whose scales are heavy (with good deeds), it is they who will be successful.[Sūrah al-Muminūn, 23:102]

The verse contains a conditional clause; the condition is “those whose scales are heavy“, and if that condition is met, the consequence is “it is they who will be successful.” By “scales are heavy“, what is meant is that one’s good deeds outweigh his bad. “Successful” here describes an individual who achieves what he hopes for and is saved from what he fears. So he is given safety from what he hates and rewarded with what he loves. Allah also says:

وَمَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ فِي جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدُونَ

But those whose scales are light, it is they who have lost their souls. In Hell they will abide forever. [Sūrah al-Muminūn, 23:103]

Those who do not believe in Allah will “have lost their souls.” They will lose themselves, their families, and the possessions they hold dear:

قُلْ إِنَّ الْخَاسِرِينَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَهْلِيهِمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۖ أَلا ذَلِكَ هُوَ الْخُسْرَانُ الْمُبِينُ

Say: Indeed, the losers are the ones who will lose themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection. Unquestionably, that is the clear loss.[Sūrah al-Zumar, 39:15]

But as for a believer in Allah whose behavior was righteous, he will have succeeded, gaining his soul, his family, and his possessions, having benefited from all of them. People who do not believe in Allah (or disbelieve in Allah’s “oneness”) will lose themselves because they will have not benefited from their very existence in life. In fact such people, despite what they presumably achieve in life, actually achieve no true benefit and gain only harm (in the hereafter). In a sense, they even lose their wealth in life as they gain no real benefit from it. Even when they may share it with others among creation, such charity does not benefit the givers. Allah (تعالى) says:

وَمَا مَنَعَهُمْ أَن تُقْبَلَ مِنْهُمْ نَفَقَاتُهُمْ إِلَّا أَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِاللَّهِ وَبِرَسُولِهِ

And nothing prevents their spending from being accepted from them except that they disbelieved in Allah and in his messenger.[Sūrah al-Tawbah, 9:54]

They also lose their families because their families will either be in the fire with them, or if their families are in Paradise, such disbelievers will still have lost them because they themselves will be in the fire. Any individual who dies while disbelieving in Allah will never again enjoy the company of his family. Such enjoyment will be locked out from a disbeliever as soon as he is locked in his coffin, and each one will imagine no one else is receiving a harsher punishment than he.

As for “whose scales are light“, this means his bad deeds will outweigh his good or he will have no good deeds whatsoever. This is the meaning if we accept the position that disbelievers will have their deeds weighed which seems apparent from the verse in Sūrah al-Muminūn, 23:103 and others like it. And this position is one of the two held by religious scholars. The other opinion, that disbelievers will not have their deeds weighed, is the second position and it is based on the verses:

قُلْ هَلْ نُنَبِّئُكُم بِالْأَخْسَرِينَ أَعْمَالً الَّذِينَ ضَلَّ سَعْيُهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ يُحْسِنُونَ صُنْعًا أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ وَلِقَائِهِ فَحَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فَلَا نُقِيمُ لَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَزْنًا

Say: Shall we inform you of the greatest losers as to (their) deeds? Those whose effort is lost in the worldly life while they thought they were doing good work. Those are the ones who disbelieve in the verses of their Lord and in (their) meeting him. So their deeds have become worthless, and we will not assign to them on the Day of Resurrection any weight. [Sūrah al-Kahf, 18:103-105]

As for the two positions, whether disbelievers will have their deeds weighed or not, Allah knows best which is correct.

The Arabic word for scales used in some verses, ( مَوَازِيْن mawāzīn), has been reported in other texts in both the singular and plural forms. As for the plural form, Allah (تعالى) says:

وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَازِينَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فَلَا تُظْلَمُ نَفْسٌ شَيْئًا

And we place the scales of justice for the Day of Resurrection, so no soul will be treated unjustly in any way. [Sūrah al-Anbiyā, 21:47]

And:

وَالْوَزْنُ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْحَقُّ ۚ فَمَن ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ وَمَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُم بِمَا كَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يَظْلِمُونَ

And the weighing (of deeds) that day will be true. So those whose scales are heavy, it is they who will be successful. And those whose scales are light, they will lose themselves for what injustice they were doing toward our verses. [Sūrah al-‘Arāf, 7:8-9]

As for the singular form, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

كَلِمَتَانِ حَبِيبَتَانِ إِلَى الرَّحْمَنِ خَفِيفَتَانِ عَلَى اللِّسَانِ ثَقِيلَتَانِ فِي الْمِيزَانِ : سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ الْعَظِيمِ

There are two statements beloved to the Most Merciful, light on the tongue but heavy on the scale: “Glorified is Allah and all thanks are for him,” and “Glorified is Allah the greatest.” [59]

In this ḥadīth, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) mentioned the singular form, ( مِيْزَان mīzān), “scale.” So how do we understand the Quran verses which mention “scales” and this ḥadīth which mentions “scale?”

Perhaps it is mentioned in the plural form only as a way of speaking about what is weighed – deeds – which is plural. Then it is mentioned in the ḥadīth in singular form because the scale is actually one. It could also be because perhaps there is one scale for each nation or even that the prophet meant “heavy in weight” when he said, “heavy on the scale.”

However, what is apparent—and Allah knows best—is that the scale is actually one but is mentioned in plural form with regards to what is weighed (i.e., deeds). This linguistic usage can also be seen in the verse:

… فَمَن ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ

So those whose scales are heavy…[Sūrah al-A’rāf, 7:8]

In this verse, it is not actually the scales that are heavy, rather it is a form of Arabic speech in which one word (e.g. scales) is used to mean another word relating to the former (e.g. deeds).

There is a related issue but one into which people have not delved: Will there be a single scale setup for all nations, all mankind, or will there be one for each nation (e.g., one for Muhammad’s nation, one for Jesus’ nation, one for Moses’, etc.)? This question may be relevant because some texts indicate the rewards for deeds vary for different nations. [61]

These texts, taken at face value, are apparent in that the scale will be real and tangible as this is exactly how the word “scale” is commonly understood. This is because the principle of understanding religious texts reported in the Quran or Sunnah is that they are to be understood upon the commonly known, real and actual meanings of their words unless there is clear evidence that they should be understood differently (i.e. metaphorically). The commonly understood meaning to all Muslim teachers, writers, and lecturers ever since the Quran was revealed up until today is that the scale is real. However, some misguided sects have differed in understanding. For example, those who incorrectly believe any texts can be figurative, having metaphorical meanings instead of what the words actually mean, they claim that there will not be a real scale setup on the Day of Resurrection. They insist that there is really no need for an actual scale to weigh actions because Allah already knows the deeds of his servants and their worth. Instead, they claim that “scale” is allegorical and it really means Allah’s “fairness” or “justice.”

No doubt, the claim of such people is incorrect because it contradicts the outward, apparent meaning of the word and the consensus of all the righteous predecessors who understood the word to mean what the word actually means – scale. If we say the meaning is figurative and it really means fairness or justice, then there is little meaning in the several texts which mention “scale,” they would simply say “justice” (as other texts do) because the characteristics of fairness and justice are closer to and speak more directly to people’s souls than the word “scale” anyway. For this reason, Allah says:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالْإِحْسَانِ

Indeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct.[Sūrah al-Naḥl, 16:90]

The correct understanding is to take the word “scale” on its intended, actual meaning. We say that the correct understanding is the same one revealed – scale. The “Ḥadīth of the Card” (to be mentioned soon) also proves that it is a real, actual scale with weighing pans. This ḥadīth mentions that scrolls of bad deeds placed in one pan will be lighter than a single card placed in the other pan which will be heavier. So it is clear, what is correct is what was revealed – the scale is real.

The actions of the servants will then be weighed. And with that, there are two points of discussion.

The first point is this: How will deeds be weighed when it is known that a deed is simply a description or action of the one who performed it, and a deed has no physical form? The answer is that Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) will make these deeds into actual, physical forms. This should not be unbelievably strange when considering the capability of Allah (عزّ وجل). As an analogy, death will be made into the form of a ram on the Day of Judgment and it will be slaughtered between Paradise and Hell [63] while death now is simply a concept and not a physical form. And to clarify a side-note, the Angel of Death is not the one slaughtered here; it is actually death that Allah (تعالى) will make into a physical form everyone will witness and see. Similarly, Allah (عزّ وجل)جلwill turn deeds into actual forms that will be actually weighed with this actual scale.

The second point: Deeds will actually be weighed, both good and bad. This is the apparent understanding as Allah (تعالى) says in the Quran:

يَوْمَئِذٍ يَصْدُرُ النَّاسُ أَشْتَاتًا لِّيُرَوْا أَعْمَالَهُمْ  فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ

That day, people will depart, separated (into categories) to be shown their deeds. So whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it, and whoever does an atom’s weight of evil will see it. [Sūrah al-Zalzalah, 99:6-8]

So it is clear that deeds will really be weighed whether they are good or bad. Also, as has previously been mentioned, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)said, “There are two statements beloved to the Most Merciful, light on the tongue but heavy on the scale…” This ḥadīth is also clear, even explicit, in that actions will actually be given form and weight and then weighed, and there are several other texts that prove this.

However, there are other reliable texts that indicate that it may not be the actual deeds weighed but rather the records of deeds. An example of this type is the “Ḥadīth of the Card” in which the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

« إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَيُخَلِّصُ رَجُلاً مِنْ أُمَّتِي عَلَى رُءُوسِ الْخَلائِقِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فَيَنْشُرُ عَلَيْهِ تِسْعَةً وَتِسْعِينَ سِجِلاًّ كُلُّ سِجِلٍّ مِثْلُ مَدِّ الْبَصَرِ ثُمَّ يَقُولُ.: أَتُنْكِرُ مِنْ هَذَا شَيْئًا ؟ أَظَلَمَكَ كَتَبَتِي الْحَافِظُونَ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : لا يَا رَبِّ ، فَيَقُولُ : أَفَلَكَ عُذْرٌ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : لا يَا رَبِّ ، فَيَقُولُ : بَلَى إِنَّ لَكَ عِنْدَنَا حَسَنَةً فَإِنَّهُ لا ظُلْمَ عَلَيْكَ الْيَوْمَ ، فَتَخْرُجُ بِطَاقَةٌ فِيهَا أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ، فَيَقُولُ : احْضُرْ وَزْنَكَ ، فَيَقُولُ : يَا رَبِّ مَا هَذِهِ الْبِطَاقَةُ مَعَ هَذِهِ السِّجِلاَّتِ ؟ فَقَالَ : إِنَّكَ لا تُظْلَمُ ، قَالَ : فَتُوضَعُ السِّجِلاَّتُ فِي كَفَّةٍ وَالْبِطَاقَةُ فِي كَفَّةٍ فَطَاشَتْ السِّجِلاَّتُ وَثَقُلَتْ الْبِطَاقَةُ فَلا يَثْقُلُ مَعَ اسْمِ اللَّهِ شَيْءٌ »

Allah will single out a man from my nation at the head of all the creations on the Day of Resurrection. Ninety-nine scrolls (of bad deeds) will be spread out before him, each as far as the eye can see. He will be asked, “Do you deny doing any of this? Did my recording, guardian angels wrong you in any way?” The man will answer, “No, my Lord.” He will be asked, “Do you have any excuse?” to which he will again reply, “No, my Lord.” It will then be said, “Rather you certainly do have a good deed with us and there will be no injustice on you today.” A card will then be brought out, written on it: “I testify there is nothing deserving of worship but Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is his servant and messenger.” The man will be told, “Present yourself for your weighing.” He will ask, “My Lord, what is this card compared to all these scrolls (of bad deeds)?” He (Allah) will tell him, “You will certainly not be wronged.” So the scrolls will be placed in one pan (of the scale) and the card in the other, and the scrolls will be lighter and the card heavier as nothing is heavier than the name of Allah.

[Recorded by al-Tirmidhī, Ibn Mājah, and Aḥmad. al-Albānī said it is authentic in his “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan al-Tirmidhī” (no.2127)]

From this ḥadīth, it is apparent that it is the written records of deeds weighed instead of the deeds themselves.

There are other texts that indicate what is weighed is the person who does the deeds. For example, Allah says:

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ وَلِقَائِهِ فَحَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فَلَا نُقِيمُ لَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَزْنًا

Those are the ones who disbelieve in the verses of their Lord and in (their) meeting with him, so their deeds have become worthless. And we will not assign to them on the Day of Resurrection any weight.[Sūrah al-Kahf, 18:105]

But it has been said that the meaning of “weight” in the verse could mean “significance” or “importance” instead of weight. Another indication that it may be the person himself that is weighed is the ḥadīth of Abū Hurayrah ( رضي الله عنه)in which he narrated that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

« إِنَّهُ لَيَأْتِي الرَّجُلُ الْعَظِيمُ السَّمِينُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لا يَزِنُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ جَنَاحَ بَعُوضَةٍ »

A huge, fat man will be brought on the Day of Resurrection and he will not weigh in the sight of Allah even as much as a gnat’s wing [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

The understanding that it is the person who will be weighed is also indicated by the ḥadīth of Ibn Mas’ūd ( رضي الله عنه)when he was once trying to break a siwāk branch from a tree. He used to have thin legs and the wind blew and started to move him. Because of this, other companions ( رضي الله عنه)مbegan laughing at him. So the prophet ( صلّى الله ) عليه وسلّمasked them, “What are you laughing at?” They answered, “At the skinniness of his legs.”

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)then said:

« وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ ، لَهُمَا أَثْقَلُ فِي الْمِيزَانِ مِنْ أُحُدٍ »

I swear by the one in who hand is my soul (Allah), they (his legs) are both heavier in the scale than Mt. Uḥud. [Recorded by Aḥmad (1/421) and al-Albānī classed its chain of narrators as ḥasan in “Sharḥ al-A’qīdah al-Ṭaḥāwiyyah.]

So to conclude, we have texts indicating three things that will be weighed in the scale: the deeds, the records of deeds, and the person who performed the deeds.

Some scholars said the way to understand these together is simply that some people will have their deeds weighed, some will have their records of deeds weighed, and others will be weighed themselves. Other scholars said that when texts mention deeds being weighed, what is really meant is the records of deeds, and as for a person being weighed, this is specific to certain individuals.

Other scholars have combined these texts with the understanding that in reality only the records of deeds are weighed, but they will be heavy or light based on the merit and greatness of the deeds written in them. So in essence, it is as if the deeds are weighed. But after reflecting on the texts relevant to this issue, we find most of them indicate that it is the deeds that are weighed. Yet some people will be exclusively chosen to have their records of deeds weighed or even the individual himself. As far as the ḥadīth of Ibn Mas’ūd or the “Ḥadīth of the Card,” it could be that these are specific situations for which Allah chooses whomever he wants from his servants.

So the scales are placed, people’s deeds are weighed, then the books of deeds are distributed.

Footnotes:

[59] Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim. The transliteration of these two statements:

سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ الْعَظِيمِ

SubḥānAllahi al-‘Aẓīm SubḥānAllahi wa biḥamdihi
Glorified is Allah the greatest Glorified is Allah and all thanks are for him

Another ḥadīth which mentions “scale” in the singular form and indicates the greatness of this scale is classified as authentic by al-Albānī in “Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah” (no. 941). In it, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

« يُوْضَعُ المِيْزَانُ يَوْمَ القِيَامَةِ فَلَوْ وَزِنَ فِيْهِ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ لَوَسَعَتْ فَتَقُوْلُ المَلائِكَةُ : يَا رَبّ لِمَنْ يَزِنَ هَذَا ؟ فَيَقُوْلُ اللهُ تَعَالَى : لِمَنْ شِئْتُ مِنْ خَلْقِي . فَتَقُوْلُ المَلائِكَةُ : سُبْحَانَكَمَا عَبَدْنَاكَ حَقَّ عِبَادَتِكَ . وَيُوْضَعُ الصِّرَاطُ مِثْلَ حَدِّ المُوْسَى فَتَقُوْلُ المَلائِكَةُ : مَنْ تَجِيْزُ عَلَى هَذَا ؟ فَيَقُوْلُ : مَنْ شِئْتُ مِنْ خَلْقِيْ . فَيَقُوْلُوْنَ : سُبْحَانَكَمَا عَبَدْنَاكَ حَقَّ عِبَادَتِكَ »

The scale will be set up on the Day of Resurrection, and if the heavens and the earth were to be weighed in it, it would be sufficient to hold them. The angels will ask, “Oh Lord, who is this for?” Allah will reply, “For whomsoever I want among my creations.” The angels will then say, “Glory to you, we have not worshipped you as you rightfully deserve to be worshipped.” And the bridge will be placed (over Hell) and it will be like the edge of a razor. The angels will ask Allah, “Who will be saved from this?” to which Allah will again reply, “Whomsoever I want among my creations.” They will say, “Glory to you, we have not worshipped you as you rightfully deserve to be worshipped.”

[61] One example of such texts is the ḥadīth recorded by al-Bukhārī in which the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)said comparing Muslims to Jews and Christians:

« مَثَلُكُمْ وَمَثَلُ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابَيْنِ كَمَثَلِ رَجُلٍ اسْتَأْجَرَ أُجَرَاءَ فَقَالَ : مَنْ يَعْمَلُ لِي مِنْ غُدْوَةَ إِلَى نِصْفِ النَّهَارِ عَلَى قِيرَاطٍ ؟ فَعَمِلَتْ الْيَهُودُ ، ثُمَّ قَالَ : مَنْ يَعْمَلُ لِي مِنْ نِصْفِ النَّهَارِ إِلَى صَلاةِ الْعَصْرِ عَلَى قِيرَاطٍ ؟ فَعَمِلَتْ النَّصَارَى ، ثُمَّ قَالَ : مَنْ يَعْمَلُ لِي مِنْ الْعَصْرِ إِلَى أَنْ تَغِيبَ الشَّمْسُ عَلَى قِيرَاطَيْنِ ؟ فَأَنْتُمْ هُمْ ، فَغَضِبَتْ الْيَهُودُ وَالنَّصَارَى فَقَالُوا : مَا لَنَا أَكْثَرَ عَمَلاً وَأَقَلَّ عَطَاءً ؟ قَالَ : هَلْ نَقَصْتُكُمْ مِنْ حَقِّكُمْ ؟ قَالُوا : لا ، قَالَ : فَذَلِكَ فَضْلِي أُوتِيهِ مَنْ أَشَاءُ »

Your example compared to those of the two former scriptures can be likened to a man who hires a number of laborers. He asks, “Who will work for me from morning until midday for a certain sum?” The Jews are the ones to work at this time. Then he asks, “Who will work from midday to the late afternoon for the same sum?” The Christians are the ones to work at this time. Then he asks, “Who will work from the late afternoon until sunset for double that sum?” You (Muslims) are these people. This angers the Jews and Christians who ask, “Why did we have to work more only to receive less?” He answers, “Have you been cheated of any of your rights?” They answer, “No.” He then says, “This is my favor that I give to whom I please.”

[63] The proof is the ḥadīth recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim in which the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)said:

« يُؤْتَى بِالْمَوْتِ كَهَيْئَةِ كَبْشٍ أَمْلَحَ فَيُنَادِي مُنَادٍ : يَا أَهْلَ الْجَنَّةِ ، فَيَشْرَئِبُّونَ وَيَنْظُرُونَ ، فَيَقُولُ : هَلْ تَعْرِفُونَ هَذَا ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ : نَعَمْ هَذَا الْمَوْتُ ، وَكُلُّهُمْ قَدْ رَآهُ ، ثُمَّ يُنَادِي : يَا أَهْلَ النَّارِ ، فَيَشْرَئِبُّونَ وَيَنْظُرُونَ ، فَيَقُولُ : هَلْ تَعْرِفُونَ هَذَا ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ : نَعَمْ هَذَا الْمَوْتُ ، وَكُلُّهُمْ قَدْ رَآهُ ، فَيُذْبَحُ ، ثُمَّ يَقُولُ : يَا أَهْلَ الْجَنَّةِ خُلُودٌ فَلا مَوْتَ وَيَا أَهْلَ النَّارِ خُلُودٌ فَلا مَوْتَ ، ثُمَّ قَرَأَ : “وَأَنْذِرْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْحَسْرَةِ إِذْ قُضِيَ الأَمْرُ وَهُمْ فِي غَفْلَةٍ “وَهَؤُلاءِ فِي غَفْلَةٍ أَهْلُ الدُّنْيَا “وَهُمْ لا يُؤْمِنُونَ »”

Death will be brought in the form of a black and white ram and a caller will call out, “Oh people of Paradise!” and they will stretch their necks and look. They will be asked, “Do you know what this is?” to which they will answer, “Yes, that is death,” and each of them will be able to see it. Then it will be called out, “Oh people of Hell!” They will also stretch out their necks and look. They will be asked, “Do you know what this is?” and they too will say, “Yes, it is death,” and each of them will see it. It will then be slaughtered. Then it will be said, “Oh people of Paradise, eternity and no death. Oh people of Hell, eternity and no death.”

Then the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)recited:

وَأَنْذِرْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْحَسْرَةِ إِذْ قُضِيَ الأَمْرُ وَهُمْ فِي غَفْلَةٍ

And warn them of the Day of Regret, when the matter will be concluded. And yet they are in heedlessness.

He then said, “And these people are headless, people of this life,” and finished the verse:

وَهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

And they do not believe. [Sūrah Maryam, 19:39]

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Sunan an-Nasaaee & Imam an-Nasaaee – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

“Sunan an-Nasaaee”

an-Nasaaee authored a collection which he titled: “as-Sunan al-Kubraa” in which he gathered authentic Hadeeth as well as those with defects in their chains. He then summarized his collection which is known as “as-Sunan as-Sughraa” although he actually called it “al-Mujtabaa”.

In this summarized collection, he gathered only those Hadeeth which he considered to be authentic; it is this collection that is referred to when a Hadeeth is generally attributed to anNasaaee. “al-Mujtabaa” has the least number of weak Hadeeth out of the other four collections (excluding “Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” and “Saheeh Muslim”). It also contains the least amount of chains including narrators that have been criticized (regarding their Hadeeth narrating). It occupies a status right after “Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” and “Saheeh Muslim”. From the point of only relying upon narrators that are completely void of any criticism, this collection exceeds “Sunan Abu Daawood” and “Sunan at-Tirmithee” due to an-Nasaaee’s severe scrutiny of narrators within his writings. al-Haafith Ibn Hajar said, “How numerous are the narrators that Abu Daawood and atTirmithee relied on, yet an-Nasaaee shunned recording their Hadeeth. He even avoided recording Hadeeth from some of the narrators relied upon in the two authentic collections (“Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” and “Saheeh Muslim”).”

In summary, the conditions of an-Nasaaee in “al-Mujtabaa” are the strongest after the two authentic collections.

an-Nasaaee

He is ‘Abdur-Rahmaan Ahmad Ibn Shu’ayb Ibn ‘Alee an-Nasaaee, and it is said his name is anNaswee, referring to Nasa, a famous place in Khuraasaan. He was born in 215 Hijrah in Nasa. He then traveled in search of Hadeeth, eventually hearing from and studying from the people of the Hijaaz (lands such as Syria, Palestine, etc.), Khuraasaan, ash-Shaam, the Arabian Peninsula and other lands. He resided for a long time in Egypt and his writings spread throughout there. Later he journeyed to Damascus where he met with trials and tribulations. He died in 303 Hijrah in Ramlah, Palestine when he was eighty-three years old.

He left behind him many great works of Hadeeth and the study of their defects. May Allaah have mercy on him and reward him on behalf of his contribution to the Muslims.

Source: Biographies of the Famous Hadeeth Scholars and an Introduction to Their Collections – Shaykh Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) | Translated by: Abu az-Zubayr Harrison (rahimahullaah)

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Maniy , Madhy and Wady – alifta

Bismillaah

Maniy (sperm/vaginal secretions that are released on orgasm)
Wady (a thick white secretion discharged after urination)
Madhy (thin white viscid fluid secreted due to erotic thoughts or desire)

The fifth question of Fatwa no. 8540

Q: What are the Wady and Madhy discharges? How can a person purify himself from them? Do they occur during sleep? 

A: All praise be to Allah Alone, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger, and his family and Companions.

The Wady is mostly discharged after urination. It is a white thick fluid that resembles the Maniy (spermatic fluid) in thickness, but differs from it in turbidity, and it is odorless.

Madhy is a white, tenuous, viscous fluid that is discharged when engaging in foreplay, thinking of or desiring intercourse, or because of a look and the like, at the abatement of desire. A person may not feel the discharge come out, but it is discharged at the onset of sexual desire. It is experienced by both men and women.

Both fluids (Madhy and Wady) are Najis (impure) and invalidate Wudu’ (ablution). Therefore, when such secretions are discharged, the soiled parts (of body and clothes) must be purified with water and the person must perform Wudu’. Discharge of Madhy also necessitates washing the whole penis and testicles with water.

May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’

Member – Member – Deputy Chairman – Chairman
Abdullah ibn Qa`ud  – `Abdullah ibn Ghudayyan –  `Abdul-Razzaq `Afify  – `Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz

Fatwas of the Permanent Committee >  Acts of worship  >  Taharah (ritual purification)  >  Taharah from Najasah  >  Objects of Najasah  >

Posted from: http://www.alifta.net


The second question of Fatwa no. 4262

Q: What is the difference between Maniy and Madhy? Which of them necessitates taking Ghusl (ritual bath)?  

A: All praise be to Allah Alone, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger, and his family and Companions.

Firstly, the difference between Maniy (sperm/vaginal secretions) and Madhy (thin white viscid fluid secreted when having sexual thoughts or desire) is that Maniy in the case of men is a thick white fluid, and in the case of women it is thin and yellow. Madhy, on the other hand, is a thin, white, sticky fluid that is emitted when engaging in foreplay, thinking of or desiring intercourse, or because of a look and the like. Madhy is emitted by men and women alike.

SecondlyManiy necessitates Ghusl, while Madhy necessitates washing the penis and testicles, performing Wudu’ (ablution) like that performed for Salah (prayer), in addition to washing it off from the body and clothes.

May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’

Member – Member – Deputy Chairman – Chairman
`Abdullah ibn Qa`ud – `Abdullah ibn Ghudayyan – `Abdul-Razzaq `Afify – `Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz

Fatwas of the Permanent Committee >  Acts of worship  >  Taharah (ritual purification)  >  Taharah from Najasah  >  Objects of Najasah  >

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Exerting Efforts Towards Accomplishing Sincere Righteous Actions : One of the causes for the increase of eemaan – Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaak al-‘Abbaad

Bismillaah

Exerting Efforts Towards Accomplishing Sincere Righteous Actions

Another cause for the increase and strengthening of eemaan is for the Muslim to exert efforts towards enacting sincere righteous actions for the countenance of Allaah; he should try to do more (good) deeds and to do them on a regular basis.

This is because for every action that Allaah has legislated, which the Muslim undertakes and with which he makes his intention behind it sincere, it increases him in eemaan, since eemaan increases because of obedience and ample acts of worship.

Furthermore, the servitude that Allaah has enjoined on His slaves and demanded them to enact, the obligatory and voluntary of them, are distributed among the heart, the tongue and the limbs. Each of them has a servitude specific to it.

Examples of the servitude of the heart that are specific to it are sincerity, love, tawakkul, inaabah, hope, fear, reverence, awe, contentment, patience and other actions of the heart.

Examples of servitude of the tongue that are specific to it are reading the Qur’aan, takbeer, tasbeeh, tahleel, seeking forgiveness, praising and commending Allaah, sending salaah and salaam upon His Messenger and other actions that can only be done by the tongue.

As for the servitude of the limbs that are specific to it, examples of this are sadaqah, hajj, prayer, ablution, proceeding towards the mosque and other such actions that are only possible with the use of the limbs.

Thus, these actions of the heart as well as those of the tongue and the limbs are all from eemaan and are inherently present within the true meaning of the word eemaan. To perform such actions and to increase in them will therefore result in an increase of eemaan and to neglect them and to lessen the performance of them will result in a deficiency of eemaan.

i. Actions of the Heart

In reality, actions of the heart are the foundation of the religion. They are its uppermost part and the most important of ordinances. In fact, apparent [i.e., actions of the limbs and tongue, which are sensed. [t]] actions are not accepted if they are void of any actions of the heart; the reason being that the acceptance of all actions are stipulated by sincerity to Allaah and sincerity is an action of the heart.

This is why actions of the heart are mandatory upon everyone and the abandonment of such actions can never be deemed praiseworthy under any condition whatsoever.

People are of three levels with regard to the accomplishment of these actions, similar to the case with actions of the body: one who oppresses his own self, one who suffices with that which is obligatory and one who chases after the good.

Consequently, it is imperative of every Muslim that he starts with the purification and rectification of his heart and with having concern for it, before he concentrates with the rectification of his exterior, as no consideration is given to the rectification of the outer whilst the inner is corrupt.

In addition, when the Muslim does rectify his heart with purifying actions, sincerity, truthfulness and love for Allaah and His Messenger, his limbs will turn upright as in the hadeeth of an-Nu’maan Ibn Basheer that is recorded in the two Saheehs. He said: “I heard the Messenger of Allaah – sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam – say: … Indeed, and within the body is a morsel of flesh; if it is sound, then the whole body will be sound and if it is corrupt, then the whole body will be corrupt. Indeed, it is the heart.”” [Al-Bukhaaree. (1/127 Fath) and Muslim, 3/1220]

This hadeeth contains the greatest indication that the rectification of the slave’s outer movements is directly connected to the rectification of the activity of his heart and inner soul.

If his heart is pure, there being only love of Allaah, love of that which Allaah loves, fear of Him and of falling into that which He hates, the movements of his limbs will all become sound. This is in sharp contrast to a corrupt heart which is conquered by a love for desires, chasing lusts and placing the wants of the self first. Whoever is in such a predicament, the movements of his limbs will all be corrupt.

For this reason, it is said that the heart is the king of the limbs and that the rest of the limbs are its soldiers. In addition to this, the limbs are an obedient army to the heart; they race to its obedience and towards the execution of its commands, not opposing it in any matter whatsoever. Thus, if the king is righteous, this army will be a righteous one. If on the other hand, the king is corrupt, the army will, because of this resemblance, also be corrupt.

Only the heart that is pure is of benefit before Allaah, as Allaah says:

يَوْمَ لَا يَنفَعُ مَالٌ وَلَا بَنُونَ إِلَّا مَنْ أَتَى اللَّهَ بِقَلْبٍ سَلِيمٍ

The Day whereon neither wealth nor sons will avail, except for the one who comes to Allaah with a pure heart. [Soorah ash-Shu’araa’ (26):88-89]

The pure heart is the one that is free of all diseases, blights and distasteful matters. It is the heart that contains nothing but love of Allaah, fear of Him and fear of anything that will distance him from Allaah. [See Jaami’ al-‘Uloom wa al-Hikam of Ibn Rajab, page 71]

Shaykh al-Islaam says: “Moreover, the heart is the foundation. If it embodies knowledge and intention, this will take effect on the body without fail. It is not possible for the body to play truant to what the heart desires… so if the heart is righteous as a result of its knowledge and action on eemaan, this absolutely necessitates the rectification of the body in apparent speech and action in accordance with complete eemaan.” [al-Fataawaa, 7/187]

Consequently, for one to endeavor to fully fight his self in rectifying his heart and to fill it with love of Allaah and of statements and actions that Allaah loves, is one of the most formidable ways in which one increases his outer and inner eemaan.

Ibn Rajab says: “…the heart cannot be rectified unless there settles within it knowledge of Allaah, His greatness, love of Him, fear and awe of Him, hope and tawakkul in Him and for it to be overflowing with this. This is the reality of tawheed and the meaning of’ none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah.’

So there can be no question for the rectification of the hearts until its deity, which it worships, knows, loves and fears is one deity, having no partner. If there were in the heavens and the earth a deity being worshipped other than Allaah, the heavens and earth would as a result become corrupt, as Allaah says:

لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا آلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّهُ لَفَسَدَتَا

Had there been therein (i.e., the heavens and earth) deities besides Allaah, then for sure both would have been ruined… [Soorah al-Anbiyaa’ (21):22]

One concludes from this that righteousness cannot be attained by the celestial and earthly worlds until the activity of its inhabitants are made all for Allaah. The movement of the body is dependent on the activity of the heart and its intention. If therefore, the heart’s movement and desire are for Allaah alone, it will become sound and all the movements of the body will become sound. If, however, the movement and intent of the heart are for other than Allaah, it will become corrupt and the activity of the body will also become corrupt in accordance to the (level of) corruption within the activity of the heart.” [Jaami’ al-‘Uloom wa al-Hikam, page 71. See al-Waabil as-Sayyib of Ibn al-Qayyim, page 12]

It has been authenticated on the Prophet that he said: Whoever loves for Allaah, hates for Allaah, gives for Allaah and withholds for Allaah has indeed perfected eemaan.” [Related by Aboo Daawood, 4/220, at-Tabaraanee in al-Kabeer, number 7737, Ibn Battah in al-Ibaanah, 2/658 and others. Al-Albaanee declared it saheeh, see as-Silsilah as-Saheehah, 1/658]

‘The meaning of this is that with all the motions of the heart and limbs, if they are all for Allaah, the eemaan of the servant, both the interior and exterior, will be complete and the goodness of the activity of the heart necessitate goodness of the activity of the limbs.

Thus, if the heart is good, there being only desire of Allaah and of that which He desires, the limbs will only proceed towards that which Allaah desires. Consequently, the limbs hasten towards that which incurs the pleasure of Allaah, they refrain from what Allaah dislikes or what is feared that would be disliked by Allaah even if it is not sure of that.’ [Jaami’ al ‘Uloom wa al-Hikam, page 72]

Whenever the hearts become righteous with eemaan, truthfulness, sincerity and love and no desire for other than Allaah is left in the heart, all the limbs will attain righteousness and they will not move except for Allaah and only in areas that His pleasure will be attained.

Furthermore, the heart is always occupied in thought, either about its essential afterlife and its betterment, or about the welfare of its worldly life and living, or its thoughts center on misgivings, false aspirations and hypothetical circumstances.

The sum and substance of the rectification of the heart is that you occupy it with thoughts on that which constitute its welfare and true and actual success.

Hence, in the area of knowledge and conceptions, one occupies it with knowledge of what binds one of Tawheed and its rights, of death and what leads on from it up until entering Paradise and Hellfire and of the ill actions and the ways to protect oneself from committing them. In the area of intentions and resolutions, one occupies it with desires of that which will cause one benefit and to reject desires that which will bring harm upon him. [See al-Fawaa’id of ibn al-Qayyim, page 310 and 311]

Indeed, of immense assistance to the servant in this regard is to increase the beneficial observations, which are enacted in the heart, so that his attachment with Allaah strengthens, as the existence of righteous actions is associated to the establishment and great number of these observations in the heart.

Ibn al-Qayyim, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: “We will by the aid and tawfeeq granted by Allaah, point out these observations in a manner that will make known the reality of this matter:

The first observation of the traveler to Allaah and the home of the hereafter, is that there exists in his heart an observation of this world and its insignificance, its trivial fulfillment, extensive futility, vile participants and rapid demise… Thus, if the servant undertakes this observation of the world, his heart will migrate from this world and it will travel to seek the home of the hereafter.

At this moment, an observation of the hereafter and its continuity is enacted in his heart. That it is in all truth, the real life. Its inhabitants will never migrate or depart from it. Rather, it is the place of settling, the last stopping point of all travelers and the end of the journey…

Thereafter, an observation of the Fire is made in his heart, of its combustion, blaze and the depth of its pit; its intense heat and the immense torment of its inhabitants. He observes them as they are brought forth to it with blackened faces, blue eyed with iron chains and fetters around their necks. When they reach the fire, its doors will be opened in front of their faces and they will witness that abominable sight, whereupon their hearts will be become severed out of regret and sorrow…

Consequently, if this observation is accomplished in the heart of the servant, he will be stripped of sins, disobedience and of following desires and will instead don the guise of fear and caution… How distant he will actually be from disobedience and violations is dependent on the strength of this observation.

This observation will melt away, roast through and expel the destructive remnants and elements within his heart and thereupon, the heart will find the sweetness of well being and its pleasure.

Thereafter, an observation of Paradise is established in the heart and of what Allaah has prepared in it for its inhabitants: things that no eye has ever seen, no ear has ever heard and no imagination of has ever been made within the heart of a person. This is besides the detailed types of bliss Allaah has portrayed to His servants upon the tongue of His Messenger, guaranteeing the loftiest types of pleasure concerning foods, drink, clothes, palaces, delight and happiness. So, enacted in his heart is an observation of an abode, within which Allaah has placed everlasting bliss in its entirety.

Its ground is musk and its pebbles are pearls. Its structure is made up of bricks of gold and silver and of pearly embroidery. Its drink is sweeter than honey, possesses a fragrance more pleasant than musk, is cooler than camphor and tastier than ginger. In relation to its women, if the face of one of them were to be revealed to this world, it would overpower the radiance of the sun. The clothes of the inhabitants are made of the silk of sarsenet and brocades. Their servants are youths looking like scattered pearls. Their fruit will be everlasting, whose season is not limited and supply not cut off Therein are thrones raised high. Their food is the flesh of the fowls they desire. They will have drink of wine, there being no harmful effect within it and they will not suffer intoxication. Their vegetation is the fruit that they desire. Their view will be of fair females possessing wide lovely eyes like preserved pearls. They will be reclining upon thrones and in that Garden being made happy. In it are what the souls covet, what gratifies the eyes and they will abide in it forever.

If one adds to this observation, the observation of the day of Mazeed “… looking at the face of the Lord and listening to His speech without an intermediary… If this observation is attached to the ones before it, there and then, will the heart race towards its Lord faster than the procession of the wind moving in its direction and the heart will not on its way bother to glance, neither left nor right…” [Madaarij as-Saalikeen, 3/250-252]

Hence, if such observations are manifested in the heart of the servant and he contemplates over them, it will be of great help towards the purification of his heart and its eradication of denounced characteristics and ignoble desires and towards the evacuation of any attachment to other than Allaah. Furthermore, it will be a great motive for worship, love, fear, repentance and of feeling in need of Allaah.

The intent here is to highlight that one of the greatest incentives for eemaan, one of its most beneficial consolidators and most important reasons for its increase and development is the rectification of the heart through eemaan, love of Allaah, His Messenger, of that which Allaah and His Messenger love and to purify it from anything that opposes or nullifies this.

Allaah is the one who grants tawfeeq.

 … لِّلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا الْحُسْنَىٰ وَزِيَادَةٌ

* i.e., the day of increase. Allaah says in the Qur’aan: For those who do righteousness is al-Husnaa and more … [Soorah Yoonus (10):26]

لَهُم مَّا يَشَاءُونَ فِيهَا وَلَدَيْنَا مَزِيدٌ

Allaah also says, There (i.e., Jannah), they will have all that they desire, and We have more [Soorah Qaaf (50):35]

Husnaa has been explained to mean Jannah and ‘more’ to mean seeing Allaah. This is attested to by the hadeeth recorded in Saheeh Muslim and Sunan at-Tirmidhee and related by Suhayb ar-Roomee, may Allaah be pleased with him, in which the Prophet said:

When the people of Jannah enter Jannah, Allaah will say ‘Would you like something I con increase you with?’ They will reply, ‘Have you not whitened our faces? Have you not admitted us into jannah and saved us from the Fire?’

The Prophet then said: “Then the veil will be lifted and they will not have been given anything more beloved to them than seeing their Lord.” In a similar narration, the end reads: “The Prophet then recited this aayah: “For those who do righteousness is al-Husnaa and more…” [t]

ii. Actions of the Tongue

As for actions of the tongue like the remembrance of Allaah, praising and commending Him, reading His Book, sending salaah and salaam upon His Messenger, ordering the good, forbidding the evil, tasbeeh, seeking forgiveness, supplication and other actions that are performed by use of the tongue, without doubt, performing such actions, on a regular basis and often is one of the greatest causes for the increase of eemaan.

Shaykh Ibn as-Sa’dee, may Allaah have mercy upon him, says: “One of the causes that procures eemaan is to greater the remembrance of Allaah at all times and to also supplicate much, which is the core of worship.

Remembrance of Allaah implants the tree of eemaan in the heart. It nourishes and develops it. The more the servant increases in his remembrance of Allaah, the stronger his eemaan will become.

Just as eemaan calls to much remembrance, whoever loves Allaah will mention Him much. [As the saying goes: “Whoever loves something, increases in his mention of it” [t]] Indeed, love of Allaah is eemaan, or rather, it is its spirit.” [Al-Tawdeeh wa al-Bayaan, pg. 32]

Ibn al-Qayyim mentions in his book al-Waabil as-Sayyib that remembrance has a hundred benefits. He listed seventy-three of these benefits [See al-Waabil as-Sayyib, pg. 84 and onwards], such as that remembrance repels Shaytaan. It pleases the Most Beneficent, causes depression and anxiety to disappear and brings joy and happiness. It strengthens the heart and body, illuminates the face and heart, brings about sustenance and many other tremendous benefits that he mentioned, may Allaah have mercy upon him, which are attained because of the remembrance of Allaah.

Undoubtedly, the greatest and most beneficial benefit in the remembrance of Allaah is the fact that it increases eemaan, strengthens it and stabilizes it. Accordingly, a number of texts are related ‘in the Book and Sunnah, which command and encourage the remembrance of Allaah. They beckon for its increase and show its excellence and importance. Allaah says:

وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ ..

… and remember Allaah much so that you may succeed.” [Soorah al-Jumu’ah (62):10]

Allaah says:

وَالذَّاكِرِينَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا وَالذَّاكِرَاتِ أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا ..

… and (for) men and women who remember Allaah much, Allaah has prepared for them forgiveness and a great reward. [Soorah al-Ahzaab (33):35]

Allaah says:

… إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ

Indeed, the believers are none other than those whom when Allaah is mentioned, their hearts tremble with fear… [Soorah al-Anfaal (8):2]

Allaah says:

أَلَا بِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ تَطْمَئِنُّ الْقُلُوبُ…

… Verily, it is in the remembrance of Allaah that the hearts (truly) attain tranquility [Soorah ar-Ra’d (13):28]

As recorded in Saheeh Muslim, Aboo Hurayrah, may Allaah be pleased with him, reports: “The Messenger of Allaah was on his way to Makkah when he passed by a mountain known as jumdaan. He said, ‘Travel through, this is Jumdaan: the mufarridoon have excelled.’ Someone asked, ‘Who are the mufarridoon O Messenger of Allaah?’ He replied, ‘Men and women who remember Allaah much.’” [Muslim, 4/2062]

Aboo Dardaa’, may Allaah be pleased with him, relates the Prophet saying: “Should I not inform you of the best of your deeds, the most sanctifying of them before your Lord and which does more to raise your status with Him. (A deed,) that is better for you than the disbursement of gold and money, or battle with the enemy whereby you strike at their necks and they strike at yours?” They said: “What is it O Messenger of Allaah?” He replied: “Remembrance of Allaah.”

[Related by Ahmad, 5/195; Ibn Maajah, 2/1245; at-Tirmidhee, 5/459; at-Tabaraanee in ad-Du’aa’, 3/1636; al-Haakim, 1/496; Aboo Nu’aym in al-Hilya, 2/12; al-Baghawee in Sharh as-Sunnah, 5/10 and al-Mundhiree mentioned it in at-Targheeb wa at-Tarheeb, 2/395 via many chains from Ziyaad Ibn Abee Ziyaad from Abee Bahriyyah from Aboo Dardaa’ from the Prophet. Al-Haakim declared: “This hadeeth has a chain of narration that is saheeh and it has not been related by al-Bukhaaree or Muslim.” Adh-Dhahabee agreed. Ibn ‘Abdil-Barr states: “This is related with a connection to the Prophet via chains that are good,” Al-Baghawee and al-Mundharee declared its chain of narration to be hasan.]

‘Abdullah Ibn Busr mentioned that a man said to the Prophet : “O Messenger of Allaah, the rites of eemaan are much for me, so tell me of something that I might hold fast to.” He answered: Let not your tongue cease from the remembrance of Allaah.”[Related by Ibn Abee Shaybah, 10/301 & 13/458; at-Tirmidhee, 5/458; Ibn Maajah, 2/1246 and al-Haakim, 1/495. At-Tirmidhee declared: “The hadeeth is hasan ghareeb.” Al-Haakim said: “This hadeeth has a chain of narration that is saheeh and it has not been related by al-Bukhaaree or Muslim.” Adh-Dhahabee agreed. Al-Albaanee mentioned in his checking of al-Kalim at-Tayyib, page 25: “Its chain of narration is Saheeh”]

Recorded in the Saheehayn is the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah, may Allaah be pleased with him, in which he reports the Messenger of Allaah as saying: Allaah says, ‘Indeed I am as My servant presumes Me to be and I am with him when he remembers Me. So if he remembers Me to himself I remember him to Myself and if he remembers Me amongst a company, I remember him amongst a company that is better than them … [Al-Bukhaaree, (13/384 with Fath) and Muslim, 4/2061] Many other texts are likewise indicative of the excellence and importance of remembrance and of the virtue of engaging in it.

Consequently, if a person turns away from all of this and does not engage his tongue with remembrance of Allaah, his tongue will be engrossed with matters besides it such as backbiting, slander, mockery, lies and obscene language. This is because the slave cannot but speak. Thus, if he does not speak with the remembrance of Allaah and of His commands, he will speak of these things.

Ibn al-Qayyim says: “For the tongue does not keep quiet at all. It is either a tongue that remembers or a tongue that is frivolous and it has to be one of these two.

It is the (nature of the) soul; if you do not preoccupy it with truth, it will occupy you with falsehood. It is the (nature of the) heart; if you do not accommodate it with love of Allaah, it will dwell with love of creation and this is a certain reality. It is the (nature of the) tongue, if you do not preoccupy it with remembrance, it will most definitely occupy you with frivolity.

Thus, choose for your own self one of the two courses and confer upon it one of the two standings.” [Al-Waabil as-Sayyib, pages 166- 167 and also see page 87]

iii. Actions of the Limbs

As for the actions of the heart like prayer, fasting, hajj, sadaqah, jihaad and other acts of obedience, they are also reasons for the increase of eemaan.

To exert efforts therefore, towards enacting acts of obedience, which Allaah has made incumbent upon His slaves and performing acts that achieve nearness (to Allaah), which Allaah has recommended His servants to undertake and to accomplish these acts in a proficient and complete manner, is one of the most tremendous causes behind the strengthening and increase of eemaan.

Allaah says:

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُونَ وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَنِ اللَّغْوِ مُعْرِضُونَ وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِلزَّكَاةِ فَاعِلُونَ وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِفُرُوجِهِمْ حَافِظُونَ إِلَّا عَلَىٰ أَزْوَاجِهِمْ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ غَيْرُ مَلُومِينَ فَمَنِ ابْتَغَىٰ وَرَاءَ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْعَادُونَ وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِأَمَانَاتِهِمْ وَعَهْدِهِمْ رَاعُونَ  وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَلَىٰ صَلَوَاتِهِمْ يُحَافِظُونَ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْوَارِثُونَ الَّذِينَ يَرِثُونَ الْفِرْدَوْسَ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

“Successful indeed are the believers: those who offer their prayers with all solemnity and full submissiveness; who turn away from al-Laghw; who pay the zakaah; who guard their chastity, except from their wives or those that their right hands possess, for them, they are free from blame. However, whoever seeks beyond that, then they are the transgressors; those who are faithfully true to their amaanaat and covenants and those who strictly guard their prayers. These are indeed the inheritors, who shall inherit Firdaws. They shall abide therein forever.” [Soorah al-Mu’minoon (23):1-11]

These precious qualities, each one of them profits and develops eemaan. They are also characteristics of eemaan and fall under its explanation.

So, the attendance of the heart in prayer and the event of the praying person striving with his self to call to mind and heart what he is saying and doing, such as recitation, remembrance, supplication, standing, sitting, bowing and prostration, are reasons for the increase and development of eemaan.

Allaah named prayer ‘eemaan’ when He said:

… وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُضِيعَ إِيمَانَكُمْ …

… and Allaah would never cause your eemaan [i.e., the prayers that were performed towards the direction of Jerusalem, before the commandment of changing the qiblah to the Ka’bah in Makkah. [t]] to be lost …[Soorah al-Baqarah (2):143]

Furthermore, concerning the statement of Allaah:

 … إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ تَنْهَىٰ عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنكَرِ ۗ وَلَذِكْرُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ …

… and establish the prayer. Verily, the prayer prevents from all obscenities and evil deeds. And the remembrance of Allaah is greater … [Soorah al-Ankaboot (29):45]

Prayer is the greatest obstructer of every obscene and evil deed that negates eemaan. In addition, prayer also embodies the remembrance of Allaah, which nourishes and develops eemaan because of His saying:

… And the remembrance of Allaah is greater …

Likewise, zakaah also nurtures and increases eemaan, (both) the obligatory type of zakaah and its recommended type, as the Prophet has said, “… and sadaqah is proof.” i.e., a proof for the eemaan of its giver. Hence, it is evidence of eemaan and it nourishes and develops it.

Further, to avert from al-Laghw, which is any speech or action that is void of good. Instead they (i.e., the believers) speak and do well, and abandon evil in both speech and action. This is without doubt, from eemaan and eemaan increases and profits from it.

This is why whenever the Companions, may Allaah be pleased with them, and those after them sensed heedlessness or their eemaan was in disarray, they would say to each other, ‘Sit with us so that we may have eemaan for an hour’. So they would remember Allaah and remember his religious and worldly favors causing their eemaan to renew itself.

Again, abstaining from forbidden and indecent acts, especially, the obscenity of fornication, this is definitely a great sign for eemaan. The believer, because of the fear he has concerning his standing in front of his Lord, he:

نَهَى النَّفْسَ عَنِ الْهَوَىٰ …

… restrained himself from impure evil desires and lusts. [Soorah an-Naazi’aat (79):40]

… in response to the necessity of eemaan and to nourish what he already possesses of eemaan.

In addition, observing trusts and contracts and preserving them is from the signs of eemaan and related in a hadeeth: “… and there is no eemaan for the one who is not trustworthy.” [Related by Ahmad, 3/135; Ibn Abee Shaybah in both his Musannaf, 11/11 and al-Eemaan, pg.5; Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh, (1/208 al-Ihsaan) and al-Baghawee in Sharh as-Sunnah, 1 /75. Al-Baghawee declared, “This is a hasan hadeeth” It was declared saheeh by al-Albaanee in his tahqeeq of al-Eemaan by Ibn Abee Shaybah]

If you would like to know of the eemaan and religion of a slave, then inspect his condition: does he fulfill all of his trusts and contracts, the verbal and financial or trusts concerning rights? Does he observe the rights, covenants and oaths, the ones between himself and Allaah or those between himself and his fellow servants? If the answer is in the positive then he is a person of religion and eemaan. If however that is not the case, his religion and eemaan will be deficient in accordance to the level of his infringement of these obligations.

Allaah ended these aayaat with the issue of safeguarding the prayers with respect to their limits, rights and times. This is because preservation of this, is of similar standing to the water that flows around the garden of eemaan. So it irrigates it, nurtures it and produces its crop upon every occasion.

The tree of eemaan is in need of constant irrigation at all times; this irrigation is the maintenance of acts of obedience and worship of the day and night. It also demands the obliteration of anything that harms it, such as alien and harmful rocks and growths; this is in reference to the abstention from unlawful matters in both speech and action. Whenever these undertakings are accomplished, this garden will witness its geese and it will produce its assorted crop.

In light of this clarification, the strong effect of righteous actions on the increase of eemaan has become clear to us. It is also clear that the performance and increase of these acts are a tremendous cause for the increase of eemaan.

Shaykh al-Islaam says: “The perfection of eemaan is in enacting the commands of Allaah and His Messenger and refraining from the prohibitions of Allaah and His Messenger. Consequently, if one does not perform certain commandments and replaces them by embarking on certain prohibitions; this will result in a proportional decrease of eemaan.”

Thus, prayer is eemaan, hajj is eemaan, sadaqah is eemaan, jihaad is eemaan and all the actions that Allaah has ordered His slaves with are eemaan. If the servant does these acts his eemaan will increase and the performance of these actions will be a cause for the increase of his eemaan, on the condition of sincerity and adherence.

Shaykh Muhammad al-‘Uthaymeen, may Allaah preserve him, states: “The increase of eemaan has causes, some of these are: performing acts of obedience because eemaan increases in proportion to the fineness, type and abundance of the action. Thus the finer the action the greater will be the increase of eemaan; the fine aspect of the action is determined by the degree of sincerity and adherence. As for the type of action, the obligatory type is better than the recommended and some forms of worship are more emphasized and virtuous than others; the more virtuous the act of obedience is the greater will be the resultant increase in eemaan. As for the abundance of the action, then eemaan increases as a result of it because action is from eemaan, so it is not surprising that eemaan increases because of an increase of the action.” [Fath Rabb al-Bariyyah, pg. 65]

In addition, other great righteous actions that increase eemaan, which have not yet been mentioned are da’wah to Allaah and keeping company with virtuous people. Because of the importance and great benefit of these two matters in the increase of eemaan, its discussion is imperative.

As for da’wah to Allaah and to His religion, consulting each other with the truth and patience, calling to the fundamentals of the religion, to the adherence of its laws by way of ordering the good and forbidding the evil and sincerely advising the Muslims, this is all from the incentives and causes for eemaan.

With this, the servant perfects himself and others, as Allaah has sworn by time, [Refer to Soorah al-‘Asr (103). [t]] that the whole genus of humans are in a state of loss except for the one who is categorized with four qualities: eemaan and righteous actions, which both constitute the perfection of the self (thirdly) mutual consultation with the truth, which is beneficial knowledge, righteous action and the true religion and (fourthly) mutual consultation with patience in all of this, and with these (last) two, others are perfected.

This is because da’wah to Allaah itself and advising His servants are amongst the greatest fortifiers of eemaan. The person involved in da’wah has to work to aid this da’wah and establish the proofs and evidences for its realization. He has to undertake matters from their proper channels and approach issues from their rightful paths. These issues are from the ways and channels of eemaan.

Shaykh al-Islaam states: “The reason for the presence of eemaan and its constituents sometimes traces back to the servant (himself) and at other times back to others, for example, one is destined to interact with someone who invites him to eemaan, orders him with good and forbids him from evil. He explains to him the signs of the religion, its proofs and evidences. He shows him what to consider, what befalls him, what to take heed from. In addition (to this), there are many other reasons.” [Al-Fataawa, 7/650]

Furthermore, the reward is always from the same class as the action. So, just as the person strives to perfect his fellow servants, advises them, consults them with truth and to be patience in all this, Allaah will most definitely compensate him with rewards similar to his actions. Allaah will assist him with a light and spirit from Him and with strength of eemaan and tawakkul.

Eemaan and strong tawakkul on Allaah bring about victory over the enemies of the devils of men and jinn as Allaah has said:

إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَهُ سُلْطَانٌ عَلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ

“Verily, he (i.e., Shaytaan) has no power over those who have eemaan and put their trust solely on their Lord.” [Soorah an-Nahl (16):99]

Moreover, this person is also occupied with aiding the truth and whoever turns to undertake something, then he will most definitely be granted certain triumphs in knowledge and eemaan according to his truthfulness and sincerity.

One who commands the good and forbids the evil must therefore remain adherent to truthfulness and sincerity when commanding and forbidding in order for it to bear fruit and produce pure eemaan in him as well as those whom he is propagating to. He must also observe wisdom and leniency when inviting, be patient with those whom he is calling and to have knowledge of that which he is calling them to.

If these features are realized within him, his da’wah will bear fruit and benefit by the will of Allaah and it will be a cause for the strengthening of his eemaan and of those whom he is calling.

As for keeping company with virtuous people, clinging to them, accompanying them and coveting to benefit from them, this is a great cause for the increase of eemaan. The reason being that these type of gatherings embody reminder of Allaah, fear of Him and His punishment, targheeb, tarheeb and other matters, which are of the greatest of causes towards the increase of eemaan.

As Allaah says:

وَذَكِّرْ فَإِنَّ الذِّكْرَىٰ تَنفَعُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

“And remind, for indeed, reminding benefits the believers” [Soorah adh-Dhaariyaat (51):55]

Allaah also says:

فَذَكِّرْ إِن نَّفَعَتِ الذِّكْرَىٰ سَيَذَّكَّرُ مَن يَخْشَىٰ وَيَتَجَنَّبُهَا الْأَشْقَى

“Therefore, remind, in case the reminder benefits; those who fear will remember and the wretched will avoid it.” [Soorah al-A’laa (87):9-11]

This shows that possessors of believing hearts benefit greatly from reminders and from being in congregations of remembrance. It provokes activity and resolution within them and obligates profit and elevation. This is in stark contrast to gatherings of frivolity and foolishness, for these are immense reasons for the decrease and fading away of eemaan.

To this effect, our righteous predecessors were the most concerned with gatherings of remembrance and the most distant from meetings of frivolity and foolishness. Many of their statements that indicate this have preceded, like the accounts of ‘Umayr Ibn Habeeb al-Khatmee and Mu’aadh Ibn Jabal, may Allaah be pleased with them.

There is another cause, with which I will end the discussion on these causes, which one must pay attention to and not neglect. The Muslim has to train and adapt himself to fight everything that causes a decrease, weakness or disappearance of eemaan.

“Since, in relation to eemaan, just as one must enact all the causes that strengthen and develop eemaan, then likewise, in addition to this, one must repel the preventive matters and obstacles (towards the attainment and increase of eemaan). Repelling these are accomplished by the abandonment of disobedience; being repentant of the disobedience one does commit; safeguarding the limbs from the unlawful issues and opposing the trials and afflictions of misconceptions that weaken the desires of eemaan, which are in essence, the desire and love for good. Endeavoring after this can only be accomplished by abandoning desires that (would otherwise) negate those desires (of eemaan), such as desire of the soul for evil and by opposing the soul that constantly commands evil.

When the servant preserves himself from falling into the trials and tribulations of misconceptions and desires, his eemaan will become complete and his certainty will become strong.” [At-Tawdeeh wa al-Bayaan of Ibn as-Sa’dee, page 37]

Posted from  the Book: Causes Behind the Increase and Decrease of Eemaan, by Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaak al-‘Abbaad. Al-Hidaayah Publications

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Al-Madhee (Prostatic Fluid) and the Like – Dr. Saleh As-Saleh [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Umdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification : Hadith No. 23
The washing away of emotional urethral discharge (Madhee) and performing ablution after it

Al-Madhee (Prostatic Fluid) and the Like - Umdatul Ahkaam

It was narrated that ‘Alee (radi Allaahu anhu) said: “I was a man who emitted a great deal of pro-static fluid, but I felt too shy to ask the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) about that because of the position of his daughter [1]. So I told Al-Miqdaad ibn Al-Aswad to ask him, and he (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) said, “Let him was his private part and perform Wudoo“.” [2]

In one narration of Bukhaari: The Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) replied, “Perform ablution after washing your organ (penis).” [3]

In one narration of Muslim: The Messenger of Allaah (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) said, “Perform Wudoo‟ and sprinkle (wash) your private part.” [4]

Footnotes:

[1] In a version in Bukhaari [Volume 1, Book 5, Hadeeth Number 269, p. 196] it says, “…Being the son-inlaw of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ)…”

[2] Saheeh Muslim, Volume 1, Book 3, Hadeeth Number 695, p. 421

[3] Saheeh Bukhaari, Volume 1, Book 5, Hadeeth Number 269, p. 196.

[4] Saheeh Muslim, Volume 1, Book 3, Hadeeth Number 697, p. 422

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Posted fromUmdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio Series|En]

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The Sun will be brought near on the Day of Qiyaamah – Shaykh Uthaymeen

 

Bismillaah

Day of Resurrection
The Third Event

The Sun is Brought Near

The sun will be brought near to mankind, as close as a “mile,” the Arabic word used for mile here being مِيْل (mīl). Whether it is the mile we know to be the common unit of distance or the eye-pencil to apply kohl (as the word could imply in Arabic), whatever the case the sun will be very close to people.[29] If the sun’s heat is as we know it here in this life while there is such a great distance between it and us, then how will it be when it is a “mile” above our heads?

Here is a question: It is well-known that if the sun were to move even a hair from its position, it would burn the earth, incinerating it completely. So how is it possible on that day for the sun to be that close and not burn creation? The answer is that although people will be resurrected on that day with their previous bodies, they may not be recreated in the same exact state and with the same capability as they have now. Rather, they will be stronger and greater in what they can withstand.

For example, if people were to remain for fifty days in direct sunshine with no shade, no food, and no water, they would be unable to do so; they would die. But on the Day of Resurrection, they will remain in such a state for fifty thousand years [30] without food,water, or shade except those to whom Allah ( عزّ وجلّ ) shades. In addition, they will witness other terrifying events but they will be made to withstand them.

As an example of this greater capability to bear situations without dying, look at how the people of the fire will withstand such seemingly unbearable circumstances:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِنَا سَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِمْ نَارًا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتْ جُلُودُهُم بَدَّلْنَاهُمْ جُلُودًا غَيْرَهَا لِيَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ

Indeed, those who disbelieve in our verses, we will drive them into a fire. Every time their skins are roasted through, we will replace them with other skins so they may taste the punishment. [Surah An-Nisa 4:56]

Will anyone be saved from the heat of the sun on the Day of Resurrection? Yes, there are types of people whom Allah will shade from the sun. The prophet ( صلّى اللّه عليه وسلّم ) said:

There are seven (types of people) whom Allah will shade in his shade on a day when there will be no shade except his shade: a just ruler; a youth who grew up in the worship of Allah; a man whose heart is attached to the mosques; people who love each other for Allah’s sake, meeting for his sake and parting for his sake; a man who is called by a woman of beauty and position (for adultery), but he says: “(No) I fear Allah;” a man who gives in charity and hides it so much so that his left hand does not know what his right hand gives in charity; and a man who remembered Allah in private so much that his eyes shed tears. [Recorded by al-Bukhārī, Muslim, and al-Tirmidhī]

There are also other types of individuals Allah will shade on that day. And by, “when there will be no shade except his shade,” it means no shade except the shade Allah creates. And it is not as some people think that it is the shade of Allah himself because that would necessitate that the sun would be above Allah ( عزّ وجلّ)

In this life, we can take shelter in shade ourselves, but on the Day of Resurrection, there will be no shade except the shade Allah ( سبحانه وتعالى ) makes so that whoever he wills can take shelter in his shade when the sun is brought near.

Due to the closeness of the sun, people will sweat so much that it will rise.

The Fourth Event

The Sweat Rises

Because of the sun’s heat, people will sweat profusely in proportion to their deeds. For some, the sweat will rise to their ankles, some to their knees, some to their waists, and for some, the sweat will rise up to their mouths. So individuals will be at different levels regarding their sweat. They will sweat from the intense heat and the extremely uncomfortable situation: crowdedness, extreme hardships, and at close distance to the sun. Still, although people will sweat from the circumstances of that day, their sweat will only be according to their deeds in this life. [33]

Here is a question: How will they be of varying degrees in sweat if people are all together in one place? To answer, we must return to a basic principle of belief. It is that when dealing with affairs of the unseen, events that authentic texts confirm will take place in the future, it is incumbent upon us to believe in them, trusting them to be true without persisting in asking, “How? Why?” These are things beyond the extent of our own intellects; it is not yet possible for us to perceive or fully understand it.

Imagine two people buried in a single grave, one a believer and the other a disbeliever. The believer will still experience the enjoyment that he deserves, and the disbeliever will experience the punishment he deserves even though they are in the same grave. Likewise, we believe the sweat will rise on the Day of Judgment as foretold.

Now are we saying that Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) will gather together someone whose sweat will reach his mouth in a particular place, someone with sweat to his ankles in a different place, and others with sweat rising to their knees or waist in other places? No, not necessarily but Allah knows best. What we are saying is that it is possible for the individual with sweat reaching only to his ankles to be next to someone with his sweat up to his mouth because Allah is capable of doing anything. This is comparable to the fact that light will encompass believers all around them, yet at the same time, disbelievers in Allah will be surrounded by darkness.

So regarding the Day of Resurrection, we must believe in it and all that is to occur on that day. As for the “How?” and “Why?” of the exact nature, that is not our right to know. As people suffer on the Day of Resurrection, standing in their own sweat, they will anxiously wait for judgment to begin. And this will only occur by “The Greatest Intercession.”

Footnotes:

[29] The prophet ( صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ) said in the ḥadīth recorded by Muslim confirming this:

» تُدْنَى الشَّمْسُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مِنْ الْخَلْقِ حَتَّى تَكُونَ مِنْهُمْ كَمِقْدَارِ مِيلٍ «

On the Day of Resurrection, the sun will be brought close to creation so much that it will be a “mile” from them.

One of the narrators of the ḥadīth, Sulaym Ibn ‘Āmir, said, “By Allah, I do not know if he meant by mīl the distance of land or the mīl that is used to apply kohl to the eye.”

[30] The scholar is perhaps alluding to the verse in Sūrah al-Ma’ārij (70:4) in which Allah says,

تَعْرُجُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ

The angels and the spirit will ascend to him during a day the extent of which is fifty thousand years.

Also, the prophet ( صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) said in a ḥadīth recorded by Muslim:

مَا مِنْ صَاحِبِ كَنْزٍ لا يُؤَدِّي زَكَاتَهُ إِلاَّ أُحْمِيَ عَلَيْهِ فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ فَيُجْعَلُ صَفَائِحَ فَيُكْوَى بِهَا جَنْبَاهُ وَجَبِينُهُ حَتَّى يَحْكُمَ اللَّهُ بَيْنَ عِبَادِهِ فِي  يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ ثُمَّ يَرَى سَبِيلَهُ إِمَّا إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَإِمَّا إِلَى النَّارِ

There is no owner of treasure who does not pay its zakāh (obligated charity), but it will be heated in the fire of Hell and made into plates with which his sides and forehead will be branded until Allah passes judgment between his slaves on a day the length of which will be like fifty thousand years. Then he will be shown his path, whether it leads to Paradise or to Hell.

[33] This is established by the ḥadīth recorded by Muslim in which the prophet ( صلّى اللّه عليه وسلّم ) said:

فَيَكُونُ النَّاسُ عَلَى قَدْرِ أَعْمَالِهِمْ فِي الْعَرَقِ ، فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَكُونُ إِلَى كَعْبَيْهِ ، وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَكُونُ إِلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ ، وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَكُونُ إِلَى حَقْوَيْهِ ، وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يُلْجِمُهُ الْعَرَقُ إِلْجَامًا

The people will be in sweat in accordance with their deeds. For some, it will rise to their ankles, some to their knees, some to their waists, and for some of them, the sweat will reach their mouths.

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Two Points of Interest Regarding “Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” & “Saheeh Muslim” – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

The First Point:

It should not be understood that “Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” and “Saheeh Muslim” encompass every authentically reported statement of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم). Rather, there are many authentic Hadeeth collected by other scholars that neither one of them (al-Bukhaaree & Muslim) recorded in their collections.

an-Nawawee said:

“The intent of both al-Bukhaaree and Muslim was only to collect a large number of authentic Hadeeth just as a book of Fiqh [2] may collect texts pertaining to many different issues, not encompass every possible issue. However, if there is a Hadeeth having an authentic chain of narration that one of them may have left out, or even both of them, then they would have had a reason to do so or they may have recorded a similar Hadeeth in its place. From what is well-known from them, it may be assumed that perhaps they felt it better not to record it, or perhaps they even forgot. They also may have left certain Hadeeth out in order not to make their collections even longer than they are, or they felt what they have recorded was sufficient pertaining to a certain topic. They may have had other reasons as well.”

The Second Point:

Scholars unanimously agree and consider “Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” and “Saheeh Muslim” to be the most authentic written works of Hadeeth. Regarding this, the famous scholar, Ibn Taymiyyah, said, “There is no Hadeeth they both agree to be authentic except that it is undoubtedly authentic.” He also said, “The vast majority of their narrations, the scholars of Hadeeth know with certainty that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) actually said them.”

Footnotes:

[2] Fiqh: The knowledge of practical legislated Islaamic rulings by their related detailed proofs. – Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen, “al-Usool min ‘Ilm al-Usool” pg. 7. – T.N.

Source: Biographies of the Famous Hadeeth Scholars and an Introduction to Their Collections – Shaykh Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) | Translated by: Abu az-Zubayr Harrison (rahimahullaah)

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The Meaning of Allaah’s statement: “Whoever seeks other than Islaam as a Religion, it will never be accepted from him” – Imam al-Albani

Bismillaah

[6] Question:

How do we combine between the two ayahs:

وَمَن يَبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الْإِسْلَامِ دِينًا فَلَن يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

“Whoever seeks other than Islaam as a Religion, it will never be accepted from him” [Surah Aali ‘Imraan 3:85] and

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالصَّابِئُونَ وَالنَّصَارَىٰ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

“Verily, those who have believed and those who were Jews, Sabians, and Christians who believed in Allaah and the Last Day and do righteous deeds – there is no fear upon them nor do they worry.” [Surah Al-Maa’idah 5:69]

[6] Answer by Imam al-Albaani (rahimahullaah):

There is no contradiction between these two ayahs as the question suggests. And this is because the verse about Islaam (3:85) came after the Message of Islaam was conveyed to those people whom Allah described in the second ayah as: “There is no fear upon them nor do they worry.”

Allaah mentions amongst them the Sabians. When the word Sabian is mentioned what quickly comes to mind is a reference to those who worship the stars. However, in reality, this term applies to all people that fall into Shirk after having been from among the adherents of Tawheed. So the Sabians were once proponents of pure Monotheism, but then they were subjected to polytheism and worshipping of stars. So the ones mentioned in this verse refer to the believers amongst them, the adherents of Tawheed.

Before the Message of Islaam came, these people were like the Jews and Christians, whom were also mentioned in the same list as the Sabians. So this refers to those among them that were practicing their Religion at their time. They were from among the believers of whom: “There is no fear upon them nor do they worry.”

However, after Allaah sent Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) with the Religion of Islaam, the Message of Islaam was conveyed to these three types of people – the Jews, the Christians and the Sabians. And so nothing else but Islaam was accepted from them.

Therefore, Allaah’s statement: “Whoever seeks other than Islaam as a Religion” refers to after Islaam was conveyed to him upon the tongue of the Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and after the Message of Islaam was passed on to him. So at that point, nothing other than Islaam was acceptable

As for those who died before the advent of the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) or those who are alive today on the face of the earth but yet the Message of Islaam has not reached them or the Message of Islaam has reached them but in a manner that is distorted from its true and original state – as I have mentioned in some occasions about the Qadiyanis, for example, who today have spread throughout Europe and America, claiming Islaam, however this Islaam, which they claim to be upon is not from Islaam at all, since they believe that prophets will come after the final Prophet, Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) – then these people, among the Europeans and Americans that have been called to the Qadiyani form of Islam while the true Message of Islaam was not conveyed to them, they fall into two categories:

The first category contains those who remained upon their prior (pure) Religion and held steadfast onto it. This is how the ayah: “there is no fear upon them nor do they worry” should be understood.

The second category consists of those who deviated from this Religion – as is the case with many Muslims today – so the proof is established against them.

As for those whom the Call to Islaam has not been conveyed to at all – whether after Islaam came or before it, such people will get a special treatment in the Hereafter. And it is by Allaah sending them a messenger that will test them, just as the people were tested in the worldly life. So whoever answers the call of this messenger on the Day of Judgement and obeys him will enter Paradise. And whoever disobeys him will enter the Hellfire.

[See Silsilat-ul-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (2468)]

Posted by AbdurRahman.Org from al-ibaanah eBook:
[How are we Obligated to Interpret the Qur’aan? – Shaykh al-Albanee]

 

How are we obligated to Interpret the noble Qur’aan – Imam Al-Albaani

Bismillaah

How are we obligated to Interpret the noble Qur'aan

Download Complete Book PDF]

This book is a complete translation of a treatise entitled “Kayfa Yajibu ‘alaynaa an Nufassir al-Qur’aan-al-Kareem” (How are we Obligated to Interpret the Noble Qur’aan).

The source used for the translation was the Al-Maktabah al-Islaamiyyah first edition published in 1421H.

The foundation of this treatise is questions that were posed to the Shaikh, may Allaah have mercy on him, to which he responded in recorded format. These questions and answers were then transcribed, printed on paper and presented to the Shaikh who read them and commented on them in his own handwriting. The publishing house printed and distributed the book after the death of Imaam Al- Albaanee due to the great benefit found in the work since the author discusses several rules and principles related to interpreting the meanings of the Qur’aan, which every Muslim should follow when trying to understand the Book of Allaah.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Lessons from Ramadaan : Al-Istiqaamah Magazine

Bismillaah

Source: Al-Istiqaamah Magazine , Issue No.5 – Ramadân 1417H / January 1997

Allaah -The Most High – said: “The month of Ramaḍaan in which the Qurʾaan was revealed, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance of the Criterion between right and wrong. So whosoever of you sights the crescent for the month of Ramaḍaan, he must fast that month.” [Soorah al-Baqarah, 2:185].

Allaah’s Messenger (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said:

Islaam is built upon five: Testifying that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and the Muḥammad is the Messenger of Allaah, establishing the Prayer, giving the Zakaah performing Ḥajj to the House, and fasting in Ramaḍaan.” [1]

He (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) also said:

There has come to you Ramaḍaan, a blessed month, in which Allaah has made it obligatory to fast. During it the gates of Paradise are opened and the gates of Hellfire are closed, and the rebellious devils are chained. In it is a night (Laylat al-Qadr) which is better than a thousand months. He who is deprived of its good has truly been deprived.[2]

From the many important lessons to be learnt from fasting are:

[1]: GAINING TAQWAA

Fasting has been legislated in order that we may gain taqwaa as Allaah – the Most High – said: “O you who believe! fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed upon those before you in order that you may attain taqwaa.” [Soorah al-Baqarah 2:183].

Talq ibn Habeeb (d.100H) – raḥimahullaah – said:

“When fitnah (trial and tribulation) appears then extinguish it with taqwaa.” So he was asked as to what taqwaa was, so he replied: “Taqwaa is to act in obedience to Allaah, upon a light (i.e. eemaan, faith) from Allaah, hoping in the Mercy of Allaah. And taqwaa is leaving acts of disobedience to Allaah, upon a light from Allaah, due to the fear of Allaah.”[3]

“This is one of the best definitions of taqwaa. For every action must have both a starting point and a goal. And an action will not be considered as an act of obedience, or nearness to Allaah unless it stems from pure eemaan (faith in Allaah). Thus, it is pure eemaan – and not habits, desires, nor seeking praise or fame – that should be what initiates an action. And the preparation showed, to earn the reward of Allaah and to seek His good pleasure.”[4] So Fasting is a means of attaining taqwaa, since it helps prevent a person from many sins that one is prone to. Due to this, the Prophet (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said: “Fasting is a shield with which the servant protects himself from the Fire.”[5] So we should ask ourselves, after each day of fasting: Has this lasting made us more fearful and obedient to Allaah? Has it aided us in distancing ourselves from sins and disobedience?

[2]: SEEKING NEARNESS TO ALLAAH

The Prophet (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said:

“Allaah said: Whosoever shows enmity to a friend of Mine, I shall be at war with him. My servant does not draw near to me with anything more beloved to me than the obligatory duties that I have placed upon him. My servant continues to draw nearer to Me with optional deeds so that I shall love him.”[6]

The Prophet (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said:

“Whosoever reaches the month of Ramaḍaan not have his sins forgiven, and so enters the Fire, then may Allaah distance him.”[7]

So drawing closer to Allaah – the Most Perfect – in this blessed month, can be achieved by fulfilling one’s obligatory duties; and also reciting the Qurʾaan and reflecting upon its meanings, increasing in kindness and in giving charity, in making du‘aa (supplication) to Allaah, attending the Taraaweeḥ Prayer, seeking out Laylat al-Qadr (the Night of Power and Pre-Decree), a night which is better than a thousand months, attending gatherings of knowledge, and striving in those actions that will cause the heart to draw closer to its Lord and to gain His forgiveness. Our level of striving in this blessed month should be greater than our striving to worship Allaah in any other month, due to the excellence and rewards that Allaah has placed in it. Likewise from the great means of seeking nearness to Allaah in this month is making I‘tikaaf (seclusion in the mosque in order to worship Allaah) – for whoever is able.

Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim (d.751H) – raḥimahullaah – said:

“Allaah also prescribed iʿtikaaf for them, the objective being that the heart becomes fully preoccupied with Allaah – the Most High – concentrated upon Him alone, and cut-off from being preoccupied with the creation. Rather, the heart is only engrossed with Allaah – the Most Perfect – such that loving Him, remembering Him, and turning to Him takes the place of all the heart’s anxieties and worries, so that he is able to overcome them. Thus, all his concerns are for Allaah, and his thoughts are all directed towards remembering Him and thinking of how to attain His Pleasure and what will cause nearness to Him which leads him to feel content with Allaah instead of people. This, in turn, prepares him for being at peace with Allaah alone, on the day of loneliness in the grave, when there will be no one else to give comfort, nor anyone to grant solace, except Him. So this is the greater goal of I‘tikaaf.” [8]

[3]: ACQUIRING PATIENCE

Imaam Aḥmad (d.241H) – raḥimahullaah – said:

“Allaah has mentioned ṣabr (patience) in over ninety places in His Book.” [9]

The Prophet (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said:

“The month of Patience, and the three days of every month, are times for fasting.” [10]

Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr (d.464H) – raḥimahullaah – said:

“What is meant by the month of Patience is the month of Ramaḍaan … So fasting is called patience because it restrains the soul from eating, drinking, conjugal relations and sexual desires.” [11]

He (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said:

“O youth! Whoever amongst you is able to marry then let him do so; for it restrains the eyes and protects the private parts. But whoever is unable, then let him fast, because it will be a shield for him.” [12]

So fasting is a means of learning self-restraint and patience. With patience we are able to strengthen our resolve to worship Allaah alone, with sincerity, and also cope with life’s ups and downs. So – for example – with patience we are able to perform our Prayers calmly and correctly, without being hasty, and without merely pecking the ground several times! With patience we are able to restrain our souls from greed and stinginess and thus give part of our surplus wealth in Zakaah (obligatory charity). With patience we are able to subdue the soul’s ill temperament, and thus endure the ordeal and hardships of Ḥajj, without losing tempers and behaving badly. Allaah – the Most High – said:

“O Prophet, urge the Believers to fight … So if there are one hundred who are patient, they shall overcome two hundred; and if there be one thousand, they shall overcome two thousand, by the permission of Allaah. And Allaah is with the patient ones.” [Soorah al-Anfaal, 8:65-66].

Thus, without knowledge and patience, nothing remains, except zeal and uncontrolled emotions, shouts and hollow slogans, speech that does not strengthen, but rather weakens, and actions that do not build, but rather destroy! So in this month, we should strive to develop a firm resolve for doing acts of obedience, and to adorn ourselves with patience – having certainty in the saying of our Messenger (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam): “And know that victory comes with patience, relief with affliction, and case with hardship.” [13]

[4]: CULTIVATING GOOD MANNERS

The Prophet (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said:

“Whosoever does not abandon falsehood in speech and action, then Allaah the Mighty and Majestic has no need that he should leave his food and drink.” [14]

He (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) also said:

“Fasting is not merely abstaining from eating and drinking. Rather, it is also abstaining from ignorant and indecent speech. So if anyone abuses or behaves ignorantly with you, then say: I am fasting, I am fasting.” [15]

These narrations point towards the importance of truthfulness and good manners. Thus, this blessed month teaches us not only to abstain from food and drink, but to also abstain from such statements and actions that may be the cause of harming people and violating their rights – since the Messenger (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said whilst descriibng the true Believer: “A Muslim is one from whom other Muslims are safe from his tongue and his hand.” [16] Thus it is upon us as individuals, to examine the shortcomings in our character, and to then seek to improve them – modeling ourselves upon the character of the last of the Prophets and Messengers, and their leader, Muḥammad (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) – aspiring also for the excellence which he mentioned in his saying: “I am a guarantor for a house on the outskirts of Paradise (or whosoever leaves off arguing, even if he is right; and a house in the centre of Paradise (or whosoever abandons falsehood, even when joking; and a house in the upper-most part of Paradise for whosoever makes his character good.”[17] So by shunning oppression, shamelessness, harbouring hatred towards Muslims, back-biting, slandering, tale-carrying, and other types of falsehood, we can be saved from nullifying the rewards of our fasting – as Allaah’s Messenger (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said: “It may be that a fasting person, receives nothing from his fast, except hunger and thirst.” [18]

[5]: SENSING MUSLIM UNITY

The Prophet (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said:

“Fast when they fast, and break your fast when they break their fast, and sacrifice the day they sacrifice.” [19]

Imaam at-Tirmidthee (d.275H) – raḥimahullaah – said:

“Some of the People of Knowledge explained this ḥadeeth by saying: Its meaning is to fast and break the fast along with the Jamaaʿah and the majority of people.” [10]

Thus, in this blessed month we can sense an increased feeling of unity and of being a single Ummah due to our fasting and breaking our fast collectively. We also feel an increased awareness about the state of affairs of the Muslims and of the hardships that they endure, because: “During the fast a Muslim feels and experiences what his needy and hungry brothers and sisters feel, who are forced to go without food and drink for many days – as occurs today to many of the Muslims in Africa.” [21] Indeed, the unity of the Muslims – and their aiding and assisting one another – is one of the great fundamentals upon which the Religion of Islaam is built, as Allaah – the Most High -said: “And hold fast altogether to the rope of Allaah and do not be divided.” [Soorah aal-‘ʿImraan 3:103]. Allaah – the Most High – also said: “The Believers – men and women – and friends and protectors to one another.” [Soorah al-Tawbah 9:44].

Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyyah (d.728) – raḥimahullaah – said:

“The welfare of people will not be complete – neither in this world, nor in the Hereafter – except with ijtimaa‘ (collectiveness) ,  ta‘aawun (mutual cooperation), and tanaasur (mutual help); mutual cooperation in order to secure benefits, and mutual help in order to ward off harm. It is for this reason that man is said to be social and civil by nature.” [22]

Thus, we see that Islaam lays great importance in bringing hearts together and encouraging ijtimaa‘ (collectiveness). This is not only reflected in the month of Ramaḍaan, but also in the other acts of worship as well. So, for example, we have been ordered by the Prophet (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) to pray the five daily Prayers in congregation, and that it has been made twenty-seven times more rewarding than praying it individually. [23] Likewise, this similar collective spirit is demonstrated in the act of Ḥajj (Pilgrimage). Even in learning knowledge and studying it, blessings have been placed in collectiveness, as Allaah’s Messenger (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said: “No people gather together in a house from the houses of Allaah, reciting the Book of Allaah and studying it amongst themselves, except that tranquility descends upon them, mercy envelops them, the angels surround them, and Allaah mentions them to those that are with Him.” [24] Likewise, even in our everyday actions such as eating, Islaam teaches us collectiveness. Thus, when some of the Companions of the Prophet (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said to him: O Messenger of Allaah, we eat but do not become satisfied. He replied: “Perhaps you eat individually?” They replied, Yes! So he said: “Eat collectively and mention the name of Allaah. There will then be blessings for you in it.” [25] Indeed, even in the etiquette of sitting the spirit of collectiveness is demonstrated. So, one day the Prophet (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) came across the Companions who were sitting in separate circles, so he said to them: “Why do I see you sitting separately!” [26] Similarly, Aboo Tha‘labah al-Khushanee (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu) said: Whenever the people used to encamp, they used to split-up into the mountain passes and valleys. So Allaah’s Messenger (ṣallallaahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said: “Indeed your being split-up in these mountain passes and valleys is from Shayṭaan.” Thereafter, whenever they used to encamp, they used to keep very close together, to such an extent that it was said: If a cloth were to be spread over them, it would cover them all. [27]

Thus, Ramaḍaan is a time to increase our sense of unity and brotherhood, and our commitment to Allaah and His Religion. And there is no doubt that this sense of unity necessitates that: “We all work together as required by Islaam as sincere brothers – not due to ḥizbiyyah (bigoted party spirit), nor sectarianism – in order to realize that which is of benefit to the Islamic Ummah and to establish the Islamic society that every Muslim aspires for so that the Sharee‘ah (Prescribed Law) of Allaah is applied upon His earth” [28] So we must examine ourselves during the month of Ramaḍaan and ask: What is my role? – and each of us has a role – in helping this precious Ummah to regain its honour, and return to the Ummah its comprehensive unity and strength, and victory that has been promised to it? Likewise, we should reflect upon our own character and actions and ask: Are they aiding the process of unity and brotherhood, or are they a harm and a hindrance to it?

So we ask Allaah to grant us the ability to change ourselves for the better, during this blessed month, and not to be of those who are prevented from His Mercy and forgiveness. Indeed He is the One who Hears and He is the One to Respond.

Footnotes:

[1] Ṣaḥeeḥ: Related by al-Bukhaaree (1/48) and Muslim (no.16), from Ibn ʿUmar (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu).

[2] Ṣaḥeeḥ: Related by Soorah al-Nisaaʾ’ee (no.1992), from Aboo Hurayrah (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu). It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Takhreejul-Mishkaat (no.1962).

[3] Related by Ibn al-Mubaarak in Kitaabuz-Zuhd (p.473) and Ibn Abee Shaybah in his Kitaabul-eemaan (no.99).

[4] Risaalatut-Tabookiyyah (p.26) of Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim

[5] Ḥasan: Related by Aḥmad (3/241), from Jaabir (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu). It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Ṣaḥeeḥut-Targheeb (no.970).

[6] Ṣaḥeeḥ: Related by al-Bukhaaree (11/48I). from Aboo Hurayrah (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu).

[7] Ṣaḥeeḥ: Related by Aḥmad (2/246) and al-Bayḥaqee (4/204), from Aboo Hurayrah (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu). It was authenticated by Shaykh ʿAlee Ḥasan al-Ḥalabee in Ṣifat-Sawmin-Nabee (p.24).

[8] Zaadul-Ma‘aad (2/87) of Ibn al-Qayyim.

[9] Related by Ibn al-Qayyim in Madaarijus-Saalikeen (2/152).

[10] Related by Aḥmad (2/163) and Soorah al-Nisaaʾ’ee (1/327), from Aboo Hurayrah. It was authenticated by al-Albaanee in Irwá’ul-Ghaleel (4/99).

[11] At-Tamheed (19/61) of al-Ḥaafiẓ Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr.

[12] Ṣaḥeeḥ: Related by al-Bukhaaree (123) and Muslim (no.123), from Ibn Masʿood (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu).

[13] Ṣaḥeeḥ: Related by Aḥmad (1/203) and at-Ṭabaraanee in al-Kabeer (11/100), from Ibn ʿAbbaas (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu). It was authenticated by Shaykh Saleem al-Hilaalee in as-Sabrul-Jameel (p.43).

[14] Ṣaḥeeḥ: Related by al-Bukhaaree (4/99), from Aboo Hurayrah (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu).

[15] Ṣaḥeeḥ: Related by Ibn Khuzaymah (no.1996) and al-Ḥaakim (1/130) who authenticated it. Refer to Ṣaḥeeḥut-Targheeb (no.1075).

[16] Related by al-Bukhaaree (I/53) and Muslim (no.40), from ‘Amr Ibn al-‘Aas (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu).

[17] Ṣaḥeeḥ: Related by Aboo Daawood (no.4800) and al-Bayḥaqee (10/249), from Aboo Umaamah (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu). It was authenticated by al-Albaanee in al-Ṣaḥihah (no.273).

[18] Ṣaḥeeḥ: Related by Aḥmad (2/441) and Ibn Maajah (I/539), from Aboo Hurayrah (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu). It war authenticated in Ṣaḥeeḥut-Targheeb (no.1076).

[19] Ṣaḥeeḥ: Related by at Tirmidthee (no.693), from Aboo Hurayrah (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu). It was authenticated by al-Albaanee in al-Ṣaḥihah (no.224).

[20] Jaamiʿ‘ut-Tirmidthee (3/311).

[21] From the words of Shaykh ʿAbd al-ʿAzeez Ibn Baaz, as occurs in Majmoo‘ul-Fataawaa wal-Maqaalaatul Mutanawwi’ah (5/211).

[22] Al-Hisbah fil-Islaam (p.9) of Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyyah.

[23] Ṣaḥeeḥ: Related by al-Bukhaaree (2/109) and Muslim (no.650), from Ibn ʿUmar (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu).

[24] Ṣaḥeeḥ: Related by Muslim (no.339), from Aboo Hurayrah (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu).

[25] Ḥasan: Related by Aboo Daawood (no.3764), from Wahshee Ibn Harb (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu). It was authenticated by al-Ḥaafiẓ al-ʿIraaqee in Takhreejul-Iḥyaa (2/4).

[26] Ṣaḥeeḥ: Related by Muslim (no.331), from Jaabir Ibn Samurah (raḍee Allaahu ‘anhu).

[27] Ṣaḥeeḥ: Related by Aboo Daawood (1/409) and Ibn Hibbaan (no.1664). Shaykh al-Albaanee authenticated in Takhreejul-Mishkaat (no.3914).

[28] Su’aal wal-Jawaab Hawla Fiqhil-Waaqi‘ (p.24) of Shaykh Naaṣir al-Deen al-Albaanee.

From Al-Istiqaamah Magazine , Issue No.5 – Ramadân 1417H / January 1997

Related Links:

Questions Concerning Everyday Issues (Part 1) : Shaykh bin Bâz

Bismillaah

Answered by the Noble Scholar and Muftee
Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez bin ‘Abdullaah bin Baaz
From Al-Istiqaamah Magazine, Issue No. 1, Dhul-Hijjah 1416H / May 1996CE.

Q1: Wearing clothes made from animal skin

[Q]: An argument arose between myself and some brothers concerning clothes that are made from animal skin. Some of the brothers were of the opinion that such clothing were normally made from the skin of pigs. If this is the case, then what is your opinion about such items of clothing? Are such items of clothing permitted for us to wear? In some books – such as Al-Halal wa’l-Haram of Al-Qardawi, and also Ad-Din ‘ala Madhahibu’l-Arba’ah – this particular issue has been discussed and the various differing opinions stated, but such books did not however clarify the issue.  [Question and answer taken from Al-Fatawa (1/222) of Shaykh Ibn Baz]

[A]: It is established from the Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that he said: If the skin is tanned, then it is purified.” [Related by Muslim (1/191) from Ibn ‘Abbas radhiallahu ‘anhu].

And the Scholars have differed concerning this: Does this hadith cover all types of tanned skins, or is it particular to the tanned skin of those animals whose slaughtered meat is lawful? There is no doubt that the tanned skin of those animals whose slaughtered meat is lawful, such as the skin of camels, cows and sheep, are tahir (pure) and are ja’iz (permissible) to use for all types of clothing – according to the most correct saying from the People of Knowledge.

However, as for the skin of pigs, dogs and their like – whose slaughtered meat is not lawful – then the People of Knowledge have differed as to whether tanning purifies their skin or not. So cautiousness dictates avoiding their usage – acting upon the saying of the Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallamWhosoever avoids the doubtful matters safeguards his Religion and his honour.” [Related by Al-Bukhari (1/126) and Muslim (no. 1599) from An-Nu’man ibn Bashir radhiallahu ‘anhu.] And also his ‘alayhis-salatu was-salam‘s saying: Leave that which makes you doubt, for that which does not make you doubt.” [Sahih: Related by Ahmad (1/200), An-Nasa’i (8/327-328) and At-Tirmidhi (no. 2637), who authenticated it, from the narration of Al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali radhiallahu ‘anhuma.]

Q2: Revealing the awrah during prayer

[Q]: Sometimes whilst praying – especially during ruku’ (bowing) and sujud (prostration) – part of the awrah (private parts) of a person becomes exposed due to his wearing trousers. So what is the ruling concerning the wearing of trousers whilst praying?

[A]: If the man’s trousers cover what is between his navel and his knees and are loose fitting, wide and baggy, then it fulfills the condition for the correctness of the Prayer. However, what is more preferable is to wear a qamis (long shirt) – which reaches half-way down to the shins, or just above the anklebone – over the trousers. This is a more complete form of covering the awrah. Likewise, Prayer in an izar (a loose lower garment) is more preferable than Prayer in a pair of trousers without a long shirt – since the izar far better covers the awrah than a pair of trousers.

[Al-Fatawa (1/68-69)]

Q3: Poor treatment of one’s spouse

[Q]: Even though my husband – may Allah forgive him – is a person of good character and fears Allah, yet he does not treat me with kindness. He is always moody, frowning and troubled at heart – and he often says that I am the cause of this. However, Allah knows – and all praise is for Allah – that I do fulfill his rights and try to bring to him tranquility and peace of mind and I try to stay clear of all that which displeases him, whilst patiently bearing his excesses against me. Every time I ask him about something, or speak about a particular matter, he becomes angry and says that my speech is stupidity – even though I know that he is perfectly happy in the company of his friends and associates. However, when it concerns me, then he does not treat me in the same manner, nor with the same feeling. This causes me great hurt and anger and I have often considered leaving the house. I have – and all praise is for Allah – been educated to a good level and fulfill that which Allah has obligated me with. O noble Shaykh! If I leave the house with my children, try to educate them and live my own life, will I be sinful in doing so? Or should I continue to live in my present circumstance, abstain from speaking and continue patiently bearing these difficulties? Please advise me as to what I should do – and may Allah reward you with goodness.

[A]: There is no doubt that it is obligatory for the husband and wife to live together in a kind and sociable manner. There should be good manners and treatment between them, along with affection and pleasant behaviour – as Allah the Mighty and Majestic – says: And live with them in honour and in kindness.” [Al-Qur’an 4:19]. And His – the Most Perfect‘s – saying: And the wives have rights over the husbands – similar to those of the husbands over them – in that which is reasonable. But men have a degree over them.” [Al-Qur’an 2:228].

The Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: Righteousness is good character. [Related by Muslim (4/1980) from An-Nawwas ibn Sam’an radhiallahu ‘anhu]

And he ‘alayhis-salatu wa’s-salam said: Do not consider any good action as insignificant – even if it is meeting your brother with a cheerful face.” [Sahih: Related by Ahmad (5/63) and it was authenticated by Al-Albani in As-Sahihah (no. 1352)]

And he sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallamalso said: The most perfect of Believers in ‘iman (faith) is the one with the best character. And the best of you are those that are best to their womenfolk, and I am the best amonqst you to my family.[Related by At-Tirmidhi (1/217-218) who said: “The hadith is Hasan Sahih.”]

There are besides these many other ahadith which are a general proof for the encouragement of good character, cheerful meeting and good companionship between Muslims. If this is the general case between Muslims, then good treatment between husband and wife and relatives is even more important.

You have done well in patiently persevering and bearing the ill treatment and bad character from your husband. However, I advise you to have even greater patience and not to leave the house, and if Allah – the Most High – wills, there will be a great deal of good in this and a praiseworthy end for You. Allah – the Most Perfect – said: Patiently persevere! Indeed Allah is with those who patiently persevere.” [Al-Qur’an 6:46]. And His – the Mighty and Majestic‘s – saying: Indeed whosoever fears Allah, obeys Him, turns away from disobedience and patiently perseveres, then Allah does not cause the rewards of the doers of good to be lost.”[Al-Qur’an 12:90]. And His – the Mighty and Majestic‘s – saying: Only those who patiently persevere shall receive their reward in full without reckoning.” [Al-Qur’an 39:10]. And His – the Most Perfect‘s – saying, “So patiently persevere! Indeed, the end will be good for those who are pious.” [Al-Qur’an 11:49].

However, this does not prevent you from speaking to your husband with such words, and behaving with him in such a manner, that will soften his heart – and lead to him being pleased with you and fulfilling your rights of companionship. And as long as he is fulfilling the main and important obligations towards you, then try not to ask him for any worldly need, until his heart is opened and his chest is expanded in accepting your request and fulfilling your needs; in this way – if Allah wills your ending will be a praiseworthy one. May Allah grant you increase in all that is good, and that the condition of your husband improves, and that he is guided to good character, kindness in companionship and to fulfilling the rights that are due upon him. Indeed Allah is the best of those who are asked, and only He guides to the path that is straight.

[Al-Fatawa (1/193-194)]

Q4: Using a newspaper as a dining spread

[Q]: Is it permissible to use a newspaper as a dining spread to eat upon it. If it is not permissible, then what should be done after reading it?

[A]: It is not permissible to use a newspaper which contains Qur’anic verses, or the remembrance of Allah, as a dining spread. Nor is it permissible to make envelopes out of such material, nor to utilize it in any other manner which is disrespectful and insulting to it. If the situation is as we have mentioned, then such papers containing Qur’anic material should either be stored away in an appropriate place, or burnt, or buried in clean ground.

[Al-Fatawa (1/242)]

Q5: Sincere repentance

[Q]: I am a young man, nineteen years of age, and have involved myself in a great deal of sin. Even to the extent that I do not pray most of my Prayers in the mosque, and I have never completely fasted the month of Ramadhan in my entire life. Besides these, I have committed other sins as well. I have vowed to repent many times before, however, after doing so I lapse back into these same sins. The youths of my area are just as bad, as are the friends that I associate with. And Allah knows that I have transgressed against myself and that whenever I repent, I return back to the same sins. I hope that you may direct me to a path that will bring me closer to my Lord and distance ms from these evil actions of mine.

[A]: Allah – the Mighty and Majestic – says: Say O My Slaves who have transgressed against their own souls! Do not despair of Allah’s mercy. Indeed Allah forgives all sins. Truly He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [Al-Qur’an 39:53]. There is a consensus from the Scholars that this noble ayah (verse) was revealed for the ta’ibin (those who repent). So whoever sincerely repents from his sins, then Allah will forgive him all his sins, as occurs in the saying of Allah – the Most PerfectO you who Believe! Turn to Allah in sincere repentance. Perhaps your Lord may remove from you your sins and admit you into Paradise beneath which rivers flow.” [Al-Qur’an 66:8]. So in this ayah (verse), Allah has made the removal of sins and entry into Paradise dependent upon sincere repentance.

And sincere repentance is conditional upon:

  • [i] abandoning the sin and keeping away from it,
  • [ii] having regret and remorse for committing the sin,
  • [iii] truly intending not to commit the sin again,
  • [iv] remembering the greatness of Allah and hoping for His reward, whilst fearing His punishment.
  • Another condition for sincere repentance is that if due to transgression, the wealth or property of someone has been stolen or usurped, then it must be returned, or forgiveness must be sought from the one whose wealth, blood or honour has been taken. However, if the honour of a person has been violated and the situation is such that it is not possible to seek that person’s forgiveness, then plenty of du’a (supplication) should be made for his welfare and he should be spoken good of in those places where he had previously been backbitten, since good deeds wipe away bad ones.

Allah – the Most Perfect – said: Turn you all in repentance to Allah, O Believers, in order that you may be successful.” [Al-Qur’an 24:31]. So in this ayah (verse) Allah – the Mighty and Majestic – linked success with tawbah (repentance) and points to the fact that the repentant person will reach success and happiness, and if such a person were to follow up this repentance with ‘iman (faith) and doing righteous actions, then Allah would efface his evil actions and change them to good actions, as Allah – the Most Perfect – says, after mentioning the sins of Shirk (directing worship that is due only for Allah, to other than Allah), taking a life without just cause and fornication and adultery: And whoever does this, will receive the punishment. The punishment will be doubled for him on the Day of Judgement and he will live therein in disgrace. Except for those who repent, have ‘iman (faith) and do righteous actions. For them Allah will change their evil deeds into good ones, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [Al-Qur’an 25:68-70]

And from the causes of tawbah (repentance) are humility and submissiveness to Allah – the Most Perfect – and imploring Him for guidance – realising that acceptance of one’s repentance is indeed another favour from Allah. Thus, Allah – the Most Perfect – said: Call upon Me and I will respond to your supplication.” [Al-Qur’an 40:60]. And He – the Mighty and Majestic – said: And when My servant asks you concerning Me, say to them that I am indeed near. And I respond to the supplication of the one who supplicates to Me.” [Al-Qur’an 2:186].

Also, from the causes of tawbah is choosing good companionship and friendship, and following them in righteous conduct, whilst staying clear of bad companionship. It is authentically related from Allah’s Messenger sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that he said: A person is upon the religion of his friend, so let one of you look to whom he keeps as a friend.” [Hasan: Related by Abu Dawud (no. 4812) and others, from Abu Hurayrah radhiallahu ‘anhuImam An-Nawawi authenticated it in Riyadh as-Salihin (no. 174).]

And the Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam also said: The example of good companion and a bad companion is like that of a seller of musk and the one who blows the blacksmith’s bellows. As for the seller of musk, then either he will grant you some, or you buy some from him, or at the very least you enjoy a pleasant smell from him. As for the one who blows the blacksmith’s bellows, then either he will burn your clothes, or you will get an offensive smell from him.” [Related by Al-Bukhari (4/323) and Muslim (no. 2628), from Abu Musa al-Ash’ari radhiallahu ‘anhu.

[Al-Fatawa (1/251-253).]

Q6: Splitting into groups within the Muslims

[Q]: What is the obligation upon the Muslim Scholars with regard to the large number of jam’iyyat (societies) and jama’at (groups) in many of the Islamic lands and elsewhere, and with regard to the differences that exist between them, to the point that each group declares the others to be misguided. Do you not hold that it is fitting to enter into explaining the like of this matter and to clarify the truth concerning their differences, for fear that these differences will increase and lead to evil consequences for the Muslims?.

[A]: Our Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made clear to us a single way which is obligatory upon the Muslims to follow and traverse, and that is Allah’s Straight Path and the methodology of His upright religion. Allah – the Most High – said: And this is My Straight Path, so follow it and do not follow other paths that will separate you from His Path. This has He ordained for you, that you may become pious. [Al-Qur’an 6:153]. Just as the Lord of Might and Majesty warned the Ummah (nation) of Muhammad sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam against splitting and disunity, since that is one of the greatest causes of failure and of the enemy taking control, as occurs ill the saying of Allah – the Mighty and Majestic‘s And hold fast altogether to the rope of Allah and do not be divided.” [Al-Qur’an 3:101]. And His – the Most High‘s – saying: He has ordained for you the same religion which He ordained for Nuh, and that which We revealed to you, and that which We ordained for Ibrahim, Musa and ‘Isa ‘alayhimus-salam, saying: that you should establish the religion by doing that which you are ordered with, and make no divisions in it. Intolerable for the Pagans is that to which you call them.” [Al-Qur’an 42:13]. So this is a Divine call to unity and for hearts to be harmonized. And in any Islamic land, if there are many groups for the purpose of good, aid, co-operating in righteousness and piety between the Muslims – without their being differences between the desires of the companions and followers – then this is good, is a blessing, and produces great benefit.

However, if each of them declare the others to be misguided and attack their actions, then this harm is very great and its evil consequences very serious. Then what is obligatory upon the Muslims is to clarify the true states of affairs and to discuss with each group and to sincerely advise all of them that they should proceed upon the way laid down by Allah for His servants, and upon that which our Prophet Muhammad sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam called to. Then those who ignore this, or continue in their stubbornness, due to personal benefit or goal – known only to Allah – then what is obligatory upon those who know the reality is to make this known about them and to warn against them, so that the people may avoid their path, and that those who do not know the reality of their affair may not fall into it and be led astray, and that they are not turned away from the Straight Path which Allah ordered that we follow, as occurs in His – the Mighty and Majestic‘s – saving: And this is My Straight Path, so follow it and do not follow other paths that will separate you from His Path. This has He ordained for you, that you may become pious.” [Al-Qur’an 6:153]. And from that which there is no doubt about is that the multitude of sects and groups in the Islamic society is, firstly something desired by Shaytan, and secondly something desired by the enemies of Islam from amongst mankind. Since agreement and unification of the Muslims, and their being aware of the dangers which threaten them and their ‘aqidah (beliefs), will make them active in refuting and rebutting it, and acting in a unified manner for the benefit of the Muslims – thus repelling the danger from their religion, their lands and their brothers. And this is something which the enemies – from amongst mankind and jinn – are not pleased with. Therefore they are very eager to split-up the Muslims, destroy their unity and to sow the seeds of enmity and discord between them. We ask Allah that He unites the Muslims upon the truth and that He removes from their society every type of misguidance and every cause of discord. Indeed He is the One Who is able to do that, and He is the One having full power over it.

[Majmu’ Fatawa ma Maqalat Mutanawwi’ah(5/202-204)]

From Al-Istiqaamah Magazine, Issue No. 1, Dhul-Hijjah 1416H / May 1996CE.

Related Links:

The sin of the one who raises his head before the Imaam (raises his head) – Dr. Saleh As-Saleh [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Isn’t he who raises his head before the Imam afraid that Allah may transform his head into that of a donkey or his figure (face) into that of a donkey?”

The sin of the one who raises his head before the Imaam (raises his head)

[ Sahih al-Bukhari 691 (Book 10, Hadith 86) ]

[Souncloud Audio Link]

Posted from: Salah – Umdatul ah-Kaam – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

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