Fasting the month of Ramadan with Eeman and Ihtisaaban – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Explanation of Hadiths in Riyad-us-Saliheen | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

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وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال‏:‏

من صام رمضان إيمانًا واحتسابًا، غفر له ما تقدم من ذنبه

‏‏(‏متفق عليه‏)‏‏‏

 Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said,

Whoever fasts Ramadhan based upon true faith and upon his hoping for reward, then he will be forgiven his previous sins

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Explanation of the Pillars of Eemaan – Usool al-Thalaatha | Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lessons 33 (Part C), 34 , 35, 36 (PartA)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Pillars of Eemaan

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

قال : وأركانه ستة : أن تؤمن بالله ، وملائكته ، وكتبه ، ورسله ، واليوم الآخر ، وتؤمن بالقدر خيره وشره

Its pillars are six: to have eemaan in Allaah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day, and to have eemaan in Pre-Decree, the good of it, and the bad of it.[43]


[43Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

[Note: Shaykh Fawzan covers Difference between Pillars and Branches of Eemaan  before explaining the Pillars]

His saying: «Its pillars are six» meaning: it supports which it is established upon, and if they are absent, then it will be absent, or if one of them is absent, then it will be absent.

They are six pillars, and they are:

The first one: «To have eemaan in Allaah.» So, the first pillar is having eemaan in Allaah, and it includes the three categories of Tawheed: Eemaan that Allaah the Perfect and Most High is One, Unique, Alone, the Perfect Lord and Master whom everything depends totally upon, Who has no Partner in His Lordship, nor in His Right to worship, nor in His Names and Attributes.

The second one: «Eemaan in the Angels»Malaa.ika‘ (angels) is the plural of malak (angel). Its origin in the language is mal.ak (ملأك), so it was then made easier to pronounce and was said as ‘malak.’ The angels are beings created by Allaah in the world of the ghayb (hidden and unseen). Allaah created them to worship Him, and to carry out His commands, He the Perfect and Most High, within His dominion. They are different types; every type has a duty which it is entrusted with and which it carries out. They do not disobey Allaah regarding that which He commands them, and they do whatever they are commanded. So, from them, there are those who are entrusted with the revelation, and he is Jibreel `alaihissalaam. He is the noblest one from the angels; he is ar-Roohul-Ameen (the Trustworthy Spirit) and he is described as Shadeedul-Quwaa (the Mighty in Strength). And from them, are those entrusted with bearing the Throne:

الَّذِينَ يَحْمِلُونَ الْعَرْشَ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهُ

«Those who bear the Throne and those who are around it.» [40:7]

The Most High said,

وَالْمَلَكُ عَلَىٰ أَرْجَائِهَا ۚ وَيَحْمِلُ عَرْشَ رَبِّكَ فَوْقَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ ثَمَانِيَةٌ

«And the angels will be at its edges, and eight angels, will, on that Day, bear the Throne of your Lord.» [69:17]

The Throne is the most tremendous of the created things, and no one knows its greatness except for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. It will be carried by the angels – and this is a proof of the tremendous size of the angels, their great strength and their nature. He, the Most High said:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ فَاطِرِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ جَاعِلِ الْمَلَائِكَةِ رُسُلًا أُولِي أَجْنِحَةٍ مَّثْنَىٰ وَثُلَاثَ وَرُبَاعَ ۚ يَزِيدُ فِي الْخَلْقِ مَا يَشَاءُ

«All praise is for Allaah, the Creator and Originator of the heavens and the earth, the One who made His angel messengers with wings, – two, three, and four. He increases in creation whatever He wishes.» [35:1]

So, from them are those who have six hundred wings, such as Jibreel `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. No one knows their tremendous size except for Allaah, the Perfect and Most High:

بَلْ عِبَادٌ مُّكْرَمُونَ – لَا يَسْبِقُونَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ وَهُم بِأَمْرِهِ يَعْمَلُونَ

«Rather, they are honoured servants. They do not proceed Him in speaking, and they act upon His commands.» [21:26-27]

From them are those who are entrusted with the rain-drops and the plants, and he is Mikaeel. And from them are those who are entrusted with blowing the horn, and he is Israafeel. He will blow the horn and everything will perish. He, the Most High said:

وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَصَعِقَ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَن فِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَّا مَن شَاءَ اللَّهُ

«And the horn will be blown, and whoever is in the heavens and whoever is upon the earth, will swoon (drop down dead) except whomever Allaah wishes.» [39:68]

Then it will be blown for a second time, and the souls will return to their bodies:

ثُمَّ نُفِخَ فِيهِ أُخْرَىٰ فَإِذَا هُمْ قِيَامٌ يَنظُرُونَ

«Then it will be blown again and they will be standing, looking on» [39:68]

The souls will fly from the Qarn, which is the horn, back to their bodies, and they will enter into them and they will come to life by the Permission of Allaah, then they will proceed to the gathering place.

And from them are those who are entrusted with taking of the souls at the end of their lifespans, and he is Malak al-Mawt (the Angel of Death). He, the Most High, said:

قُلْ يَتَوَفَّاكُم مَّلَكُ الْمَوْتِ الَّذِي وُكِّلَ بِكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ تُرْجَعُونَ

«Say: The angel of death, who has been entrusted with you, will take your souls, then you will be returned to your Lord.» [32:11]

And he has with him assistance from the angels:

تَوَفَّتْهُ رُسُلُنَا وَهُمْ لَا يُفَرِّطُونَ

«Our Messengers (from the angels) take his soul, and they do not neglect their duty.» [6:61]

Meaning: they are the helpers for the angel of death.

And from them are those who are entrusted with the foetuses in the wombs. The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam said:

» إن أحدكم يجمع خلقه في بطن أمه أربعين يوما نطفة ، ثم يكون علقة مثل ذلك ، ثم يكون مضغة مثل ذلك ، ثم يرسل إليه الملك «

«The creation of each one of you is brought together in the abdomen of his mother for forty days as a sperm drop, then he will be a clinging clot of blood for the like of that, then he will be a piece of flesh for the like of that, then the angel is sent to him

[Hadith Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 3208 and Muslim no. 2643 from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Mas`ood, radiy Allaahu `anhu.]

And from them are those who are entrusted with recording the deeds of the descendents of Aadam. He, the Most High said:

وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَافِظِينَ  – كِرَامًا كَاتِبِينَ

«And there are watchers over you and there are honourable scribes writing down your deeds.» [82:10-11]

They stay with you throughout the night and the day.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

»يتعاقبون فيكم ملائكة بالليل ، وملائكة بالنهار «

«The angels of the night and the day come to you in succession

[Hadith Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 555 and Muslim no. 632 from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyallaahu `anhu.]

And they gather together at the Fajr and `Asr prayer. They bear witness for those people who pray with Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. Therefore, He, the Most High said:

إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا

«And the recitation of the Qur`aan in the Fajr prayer is witnessed.» [17:78]

Meaning: The angels attend it, the angels of the night and the angels of the day.

And from them are those who are entrusted with guarding the descendants of Aadam from disagreeable things; they guard them from calamities, from enemies, creatures; the wild animals, serpents or snakes, for as long as he lives, he has angels guarding him from dangerous things.

He may sleep between wild animals and snakes in open desert, (so) who repels the snakes, the wild animals and creatures from him? He has angels whom Allaah, He the Most High, has placed in their service. Allaah said with regard to them:

لَهُ مُعَقِّبَاتٌ مِّن بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ يَحْفَظُونَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ

«There are angels guarding him in succession, from in front of him and from behind him by the Command of Allaah.» [13:11]

Meaning: by the Command of Allaah, they guard the children of Aadam from disagreeable things and from dangers, until his lifespan draws to a close. So, when his lifespan comes to an end, they leave him. And that which Allaah has decreed to occur will occur, be it death or being stopped by something which leads to death.

And from them are angels who are entrusted with carrying out the commands in different areas of the heavens and the earth. No one knows them except for Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

From them are angels who seek out the gatherings of remembrance of Allaah and they attend them, just as Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam said:

»ما اجتمع قوم في بيت من بيوت الله ، يتلون كتاب الله ، ويتدارسونه بينهم ، إلا نزلت  عليهم السكينة ، وغشيتهم الرحمة ، وحفتهم الملائكة«

«No people gather in a house from the houses of Allaah, reciting the Book of Allaah and studying it amongst them, except that (as-sakeenah) tranquility descends upon them, and mercy covers them, and the angels encircle them with their wings

[Hadith Reported by Muslim no. 2699 from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiy Allaahu `anhu]

There are angels who travel about upon the earth, seeking out the circles of the remembrance of Allaah and attending them.

[Hadith Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 6408 from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyallaahu `anh.]

No one knows all about the angels, their types and characteristics except for Allaah. However, as for what occurs in the texts of the Qur`aan and the authentic ahaadeeth of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, then we affirm it, and we believe it as our aqeedah (creed and belief) ; and whatever has not been mentioned to us, then we withhold from it, and we do not delve into it, because this is from `ilmul-ghayb (the knowledge of the hidden and the unseen) which we do not enter into, except with a proof.

So, having eemaan in the angels is a pillar from the pillars of Islaam.

Whoever denies the angels and says: “There are no angels (in existence) because we do not see them,” then this person will be a disbeliever, an apostate and heretic, and Allaah’s refuge is sought. This is because he does not have eemaan in the ghayb.

And likewise, the person who interprets the angels away and says: “The angels are just abstract things and not bodily beings; they are just thoughts or promptings which occur to a person. If they are good promptings, then they are angels, and if they are evil promptings, then they are devils,” this is a saying involving apostasy, and Allaah’s refuge is sought.

Unfortunately, this is found in Tafseerul-Manaar, it was quoted by Muhammad Rasheed Ridaa from his Shaykh Muhammad `Abdah. This is speech of the philosophers and it is baatil (false and futile). Whoever truly holds this as his creed and belief, he is a disbeliever. However, we hope that he was just quoting it, and he did not believe it, however, he quoted it without criticism, and that is dangerous. This is false and futile speech, and it is disbelief in the angels. We ask Allaah for safety and security.

So a person should not enter with his own intellect and thinking into this, nor should he quote anything from the philosophers and heretics with regard to anything from the affairs of the religion and the matters of `ilmul-ghayb. Rather, he should rely upon the Book and the Sunnah. This is what is obligatory. And he mentions in Tafseerul-Manaar that he was quoting from the book Ihyaa Uloom ad-Deen of al-Ghazaalee, and Allaah knows best. And the book Ihyaa Uloom ad-Deen of al-Ghazaalee contains terrible and calamitous things, and it contains some things from good and benefits, however, it contains a great deal of matters which can cause destruction, and it contains a great deal of poison. It is a book which is mixed up, its evil is more than its good. So therefore, it is not befitting that the beginner or the common person should look into it, unless he has the knowledge and ability to distinguish between the truth and falsehood.

And the angels are not abstract things as is said, rather, the angels have bodies and forms, they can take on different forms which Allaah gives them the ability to take on. Therefore, Jibreel `alaihis-salaam came to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam in the form of a man. So, Allaah gives them the ability to take forms for the benefit of the descendants of Aadam, because the descendants of Aadam are not able to see the angels in the form upon which Allaah created them. So, he came to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam in the form of a man out of kindness to the sons of Aadam. And they are not seen in their true forms and realities, except at the time of punishment. He, the Most High said:

يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ الْمَلَائِكَةَ لَا بُشْرَىٰ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلْمُجْرِمِينَ

«On the Day when they will see the angels, there will be no glad tidings on that Day for the criminals.» [25:22]

At death, the person will see them, he will see the angels of death, however, in this world and once he is alive, he does not see them because he is not able to see them. Allaah created them from light and He created the devils from Fire, just as occurs in the Qur`aan, and He created Aadam from earth, so Allaah has full ability over everything.

And the disbelievers believed that the angels are the daughters of Allaah. He the Most High said:

وَجَعَلُوا الْمَلَائِكَةَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ عِبَادُ الرَّحْمَٰنِ إِنَاثًا ۚ أَشَهِدُوا خَلْقَهُمْ ۚ سَتُكْتَبُ شَهَادَتُهُمْ وَيُسْأَلُونَ

«And they made the angels, who are servants of the Most Merciful, females. Did they witness their creation? Their testimony will be written and they will be questioned about it.» [43:19]

The third one: «Eemaan in his books» They are the Books which Allaah sent down to the Messengers for the guidance of mankind. We have eemaan that they are the speech of Allaah in reality, and we have eemaan in whatever Allaah named from them and in whatever He has not named. Allaah named to us from them the Tauraat, the Injeel, the Tremendous Qur`aan, the Zaboor, and the Scripture given to Ibraaheem and Moosaa. We have eemaan in them and we have eemaan in those that Allaah did not name to us from them.

So, eemaan in the previous scriptures is eemaan in general terms, whereas eemaan in the Qur`aan is eemaan in the details of everything contained in it. This is because it is our Book and was sent down to our Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. Whoever denies one aayah or one letter from its letters, then he is a kaafir and a murtad (apostate) who has left Islaam.

Likewise, whoever believes in a part of the Qur`aan and disbelieves in a part, then he is a kaafir, and one who believes in some of the scriptures and disbelieves in some, then he is a kaafir. Whoever says: “I believe in the Qur`aan, but I do not believe in the Tauraat and the Injeel,” then he is a kaafir.  Or says: “I believe in the Tauraat and the Injeel, but I do not believe in the Zaboor which was sent to Daawood `alaihissalaam,” then he is a kaafir. He, the Most High, said:

وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا

«And We gave the Zaboor to Daawood.» [4:163]

Or one who denies the scriptures of Ibraaheem, then he is a kaafir, because he has denied the truth of that which Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, said. He is denying His Messengers, so therefore, he is a kaafir, because he has denied a pillar from the pillars of eemaan. 

The fourth one: «Eemaan in his Messengers» Having eemaan in all of the Messengers, from the first of them to the last of them, those whom Allaah has named from them and those He did not name.  We have eemaan in all of them, and that they are Messengers of Allaah in truth. They came with the Message and they conveyed it to their nations. So, whoever disbelieves in a single Prophet, then he is a disbeliever in all of the Messengers, because of His saying, the Most High:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَّخِذُوا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ حَقًّا ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا  وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَلَمْ يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ أُولَٰئِكَ سَوْفَ يُؤْتِيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

«Those who disbelieve in Allaah and His Messengers and wish to make a distinction between believing in Allaah and His Messengers. They say: “We believe in some of them and we disbelieve in some,” and they wish to take a path in between. They are the disbelievers in truth. And We have prepared a humiliating punishment for the disbelievers. And those who truly believe in Allaah and His Messengers and do not differentiate in believing in any of them, to them He will soon give their rewards. And Allaah has always been One who Forgives Extensively and Bestows Mercy.» [4:150-152]

Therefore disbelieving in a single Prophet or a single Messenger is to disbelieve in all of them. He said:

كَذَّبَتْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ الْمُرْسَلِينَ

«The people of Nooh rejected the Messengers.» [26:105]

Even though they only rejected Nooh, their denial of Nooh became a denial of the rest of the Messengers. Likewise, whoever disbelieves in `Eesaa and Muhammad, such as the Jews, or whoever disbelieves in Muhammad, such as the Christians, then he is a disbeliever in all of them. There must be eemaan in all of the Messengers `alaihumusalaatu wasalaam, those whom Allaah has named from them and those He has not named.

Allaah has named some of them as occurs in Sooratul-An`aam:

وَتِلْكَ حُجَّتُنَا آتَيْنَاهَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ ۚ نَرْفَعُ دَرَجَاتٍ مَّن نَّشَاءُ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ ۚ كُلًّا هَدَيْنَا ۚ وَنُوحًا هَدَيْنَا مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِ دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُوسُفَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَهَارُونَ ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ وَزَكَرِيَّا وَيَحْيَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَإِلْيَاسَ ۖ كُلٌّ مِّنَ الصَّالِحِينَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَالْيَسَعَ وَيُونُسَ وَلُوطًا ۚ وَكُلًّا فَضَّلْنَا عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ

«And that was Our Proof which We gave to Ibraaheem against his people. We raise in degrees whomever We wish. Indeed, your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing. And We bestowed upon him Is-haaq and Yaqoob, We guided them all, and Nooh, We guided before, and from his descendants were Daawood, Sulayman, Ayyoob, Yusuf, Moosaa, and Haaroon. Likewise shall We reward the doers of good. And Zakariyyah, and Yahyaa, and Ilyaas, all of them were from the righteous. And Ismaa`eel, and al-Yas`aa, and Yoonus and Loot, all of them We gave excellence over the people of the world.» [6:83-86]

He mentioned a number of them together in these aayahs and in other aayahs. So, we have eemaan in those whom Allaah has named from them and we have eemaan in those whom Allaah has not named from them.

The fifth one: «The Last Day» Eemaan in the Last Day is the fifth pillar. The Last Day – what is meant by it is Yawm al-Qiyaamah (the Day of Resurrection). It is called the Last Day because it comes after the Yawm al-Awal (the First Day), and that is the Day of this world. This world is the First Day, and the Resurrection is the Last Day. Having eemaan in the Last Day is to have eemaan in whatever will occur after death from the punishment of the grave and its bliss and the questioning of the two Angels in the grave. Everything that will occur after the grave is a part of eemaan in the Last Day, likewise, eemaan in al-Ba`th (dead being brought to life), an-Nushoor (Resurrection), al-Mahshara (the Gathering Place), al-Hisaab (Reckoning), Waznul-A`maal (Weighing of the Deeds), asSiraat (Bridge over the Hell-Fire), al-Mizaan (the Balance upon which the good and bad deeds will be weighed), and al-Jannah (Paradise) and an-Naar (Fire). So the details of what will occur on the Last Day, we have eemaan in it – in general and with the specifics – beginning with death right until the inhabitants of Paradise settle in Paradise and the inhabitants of the Fire are in the Fire. Everything which is authentic in that regard, we have eemaan in it. We do not have any doubt at all about anything from it. Whoever doubts about anything from it, then he is a kaafir and a murtad upon Islaam – everything to which the term the Last Day applies and what is contained in it. 

The sixth pillar: «And to have eemaan in pre-decree, the good of it, and the bad of it.» You have eemaan that whatever occurs from this creation, from good or evil, from disbelief or true faith, from blessings or punishments, from ease or hardship, from sickness or health, from life or death – everything occurs in this creation is pre-decreed. It does not just occur like that. It is not just a matter which happens on its own, meaning: it just initially comes about, not being pre-decreed. So, you have eemaan that it all comes about with the decree and ordainment of Allaah. And you have eemaan that whatever befalls you would not have missed you and whatever missed you was not going to come upon you, and that this was by the ordainment of Allaah and His pre-decree. He, the Most High, said:

مَا أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِ أَن نَّبْرَأَهَا ۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ

«No calamity befalls on the earth nor in yourselves except that it was already written in a Book, before We created it. That is easy for Allaah.» [57:22]

This is eemaan with the pre-decree. 

Eemaan in pre-decree includes four levels, whoever does not have eemaan in all of them is not a believer in pre-decree.

The first level: Knowledge that Allaah has known everything, always. He knows what occurs, whatever has occurred and whatever will occur without end. So, Allaah knew it always before it was and before it occurred. He, the Perfect and Most High, knew it with His Eternal Knowledge – which is His Attribute – has always been and will be forever. This is the level of knowledge, whoever denies it is a kaafir. 

The second level: The level of writing down in the Lawh al-Mahfoodh (the Preserved Tablet). And it is that Allaah wrote down everything in the Preserved Tablet. Nothing occurs except that it was written down in the Preserved Tablet. There is nothing that occurs and it is not written there, therefore He, the Most High, said:

مَا أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ

«No calamity befalls on the earth nor in yourselves except that it was already written in a Book.» [57:22]

Meaning: the Preserved Tablet. Allaah wrote in it the decreed measures of everything. Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

» أول ما خلق الله القلم ، قال : اكتب ، قال : وما أكتب ؟ قال : اكتب ما هو كائن إلى يوم القيامة «

«The first thing that Allaah created was the pen.
He said: “Write.”
It said: “And what shall I write?”
He said: “Write whatever will occur until the Day of Resurrection.”»

[Hadith Reported by Aboo Daawood no. 3800, at-Tirmithee no. 2155 from a hadeeth of `Ubaadah ibn asSaamit, radiy Allaahu `anhu.] [Declared authentic by Shaykh al-Albaanee (rahimahullaah)].

So, whoever denies the writing and says: “Allaah knows everything, however He did not write anything down in the Preserved Tablet,” this person is a kaafir and an apostate who has left the religion of Islaam. 

The third level: Allaah’s Mashee.ah (Will) which is in effect. It is that Allaah, the Perfect, wishes a thing and wills it to occur. So, there is nothing that occurs except that Allaah wished and willed it to occur just as it is in the Preserved Tablet and just as He knew it, He the Perfect and Most High. He wills everything to occur at its time. He wills everything to occur at a certain time. Nothing occurs without the will of Allaah or without His wish. So, whoever says: “Things occur without Allaah wishing them to or without Allaah’s willing them to,” then he is a kaafir. 

The fourth level: The level of creating and bringing it into exist. Allaah created it everything. When He wishes and wills it, He, the Perfect and Most High, creates it and brings it about. So everything is something created by Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, and it is from the creation of Allaah. It is an action done by the servants and something earned by them [meaning deeds].

So these four levels, there must be eemaan in them, otherwise the person will not be a believer in pre-decree, the level of knowledge, writing, wish and will, and creation and the bringing into existence. It is essential to have eemaan in all of these. Whoever denies anything from them, then he is a kaafir and an apostate who has left the religion of Islaam, because he has denied a pillar from the pillars of eemaan, and it is eemaan in the pre-decree.


The Proof for the Pillars of Eemaan 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

والدليل على هذه الأركان الستة قوله تعالى :

The proof for these six pillars is His saying He, the Most High:

لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ

«And righteousness is not that you turn your faces towards the East or the West; but rather, righteousness is the righteousness of those who have eemaan (truly believe) in Allaah, the Last Day, the Angels, the Books, and the Prophets.» [2:177]  [44]


[44] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The Shaykh having explained these pillars mentions the proof from the Qur`aan and Sunnah, because any matter from the matters of the religion, of worship, `aqeedah and the matters of legislated rulings, require a daleel (proof). If it does not have a proof, it will not be saheeh (correct). So, the Shaykh having mentioned the six pillars of eemaan, he mentions their proof from the Qur`aan firstly and then from the Sunnah.

From the Qur`aan is His saying, He the Most High:

.. لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ

« And righteousness is not that you turn your faces » [2:177]

Al-Birr (righteousness) is the doing of good which draws one closer to Allaah and leads to His Paradise. So, all actions of good are from al-birr. Al-Birr is a general word which covers all types of good and all types of acts of obedience. They all enter under the title of birr and under the title of taqwaa (dutifulness to Allaah).So, al-birr and taqwaa are comprehensive terms which gather all the characteristics of good.

His saying, He the Most High:

لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ

« And righteousness is not that you turn your faces towards the East or the West. » [2:177]

This is a refutation of the Jews who criticized the changing of the Qiblah (direction of the prayer) from Jerusalem to the honored Ka`bah. They criticized this and denied it along with their knowledge that they knew that it was true. However, they denied it as a case of obstinate rejection, haughtiness and envy towards the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi was allam and towards this nation.

Allaah, the Most High, says: It is not righteousness that you turn your faces in a certain direction from the directions without a command from Allaah. But rather, righteousness is obedience to Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. If He commands you with a command, it is obligatory upon you to comply with it. This is righteousness. So, if He commands you to face Jerusalem, then righteousness at that time is to face the direction of Jerusalem, because it was obedience to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Then, when He commands you to face the Ka`bah, righteousness is to face the Ka`bah. So, righteousness goes along with the command of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

You are slaves. It is obligatory upon you to comply. If Allaah commands you to face a certain direction, it is obligatory upon you to comply. But as for clinging in a bigoted manner to one certain direction, saying: “It is not correct except to face it,” then the meaning of this is the following of desires and tribalism. Whereas the true servant goes along with the commands of Allaah wherever they go. He does not raise any objection to the command of Allaah, since facing a direction after it has been abrogated will not be obedience to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. So, acting upon that which has been abrogated and leaving that which abrogates is not obedience to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, rather it is just obedience to desires and tribalism. So, righteousness is connected to obedience to Allaah; in whichever directions He turns you, you turn in that direction if you are true in your servitude to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

… لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ 

«And righteousness is not that you turn your faces towards the East or the West; but rather, righteousness is the righteousness of those who have eemaan (truly believe) in Allaah …» [2:177]


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

ودليل القدر قوله تعالى:

And the proof for pre-decree is His Saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ

«We have created all things in accordance with a predetermined measure.» [54:49] [45]


[45] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The proof for the sixth pillar from the pillars of eemaan is His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ

«We have created all things in accordance with a predetermined measure.» [54:49]

Meaning: Everything which Allaah created is predetermined in His Knowledge, His Writing, His Wish and Will, He the Perfect and Most High. It is not something which spontaneously occurs or something accidental, rather it is something preceded with the Knowledge of Allaah, written in the Preserved Tablet, and something preceded in the Wish and Will of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/belief/imaan-faith-pillars

The head of the affair is al-Islaam, its supporting pillar is the prayer, & its highest part is Jihaad – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 50 (Part B) –  [Final Part of the Series]
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

The proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وهذا هو معنى لا إله إلا الله، وفي الحديثِ : « رأسُ الأمْرِ الإسلامُ وعمودُهُ الصَّلاةُ وذروةُ سنَامِهِ الجهادُ في سبيلِ اللهِ » 

And this is the meaning of ‘laa ilaaha ill Allaah’ (none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah).

And in the hadeeth:

“The head of the affair is al-Islaam, and its supporting pillar is the prayer, and its highest part is jihaad in Allaah’s cause.” [1]84


[84] : Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The Shaykh said: “And this is the meaning of laa ilaaha ill Allaah – Meaning: rejection of at Taaghoot and eemaan (true faith) in Allaah.

And Al-Islaam is: To submit to Allaah with tawheed and to yield to Him with obedience and to free oneself from shirk and its people.

This is the head of the affair of the religion; the two testimonies are the head of Islaam and they are the foundation of Islaam. So a person will not enter into Islaam unless he comes with the two testimonies, uttering them and having knowledge of them and acting upon them and holding them as his creed and belief. He will not be a Muslim except with this.

The religion is likened to a body which has a head and a main support and a highest part. So if the head is cut off or if there is no head, then life cannot carry on. Likewise without tawheed, the Religion cannot remain because it is the head which, if it is cut or passes away, then life passes away and the body is destroyed.

And its main supporting pillar which it stands upon is the Prayer. So without its supporting pillar, Islaam will not stand – like a dwelling made of animal hair or a tent – if it has no pillar which it can rest upon, it will not stand. So a house cannot stand except with a support. Then if the support is lost, the house will not stand. Likewise the Prayer – if it is lost, then Islaam will not stand.

Therefore the scholars have said that whoever abandons the Prayer out of laziness, he becomes a disbeliever, in the correct saying – even if he acknowledges its obligation because there is no benefit in acknowledging its obligation if he does not implement it and he does not act upon it, there will be no benefit in that. And therefore the verifiers from the people of knowledge judge that the person who abandons the Prayer deliberately, even if he acknowledges its obligation, is a disbeliever. As for if he denies its obligation, then he is a disbeliever by consensus of the Muslims.

“…and its highest part is jihaad in Allaah’s cause.”

The highest part of the affair – which is the religion  – is jihaad in Allaah’s cause. So jihaad is a proof for the strength of Islaam; when jihaad in Allaah’s cause is found, then that is a proof that Islaam is in a condition of strength because jihaad cannot occur except as a result of strength in eemaan and physical strength.

So the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam mentioned three matters for the Religion: the head, the supporting pillar and the highest part. So without the head, the Religion will not exist at all. So the person who does not establish the head – which is tawheed – will have no religion.

And the person who does not pray, then the Religion will not be established for him even if he bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah because it requires a supporting pillar which the Religion can stand upon, and it cannot be found except through the Prayer.

And if jihaad is absent then the strength of Islaam will be absent and it will be an Islaam which is in a condition of weakness and the Muslims will be in a weak state. So there will be no strength for Islaam and the Muslims except through jihaad in Allaah’s cause, He the Mighty and Majestic. So it is a sign of strength and its absence is a sign of weakness.

This is the manner in which the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam likened these three affairs with regards to the Religion: a head, a main support and a highest part, just as a camel which has a hump, this shows that it is strong. And if it has no hump, then this shows that it is emaciated and weak.

Likewise the Muslims today are in a state of weakness upon the Earth, and therefore there occurs in the hadeeth:

إذا تبايعتم بالعينة ، وأخذتم أذناب البقر، وتركتم الجهاد ، سلط الله عليكم ذلا لا يترعه منكم حتى ترجعوا إلى دينكم 

“When you engage in the ‘eenah (usury/riba) transaction and you take hold of the tails of cows and you abandon jihaad, then Allaah will cause humiliation to overcome you; He will not remove it from you until you return to your religion.”

[Hadith Reported by Aboo Daawood (3462) from the hadeeth of ibn ‘Umar radiyallaahu ‘anhumaa and declared Saheeh by al Albaanee]

So abandonment of jihaad is humiliation and weakness for the Muslims and its presence is a proof of strength and formness, just like the hump of an animal.

And Allaah knows best and may Allaah extol our Prophet Muhammad.

And with this, the explanation of the blessed book, the Three Fundamental Principles, is ended.

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by at Tirmidhee (2616) and an Nasaa.ee from the hadeeth of Mu’aadh ibn Jabal radiy Allaahu ‘anhu and declared Saheeh by al Albaanee.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

No-one is to be compelled to enter the Religion, true guidance has been made clear – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 50 (Part A)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

The proof is His saying, He the Most High:

لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ ۖ قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ ۚ فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ لَا انفِصَامَ لَهَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

No-one is to be compelled to enter the Religion, true guidance has been made clear and distinct from falsehood.  So whoever rejects at Taaghoot and truly believes in Allaah, then he has grasped the firmest handhold that will never break. And Allaah is All Hearing, All Knowing. [2:256]83


[83]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He, the Perfect and Most High, said:

لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ ۖ قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ ۚ فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ لَا انفِصَامَ لَهَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

No one is to be compelled to enter the Religion, true guidance has been made clear and distinct from falsehood.  So whoever rejects at Taaghoot and truly believes in Allaah, then he has grasped the firmest handhold that will never break. And Allaah is All Hearing, All Seeing.[2:256]

No one is to be compelled to enter the Religion… : Meaning – no one is to be forced to enter into Islaam against his will, because entering into Islaam must occur as a result of being convinced and from believing in the heart. And no one is to be forced into it against his will – this is not possible because no one can act with regards to the hearts except Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. No one may force anyone to enter Islaam because we do not possess and own the hearts. Rather it is just Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, He is the One who owns them and acts with regards to them. However we should call to Islaam and encourage people upon it.

We strive and fight in Allaah’s Cause against whoever disbelieves, for the spread of Islaam and to provide an opportunity to whoever wants to accept Islaam, and in order to subdue the enemies of Allaah. But as for guidance, then it is in the Hand of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. No one is to be forced upon eemaan and Islaam. Rather this is something which relates back to the person himself.

Then, He, the Most High, said:

… قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ …

…true guidance has been made clear and distinct from falsehood…

So Islaam, and all praise is for Allaah, does not contain anything which people have to be forced upon against their will. Rather all of it is beloved and desirable. Whereas kufr and shirk, all of it is evil and all of it is something detestable. So this has become clear from that. As rushd (guidance) – and it is the Truth – has become distinguished from al-ghayy – and it is falsehood. And a person has intellect and has the ability to think so that he can weigh and compare truth against falsehood. And his thinking, if it is sound and if it is free from desires and ulterior motives, then his sound thinking will guide him to acceptance of the truth without having to be forced. This is one saying with regards to the aayah.

And the second saying is that this aayah came down with regard to the People of the Book; and that the People of the Book are not to be compelled to enter into Islaam. Rather if they want to remain upon their religion then they are to be left to do so with the condition that they hand over the jizyah to the Muslims and they (the People of the Book) are in a state of being humbled. And as for other than them from the disbelievers, then nothing will be accepted from them except Islaam or being killed because they have no religion; and idol worship is a false and futile religion.

And the third saying is that this aayah was abrogated by the aayah commanding jihaad. So this was the case initially before jihaad was legislated, then jihaad was legislated and the aayah was abrogated.

However the first (of the three sayings) is what is correct – that the aayah is not abrogated and that the religion cannot be entered into the hearts by force. Rather it can only enter through choice. However whoever does not accept the Religion, he will be dealt with in a manner that befits him, whether it be being killed or having the jizyah tax taken from him if he be from those regarding whom Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, has legislated that it be taken from.

… فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ

So whoever rejects at-Taaghoot and truly believes in Allaah… 

At-Taaghoot – what is meant is all of the Taaghoots in worship, in following or in obedience because the word “at-Taaghoot” here is left general.

Rejecting the Taaghoot was put before having eemaan in Allaah (in the aayah) because having eemaan in Allaah will not benefit except after rejection of the Taaghoot. So whoever believes in Allaah but does not reject the Taaghoot, then his eemaan will not benefit him. So the person who says that he is a believer and he prays and he fasts and gives the Zakaat and performs the Hajj and he performs the acts of obedience but he does not dissociate himself from shirk nor from the people of shirk and says, “They are not my business” – this person will not be counted as a Muslim because he has not rejected the Taaghoot. So there must be rejection of the Taaghoot and it is to reject the Taaghoot and to believe as creed in its (the Taaghoot’s) falsehood and to distance oneself from it and from its people – this is essential. So his eemaan will not be correct except after rejecting the Taaghoot.

And there occurs in the other aayah:

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

And We sent a messenger to every nation commanding, “Worship Allaah alone and avoid the Taaghoot!” [16:36]

So the worship of Allaah will not be correct except through avoiding the Taaghoot. Two opposites cannot come together; eemaan and kufr cannot come together in the heart. Eemaan and major kufr cannot come together in the heart. As for the lesser kufr then it can come together (with eemaan).

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/Tawheed

Hadeeth of Jibreel : Islaam, Eemaan, Ihsaan & the Signs of the Hour – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lessons 37 (Part B) , 38 & 39
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

والدليل من السنة حديث جبريل المشهور:

»عن عمر  رضى الله عنه قال : بينما نحن جلوس عند رسول الله  صلى الله عليه وسلم  إذ طلع علينا رجل ، شديد بياض الثياب ، شديد سواد الشعر«

And the proof from the Sunnah is the famous hadeeth of Jibreel:

From `Umar radiyallaahu`anhu who said: «Whilst we were sitting with Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, a man came to us whose clothing was very white and whose hair was very black [48]


[48] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Speech with regard to Islaam, eemaan and ihsaan has preceded and the pillars of each level. The Shaykh (rahimahullaah) has mentioned the evidences for each level from the Qur`aan. All of that has preceded and finished.

Then, the Shaykh (rahimahullaah) mentioned a proof for these levels from the Sunnah, the Sunnah of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam; so he mentioned the hadeeth of Jibreel.

He [Jibreel] came to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam whilst he was with his companions. He came to them in the form of a man and he sat with the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, and asked him about Islaam, eemaan, and ihsaan. Then, he asked him about the Last Hour and its signs.

This is called the hadeeth of Jibreel or it is called the hadeeth of `Umar. It is a hadeeth which occurs through a number of chains of narration from a group of the companions, so it is an authentic hadeeth. The Shaykh (rahimahullaah) mentioned the narration of `Umar ibn al-Khattaab [1] of this hadeeth. There is variations in the wordings of the hadeeth in other narrations. However, the meaning is one and the same.

[1] Hadith Reported in Saheeh Muslim no. 8. Refer to Jaami` al-Uloom wal-Hikam of Ibn Rajab 1/93, second hadeeth.

«Whilst we were sitting with Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam» It was from their usual practice, may Allaah be pleased with them, that they would gather together in the presence of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam in the mosque, and that they would take knowledge from him and listen to his (sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam) answers when he responded to questions. So, whilst they were like that in their normal condition, a man entered upon them through the door.

A man «whose clothing was very white and whose hair was very black.» Meaning: Jibreel `alaihissalaam. He came in the form of this man and he did not come to them in his angelic form, because they would not have been able to look upon him in his angelic form.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

»لا يرى عليه أثر السفر ، ولا يعرفه منا أحد ، حتى جلس إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم  فأسند ركبتيه إلى ركبتيه ، ووضع كفيه على فخذيه ، وقال : يا محمد أخبرني عن الإسلام «.

«No signs of having traveled could be seen upon him and none of us knew him until he sat with the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. He placed his knees against his knees and placed his hands upon his thighs and said:

‘O Muhammad, inform me about al-Islaam.’»[49]


[49]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

«No signs of having traveled could be seen upon him and none of us knew him»: Meaning: from those who were present. This was something amazing: he had not arrived from a journey so that it could be said: “He is from other than the people of al-Madeenah.” Yet, they did not recognize him. He was not from the people of the city so that they could recognize him. So, they were confused about him. He was not someone who had come from a journey nor was he someone from the people of the town. If he had arrived from a journey, then the signs of having traveled would have appeared upon him, his clothing and his color, because the effects of traveling appear upon a traveler. No one from those present recognized him, so he was not from the people of the city. Yet he had not arrived from a journey. So what could this man be? This is what they found strange.

«He sat with the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam»: In front of him with the sitting of a student with his teacher.

«He placed his two knees against the two knees of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam»: Meaning: He was very close to him.

«He placed his two hands upon his thighs»: Meaning: Upon the thighs of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.

So «he said: ‘O Muhammad’»: He addressed him by his name and he did not say: ‘O Messenger of Allaah.’ Perhaps he did that, `alaihissalaam, in order that the companions should think that he was from the people of the desert (i.e. Bedouin), because it was from the habit and custom of the people of the desert that when they used to address the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, they would do so by his name. This is because the people of the desert have their own nature and customs. And it was also an addition in rendering it something strange and obscure so that they would not recognize him.

«He said: ‘O Muhammad, inform me about al-Islaam‘»: Meaning: explain to me the meaning of AlIslaam.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

قال» : أن تشهد أن لا إله إلا الله ، وأن محمدا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم  وتقيم الصلاة ، وتؤتي الزكاة ، وتصوم رمضان ، وتحج البيت إن استطعت إليه سبيلا ، «فقال : صدقت ، فعجبنا له يسأله ويصدقه .

He said: «It is that you testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu `alaihiwasallam, and you establish the prayer, give Zakaah, fast Ramadaan, and perform Hajj (pilgrimage) to the House if are able to make your way to it.» He said: ‘You have spoken the truth.’

So we were amazed at him, asking him the question and then stating that he had spoken the truth.[50]


[50] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

«Islaam is that you testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu `alaihiwasallam, and you establish the prayer, give Zakaah, fast Ramadaan, and perform pilgrimage to the House if are able to make your way to it» The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam mentioned to him the pillars of Islaam which are essential and are such that if they are implemented, Islaam is brought about. And whatever is extra to them from the other matters, then they are matters of completion. The Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam limited himself to an explanation of the pillars of Islaam since the shorter an answer is, the easier it will be for the student and the listener. It will be easy for him to memorize and preserve it. Whereas, if the answer is prolonged, it becomes difficult and confusing for those who are present, and perhaps most of them will not comprehend it. Therefore, this is a proof that a person who is questioned – it is befitting that he should strive to make an abridgement as far as he is able to and he should limit himself to that which is necessary. Otherwise, the fact is that Islaam is more than that. These are its pillars and its supports which it stands upon.

«He said: You have spoken the truth» This was a second amazing thing.

He said: «We were amazed at him, asking him a question and then saying that he had spoken the truth» It showed that he was a person of knowledge. He was not asking in the manner of a person who is ignorant, rather he was asking and he had knowledge as is shown by the fact that he said: «You have spoken the truth.» That proves that he was a person of knowledge. Therefore, why he did ask the question?


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

قال : فأخبرني عن الإيمان ، قال» :أن تؤمن بالله ، وملائكته ، وكتبه ، ورسله ،  واليوم الآخر ، وتؤمن بالقدر خيره وشره «، قال : صدقت.

He said: ‘Inform me about eemaan.’

He said: «It is that you have eemaan (truly believe) in Allaah, in His Angels, in His Books, in His Messengers, in the Last Day, and you have eemaan in the pre-decree, the good of it and the bad of it

He said: ‘You have spoken the truth.’ [51]


[51Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

«He said: ‘Inform me about eemaan.’ He said: «It is that you have eemaan (truly believe) in Allaah, in His Angels, in His Books, in His Messengers, in the Last Day, and you have eemaan in the pre-decree, the good of it and the bad of it»

The Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam mentioned to him the six pillars of eemaan after he mentioned the pillars of Islaam. 

Islaam and eemaan, when they are mentioned together, Islaam means outward actions and eemaan means inward actions, the actions of the heart and what occurs in it with regard to tasdeeq (affirmation) and `ilm (knowledge). Both Islaam and eemaan are essential together, Islaam being the outward actions and eemaan being the inward actions, because of his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam:

»الإسلام علانية ، والإيمان في القلب«

«Islaam is apparent and eemaan is in the heart[2]

If both are mentioned together, each one has a separate and specific meaning to it.

If one of them is mentioned on its own, the other one enters within it. If eemaan is mentioned on its own, Islaam enters within it. If Islaam is mentioned on its own, eemaan enters into it, because Islaam will not be correct without eemaan and eemaan will not be correct without Islaam. Both are essential.

They are inseparably linked, therefore they say: Islaam and eemaan are from those titles which when they come together, they separate, and when they occur singularly, they come together. Meaning: each of them enters into the other one, because they are inseparably linked and one cannot be separated from the other.

So, he asked him about the outward actions and about the inward actions. And he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam explained to him the pillars of both Islaam and eemaan.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

قال : أخبرني عن الإحسان ، قال» : أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه ، فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه  يراك ، «قال : فأخبرني عن الساعة ، قال» : ما المسئول عنها بأعلم من السائل.  «

He said: Inform me about ihsaan.

He said: «That you worship Allaah as if you were seeing Him, and even though you do not see Him, He, certainly, sees you

He said: ‘Inform me about the Last Hour.’

He said: «The one who is being asked about it does not know any better than the one who is asking[52]


[52] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He said: Inform me about ihsaan. He said: «That you worship Allaah…» It has already preceded that the person of ihsaan is the person who worships Allaah as if He were actually seeing Him, and upon certainty as if he were seeing Allaah. Or that he worships Him upon the basis of his being observed and he knows that Allaah sees him, therefore he perfects the action, because Allaah is observing him. So, the person of ihsaan worships Allaah, either seeing Him with his heart – and that is more complete – or upon the basis that he is being watched. And he knows that Allaah is seeing him in whatever place and with whatever action he is doing. This is Al ihsaan.

He said: ‘You have spoken the truth. Inform me about the Last Hour.’ Meaning: about the establishment of the Hour. When will it be? This question – the answer of it is not known to anyone, except to Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, because the establishment of the Hour – its appointed time is not known except to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

We know that the Hour will be established. We have no doubt about that. Whoever doubts that, then he is a disbeliever. We know that the Hour will be established and it will certainly occur. However, the time at which Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, will establish the Hour, He has not informed us about it and He has not explained it to us. He has kept it secret within His Knowledge. He the Most High said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ

«Allaah! With Him is the knowledge of the Hour.» [31:34]

And He, the Most High, said:

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ السَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرْسَاهَا ۖ قُلْ إِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِندَ رَبِّي ۖ لَا يُجَلِّيهَا لِوَقْتِهَا إِلَّا هُوَ

«They ask you about the Hour: ‘When will it come about?’ Say: ‘Its knowledge is with my Lord alone. None can reveal its time but He.’» [7:187]

He is the One who knows it, He the Perfect.

He, the Most High, said:

وَعِندَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لَا يَعْلَمُهَا إِلَّا هُوَ

«And with Him are the keys to the hidden and unseen, none knows them but He.» [6:59]

From it [the hidden and unseen] is the time and establishment of the Hour.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said to Jibreel: «The one who is being asked about it does not know any better than the one who is asking» Meaning: I and you are the same. We do not know when the Hour will be established. Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, did not make anyone aware of that, neither the Angels, the Messengers, nor anyone. Rather, He kept it secret in His Knowledge, He the Perfect and most High.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

قال : فأخبرني عن أماراﺗﻬا ، قال» : أن تلد الأمة ربتها«

He said: ‘Then inform me about its signs.’

He said: «That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress[53]


[53] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He said: ‘Then inform me about its signs’: (الأمارات) is the plural of (أمارة). It means the sign. As for (الإمارة) with the kasrah, then it means al-wilaayah (leadership). 

‘Inform me about its signs’: Meaning: the signs which indicate the closeness of its Establishment. Yes. The Hour has signs, and Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, has made them clear. From them are the smaller signs, from them are major signs and from them are the intermediate signs. And from them are signs which are very close to the Hour that will occur at its establishment. They will be close to its establishment. As for the other signs, then they come before that.

The scholars say: The signs for the hour are of three types: Smaller signs which come [quite some time] before it, intermediate signs, and major signs. The lesser and intermediate signs have already occurred or most of them have occurred. As for the major signs: the appearance of the Dajjaal, the descent of `Eesaa (`alaihissalaam), the emergence of the beast, and the emergence of Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj. These will occur at the actual establishment of the Hour and will quickly follow on in succession. 

He said: ‘Inform me about its signs’: Since its signs are known, the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam answered him and said: «That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress.» This is from the signs of the Hour. The slave girl [meaning] one who is owned and rabbataha means her female-owner (mistress).


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

»وأن ترى الحفاة العراة العالة رعاء الشاء يتطاولون في البنيان «.

«And that you will see barefoot, unclothed, destitute shepherds vying with each other in building tall buildings[54]


[54] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

«That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress.» The explainer said: Its meaning, and Allaah knows best, is that towards the end of time, there will be many captives or slaves taken, meaning: there will be many occurrences of intercourse with slave-girls, meaning: the owned slave-girls. They will give birth to daughters and the slave-girl’s daughter will be a free woman and she will be a mistress to her mother and an owner of her.

It is also said: Its meaning is that disobedience to parents will be abundant such that the daughter will act as if she is a mistress to her mother.

«And that you will see barefoot»: This is a second sign.

«Barefoot»: Those who have no shoes because of poverty and destitution.

«Unclothed» Those who do not have clothing.

«Destitute» The poor and needy people.

«Shepherds» (رعاء) is the plural of (راع), those who shepherd the sheep. In origin, those people are found in the desert areas, in their own dwellings and they move about from one place to another. But at the end of time, they will take residence in the cities and they will build tall palaces and towering buildings. This is from the signs of the Hour, when the desert people change and become modern and they start to vie with each other in tall buildings. They compete with each other in adorning them. This was not from their custom in any way. They will change to be rich people, having wealth and people who manifest it [i.e. what they have]. This is from the signs of the Hour.

And as you know, the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam did not speak from his own desires, just as you know today, how the condition of the people is. The peoples conditions have changed. The poor have turned into rich people having vast riches. The desert people have become modernized and they have competed in building tall buildings. This is in confirmation of the truth of what Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

قال : فمضى ، فلبثنا مليا ، فقال» : يا عمر أتدري من السائل ؟ «قلت : الله ورسوله أعلم ، قال» : هذا جبريل أتاكم يعلمكم أمر دينكم «

He said: Then he went away and we remained for some time. So he said: «O’ `Umar! Do you know who the questioner was?» I said: ‘Allaah and His Messenger know best.’ He said: «This was Jibreel, he came to you to teach you the affair of your religion[55]


[55] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He said: Then he went away and we remained for some time: Meaning: for a short time. 

So the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam then said: «O `Umar! Do you know who the questioner was?» Do you [people] know who the questioner was?

In one narration the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

»علي بالرجل«

«Bring the man to me[3]

So, they looked for him, but could not find him. 

He said: «This was Jibreel, he came to you to teach you the affair of your religion.» The one who entered and asked these questions was Jibreel `alaihissalaam. He came in the form of a man, just as was described, in order to teach those present the affairs of the religion in the manner of question and answer.


This hadeeth proves a number of tremendous matters: 

Firstly: The religion is divided into three levels: Islaam, eemaan, and ihsaan, each level being higher than the one before it. Each level has pillars: The pillar of Islaam, the pillars of eemaan, and ihsaan is a single pillar. 

Secondly: It shows teaching by way of questions and answers. This is a teaching method which succeeds, because it is better for arousing attention and conveying knowledge if the person is questioned. His mind is therefore made ready and he seeks the answer. So, he seeks the answer and then he gives the answer to him, and he is desiring it, so this will establish it firmly. 

Thirdly: In the hadeeth there is a proof that whoever is asked about some knowledge and he does not know, then it is upon him to say: Allaah and His Messenger know best. He should refer knowledge back to the one who knows it. He should not speak with an answer when he does not know it and he should not make a guess. This is not permissible. The Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, when he was asked about the Hour, he said: «The one who is being asked about it does not know any better than the one who is asking.» And when he said to the Companions: «Do you know who the questioner was?» They did not know him, they said: Allaah and His Messenger know best.

This shows that with regard to matters relating to the Islaamic legislation and that of the religion, it is not permissible to speak about them based upon conjecture, because this will be a case of takalluf (unnecessary overburdening oneself). However, whoever has knowledge should respond and whoever does not have knowledge should say: ‘Allaah knows best.’ And whoever says: ‘I do not know,’ has given a response. 

Imaam Maalik (rahimahullaah) was asked forty questions and he gave an answer to six of them. With regard to the rest, he said: ‘I do not know.’ So questioner said to him: ‘I have come from such-and-such place. I have traveled and tired out my riding animal and you say: ‘I do not know?’ So he said: ‘Ride your animal and go back to the land which you came from and say: ‘I asked Maalik and he said: ‘I do not know.”

This is not a defect that when a person does not know an answer regarding matters of the Islaamic legislation that he should say: ‘I do not know.’ Even if he is a scholar. The Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said: «The one who is being asked about it does not know any better than the one who is asking

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, when he was asked certain questions and he did not possess revelation from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, he would wait until the revelation descended from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Do you not recite [a number of times]: ‘They ask you about such-and-such. They ask you about such-and-such. Then say: ‘Such-and-such.’

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ ۖ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ

«They ask you about intoxicants and gambling. Say: “In them is a great sin.» [2:219]

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْأَهِلَّةِ ۖ قُلْ هِيَ مَوَاقِيتُ لِلنَّاسِ وَالْحَجِّ

«They ask you about the crescent moons. Say: “They are signs to mark time periods for the people and for the Hajj.“» [2:189]

So, the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, when he was asked a question and he did not have an answer, he would wait until revelation came down to him from Allaah. So that should be even more the case with anyone else besides him. He should wait until he asks someone else or until he researches the matter in the books of the people of knowledge to attain the answer. As for being hasty, then this is extremely dangerous and it contains showing bad manners towards Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, since the one who gives the answer is answering about Allaah’s legislation. He is saying: ‘Allaah has made such-and-such permissible,’ or ‘He has made such-and-such forbidden,’ or ‘He has legislated such-and-such.’ So the matter is extremely dangerous. 

The fourth matter: The hadeeth contains a proof for the manners of the student. Jibreel was the noblest one of the angels, he sat in front of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and placed his knees against the knees of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and placed his hands upon his thighs and asked with good manners. This was in order to teach the people good manners with which they should adopt towards the scholars.

This is a part of what the hadeeth indicates and it contains. 

The fifth matter: It is an explanation of some of the signs of the Hour. He mentioned two signs: that the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress and some of the scholars say: its meaning «the slave-girl will birth to her mistress» is that disobedience and bad treatment towards the parents will be frequent at the end of time. So the daughter becomes as if she is one in charge of her mother, commanding her and forbidding her and being stern with her.

Footnotes:

[2] Reported by Imaam Ahmad as a hadeeth of Anas, radiyallaahu `anhu. [Shaykh al-Albaanee mentioned in his Da`eeful-Jaami` that this particular hadeeth is da`eef (weak). And in his explanation of at-Tahawiyyah, he said: Its chain of narration is weak, it contains `Alee ibn Mas`adah, about whom al-Uqayri said: He is from the du`afaah. Al-Bukhaaree said: He is a person of suspect. `Abdul-Haqq al-`Azdi said in his book al-Ahkaam al-Kubraa about this hadeeth: This hadeeth is not correctly preserved. And Allaah knows best.]

[3] Reported by an-Nasaa`eee in Sunan al-Kubraa as a hadeeth of Ibn `Umar, radiyallaahu `anhumaa. It has also been reported by Ibn Hib-baan and ad-Daaraqutnee as a hadeeth of `Umar ibn al-Khattaab, radiyallaahu `anhu. [Shaykh al-Albaanee (rahimahullaah) said in his checking of Ibn Hib-baan: [This addition], it is saheeh (authentic).

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/belief/imaan-faith-pillars

The Taaghoots are many and the heads of them are five – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 49
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Types of Taaghoot

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

والطواغيتُ كثيرونَ ورؤوسُهُمْ خمَسةٌ: إبليسُ لعنَهُ اللهُ، ومَنْ عُبِدَ وهو راض 

The taaghoots are many, and their heads are five:  Iblees – may Allaah’s curse be upon him. Whoever is worshipped and is pleased with that.79


[79]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His saying: “And the taaghoots are many and the heads of them are five.” 

The taaghoots upon whom this definition applies are: everyone who is worshipped or followed or obeyed, and they are many but their heads are five – meaning their major ones are five.

Firstly, Iblees, may Allaah’s curse be upon him – meaning: may Allaah expel him and distance him away from His Mercy on account of the fact that he refused to prostrate to Aadam and he disobeyed Allaah, the Perfect and Most High and he was proud and haughty. And He said:

قَالَ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ ۖ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ

And he (Iblees) said: I am better than him (Aadam), You created me from fire and You created him from clay.[38:76]

So therefore he disobeyed the command of Allaah and was haughty; therefore Allaah cursed him and He repelled him and distanced him. And he is called Iblees, it is said, because he ablasa (despaired) of Mercy – meaning he despaired of Mercy. So the mublis is one who despairs of something.

So Iblees, may Allaah’s curse be upon him, is the head of the taaghoots because he is the one who commands with worship of other than Allaah and he is the one who commands with following other than the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam and he is the one who commands obedience to other than Allaah by declaring things to be permissible or forbidden.

So Iblees is the source of evil and he is the head of the taaghoots.

The second category (of taaghoots) is:

The one who is worshipped and he is pleased with that – meaning he is worshipped and he is pleased with the people’s worship of him. So he is a taaghoot.

As for one who is worshipped and he is not pleased with that then he does not enter into that.

For ‘Eesaa ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam has been worshipped besides Allaah but he was not pleased with that. And his mother and ‘Uzayr and the awliyaa (beloved servants of Allaah) and the righteous people from the servants of Allaah, they are not pleased with that (worship of them). Rather they used to criticize this and fight against those who did it. So whoever is worshipped and he is not pleased with that, then he is not called a taaghoot.

And that is because when Allaah sent down His saying:

إِنَّكُمْ وَمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ حَصَبُ جَهَنَّمَ أَنتُمْ لَهَا وَارِدُونَ

You (people of shirk) and whatever idols you worship will be fuel for the Hellfire. You will enter it. [21:98]

– the people of shirk became happy and they said, “We worship the Messiah (‘Eesaa) and we worship such and such and we worship such and such. Therefore they will be with us in the Fire.”

So Allaah, the Most High, sent down:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ سَبَقَتْ لَهُم مِّنَّا الْحُسْنَىٰ أُولَٰئِكَ عَنْهَا مُبْعَدُونَ – لَا يَسْمَعُونَ حَسِيسَهَا ۖ وَهُمْ فِي مَا اشْتَهَتْ أَنفُسُهُمْ خَالِدُونَ

Those for whom Allaah has written that they shall be people of bliss, they shall be kept far away from it. They shall not hear even the slightest sound from it (the Fire) but rather they shall be enjoying whatever their souls desire forever. [21:101-102]

And there occurs in the other aayah that they said:

And they say: are our gods better or is he? 

Meaning: ‘Eesaa ‘alaihissalaam

Then He said:

وَقَالُوا أَآلِهَتُنَا خَيْرٌ أَمْ هُوَ ۚ مَا ضَرَبُوهُ لَكَ إِلَّا جَدَلًا ۚ بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ خَصِمُونَ – إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا عَبْدٌ أَنْعَمْنَا عَلَيْهِ وَجَعَلْنَاهُ مَثَلًا لِّبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ

They do not quote him as an example to you except in order to argue. Indeed they are an argumentative people; he was no more than a slave upon whom We bestowed favor and We made him an example for the Banoo Israa.eel. [43:58-59]

So he is a slave of Allaah and he was not pleased that he should be worshipped besides Allaah. Indeed Allaah sent him to criticize that:

مَا قُلْتُ لَهُمْ إِلَّا مَا أَمَرْتَنِي بِهِ أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ رَبِّي وَرَبَّكُمْ

(‘Eesaa will say on the Day of Resurrection), “I did not say to them except what You commanded me to – that you should worship Allaah alone, my Lord and your Lord. [5:117]

Therefore one who is worshipped and he is not pleased with that – he does not enter under this threat and he is not a taaghoot because he rejects and criticises that. This is because at taaghoot is one who is pleased with worship besides Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

ومَنْ دعا الناسَ إلى عبادَةِ نفسِه

 Whoever calls the people to the worship of himself.80


[80]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The third: “Whoever calls the people to the worship of himself”:

Such as the heads of the people of shirk, those who call the people to worship them, such as Fir’awn who said:

فَقَالَ أَنَا رَبُّكُمُ الْأَعْلَىٰ

So he (Fir’awn) said, “I am your highest Lord.” [79:24]

And such as Namrood and such as the extreme Soofees, those who call the people to worship them, to such an extent that they give instructions to the people to worship them after they have died, so that one of them says, “When matters become very difficult for you then come to my grave” – meaning: “when affairs become difficult  for you, then you should come to my grave  and a few handfuls of earth cannot prevent you from me.”

So they counsel the people to come to their (the leaders’) graves and they promise them that they (the leaders) will carry out their needs. So whoever calls the people to worship of himself, whether whilst he is alive or dead, then he is from the heads of the taaghoots.

And likewise whoever calls the people to worship someone else besides him from the taaghoots and they are the callers to shirk, they are taaghoots, those who falsely beautify shirk for the people and they call it with other than its name, and they say, “This is a case of tawassul (seeking legitimate means to Allaah) or a case of shafaa’ah (legitimate intercession).” And they are many.

Those are taaghoots because they call the people to shirk, so they call to the worship of other than Allaah and they call that (shirk) with other than its name and they falsely adorn it for the people with doubts and falsely adorned speech. They are taaghoots. The callers to shirk are taaghoots.

And everyone who is worshipped besides Allaah and is pleased with that or calls the people to the worship of himself or calls the people to worship of other than Allaah then he is from the taaghoots; indeed he is from the heads of the taaghoots – we ask Allaah for safety and salvation.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

ومَنِ ادَّعى شيئًا مِنْ عِلمِ الغيْبِ

Whoever claims to possess anything from the knowledge of the affairs of the hidden and unseen (al-Ghayb)81


[81]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The fourth one is “whoever claims to possess anything from knowledge of the hidden and unseen”.

And entering into this are the sorcerers and the astrologers and the fortunetellers and the geomancers, and everyone who claims that he possesses knowledge of the ghayb and says to the people, “Such and such will occur for you. For you, you will receive bliss or you will receive some hardship or you will have a successful marriage or you will have an unsuccessful one. Those people claim knowledge of the hidden and the unseen. And the hidden and unseen is not known except by Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

And knowledge of the ghayb is not known except by Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

He, the Most High, said:

قُل لَّا يَعْلَمُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ الْغَيْبَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ

Say: No one in the Heavens or the Earth knows the ghayb except Allaah. [27:65]

And He, the Most High, said:

عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ فَلَا يُظْهِرُ عَلَىٰ غَيْبِهِ أَحَدًا  – إِلَّا مَنِ ارْتَضَىٰ مِن رَّسُولٍ

He (Allaah) is the Knower of the ghayb. He does not reveal what He has kept hidden to anyone except to one whom He is pleased with whom He has sent as a Messenger. [72:26-27]

And He, the Most High, said:

وَعِندَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لَا يَعْلَمُهَا إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ ۚ وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلَّا يَعْلَمُهَا وَلَا حَبَّةٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْأَرْضِ وَلَا رَطْبٍ وَلَا يَابِسٍ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ

And with Allaah are the keys to the ghayb; no one knows it except Him. And He knows whatever is in the land and in the ocean; and no leaf falls except that He knows of it. Nor is there any grain in the darkness of the Earth nor any fresh thing nor any dry thing except that it is written in a Clear Book. [6:59]

no one knows it except Him…

This is a limitation. So no one knows the ghayb except for Allaah or one from His Messengers to whom Allaah has revealed something from the ghayb for the benefit of Mankind and as miracle for the messenger. However he will not know the ghayb from himself. Rather he only knows from Allaah’s teaching it to him. So no one knows the ghayb except for Allaah. So whoever claims to have knowledge of the ghayb then he would be a sharer with Allaah with regards to something particular to Him, He the Perfect. Therefore, that person is a mushrik (person of shirk), he is a taaghoot, and he is a kaafir (disbeliever). And this is one of the greatest forms of apostasy from Islaam.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

ومَنْ حكمَ بغيِر مَا أنزلَ الله

 And whoever judges by other than what Allaah sent down.82


[82]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The fifth one is whoever judges by other than that which Allaah sent down.

And the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ

They wish to refer for judgment to the taaghoot. [4:60]

So whoever judges by other than that which Allaah sent down holding that to be permissible to do, then he will be a taaghoot.

And the person who says, “It is permissible to refer for judgment to man-made laws or to the customs of the times of Jaahiliyyah or to the customs of the tribes of the Bedouins and to leave behind the Legislation,” – he says, “This is lawful to do,” or he says, “This is equal to that which Allaah sent down.” And if he says, “It is better than that which Allaah sent down or equal to that which Allaah sent down,” or he says, “It is just permissible to do,” and he doesn’t even say, “It is equal or better,” – he just says, “It is permissible and allowed to do this”, then this person is a taaghoot. And this is by the text of the Qur’aan.

He, the Most High, said:

يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ

They wish to refer for judgment to the taaghoot. [4:60]

He was called a taaghoot because he has gone beyond his limit.

As for a person who judges by other than that which Allaah has sent down whilst he affirms that that which Allaah sent down is what is obligatory to follow and is the Truth and that anything else is false and futile and that he is judging with something futile – then this person is counted as being a kaafir who has committed al-kufr-ul-asghar (lesser kufr) which does not take a person out of the religion. However he is upon great danger, he is upon a way which may lead to kufr which takes a person out of the religion if he becomes lax about this matter.

As for one who judges by other than that which Allaah sent down, without intending to do so, rather (he does so) from ijtihaad (personal striving and deduction) and he is a person who is rightful to be performing ijtihaad from the people of fiqh, and he performs ijtihaad but he does not actually attain the judgment of Allaah and he makes a mistake in his ijtihaad, then this is forgiven for him.

He sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

“When the judge judges and strives and he reaches the correct conclusion, then he will receive two rewards. And when he judges and strives and reaches the incorrect conclusion, then for him there is one reward.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree (7352) and Muslim (1716 )from the hadeeth of ‘Amr ibn al ‘Aas radiy Allaahu ‘anhu]

Because he did not deliberately commit a mistake. He was intending the Truth; he was intending conformity with the judgment of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. However, he was not granted the success of attaining it. So this person is counted as being excused and one who will receive reward. But it is not permissible to follow him upon the error.

So from this are the matters of ijtihaad of the jurists who have made a mistake in those matters or the striving of the judges in the courts when they strive to arrive at a ruling and they exert effort to reach the Truth. However they are not granted it. So their error is forgiven.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

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Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/Tawheed

Rejecting at-Taaghoot, and Having Eemaan in Allaah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 48
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Rejecting at-Taaghoot, and Having Eemaan in Allaah

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:  

وافترضَ اللهُ على جميعِ العبادِ الكفرَ بالطاغوتِ والإيمانَ بالله

Allaah has made it obligatory upon all of the servants to reject at-taaghoot, and to have eemaan in Allaah.77


[77]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

So the Shaykh rahimahullaah said, “And Allaah has made it obligatory upon all of the servants to reject at-taaghoot, and to have eemaan in Allaah…” Then he mentioned the definition of at-taaghoot.

The taaghoot has been mentioned by Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, in many aayaat. From them is His saying, He the Most High, in Soorat-ul-Baqarah:

فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ لَا انفِصَامَ لَهَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

اللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُخْرِجُهُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَوْلِيَاؤُهُمُ الطَّاغُوتُ يُخْرِجُونَهُم مِّنَ النُّورِ إِلَى الظُّلُمَاتِ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

So whoever rejects at-taaghoot (everything which is worshipped besides Allaah) and believes truly in Allaah, then he has grasped the firmest handhold that will not break. And Allaah is All Hearing, All Knowing. 

Allaah is the Guardian Lord of those who truly believe; He brings them out from darkness into light. And those who disbelieve, then their supporters are at-taaghoot; they take them out from the light into darkness. They are the inhabitants of the Fire; they will remain in it forever. [2:256-257]

And there occurs in Soorat-un-Nisaa His saying, He the Most High:

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا نَصِيبًا مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطَّاغُوتِ وَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا هَٰؤُلَاءِ أَهْدَىٰ مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا سَبِيلًا

Will you not consider those who were given a portion of the Scripture? They believe in al jibt (the idols, soothsayers and sorcery) and in at-taaghoot. And they say to those who disbelieve that they are closer to the Truth than the believers. [4:51]

And this aayah is with regard to the Jews.

And He, the Perfect, said with regards to the hypocrites:

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أُمِرُوا أَن يَكْفُرُوا بِهِ

Will you not consider those who claim that they believe in that which came down to you and in that which came down before you, wishing to refer for judgment to at taaghoot? And they were commanded to reject it. [4:60]

And there occurs in Soorat-un-Nahl that He, the Majestic and Most High, said:

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

And We sent a Messenger to every nation commanding, “Worship Allaah alone and keep away from at taaghoot.” [16:36]

At-taaghoot is derived from at tughyaan and it is to exceed the due limit. So it is said in the (‘Arabic) language, ‘the water has taghaa’ when the water raises above its level.

He, the Most High, said:

إِنَّا لَمَّا طَغَى الْمَاءُ حَمَلْنَاكُمْ فِي الْجَارِيَةِ

When the water taghaa (went beyond its limits) then We carried you in the Ark. [69:11]


قال ابنُ القيِّمِ رحمهُ اللهُ تعالى: معنى الطاغوت ما تجاوزَ بِهِ العبدُ حدَّهُ مِنْ معبودٍ، أو متبوعٍ، أو مطاع 

Ibn ul Qayyim, rahimahullaah ta’aala, said:

“The meaning of At-taaghoot is anyone regarding whom the servant goes beyond the due bounds, whether it is someone worshipped or followed or obeyed.” 78


[78]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

As for the meaning of at-taaghoot in the Legislation, then it is just as ibn ul Qayyim rahimahullaah mentioned, and the author quoted him here.

At-taaghoot – whoever the servant goes beyond the due limits regarding. The servant has a due limit because he is a servant; Allaah has given him bounds which it is obligatory that he should stop at. So if he goes beyond them, then he will be a taaghoot. So whoever goes beyond the limits set by Allaah for His servants and which He has commanded them not to exceed and not to come close to, then he is a taaghoot. So if he disobeys Allaah and goes beyond His limits and goes beyond the bounds, then he is called a taaghoot because he has gone beyond the limits and exceeded the limits laid down by Allaah.

So his saying:

(At-Taaghoot) is anyone regarding whom the servant goes beyond the due bounds, whether it is someone worshipped or followed or obeyed 

This is the comprehensive definition for the taaghoot because Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, commanded that He alone be worshipped and that no partner be set up with Him. And He commanded that His Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam should be followed and He commanded that He should be obeyed and that His Messenger should be obeyed with regard to that which He declared lawful and that which He declared forbidden. So whoever goes beyond this matter then he is a taaghoot.

Whoever exceeds the limit of worship which Allaah has made obligatory and which is particular to Him and which He has negated for anyone else besides Him, then (this person) worships anything else along with Allaah, then he is a taaghoot.

The mushrik (person of shirk) is a taaghoot because he has exceeded the limit with regards to worship, and has worshipped someone else along with Allaah. He has directed worship to other than the One who deserves it.

And likewise the one who is worshipped and is pleased with that (is a taaghoot). The person who is worshipped by the people and he is pleased with that and he establishes himself as a chief and as a leader upon that basis – such as Fir’awn (the Pharaoh) and an-Namrood and the shaykhs of the extreme Soofee paths, those who are worshipped by their followers and they are pleased with that, or who call the people to that, i.e. to worship them, as will follow – then this a taaghoot with regards to worship.

And his saying, “or followed”.

Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, commanded the whole of creation that they should follow Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. So it is not permissible for anyone to follow anyone else besides him ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam. So whoever follows other than the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam and claims that this is permissible, then he (this person) will be a taaghoot because he has followed someone other than the Messenger sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, the one whom he was commanded to follow.

So following is specific to the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. As for other than him from the scholars and the callers then they are followed when they follow the way of the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. So the one who is followed in truth is the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.

As for those (other people) then they are just conveying the message, they are followed for the truth and upon whatever they conform to with regard to the following of the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. And wherever they are contrary to what the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam was upon, then it is not permissible to follow him.

An example of that is the shaykhs of the Soofee paths; their followers and their worshippers follow them upon other than obedience to the Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam).

Indeed they say, “We have no need for the Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) because we take from where the Messenger (sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) took from and we take knowledge directly from Allaah. The Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) took from Allaah through an intermediary, via Jibreel whereas we take directly from Allaah.

And they say, “You people narrate your religion from those who have died whereas we narrate our religion from Allaah, the Perfect and Most High” because they claim that their shaykhs have a connection with Allaah and that they take knowledge from Allaah directly. They have reached this level of transgression – and Allaah’s refuge is sought – this is their way.

There is no doubt that those people are the heads of the taaghoots – and Allaah’s refuge is sought – because there is no way to Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, except through following His Messenger sallallaahu‘alaihiwasallam.

He, the Most High, said:

قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ  – قُلْ أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ ۖ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْكَافِرِينَ

Say (O Muhammad), “If you truly love Allaah, then follow me, then Allaah will love you and will forgive you your sins. And Allaah forgives extensively and bestows mercy. Say, “Obey Allaah and the Messenger.” So if they turn away then Allaah does not love the disbelievers. [3:31-32]

So the person who follows other than the Messenger, this person is counted as a taaghoot. And likewise the person who calls people to follow him and says to the people, “I will bring you orders directly from Allaah” – this is the greatest one of the taaghoots in existence in the world. And Allaah’s refuge is sought.

His saying, “one who is obeyed… 

Obedience is to be for Allaah and for His Messenger regarding what he declares to be lawful and what he declares to be forbidden. He, the Most High, said:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ ۖ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا

O you who believe! Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger and those in authority from amongst you. And if you dispute about anything, then refer it back to Allaah and to the Messenger, if you truly believe in Allaah and in the Last Day. That is what is best for you and is what is best in its consequences. [4:59]

So what is lawful is that which Allaah has made lawful; and that which is forbidden is that which Allaah has made forbidden. And it is not for anyone to share with Allaah in making things lawful or forbidden. And therefore Allaah passed the ruling upon those who declare things lawful or declare things forbidden or obeys one who does that – that such a person is a mushrik.

He, the Perfect and Most High, said:

فَكُلُوا مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ إِن كُنتُم بِآيَاتِهِ مُؤْمِنِينَ

وَمَا لَكُمْ أَلَّا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَقَدْ فَصَّلَ لَكُم مَّا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِلَّا مَا اضْطُرِرْتُمْ إِلَيْهِ ۗ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا لَّيُضِلُّونَ بِأَهْوَائِهِم بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُعْتَدِينَ

وَذَرُوا ظَاهِرَ الْإِثْمِ وَبَاطِنَهُ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْسِبُونَ الْإِثْمَ سَيُجْزَوْنَ بِمَا كَانُوا يَقْتَرِفُونَ

وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا لَمْ يُذْكَرِ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنَّهُ لَفِسْقٌ ۗ وَإِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ لَيُوحُونَ إِلَىٰ أَوْلِيَائِهِمْ لِيُجَادِلُوكُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ أَطَعْتُمُوهُمْ إِنَّكُمْ لَمُشْرِكُونَ

Eat from that which Allaah’s Name has been mentioned upon, if you truly believe in His Signs. And why would you not eat from that which Allaah’s Name been mentioned upon when He has made clear to you whatever has been made forbidden for you – except for that which you have a dire need of. And there are many who misguide with their desires without knowledge. Indeed your Lord knows best those who exceed the limits. And leave off outward and inward sins. Those who earn sin shall be recompensed for what they earned. And do not eat from that which Allaah’s Name is not mentioned upon, and it is sin.And the devils inspire their followers to dispute with you. And were you to obey them, then you would be people of shirk. [6:118-121]

This is because the people of Jaahiliyyah said, “Dead meat is lawful because Allaah, He is the One who slaughtered it. So it has more right to be lawful than that which you people sacrifice and slaughter.”

So Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, says (in these aayaat from Soorah al An’aam) (for us) do not eat except for that which has been slaughtered in the legislated manner and He made forbidden for you dead meat. Whereas those people say, “No, dead meat is permissible; it has more right to be lawful than that which has been slaughtered because it is you people who have slaughtered it whereas an animal which has died, then Allaah is the One who has slaughtered it.

And therefore He refuted the people of shirk and He said:

… وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا لَمْ يُذْكَرِ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنَّهُ لَفِسْقٌ

Do not eat from that which Allaah’s Name has not been mentioned upon. And it is sin… 

Meaning: it is to exit from obedience to Allaah, the Perfect, the Mighty and Majestic.

And He said after it:

… وَإِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ لَيُوحُونَ إِلَىٰ أَوْلِيَائِهِمْ

And the devils inspire their allies… 

They say, “Dead meat, it was slaughtered by Allaah whereas the animals that you people slaughter, you have slaughtered them. So how can you hold it as lawful that which you people sacrifice and you do not regard as lawful that which Allaah has sacrificed?!

This is a false and futile argument.

And then He, the Most High, said:

وَإِنْ أَطَعْتُمُوهُمْ إِنَّكُمْ لَمُشْرِكُونَ

And if you were to obey them, then you would be people of shirk. 

Because this is shirk with regards to obedience. Declaring something lawful and declaring something forbidden is the right of Allaah, the Majestic and Most High.

So it is not permissible for anyone to declare lawful or to declare forbidden from his own self, or to obey someone in declaring something lawful or something forbidden from his own self. And whoever does that then he is a taaghoot and he is obeying the taaghoots, those who declare things lawful and declare things forbidden besides Allaah.

This is the meaning of his saying: “Or one who is obeyed…” Meaning: obeyed in declaring things lawful and forbidden because declaring things lawful and declaring things forbidden is the right of Allaah, the Majestic and Most High; and the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam was one who conveyed from Allaah that which He made lawful and that which He made forbidden.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/Tawheed

Belief in the Messengers – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 46 (Part C) & Lesson 47
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Belief in the Messengers

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:  

Allaah sent all of the messengers as bringers of good tidings and as warners, and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

رُّسُلًا مُّبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى اللَّهِ حُجَّةٌ بَعْدَ الرُّسُلِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

Messengers were sent as bringers of glad tidings and as warners so that the people should have no excuse with Allaah after the sending of the messengers. And Allaah is ever All Mighty, All Wise. [4:165] [74]


[74]:Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Eemaan in the Messengers is one of the six pillars of eemaan; he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said: 

Eemaan is that you truly believe in Allaah and in His Angels and in His Books and in His Messengers…”

[Hadeeth reported by al Bukhaaree (50) and Muslim (8,9 & 10) from the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radi Allaahu‘ anhu]

So having eemaan in the Messengers is one of the pillars of eemaan; so it is essential to have eemaan in all of the messengers, from the first of them to the last of them. So whoever denies a single messenger, then he is a kaafir (disbeliever) in all of them, just as He, the Most High, said: 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَّخِذُوا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا – أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ حَقًّا ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا

Those who disbelieve in Allaah and in His Messengers want to make a distinction between believing in Allaah and in His Messengers and they say, “We believe in some of them and we disbelieve in some.”And they wish to take a path in between that. They are the disbelievers in truth and We have prepared a humiliating punishment for the disbelievers. [4:150-151]

So there must be eemaan in all of the Messengers from the first of them to the last of them, those whom Allaah has named from them in His Book, and those He has not named. For the Messengers are many; and therefore there occurs in the hadeeth that they number:

“One hundred and twenty four thousand (prophets) and the messengers from them were three hundred and fifteen all together.”

[Hadeeth reported by Ahmad in his Musnad from the hadeeth of Aboo Umaamah al Baahilee radi Allaahu ‘anhu and declared to be saheeh by al Albaanee in as Saheehah (2668)]

So there were many messengers; from them were those whom Allaah named in His Book and from them were those He did not name. So it is obligatory upon us to have eemaan in all of them, from the first of them to the last of them.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

: وأولُهُمْ نوحٌ عليهِ السلامُ، وآخِرُهُم محمدٌ صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو خاتِمُ النَّبيينَ والدليلُ على أنَّ أوَّلُهُم نوح قوله تعالى

And the first of them was Nooh, ‘alaihissalaam, and the last of them was Muhammad sallAllaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam; and the proof that the first of them was Nooh, ‘alaihissalaam, is His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ

We have sent you (O Muhammad), with Revelation, just as We sent Revelation to Nooh and to the prophets who came after him [4:163] 75


 [75]:Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The proof that the first of them was Nooh is His saying, He the Most High:

… إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ

We sent revelation to you…

This was an address to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam

 كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ ۚ وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَعِيسَىٰ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُونُسَ وَهَارُونَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا 

… just as We sent revelation to Nooh and the prophets who came after him; and We sent revelation to Ibraaheem and Isma’eel and Is-haaq and Ya’qoob and to the tribes (of Banu Israeel) and to ‘Eesaa and Ayyoob and Yoonus and Haaroon and Sulaymaan; and We gave the Zaboor to Daawud. [4:163]

Allaah mentioned a number of their names together in this aayah, just as He mentioned a number of their names together in the aayah from Soorah al An’aam:

 وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِ دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُوسُفَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَهَارُونَ

And from his descendants were Daawood and Sulaymaan and Ayyoob and Yoosuf and Moosaa and Haaroon… [6:84]

to the end of the aayaat.

So the first of them was Nooh  – ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam – as proven by His saying, He the Most High:

 .. وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ

And the prophets who came after him… [4:163]

Allaah sent him (Nooh) to his people when they went beyond the limits (ghuloo) concerning the righteous people after the people had been upon the religion of Tawheed from the time of Aadam ‘alaihissalaam for ten generations and they were upon Tawheed.

So when the people of Nooh came, there were amongst (those people) righteous men. Then when those righteous men died, the people grieved severely for them. So Satan seized the opportunity and said to them, “Make images of those righteous people and set them up in the places where you sit in order that when you see these images, you will remember their condition and you will gain enthusiasm upon worship.” So therefore they made images of those dead people and they set them up in the sitting places but they (these images) were not worshipped to begin with because of the presence of scholars who used to explain Tawheed to the people and used to criticize shirk.

Then when the people of knowledge died and the first generation passed away, a later generation came – and the scholars had died – Satan came and said to them, “Your forefathers only erected these images in order to worship them and they used to seek rain near them (these images).” So he made worship of them seem to be good, so they worshipped them besides Allaah.

So in this way, shirk came about upon the Earth; so Allaah therefore sent His Prophet Nooh  – ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam – calling them to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and seeking to return them to Tawheed, which was the religion of their forefather Aadam – ‘alaihissalaam.  However they (Nooh’s people) were obstinate and haughty:

وَقَالُوا لَا تَذَرُنَّ آلِهَتَكُمْ وَلَا تَذَرُنَّ وَدًّا وَلَا سُوَاعًا وَلَا يَغُوثَ وَيَعُوقَ وَنَسْرًا

And they said, “Do not forsake those objects that you worship! Do not forsake Wadd nor Suwaa’ nor Yaghooth nor Ya’ooq nor Nasr. [71:23]

Ibn ‘Abbaas said:

« هذه أسماء رجال صالحين ، صوروا صورهم ونصبوها على مجالسهم فآل ﺑﻬم الأمر إلى أن عبدوها من دون الله »

“These were the names of righteous men; they made images of them and they set them up in their sitting places, and this eventually led them to worshipping them besides Allaah.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree as narration 4920]

So when Nooh – ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam – came to them and forbade them from worshipping them and he commanded them to worship Allaah, they said, “Do not abandon those objects that you worship; do not obey Nooh but rather continue upon your kufr and transgression and obstinacy!

This was the first shirk that occurred upon the Earth and its cause was the images. And therefore the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

« إن أشد الناس عذابا عند الله يوم القيامة المصورون »

“The people who will receive the severest punishment on the Day of Resurrection will be those who make images.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree (5950) and Muslim (2109) from hadeeth of ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood radi Allaahu ‘anhu]

And he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

« إن الذين يصنعون هذه الصور يعذبون يوم القيامة ، يقال لهم : أحيوا ما خلقتم »

Those people who make these images will be punished on the Day of Resurrection. It will be said to them, “Give life to that which you have created.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree (5951) and Muslim  (2108) from hadeeth of ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar  radi Allaahu‘ anhumaa ]

They will be commanded to breathe the spirit of life into these images; and this will be a case of ta’jeez (giving them a command to show their inability) and as a punishment for them, and Allaah’s refuge is sought. This is because making images is a route from the routes which lead to shirk, just as happened with the people of Nooh.

So the first of the Messengers was Nooh. And as for the seal of the Messengers and the last of them, then he was Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. He, the Most High, said:

مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ

Muhammad is not the father of any of your men but rather he is the Messenger of Allaah and the final one of the prophets. [33:40]

And he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

« وأنا خاتم النبيين لا نبي بعدي »

I am the seal of the Prophets; there will be no prophet after me.[6]

[Hadith Reported by Aboo Daawud (4252) and at Tirmidhee from hadeeth of Thawbaan radi Allaahu ‘anhu and declared saheeh by al Albaanee]

So through him, the Heavenly Messages were concluded. So no prophet will be raised and sent after him until the Hour is established. However his Sharee’ah (Revealed Law) will remain until the Hour is established and his religion will remain until the Hour is established, as has preceded.  So whoever claims Prophethood after Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam then he is a disbeliever; and whoever believes (this false claimant to Prophethood) then he (too) is a disbeliever in Allaah, because there will be no prophet after him sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.

And many people have claimed Prophethood after him; and Allaah has exposed them and has made their falsehood apparent. And from the last of them – in what we know – was al Qaadiyaanee, Ghulaam Ahmad al Qaadiyaanee, the Indian; the one who in the beginning claimed to be upon knowledge and worship, then he claimed that he was ‘Eesaa ibn Maryam, then he claimed Prophethood. And he now has followers who call themselves the Qaadiyaanees. And the Muslims have declared them to be disbelievers and they have shunned them and counted them as being a disbelieving sect  outside of Islaam. And they are a people who are shunned and banished – and all praise is for Allaah – from the lands of the Muslims. And they (the Qaadiyaanees) are active (in dawah). However their activities end in failure.

So, in summary, there will be no prophet after the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. Whoever claims prophet hood after him, then he is a great liar, just as he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

« لا تقوم الساعة حتى يبعث دجالون كذابون ، قريبا من ثلاثين كلهم يزعم أنه رسول الله »

“The Hour will not be established until dajjaals (great tricksters), great liars are sent, close to thirty, each one of them claiming that he is a messenger of Allaah.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree (3609) and Muslim after the narration 2923 in the Book of Trials and Tribulations from the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radi Allaahu ‘anhu]

Those who claim falsely to be prophets are many but Allaah exposes their affair and uncovers them and shows how debased they are to the people. And whoever believes them, then he is a disbeliever because he is denying the Truth of what has been said by Allaah and His Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and the consensus of the Muslims upon the fact that Prophethood was concluded with Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And Allaah sent a Messenger to every nation, from Nooh until Muhammad, commanding them to worship Allaah alone, and forbidding them from the worship of at-taaghoot and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

We certainly sent a messenger to every nation ordering them that they should worship Allaah (alone) and they should shun the Taaghoot [16:36] 76


[76]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

And his saying: “Allaah sent a messenger to every nation…”, Meaning: Allaah sent a messenger to every nation of mankind in order to establish the proof upon them so that they would not be able to say, “No bringer of good tidings nor any warner came to us!

And because of His saying, He the Most High: 

مَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّىٰ نَبْعَثَ رَسُولًا

We do not punish until We have sent a messenger. [17:15]

So Allaah sent a messenger to every nation from the previous nations, just as He, the Most High, said:

وَإِن مِّنْ أُمَّةٍ إِلَّا خَلَا فِيهَا نَذِيرٌ

There was not a previous nation except that Allaah sent a warner to them. [35:24]

However it is obligatory that we are aware of what was the call of the Messengers? The call of all the messengers, from the first of them to the last of them, was the call to tawheed as per His saying, He the Most High:

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

We certainly sent a messenger to every nation ordering them that they should worship Allaah (alone) and they should shun the taaghoot. [16:36]

So everything that is worshipped besides Allaah is Taaghoot, as will follow with regards to the types of the Taaghoots – that from their types is that which is worshipped besides Allaah whilst he is pleased with that, as will follow.

So the meaning of His saying, He the Most High:

 .. وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

And shun the Taaghoot…

means to keep away from worshipping the false objects of worship and the idols and the graves and the tombs; these are taaghoots. So the noble aayah proves that the call of the Messengers, all of them, was concentrated upon Tawheed from the first of them to the last of them.

Just as He, the Perfect and Most High, said:

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ

And We did not send any messenger before you except that We revealed to him that none has the right to be worshipped except Me so worship Me alone. [21:25]

And His saying:

يُنَزِّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةَ بِالرُّوحِ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ أَنْ أَنذِرُوا أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاتَّقُونِ

He (Allaah) sends down the angels with the Revelation from His Command to whomever He wishes from His servants ordering them, “Warn the people that none has the right to be worshipped except Me, so therefore fear and be dutiful to Me.” [16:2]

So the call of the Messengers, all of them, was to tawheed and to singling out Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, with worship and to forbidding shirk. This was the call of the Messengers.

Then after tawheed comes the Revealed Laws with regards to the halaal (permissible) and the haraam (forbidden). And the details of the Revealed Laws varied in accordance with the variation between the nations and the needs of the nations. And Allaah abrogated from them whatever He wished, and then all of them were abrogated through the Revealed Law of Islaam – the halaal and the haraam, the rulings and the acts of worship and the commands and the prohibitions.

As for the foundation (of the Revealed Laws) then it was tawheed; then this did not vary and it was not abrogated. This was a single religion; the religion of all the Messengers from the first of them to the last of them was one religion (in this respect) – just as He, the Most High, said:

لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجًا

And for each people We laid down a prescribed law and a detailed way to follow. [5:48]

And the religion of tawheed is the worship of Allaah with that which He legislated at each time in accordance with its particular circumstances. So if a Revealed Law was abrogated then the people moved onto the new abrogating Law.

So whoever insists and remains upon that which has been abrogated, and avoids that which is abrogating, then he will be a disbeliever in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic because the religion which has been abrogated will not be a religion after its being abrogated. Rather it will only be religion before it was abrogated. So when it has been abrogated, then it will not be religion. The religion will be that which comes later (abrogates). Therefore the Revealed Law of Islaam abrogated whatever came before it from the Revealed religious laws.

So whoever remains upon Judaism or Christianity after the sending of Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam then he is a kaafir (disbeliever) because he is acting upon a religion which has been abrogated, whose time has come to an end.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/Prophets-Messengers

Whoever Denies the Resurrection is a Disbeliever – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 46 (Part B)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And whoever denies the Resurrection is a disbeliever, and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

زَعَمَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَن لَّن يُبْعَثُوا ۚ قُلْ بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّي لَتُبْعَثُنَّ ثُمَّ لَتُنَبَّؤُنَّ بِمَا عَمِلْتُمْ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ

Those who disbelieve claim that they will not be resurrected. Say (O Muhammad), ‘Yes, by my Lord you will certainly be resurrected and then you will certainly be informed of the deeds which you did. And that is easy for Allaah. [64:7] [73]


[73]:Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His saying: “Whoever denies the Resurrection is a disbeliever…” – because he has denied a pillar from the pillars of eemaan and because he is denying Allaah and to His Messengers and to His Books because Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, informed about the Resurrection and the Messengers informed about the Resurrection and the Books informed about the Resurrection. So whoever denies it then he is a disbeliever. And the proof is His saying, He the Most High: 

.. زَعَمَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا

Those who disbelieve za’ama claim…

Az –za’m means “a lie” ( a false claim)

أَن لَّن يُبْعَثُوا ..

…that they will not be resurrected. [64:7]

So the aayah proves that denying the Resurrection is kufr (disbelief). They say, “there is no resurrection after death” – the people of shirk and the worshippers of idols in the time of the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam used to dispute about the Resurrection.

أَإِذَا كُنَّا عِظَامًا نَّخِرَةً  – قَالُوا تِلْكَ إِذًا كَرَّةٌ خَاسِرَةٌ

“How can that occur when we have become crumbled bones?” They said, “That would be a return resulting in loss.” [79:11-12]

And they said:

مَن يُحْيِي الْعِظَامَ وَهِيَ رَمِيمٌ

“Who can give life to the bones when they have crumbled to dust?” [36:78]

And from their disputing was:

أَيَعِدُكُمْ أَنَّكُمْ إِذَا مِتُّمْ وَكُنتُمْ تُرَابًا وَعِظَامًا أَنَّكُم مُّخْرَجُونَ – هَيْهَاتَ هَيْهَاتَ لِمَا تُوعَدُونَ

“Does he (the Prophet Saalih) promise you that when you have become dust and bones that you will then be brought out anew from your graves? How far fetched, how far fetched is what you are being promised.” [23:35-36]

– to the rest of the sayings of the disbelievers from the previous nations and from the people of shirk in the time of the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. So whoever denies the Resurrection then he will be along with those disbelievers.

No one denies the Resurrection except for a disbeliever. And Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, has commanded His Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam to swear an oath by Him upon the Resurrection.

He said:

قُلْ بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّي 

Say,”Yes, by my Lord…”

This is an oath. 

لَتُبْعَثُنَّ ثُمَّ لَتُنَبَّؤُنَّ بِمَا عَمِلْتُمْ ..

“…you will certainly be resurrected (from your graves), and then you will certainly be informed of the deeds which you did (in the world).” [64:7]

This aayah is one of the three aayaat in which Allaah commanded His Prophet to swear an oath upon the Resurrection.

The first aayah is from Soorah Yoonus:

وَيَسْتَنبِئُونَكَ أَحَقٌّ هُوَ ۖ قُلْ إِي وَرَبِّي إِنَّهُ لَحَقٌّ ۖ وَمَا أَنتُم بِمُعْجِزِينَ

And they question you, “Is is true?” Say, “Yes, by my Lord, it is indeed true and you cannot render Allaah incapable.” [10:53]

The second is in Soorah Saba’:

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَا تَأْتِينَا السَّاعَةُ ۖ قُلْ بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّي لَتَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ ۖ لَا يَعْزُبُ عَنْهُ مِثْقَالُ ذَرَّةٍ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا أَصْغَرُ مِن ذَٰلِكَ وَلَا أَكْبَرُ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ لِّيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ

And those who disbelieve say, “The Hour will not come upon us.”

Say, “Yes, by my Lord, the Knower of the hidden and the unseen, it shall certainly come upon you. Not even the amount of the tiniest ant in the Heavens or the Earth escapes Him – nor anything smaller nor anything greater  – except that it is confirmed in a Clear Book.”

In order that He should reward those who believe and do righteous deeds. For them there will be forgiveness and generous provision. [34:3-4]

So Allaah commanded His Prophet to swear by Him upon the Resurrection and upon the establishment of the Hour.

And the third aayah is that which is with us from Soorah at Taghaabun:

زَعَمَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَن لَّن يُبْعَثُوا ۚ قُلْ بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّي لَتُبْعَثُنَّ ثُمَّ لَتُنَبَّؤُنَّ بِمَا عَمِلْتُمْ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ

“Those who disbelieve claim that Allaah will not resurrect them after death. 

Say (O Muhammad), ‘Yes, by my Lord you will certainly be resurrected (from your graves), and then you will certainly be informed of the deeds which you did (in the world).  And that is easy for Allaah.[64:7]

So the Wisdom behind the Resurrection is recompensing the servants for their deeds. And His saying, He the Most High:

…then you will certainly be informed… 

Meaning – that you will be informed of your deeds and recompensed for them.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/finaljourney

The Hisaab (Account) and the Meezaan (Balance) – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 46 (Part A)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Hisaab (Account) and The Meezaan (the Balance)

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

After the Resurrection the people will be brought to hisaab (account) and will be rewarded or punished for their actions.  And the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُوا بِمَا عَمِلُوا وَيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا بِالْحُسْنَى

And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth,So that He may recompense those who did evil for what they did; and that He may reward those who did good with the best reward of Paradise. [53:31][72]


[72Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

From the actions that will occur on the Day of Resurrection is al hisaab (the Reckoning) and al meezaan (the Balance). The hisaab has the meaning of munaaqashah (interrogation) of the people of sins.

So the Muslims will be of three categories on the Day of Resurrection:

The first category from them are those who will have no hisaab (reckoning) and will enter Paradise without any reckoning and without any punishment, just as occurs in the hadeeth of the seventy thousand who will enter Paradise without any reckoning and without any punishment.[1]

[1] Hadeeth reported by al Bukhaaree (5705) and Muslim from the hadeeth of ‘Imraan ibn Husayn radi Allaahu ‘anhu

The second category of the people are those who will be given a light reckoning, and it is al-‘ard (presentation of the record) only. He is not taken to account with the reckoning of interrogation but rather will be reckoned such that the record is just presented to him. And this person is also (as well as the first category) one of the people of bliss. He, the Most High, said:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ – فَسَوْفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابًا يَسِيرًا – وَيَنقَلِبُ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ مَسْرُورًا

So as for the one who is given his record of deeds in his right hand, then he will soon receive a light reckoning and he will return to his family joyful. [84:7-9]

The third category: those who will receive a reckoning involving interrogation and this person is in great danger, because of his sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam saying:

Whoever has his record closely examined will be punished.

[Reported by al Bukhaaree (103) and Muslim (2876) from the hadeeth of ‘Aaishah radiAllaahu‘anhaa]

As for the kuffaar (disbelievers) then the scholars disagree regarding them: will they receive a reckoning or will they not receive a reckoning? So from the scholars are those who say that the disbelievers will not receive a reckoning because they (the disbelievers) do not have any good deeds. Rather they will be taken straight to the Fire because they have no good deeds. And from the scholars are those who say (that) they will receive a reckoning with a hisaab (reckoning) of taqreer (confession), meaning a (confession) of their deeds, their kufr (disbelief) and their apostasy. Then they will be taken to the Fire.

And the meezaan (the Balance) means the apparatus upon which the deeds of the people will be weighed. The good deeds will be placed on one scale and the evil deeds on one scale.

He, the Most High, said:

فَمَن ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ – وَمَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ

So whoever’s balance of good deeds is heavy, then they will be the successful ones. And whoever’s balance of good deeds is light then they are the ones who have caused their own souls to be in loss. [23:102-103]

So if the evil deeds outweigh, then the person will lose; and if the good deeds outweigh, then the person will succeed.

This Balance is a balance for the deeds; and likewise, the person who is given the record in his right hand, then his reckoning will be easy. And whoever is given his record in his left hand, then his reckoning will be difficult and he will see the terrors and the huge dangers and he will go on from one danger to the next in the different stages of the Resurrection, and the Reckoning, and Gathering. These are terrifying matters if we reflect upon them.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/finaljourney

Eemaan (True Faith) in al-Ba’th (the Resurrection) – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 45
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Belief in the Resurrection

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And after they have died, the people will be resurrected, and the proof is His saying:

مِنْهَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ وَفِيهَا نُعِيدُكُمْ وَمِنْهَا نُخْرِجُكُمْ تَارَةً أُخْرَىٰ

From the Earth We created you (O Mankind), and to it We shall return you (after death) and from it We shall raise you to life again. [20:55][70]


[70]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He moved on, to another fundamental principle, which is eemaan (true faith) in al-ba’th (the Resurrection) – meaning that death alone is not what is wanted. We know and everyone knows – even the disbelievers and the atheists and the evil heretics – all of them know that death will certainly occur. No one denies death, because it is something which is experienced. However the important matter is the Resurrection after death; this is the point of disagreement between the believers and the disbelievers, the Resurrection after death. And it (the Resurrection) is the restoration of the bodies which have rotted away and become decayed bones and dust and which have separated in the Earth. They will be restored and rebuilt just as they were before, because the One who created them in the first place is fully able to bring them back again.

Then the souls will be blown into them, then they will move and proceed from the graves to the Mahshar (GatheringPlace) because of His saying, He the Most High:

يَوْمَ يَخْرُجُونَ مِنَ الْأَجْدَاثِ سِرَاعًا كَأَنَّهُمْ إِلَىٰ نُصُبٍ يُوفِضُونَ

On the Day when they will come out from the graves, they will be as if they are racing to a finishing post. [70:43]

And He, the Most High, said:

يَخْرُجُونَ مِنَ الْأَجْدَاثِ كَأَنَّهُمْ جَرَادٌ مُّنتَشِرٌ – مُّهْطِعِينَ إِلَى الدَّاعِ ۖ يَقُولُ الْكَافِرُونَ هَٰذَا يَوْمٌ عَسِرٌ

They will come forth from the graves as if they are scattered locusts, rushing towards the caller. [54:7-8]

No one will stay back. So this Resurrection is true, there is no doubt about it. And whoever denies it is a disbeliever in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. And having eemaan in the Resurrection is one of the six pillars of eemaan about which the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

“(Eemaan) is that you truly believe in Allaah and in His Angels and in His Books and in His Messengers and in the Last Day  and that you truly believe in Pre-decree, the good of it and the bad of it.”

[Reported by al Bukhaaree (50) and Muslim from the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radi Allaahu ‘anhu ]

So whoever does not truly believe in the Resurrection and in the Last Day, then he is a kaafir (a disbeliever) in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, even if he bears witness to ‘laa ilaaha ill Allaah’ and that ‘Muhammad rasool ullaah’ and even if he prays and fasts and performs Hajj and gives the Zakaat and does the actions of obedience. If he denies the Resurrection or doubts about it, then he will be a disbeliever in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

And the proofs for the Resurrection are many; from them is His saying, He the Most High:

.. مِنْهَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ

From it We created you…

Meaning: the Earth, when He created Aadam ‘alaihissalaam, the father of mankind.

.. وَفِيهَا نُعِيدُكُمْ

And to it We shall return you…

Meaning; after death, in the graves.

وَمِنْهَا نُخْرِجُكُمْ تَارَةً أُخْرَىٰ

And from it We shall bring you out again. 

This is the Resurrection.

So this aayah includes the beginning and the final return:

مِنْهَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ وَفِيهَا نُعِيدُكُمْ وَمِنْهَا نُخْرِجُكُمْ تَارَةً أُخْرَىٰ

From it We created you and to it We shall return you and from it We shall bring you out again. [20:55]


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

Also the saying of Allaah, the Most High: 

وَاللَّهُ أَنبَتَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ نَبَاتًا – ثُمَّ يُعِيدُكُمْ فِيهَا وَيُخْرِجُكُمْ إِخْرَاجًا

And Allaah created you from the (dust of) the Earth, then He will cause you to return (to being dust) within the Earth, then He will bring you forth and restore you to life. [71:17-18] [71]


[71]  Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

.. وَاللَّهُ أَنبَتَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ نَبَاتًا

Allaah created you from the (dust of) the Earth…

When He created Aadam ‘alaihissalaam from it. 

.. ثُمَّ يُعِيدُكُمْ فِيهَا

Then He will return you to it…

Through death and the graves. 

وَيُخْرِجُكُمْ إِخْرَاجًا

And He will bring you out from it. [71:17-18]

This is the Resurrection. They will come out from the graves and they will proceed to the Mah-shar (the Gathering Place).

He, the Most High, said: 

قَالَ فِيهَا تَحْيَوْنَ وَفِيهَا تَمُوتُونَ وَمِنْهَا تُخْرَجُونَ

He said, “Upon the Earth you will live and upon it you will die and from it you will be brought out.” [7:25]

Meaning: you will live upon its surface and you will die upon it and you will come out from it for the Resurrection on the Day of Resurrection.

These are proofs from the Qur’aan for the Resurrection.

There is also to be found an intellectual proof from the Qur’aan itself and it is that the One who is able to bring the creation about initially is able to restore the creation even more so.

He, the Most High, said:

وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَهُوَ أَهْوَنُ عَلَيْهِ ۚ وَلَهُ الْمَثَلُ الْأَعْلَىٰ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

And He (Allaah) is the One who created the creation to begin with, then He restores it and that is even easier for Him. And for Him is the highest description in the Heavens and the Earth. And He is the All Mighty, the All Wise. [30:27]

The One who was able to bring the people into existence from non existence is able to restore them after death even more so. This is a proof which is textual and intellectual.

And from the proofs for the Resurrection is that which occurs to the Earth with regards to its being brought to life with plants. So you can see the Earth being dead, having no plants upon it, being barren. Then Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, sends down rain upon it, then He causes plants to grow which were dead stubble previously. Likewise the bodies which are within the Earth; they were stored within the Earth and Allaah will send down rain upon them and then the bodies will grow and become complete. And then the souls will be breathed into them. So indeed you see the Earth, how it can be dry and arid, but then it comes to life with that (vegetation) which grows from it.

Allaah, the Majestic and Most High – He is the One who gives life to the Earth after its death:

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنَّكَ تَرَى الْأَرْضَ خَاشِعَةً فَإِذَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهَا الْمَاءَ اهْتَزَّتْ وَرَبَتْ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِي أَحْيَاهَا لَمُحْيِي الْمَوْتَىٰ ۚ إِنَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

And from His signs is that you see the Earth dry and barren. Then when We send down water upon it, it rises and stirs to life with vegetation. The One who gives life to it will certainly give life to the dead. Indeed He has full ability over everything. [41:39]

So the One who has ability over giving life to the Earth after its death is able to give life to the bodies after their death because both are cases of coming to life after death.

And from the proofs for the Resurrection is that if were to be no Resurrection then that would necessitate that the creation of Mankind was meaningless because they (the people) live  –  the obedient, dutiful, believer in Allaah and His Messengers live;  and the disbeliever, the atheist, the evil heretic, the wicked tyrant, the arrogant one, the sinner live – all of them live and then they die, without this believer receiving anything from his reward or without this disbeliever and this evil heretic and this atheist and this tyrannical oppressor of the people receiving any of his recompense whatsoever?

So does this befit Allaah that He would leave the people in this manner without rewarding the people of eemaan for their eemaan, and the people who did good for their good, and the people of crimes and disbelief for their crimes and kufr? This would not befit the Wisdom of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, and therefore He said:

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُوا بِمَا عَمِلُوا وَيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا بِالْحُسْنَى

And to Allaah belongs whatever is in the Heavens and in the Earth, so that He will recompense those who did evil for what they did and He will reward those who did good with the best reward. [53:31]

And this will not occur except on the Day of Resurrection.

And likewise in His saying, He the Perfect:

أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ اجْتَرَحُوا السَّيِّئَاتِ أَن نَّجْعَلَهُمْ كَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَوَاءً مَّحْيَاهُمْ وَمَمَاتُهُمْ ۚ سَاءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ

And do those who commit evil deeds think that We will treat them just the same as those who believe and do righteous deeds in their life and in their death? Evil is the judgment that they make. [45:21]

And, He the Perfect and Most High, said:

أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ كَالْمُفْسِدِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الْمُتَّقِينَ كَالْفُجَّارِ

Shall We make those who truly believe and who do righteous deeds just like those who cause corruption upon the Earth? Or shall We make those who are dutiful to Allaah just the same as the wicked evil doers? [38:28]

And He, the Perfect and Most High, said:

أَفَحَسِبْتُمْ أَنَّمَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ عَبَثًا وَأَنَّكُمْ إِلَيْنَا لَا تُرْجَعُونَ

Do you think that We created you without purpose and that you will not be returned to Us? [23:115]

And He, the Most High, said:

أَيَحْسَبُ الْإِنسَانُ أَن يُتْرَكَ سُدًى – أَلَمْ يَكُ نُطْفَةً مِّن مَّنِيٍّ يُمْنَىٰ – ثُمَّ كَانَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقَ فَسَوَّىٰ – فَجَعَلَ مِنْهُ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالْأُنثَىٰ – أَلَيْسَ ذَٰلِكَ بِقَادِرٍ عَلَىٰ أَن يُحْيِيَ الْمَوْتَىٰ

Does man think that he will be left without having duties placed upon him? Was he not a drop of sperm emitted? Then he was a clot of blood and Allaah created him and fully formed him? And produced from him offspring, male and female? Is the One who did that not able to give life to the dead? [75:36-40]

And He rebutted the disbeliever who said,

مَن يُحْيِي الْعِظَامَ وَهِيَ رَمِيمٌ

Who will give life to the bones when they are decayed away? [36:78]

With His saying:

 قُلْ يُحْيِيهَا الَّذِي أَنشَأَهَا أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ خَلْقٍ عَلِيمٌ  – الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ الشَّجَرِ الْأَخْضَرِ نَارًا فَإِذَا أَنتُم مِّنْهُ تُوقِدُونَ

Say, “He who created him in the first place will give life to him; and He has full knowledge of every created thing. He who produces fire for you from the green tree, then you use it to light your own fires. [36:78-80]

The One who is able to bring out fire which burns from a fresh green tree – is He not able to give life to the dead?

And from the evidences for the Resurrection is using as evidence the creation of the Heavens and the Earth. So the One who created these tremendously huge and awesome created things is fully able to restore man to life because the One who is able to do something tremendous will be able to do something less, even more so.

He, the Most High, said:

أَوَلَيْسَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ بِقَادِرٍ عَلَىٰ أَن يَخْلُقَ مِثْلَهُم ۚ بَلَىٰ وَهُوَ الْخَلَّاقُ الْعَلِيمُ

Is the One who created the Heavens and the Earth not able to create the like of them? Yes, indeed! And He is the All Knowing Creator who creates again and again. [36:81]

And He, the Most High, said:

لَخَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَكْبَرُ مِنْ خَلْقِ النَّاسِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

The creation of the Heavens and the Earth is greater than the creation of mankind. However most of mankind do not know. [40:57]

So these are the evidences for the Resurrection which confirm that Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, will resurrect those who are in the graves and that He will recompense every doer of deeds in accordance with his deeds; if good, then with good and if evil, then with evil. So let the disbeliever disbelieve and let the wicked person and the evil heretic and the apostate be upon evil – because in front of him there lies the Resurrection and the Rising from death and the Recompensing and the Reckoning.

As for the believer, the one who is dutiful to Allaah, who worships Allaah and seeks to draw closer to Allaah, then his deeds will never be lost. For there is an appointment where Allaah will recompense him for his deeds and will give him multiplied reward and will give him things that he did not think of or expect.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/finaljourney

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: Settling in al-Madeenah and the Completion of the Religion – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 44 (Part B)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Settling in al-Madeenah and the Coming Down of the Rest of the Religious Duties and the Completion of the Religion

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

فلما استقر بالمدينة أمر ببقية شرائع الإسلام ، مثل الزكاة والصوم والحج والجهاد ، والأذان ، والأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر ، وغير ذلك من شرائع الإسلام ، أخذ على هذا عشر سنين ، وبعدها توفي صلوات الله وسلامه عليه ، ودينه باق وهذا دينه ، لا خير إلا دل الأمة عليه ، ولا شر إلا حذرها منه ، والخير الذي دلها عليه التوحيد وجميع ما يحبه الله ويرضاه ، والشر الذي حذر منه الشرك وجميع ما يكرهه الله ويأباه ، بعثه الله إلى الناس كافة ، وافترض الله طاعته على جميع الثقلين الجن والإنس 

When he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam settled in al-Madeenah, he was ordered with the rest of the prescribed duties of Islaam, such as the zakaat; fasting (Sawm); Hajj; Jihaad; the adhaan; commanding good and forbidding evil; and the rest of the prescribed duties of Islaam.  He spent ten years establishing that, after which he passed away, may Allaah extol and send blessings of peace upon him. His religion remains and this is his religion.  There is no good except that he directed his nation to it and there is no evil except that he warned them against it.  The good that he guided them to is tawheed, and all that Allaah loves and is pleased with. The evil which he warned against was shirk and everything that Allaah hates and rejects.  Allaah sent him as a prophet to the whole of mankind, and Allaah made it obligatory upon all of the jinn and mankind to obey him.

قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا

The proof is His saying, the Most High: «Say: O people! I am the Messenger of Allaah to you all.» [7:158] [67]


[67Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

This, as has already been explained, means that the sharee`ah came down in stages until it was completed – and all praise is for Allaah – before the death of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and before Allaah sent down to him:

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

«This day, I have completed your religion for you, perfected My blessings upon you, and am pleased with Islaam as your Religion.» [5:3]

A short period after this aayah came down, the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam passed away; and his religion remains until the establishment of the Hour.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

Allaah completed the religion through him and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

«This day, I have completed your religion for you, perfected My blessings upon you, and am pleased with Islaam as your Religion.» [5:3][68]


[68] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam did not pass away until after Allaah had completed the religion and the favour through him and had sent down to him His saying, He the Most High:

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

«This day, I have completed your religion for you, perfected My blessings upon you, and am pleased with Islaam as your Religion.» [5:3]

This aayah came down to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam whilst he was performing the standing in `Arafah during the Farewell Hajj on the Day of Jumu`ah. And he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam lived after it for a short time and then moved on to the highest company (of angels).

And he left his nation upon al-mahajjah al-baydaa (the clear white path) whose night is the same as its day; no one deviates from it except that he is destroyed.

This aayah contains a testimony from Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, that this religion has been completed and that it covers everything of benefit to the servants and that it contains a solution for all of their issues and problems until the Establishment of the Hour. And that is suitable for every time and place; they do not need any other legislation after it or any other book to come down or any other messenger to be sent after the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.           

So, there is no matter to be found and there is no event that will occur until the Day of Resurrection except that in the Legislation revealed to Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam there is a solution for it and the ruling concerning it. However, the matter relates back to who is competent to extract evidence and to derive proof, rulings and issues. If there are to be found ahlul-`ilm (people of knowledge) and people qualified to make ijtihaad (personal deductions in rulings) who fulfill the conditions of ijtihaad, then indeed, this legislation is complete and contains a solution for all problems. Deficiency only comes about from us from the aspect of deficiency in (our) knowledge and inability to fully understand what Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, has sent down – or from the aspect of desires, that there occurs a case of following of desires which diverts a person away from the Truth. Otherwise this religion is fully suitable and comprehensive and complete. Allaah has sufficed the Islaamic nation with it until the establishment of the hour if it acts upon it (the religion) correctly and refers back to it in its affairs.

He, the Most High, said:

فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ

«So if you disagree about anything then refer it back to Allaah and the Messenger.» [4:59]

Referring back to Allaah is to refer back to the Book of Allaah, and referring back to the Messenger after his passing away is to refer back to his Sunnah.

He, the Most High, said:

وَمَا اخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِيهِ مِن شَيْءٍ فَحُكْمُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ

« And whatever you disagree about then its judgment is to be referred to Allaah.» [42:10]

This aayah (from Soorah al-Maa.idah) contains a refutation of those who make accusations against the Islaamic Legislation of its having shortcomings or of its being deficient, (these accusations coming) from the atheists and the evil heretics, or from the “semi students” whose understanding falls short in being able to understand the hidden wisdoms of the Islaamic Legislation. Therefore, these (foolish people) ascribe deficiency to the Islaamic Legislation and they do not know that the deficiency is with themselves alone.

So it (this aayah) contains a refutation against those who accuse the Islaamic Legislation of deficiency and that it does not cover all needs of the servants and all matters of welfare of the servants until the Establishment of the Hour.

Or those who say: “It was specific to a certain olden times,” – because there are many ignorant people who, when it is said to them, “This is the Islaamic ruling,” they say, “That was in the time of the Messenger and the initial time. As for now, conditions have changed and the matters have altered; and the legislated rulings were for people who have now passed away and for problems that have come to an end.”

They say this, and this is disbelief in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and it is a denial of His Saying, He the Most High:

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ

«This day, I have completed your religion for you.» [5:3]

Allaah completed the religion for this nation until the Hour is established for every time and place and for every generation of mankind.

It also contains a refutation of the innovators, those who introduce worship from themselves and ascribe it to the religion, when it has no proof from the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. Rather they just introduce it in accordance with what they deem to be good or based upon blindly following others whom they have good thoughts about from the people of false ideas and people with their own goals and desires. So therefore, they introduce worship into the religion, which Allaah has sent down no proof for. He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

» من أحدث في أمرنا هذا ما ليس منه فهو رد «

«Whoever introduces into this affair of ours that which is not from it, then it is rejected

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 2697 and Muslim no. 1718 from a hadeeth of `Aa.ishah, radiyallaahu `anhaa.]

And he `alaihissalaatu wasallaam said:

» وإياكم ومحدثات الأمور فإن كل محدثة بدعة وكل بدعة ضلالة «

«And beware of newly introduced matters, for every newly introduced matter is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance.»

[Reported by Aboo Daawood, Ahmad, at-Tirmithee, and Ibn Maajah from the famous hadeeth of `Irbaad ibn Saariyyah, radiyallaahu `anhu. (al-Albaanee declared it saheeh) ].

Whoever introduces acts of worship which have no proof from the Book of Allaah nor from the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah, then he is accusing this religion of not being complete and he wishes to complete the religion himself. He is not actually acknowledging the fact that Allaah has completed it.

Whatever was not religion in the time of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam will never be religion after him. So this contains a refutation of these groups: The group who say that Islaam is not suitable for every time, or those who innovate newly invented innovations which have no proof from the Book of Allaah nor the Sunnah of His Messenger, and who ascribe them to the religion.

This aayah (from Soorah al-Maa.idah) contains a refutation of them because the religion was completed by Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. So there is no scope for addition in it nor for reduction from it. And there is no scope for raising doubts nor seeking to obscure the issue by saying that it is not suitable for the people in these later times.

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ

«This day, I have completed your religion for you.» [5:3]

This is the Speech of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. He is the Most Truthful One of those who speak.

And He, the Most High, said:

وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

«And I perfected My blessings upon you, and am pleased with Islaam as your Religion.» [5:3]

This was the last of that which came down to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and it is a testimony from the Lord of the whole of the Creation for this religion that it is complete, comprehensive, and fully suitable for every time and place.

So His saying (in this aayah) is an address to this nation, from the first of it to the last of it, and it is not just an address to the first generation alone. Rather it is an address to the whole of the nation until the Hour is established.

As for ijmaa` (consensus), then the whole nation are agreed in consensus that he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam passed away. No one disagrees about this except the people of false beliefs, those who say that the Messenger did not die. They negate death from the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. This is baseless speech and speech which is clearly rejected. It is refuted by what has been experienced and what is clearly the case, for the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam indeed passed away amongst his Companions. He was bathed, shrouded, had the funeral prayer prayed over him and he was buried. Can these actions be carried out on a person who is still alive?  He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was treated as one who had died. He was washed and shrouded and prayed over and then he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was buried in his grave.

This is the way of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, with regards to His Creation. And then where are the Messengers who came before him? What occurred to him occurred to the Messengers who came before him. They died. And he is one of them, so he died. This is by consensus of the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah. No one disagrees about this except the people of false beliefs, those who seek to attach themselves to the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and seek deliverance through him besides Allaah, and say: “He is still alive.”


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

The proof that he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam died is His saying, the Most High:

إِنَّكَ مَيِّتٌ وَإِنَّهُم مَّيِّتُونَ – ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عِندَ رَبِّكُمْ تَخْتَصِمُونَ

«O (Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam)! You will certainly die and they will certainly die. Then on the Day of Resurrection you will all dispute before your Lord.» [39:30-31][69]


[69Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, when Allaah completed the religion through him and perfected His Favour through him, caused him to die, as is the way of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, with His creation:

كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ

«Every soul shall taste death.» [3:185]

The Prophets and the Messengers enter within this generality:

كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ

«Every soul shall taste death.» [3:185]

The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam passed away and moved on from this world to his Lord, He the Mighty and Majestic. This is established by the text, by consensus, and by analogy.

As for the textual (proof), then it is His statement, He the Most High:

إِنَّكَ مَيِّتٌ وَإِنَّهُم مَّيِّتُونَ

«You will certainly die and they will certainly die.» [39:30]

This is information from Allaah to His Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam that he will soon die.

Meaning: You are going to die.

So it is said to a person who is going to die: “This is a mayyit (person who is going to die).”

As for the person who has actually already died, then it is said about him: ‘mayt,’ with a sukoon (on the letter yaa in the middle of the word), because of His saying, He the Most High:

أَوَمَن كَانَ مَيْتًا فَأَحْيَيْنَاهُ

«Or one who was mayt (dead) and We gave life to him.» [6:122]

So the mayt is the one whose soul has left his body. As for al-mayyit, then he is the one who will die in future.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/muhammad

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: Hijrah to al-Madeenah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 43 (Part A)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Hijrah to al-Madeenah

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

وبعدها أمر بالهجرة إلى المدينة

After that, he was commanded to perform hijrah to al-Madeenah.[62]


[62Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His saying (rahimahullaah): «After that, he was commanded to perform hijrah to al-Madeenah»: When the harm from the Quraysh became severe and their evil increased on account of their blocking (people) from Allaah’s path, persecuting the Muslims and torturing those who had no group of people to defend them from the Muslims, who were in a state of weakness – then Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, gave permission for the Muslims to make hijrah to Abyssinia – the first hijrah, because there was a king with whom no one would be oppressed. He was a Christian, however he was just, so a large group of them migrated.

When the Quraysh came to know of their migration to Abyssinia, they sent two representatives from the wise men of Quraysh to seek (that they be brought back). One of them was `Amr ibn al-`Aas. They had with them gifts for an-Najaashee (the ruler of Abyssinia). They said: “These people have run away from us and they are relatives of ours. We want them to return to us – and they are evil doers – so that they do not cause corruption in your land,” to the end (of what they said). They gave him the gifts that they had with them in order to change his mind, however, he (rahimahullaah) called the muhaajireen and listened to what they had to say and he gave them a choice, so they chose to remain in Abyssinia. Therefore, the two representatives went back frustrated. And the muhaajiroon in Abyssinia remained there.

Then, Allaah favoured an-Najaashee and he accepted Islaam and made his Islaam good. When he died, the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and his Companions prayed the funeral prayer for him with the prayer of one whose body is absent. So in migrating to him there was good for him as well; by means of them, Allaah guided him, so he entered into Islaam.

Then the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam met a group from the Ansaar (the Muslims from al-Madeenah) in Minaa during the Hajj; and the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi was allam used to present himself to the tribes during the Hajj. He would go to the different camping places of the Arabs in Minaa and call them to Allaah. And it happened that he met some men from the Ansaar, so he called them to Allaah and he explained his call to them. They accepted the call from the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and gave him a pledge upon Islaam. They went back to their people from the Hajj and called them to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Then in the next pilgrimage, a larger number came than those who were in the first. Some men from the Ansaar came and gave the pledge to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi was allam, the second pledge of al-`Aqabah, meaning: at the stoning place of al-`Aqabah. They gave a pledge upon the basis of Islaam and upon the basis of aiding him if he made the migration to them and that they would defend him just as they defended themselves and their (own) children.

So then, after this – meaning, after this blessed pledge – the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam commanded those Muslims who were in Makkah to perform hijrah (migration) to al-Madeenah; and whoever migrated, migrated to al-Madeenah. And the Messenger and some of his Companions remained. Then Allaah permitted His Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam to migrate.

When the Quraysh became aware of the migration of his Companions to al-Madeenah and they knew of the pledge that had occurred between him and the Ansaar, they feared that Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam would join up with his Companions in al-Madeenah and would therefore, attain power and gain strength.

On this night, when the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam wanted to depart to make hijrah, they came and surrounded his house. They stood outside the door with their weapons, intending to attack Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. So, Allaah informed His Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam (and) the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam commanded `Alee to sleep upon his bed so that the people of shirk could see him and think that he was the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. So `Alee radiyallaahu `anhu slept upon the bed of Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and covered himself with the blanket of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.

So, the mushriks were waiting for him to come out, thinking that he was the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam when in actuality, the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam had already come out between them and they were unaware. Allaah blinded their sight from him, and he took some dust and scattered it upon their heads, and departed from amongst them.

He went to Aboo Bakr radiyallaahu `anhu and the two of them departed and went to the Cave of Thawr and hid there for three days. The Quraysh were asking the people to catch him by whatever means; alive or dead. So, when they despaired of finding him after looking and searching, they offered rewards for whoever could bring him sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam alive or dead. When they had totally despaired, Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and his Companion left the cave and rode their riding camels and went to al-Madeenah. 


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

والهجرة : الانتقال من بلد الشرك إلى بلد الإسلام 

Hijrah is to move from the land of shirk to the land of Islaam.[63]


[63] :Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

al-Hijrah in the (Arabic) language means “to abandon something.” As for hijrah in the legislation, then it is just as the Shaykh defined it: “to depart from the land of kufr and go to the land of Islaam.” This is hijrah in the legislation.

And hijrah is a tremendous deed; Allaah has joined it along with jihaad in many aayaat.

After the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam made the hijrah to al-Madeenah, the Muhaajiroon, who had been in Abyssinia, then came to al-Madeenah and the Muslims gathered in al-Madeenah – and all praise is for Allaah. A state was formed for the Muslims in al-Madeenah, comprising the muhaajiroon and the Ansaar; and whoever had accepted Islaam would come to them.

Then, Allaah legislated the remaining duties of the religion, so He made the fasting obligatory upon His Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, and the Zakaat in the second year after the hijrah and He made obligatory upon him the Hajj in the ninth year after the Hijrah according the correct saying. With that, the pillars of Islaam were completed, the first of them being the two testimonies and the last of them being the Hajj to Allaah’s Sacred House.

So in summary, we know from this that tawheed is the first requirement in calling to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and that the caller begins with it before he begins with the prayer, the fasting, the zakaat or the Hajj, because the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam remained for ten years calling to tawheed and forbidding shirk. He was not commanded with prayer and he was not commanded with zakaat nor pilgrimage nor fasting. Rather these obligatory duties were made obligatory after tawheed was established.

So when he would send out callers, the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam would command them to call the people with the first thing they would call to being tawheed, just as occurs in the hadeeth of Mu`aadh:

» إنك تأتي قوما من أهل الكتاب ، فليكن أول ما تدعوهم إليه  شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله ، فإن هم أجابوا لذلك فأعلمهم أن الله افترض عليهم خمس صلوات « 

«You are going to a people from the People of the Book. So let the first thing that you call them to be the testimony that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. If they accept that from you, then inform them that Allaah has made five prayers obligatory upon them…» to the end of the hadeeth.

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 1395 and Muslim no. 19 from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Abbaas, radiyallaahu `anhumaa.]

So, this proves that a person is not commanded with the prayer nor with the zakaat nor with fasting until tawheed is established and tawheed is present – and that whoever begins with other than tawheed, then his call will fail and his methodology is contrary to the methodology of the Messengers, all of them `alaihumassalaam.

All of the Messengers began by calling to tawheed and to the correction of `aqeedah. It is important for those who proceed to be aware of this methodology, for there are many people today, who confuse this methodology and change this methodology and choose a different methodology for themselves from their own ideas or from other people who are ignorant. There must be a return to the methodology of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. This is the benefit of having awareness of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and his seerah and of making this one of the three fundamental principles. You know how he called the people and what was his sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam methodology in calling them, so you can proceed upon it because he `alaihissalaatu wasalaam is the example to be followed.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/muhammad

https://abdurrahman.org/hijrah

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: He called the people to tawheed & warned against shirk for 10 years in Makkah  – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 42 (Part A)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Time Period of the Call in Makkah 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

أخذ على هذا عشر سنين يدعو إلى التوحيد

He carried this out for ten years calling to tawheed[60]


[60] :Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His statement: «He carried this out for ten years calling to tawheed» meaning: He called the people to tawheed and warned against shirk for ten years in Makkah. He was calling to tawheed and forbidding shirk, because they used to direct worship to the idols.

And the wisdom in Allaah’s sending him as a prophet in Makkah was that Makkah is Umm al-Quraa (the mother of all the cities), that to which all the cities relate back to. Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, says:

وَمَا كَانَ رَبُّكَ مُهْلِكَ الْقُرَىٰ حَتَّىٰ يَبْعَثَ فِي أُمِّهَا رَسُولًا

«And your Lord would not destroy the townships until He sent a Messenger in their original one.» [28:59]

The ‘Umm‘ is the source to which something relates back to and the foundation which it relates back to; this is the Umm.

His saying, He the Most High:

هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ

«They are the foundation of the Book.» [3:7]

Meaning: The source to which the aayaat which are mutashaabihah (unclear) are referred back to.

Likewise Makkah has been honored by Allaah, in that it is the original place to which the whole of the people of the Earth resort back, and Muslims in the different regions of the Earth return to Makkah. So it is Umm al-Quraa with the meaning that it is the place of return. Allaah sent His Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam in Makkah because it is Umm al-Quraa.

He remained in it for thirteen years forbidding the people of Makkah from shirk and commanding them with tawheed, because the people of Makkah are the example for others besides them.

Therefore, it is binding that Makkah should remain, until the establishment of the Hour, as an abode of tawheed and a beacon for the call to Allaah, and everything which conflicts with that must be kept away from it. So, shirk, innovations, and false superstitions must be kept away from it, because the people always look towards it. What is done in it is propagated around the world. So, if what is done in it is good, then good will spread about and if the opposite is the case, then evil will spread.

So it is obligatory that Makkah be kept pure always and for this reason, He, the Majestic and Most High, said:

وَعَهِدْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ أَن طَهِّرَا بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْعَاكِفِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ

«And We enjoined Ibraaheem and Ismaa`eel that they should purify My House for those people who make tawwaaf, and those who stay there for worship and those who bow and prostrate.» [2:125]

So it is obligatory that Makkah be purified from everything that conflicts with Islaam, so that the religion can emanate from it and the call to the East and Western parts of the Earth, because Allaah sent His Prophet in it and he began his call `alaihissalaatu wassalaam from it.

The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam remained in Makkah for thirteen years; from them were ten years in which he called to tawheed and forbade from shirk (only) and he was not commanded with anything other than that. He was not commanded with the prayer nor with the zakaat nor with fasting nor with Hajj (the Pilgrimage). Rather his call was restricted to warning against shirk and to commanding tawheed.

He would say to them:

Say that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, you will be successful!

And they would say:

أَجَعَلَ الْآلِهَةَ إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا ۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ عُجَابٌ

«Does he make all the objects of worship a single object of worship? Indeed this is something very strange!» [38:5]

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/muhammad

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: Early Life and the Coming Down of the Revelation to Him – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 41
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

He lived for sixty-three years: forty before Prophet-hood and twenty-three as a Prophet and Messenger. He was sent as a Prophet through [the revelation of]Iqra  [58]


[58] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He was born in Makkah sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and breastfed amongst the tribe of Banoo Sa`d with Haleemah as-Sa`diyyah. His father, `Abdullaah, died whilst he was still in the womb and his mother died a short time after his birth. So he was taken care of by Umm Ayman al-Habashiyyah whom he inherited from his father. He came to be under the guardianship of his grandfather, `Abdul-Muttalib, then `Abdul-Muttalib died and his guardianship moved to his paternal uncle, Aboo Taalib.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam lived for forty years before prophet-hood being well-known for trustworthiness, truthfulness, generosity, for avoiding the worship of idols and avoiding the drinking of khamar (alcohol). He had not used to do what the people of the day of ignorance did, rather he `alaihissalaatu wassalaam used to go out to the cave of Hiraa and worship in it for days at a time. He would worship Allaah upon the religious way of Ibraaheem upon tawheed. Then, when he reached the age of forty  `alaihissalaatu wasalaam, the revelation came down upon him such that Jibreel came to him whilst he was in the cave of Hiraa, and said to him: “Recite!” He said: “I cannot recite,” – meaning: I am not able to read. So he pressed him very tightly and then released him and said: “Recite!” He said: “I am not able to recite!” Then, he pressed him a second time and released him and said: “Recite!” He said: “I cannot recite!” So, he pressed for third time and  said:

اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ – خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ

«Recite! In the Name of your Lord Who created, who created man from a clot of blood.» [96: 1-2]

This was his sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam prophet-hood. Allaah made him a prophet through [the aayah] “Iqra.”

Then, he went to his house shaking from fear, because he had encountered something which he had not known before, an extremely frightening matter. So, he found his wife Khadijah radiyallaahu`anha, and she covered him up and calmed him down. She said to him: “Know! By Allaah! Allaah will not humiliate you for indeed you maintain the ties of kinship, you show hospitality to the guest, you look after the orphans, and you help people who have been struck by calamities.” So, she prepared him and took him to her paternal uncle, Waraqah ibn Nawfal. He was a man who devoted himself to worship and who read the previous scriptures and who worshipped Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. When he informed him of what he had seen, he said: “This was the spirit who used to descend to Moosaa,” meaning: Jibreel `alaihisalaam. 


The Coming Down of the Revelation to him (sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam)

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

He was sent as a Messenger with al-Muddathir. His land was Makkah and he made migration to al-Madeenah. Allaah sent him to warn against shirk and to call to tawheed. The proof is His saying:

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ – قُمْ فَأَنذِرْ – وَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّرْ – وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ – وَالرُّجْزَ فَاهْجُرْ  – وَلَا تَمْنُن تَسْتَكْثِرُ – وَلِرَبِّكَ فَاصْبِرْ

«O you wrapped (in garments)! Arise and warn! And exalt your Lord! And purify your garments! And shun the idols! And do not give anything in order to receive more in return! And patiently persevere for the sake of your Lord!» [74:1-7] [59]


[59] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

There came down to him, His saying, He the Most High:

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ – قُمْ فَأَنذِرْ

«O you wrapped (in garments)! Arise and warn!» [74:1-2]

This was him being sent as a Messenger and this is the meaning of the saying of the Shaykh:

«He was sent as a Prophet through [the revelation of] Iqra. and he was sent as a Messenger with al-Muddathir

The difference between a prophet and a Messenger is that a prophet (nabiyy) is one to whom Allaah has revealed way, but he was not commanded to convey it, whereas a rasool (Messenger) is one to whom a revealed way was sent and he was commanded to convey it. The clarification of that is that the Messenger is one to whom a revealed law comes down and a book, so he (sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam) was sent as a prophet through Iqra. and he was sent as a messenger through al-Muddathir at the age of forty. This was the case with the prophets. A prophet is sent with a revealed law and book from before him and he is entrusted with certain duties like the prophets of Banoo Israa`eel who came after Moosaa.

«al-Muddathir» means the one who is wrapped up, because he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was struck by alarm, so he said: “Cover me up with garments! Cover me up with garments!” Meaning: Cover me up. Therefore, Allaah sent down to him:

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ – قُمْ فَأَنذِرْ – وَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّرْ

«O you wrapped (in garments)! Arise and warn! And exalt your Lord!» [74:1-3]

 Meaning: Exalt and venerate Him.

وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ

«And purify your garments!» [74:4]

Meaning: Purify your deeds from shirk, because a person’s actions are garments. Allaah, the Most High, said:

وَلِبَاسُ التَّقْوَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ

«And the clothing of dutifulness to Allaah, that is better.» [7:26]

Dutifulness is called clothing.

وَالرُّجْزَ فَاهْجُرْ

«And keep away from Ar-Rujz (the idols)! »[74:5]

«ar-Rujz» ar-Rujz (filth) means the idols.

«Shun [the idols]» meaning: abandon and keep well away from them.

So, Allaah raised him as a Prophet at the age of forty and he remained in Makkah for thirteen years, calling the people to tawheed and to the abandonment of the worship of idols. There were many discussions which he had with the people of shirk. He suffered harm upon himself and upon those who believed in him and his followers. The people of shirk caused many difficulties throughout the thirteen years.

Three years before the migration, he was taken on the Night Journey to Jerusalem. He was taken up through the heavens and the five daily prayers were made obligatory upon him. So, he prayed in Makkah for three years. Then, the Quraysh plotted to kill and attack him, so Allaah permitted him to migrate to al-Madeenah. So, he migrated to al-Madeenah after he had met with the Ansaar in the first and second pledge of al-`Aqabah.

He migrated to al-Madeenah and remained there for ten years. So, altogether, it was twenty-three years [of prophet-hood]. After the prophet-hood, he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam lived twenty-three years, thirteen years in Makkah laying the foundations of the call to tawheed, and for ten years in al-Madeenah. Then, Allaah took his soul at the age of sixty-three years. So, his life-span in Messenger-ship was twenty-three years.

This blessing which Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, sent down upon him, this abundant knowledge, this jihaad, and this establishment which He granted him upon the earth was all in this short time of twenty-three years. This is one of the signs of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, and from the blessings given to the prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, the blessings of his call and the blessings of the revelation which was sent down to him. And before all of this, it came about through the aid of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. He is the One who helped him. He is the One who defended him and aided him until he conveyed His call to the East and the West. All praise is for Allaah, the Lord of the whole of creation.

His saying: «Allaah sent him to warn against shirk and to call to tawheed» This is his call sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, warning against shirk and calling to tawheed. And this is what is obligatory for the du`aat (callers) to precede upon in their call, that they should focus upon warning against shirk and calling to tawheed before everything, otherwise their call will not be upon the manhaj (methodology) of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.

Allaah sent the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam with warning against shirk and calling to tawheed, so it is essential to lay this foundation down first of all. After that, the person can direct his attention to the rest of the matters, since matters will not be correct and sound except with the presence of tawheed. If all of the people were to abandon zinaa (fornication), intoxicants, stealing, and they took on every virtuous quality from deeds and behavior, but did not abandon shirk, there would be no benefit in these matters and it will not benefit them. Whereas, if the people were to remain free of shirk, but had major sins less than shirk, then there is hope for such a person that Allaah will either forgive him or punish him in accordance with the level of his sins. But his final destination will be to Paradise because he is a person of tawheed. 

So Tawheed is the fundamental basis and foundation. There is no salvation except with the presence of tawheed firstly. Therefore, it is obligatory to concentrate and always give attention to it and to call the people to it and to teach it to the people and to explain it to them, what is the meaning of tawheed and what is the meaning of shirk. The Muslim must be aware of this matter and attain certainty concerning it. He should check himself so that he does not fall into anything from shirk or infringe tawheed. This matter is essential and the da`wah must proceed upon this basis.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

The meaning of «Arise and warn!» is to warn against shirk and call to tawheed. «And exalt your Lord!» meaning: venerate Him with tawheed. «And purify your garments!» meaning: purify your deeds from shirk. «And shun ar-rujz» ar-rujz means the idols and «shunning» meaning: abandoning them and disassociating from them and their people.


Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/muhammad

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: His Name and Lineage – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 40
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Third Fundamental Principle:
Knowledge About Our Prophet Muhammad –sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam
His Name, His Lineage, and His Early Life 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

الأصل الثالث : معرفة نبيكم محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم 

The third fundamental principle: Knowledge about your Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam.[56]


[56] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His saying: «The third fundamental principle» meaning: from the three fundamental principles, because the Shaykh (rahimahullaah) has mentioned at the start of the treatise that it is obligatory upon every Muslim male and female to have knowledge of these three fundamental principles, and they are: knowledge of Allaah, knowledge of the religion of Islaam, and knowledge about His Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam with the evidences.

As for the first and second fundamental principles, then a clarification of them has preceded and an explanation of their evidences. 

The third fundamental principle: It is knowledge about the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam, because of the fact that the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam is an intermediary between Allaah and His creation with regard to conveying His Religion and His Message. Therefore, it is obligatory to know about him, `alaihissalaatu wasalaam.  Otherwise, how could you follow a person whom you do not know of?

So, you must know about him with regard to his name, the land he was born and grew up in, the land to which he migrated and that you know the extent of his lifespan `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. And the phases of his life, `alaihissalaatu wasalaam and the phases of the time period which he was sent in this world. That you also know what occurred before Prophet-hood and after it and before the migration, and after it. That you know how the revelation first came to him, `alaihissalaatu wasalaam and when the revelation began, and what is the aayah which proves his Prophet-hood and the aayah which proves His Messenger-ship. That you can quote the aayahs which prove His Prophet-hood and the aayahs which prove His Messenger-ship. You must know this; that you know his lineage and which tribe he was from, because the Arabs are made of tribes and he was an Arab without any doubt. So, knowledge of these matters is essential about the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam through studying the aayahs and the ahaadeeth which are connected to these matters.

And you look into the life of the Messenger sallallaahu`alayhi wa sallam and his call, in order that you should know these matters about your Prophet whom you are commanded to follow and take as an example.


His Name, His Lineage

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

وهو محمد بن عبد الله بن عبد المطلب بن هاشم من قريش ، وقريش من العرب ،  والعرب من ذرية إسماعيل بن إبراهيم الخليل ، عليه وعلى نبينا أفضل الصلاة والسلام

He is Muhammad, the son of `Abdullaah, the son of `Abdul-Muttalib, the son of Haashim, who is from Quraysh. Quraysh are from the Arabs, and the Arabs are from the descendants of Ismaa`eel, the son of Ibraaheem, al-Khaleel(the specially beloved one). May the most excellent salaat (extolment) and salaam(peace and security) be upon him and our Prophet.[57]


[57Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

This is his name and lineage. His name is Muhammad `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. He has other names besides Muhammad. However, the most famous one of his names is Muhammad and Allaah mentioned that in the Qur.aan in a number of aayahs.

مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ

«Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah» [48:29]

And His saying:

وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ

«And Muhammad is not except a Messenger, Messengers have passed away before him.» [3:144]

And His saying:

مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ

«Muhammad is not the father of any of your men.» [33:40]

And His saying:

«And those who have eemaan (truly believe) and perform righteous deeds, and believe in that which was sent down upon Muhammad (sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam), for it is the truth from their Lord.» [40:2]

So, Allaah mentioned his name Muhammad in a number of aayaahs.

From his names is Ahmad. Allaah mentioned in His saying regarding the glad tidings given by al-Maseeh `alaihissalaam:

وَإِذْ قَالَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُم مُّصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيَّ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَمُبَشِّرًا بِرَسُولٍ يَأْتِي مِن بَعْدِي اسْمُهُ أَحْمَدُ

«And remember when `Eesaa ibn Maryam, said: “O Children of Israa.eel! I am Allaah’s Messenger to you confirming what came before me from the Tauraat, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger who will come after me, whose name will be Ahmad.» [61:6]

So, he is Muhammad and Ahmad. The meaning of that is one abundant in praise, `alaihissalaatu wa salaam, and abundant in attributes for which he is to be praised.

From his names are: the Prophet of Mercy (نبي الرحمة), the Prophet of Great War (نبي الملحمة) – meaning jihaad in Allaah’s Cause – the one after whom the people will be resurrected (الحاشر), and the final Prophet (والعاقب), `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. The one who is such that the people will be resurrected after his being sent as a Prophet, because he is the last of the Messengers, sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. So, there is nothing after him except for the establishment of the Hour. After his Messenger-ship, the Hour will be established and the people will be resurrected for recompensing and accounting.

Whoever wants to get knowledge of these matters (Names and Meanings) , let him refer back to the Book Jalaa.ul-Afhaam fee asSalaati was-Salaam `alaa Khayril-Anaam of the Imaam Ibnul-Qayyim (rahimahullaah).

As for his lineage: He is Muhammad, the son of `Abdullaah, the son of `Abdul-Muttalib, the son of Haashim, the son of `Abdul-Manaaf, the son of Qusay, the son of Kilaab.

He was from the tribe of Quraysh which is the noblest of the tribes, and Quraysh are from the descendants of Ismaa`eel `alaihissalaatu wasalaam.

The Arabs are of two categories upon the most famous saying:

  • The original Arabs: They were the descendants of Qahtaan.
  • The assimilated Arabs: They were the descendants of `Adnaan from the descendants of Ismaa`eel `alaihissalaam, the son of Ibraaheem, al-Khaleel, `alaihissalaam. They were called al-Musta`rabah (the assimilated Arabs) because they learned the Arabic language from the original Arabs.

When the tribe of Jurhum came and settled in Makkah beside Haajir, the mother of Ismaa`eel and her son Ismaa`eel whilst he was young – when they found the well of Zamzam, they settled there and made an agreement with Haajir that they should settle beside her and that she should permit them to take water from the well. Ismaa`eel `alaihissalaam was a suckling infant at that time, then he grew older and took the Arabic language from the tribe of Jurhum, and they were from the original Arabs. He married from the tribe of Jurhum and descendants came from him who learnt the Arabic language. They grew up with the Arabs and became Arabs themselves by assimilation. They are the descendants of `Adnaan. As for the original Arabs, then they are the descendants of Qahtaan whose origin was from Yemen.

Some of the scholars said: The original Arabs themselves were of two categories: Arabs who became extinct and Arabs who remained.

The Arabs who became extinct were the ones who were destroyed. They were the people of Nooh, `Aad, and Thamood, and Shu`ayb.

As for the remaining Arabs, then they are those who are divided into the original Arabs and the assimilated Arabs.

The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was from the descendants of Haashim (the tribe of Haashim), and Haashim was from the descendants of Ismaa`eel, `alaihissalaatu wa salaam. His name was Muhammad, the son of `Abdullaah, the son of `Abdul-Muttalib.

And [regarding] `Abdul-Muttalib, this was not his name, his name was Shaybah. However, he was called `Abdul-Muttalib because his paternal uncle, al-Muttalib, the son of Manaaf, brought him from al-Madeenah whilst he was little from his maternal uncles, Banoo an-Najaar. So, when the people saw him being dark from travelling, they thought he was a slave owned by al-Muttalib. So, they said: `Abdul-Muttalib (the slave of Muttalib), the son of Haashim, the son of `Abdul-Manaaf. `Abdul-Manaaf had four sons: Haashim who was the grandfather of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam, al-Muttalib, `Abd-Shams, and Nawfal.

Banoo Haashim are called the Haashimiyyoon and Banoo Muttalib are called the Muttallibiyyoon.

As for  `Abd- Shams, then from them was `Uthmaan –radiyallaahu `anh and Banoo `Umay-yah. They were all from `Abd- Shams.

As for Nawfal, he had descendents, from them: Jubayr bin Mut`im and Hakeem ibn Hizaam.

Ibraaheem `alaihissalaatu wasalaam had Ismaa`eel and he was the eldest. He is the grandfather of the Arab descendants of `Adnaan. And Ishaaq is the grandfather of the children of Israa.eel, and all of the Prophets were from the descendants of Ishaaq, except for our Prophet `alaihissalaatu wasalaam, he was from the descendants of Ismaa`eel, he was the final prophet.

As for his birth: He sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam was born in the year of the elephant. It is the year when Abrahah, the King of Yemen came towards Makkah. He was sent on a mission by the (christian) King of the Abyssinians to demolish the Ka`bah. With him, there was a very large elephant, so when he reached the place which is called al-Mughamas, nothing remained except for him to enter Makkah and demolish the Ka`bah. The people of Makkah had already separated and climbed into the mountains because they had no strength to oppose him. So, he wanted to go on to the Ka`bah, but the elephant was held back and it refused to get up from the ground. Allaah held it back. When he turned it in the direction other than the direction of Makkah, it would get up and trod. And when he pointed it in the direction of Makkah, it was prevented and unable to walk, and whilst they were in that condition, they saw two flocks of birds coming from the direction of the ocean and they had with them stones. Each bird had two stones with it, a stone in its beak and a stone between its feet. They threw these little stones down and they would strike the head of the man and it would come out from his anus and split him in two halves. So, Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, destroyed him.

Allaah sent down, with regard to that, reminding the Quraysh, Sooratul-Feel:

أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّكَ بِأَصْحَابِ الْفِيلِ – أَلَمْ يَجْعَلْ كَيْدَهُمْ فِي تَضْلِيلٍ – وَأَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ طَيْرًا أَبَابِيلَ – تَرْمِيهِم بِحِجَارَةٍ مِّن سِجِّيلٍ

«Do you not see how your Lord dealt with the Companions of the Elephant? Did He not make their plan go astray? And He sent against them birds, in flocks, striking them with stones of clay.» [105:1-4]

[The stones were] from Hell, and Allaah’s refuge is sought.

فَجَعَلَهُمْ كَعَصْفٍ مَّأْكُولٍ

«So He made them like straws of corn devoured.» [105:5]

They became like dry straw which have been eaten by animals and excreted.

This was the story of the elephant, so Allaah defended His Sacred House and destroyed this tyrant Abrahah, and in this year, Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was born. There appeared along with his birth signs; light appeared along with him which caused the castles of Shaam to shine. In the night of his birth, the idols shook. The throne room of Kisraa (the emperor of Persians) shook and some balconies from it fell down in the night the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was born. These were signs of the descending of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam as a Prophet. The devils were thrown into commotion in that tremendous night.

He was born in the mountain-pass of `Alee, he was born in Makkah (close to the Ka’bah) . However, the precise location of the house is not confirmed.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/muhammad

Al-ihsaan (Perfection) : It’s Categories and Levels – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 36 – Part B & Lesson 37
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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The Third Level is al-Ihsaan 

The Definition of Ihsaan 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

:المرتبة الثالثة : الإحسان ، ركن واحد ، وهو 

أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه ، فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه يراك

The third level is al-ihsaan. It is a single pillar and it is: «That you worship Allaah as if you were seeing Him, and even though you do not see Him, He certainly sees you.»46


[46]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Al-Ihsaan in the language means to perfect something and complete it. It is derived from al-husun which means al-jamaal (beauty), the opposite of ugliness.

And it is divided into (three) categories: 

  • Firstly: Al-Ihsaan (Perfection) of what lies between the servant and his Lord. This is what is meant (in this book here). 
  • Secondly: Al-Ihsaan (Perfection) of what is between the servant and the rest of the people. 
  • Thirdly: Doing well and perfecting what you do. When a person makes something or does an action, then it is obligatory upon him that he perfects it and does it completely. 

[1] Ihsaan (perfection) of what lies between the servant and his Lord


The first type is ihsaan (perfection) of what lies between the servant and his Lord. The Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam explained it when Jibreel asked him in the presence of the companions as will follow. He said:

«Ihsaan is that you worship Allaah as if you were seeing Him,
and even though you do not see Him, He certainly sees you

So ihsaan between the servant and his Lord is his perfecting the action which Allaah has made a duty upon him, that he does it correctly, purely and sincerely for the Face of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

So, an action in which there is ihsaan between the servant and his Lord is that which is done sincerely for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and done with the following of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.

Al- ihsaan is of two levels :

The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam made clear that ihsaan is of two levels, one of them being higher than the other: 

The first level is that you worship Allaah as if you were seeing Him such that your certainty and eemaan in Allaah reaches such a level that it is as if you are actually seeing Allaah with your eyes. You have no hesitancy or doubt, rather it is as if Allaah is in front of you, He the Perfect and Most High, and you are seeing Him openly. Whoever reaches this level has reached the limit of ihsaan. You worship Allaah as if you are seeing Him on account of the completeness of certainty and sincerity, which is as if you are seeing Allaah with your eyes.

Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, will not be seen in this world, rather He will only be seen in the Hereafter. However, you see Him with your heart to the extent that it is as if you are seeing Him with your eyes. Therefore, He will reward the people of ihsaan in the Hereafter that they will see Him, He the Perfect and Most High. This is since they used to worship Him as if they were seeing Him in this world. So, Allaah rewards them by giving them the opportunity to see Him with their eyes in the abode of bliss. He, the Most High, said:

لِّلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا الْحُسْنَىٰ وَزِيَادَةٌ

«For the people of ihsaan there will be the best reward of Paradise and something extra.» [10:26]

Something extra is looking upon the Face of Allaah. The reason is that they perfected their deeds in this world, so Allaah gave them the best reward which is Paradise. And He will give them an increase which is seeing Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. So therefore, you worship Allaah as if you are actually witnessing Him, upon love and longing to meet Him, He the Perfect and Most High. You feel delight in obedience to Him and you feel calm and obedience to Him, He the Perfect and Most High. You eagerly desire obedience to Him. This is the path of the people of ihsaan. 

The second level: If you do not reach this tremendous level (first level), then you worship Him upon the path of al-muraqabah (watchfulness) such that you know that Allaah sees you, knows your condition, and knows what lies within yourself. Therefore, it is not befitting that you should disobey Him and contradict His command when He sees and observes you. This is a good state, however, it is less than the first one. So, as long as you know that He sees you, then you therefore perfect your worship of Him and you do it well, because you know that Allaah is seeing you. And for Allaah is the Highest example. If you were in front of a created being who had status and he commanded you with a command, and you were carrying this matter out in front of him and he was looking at you, would it be befitting that you be negligent in the performance of this action? 

So in summary, ihsaan is of two levels: 

  • The level of witnessing with the heart: It is that you worship Allaah as if you are seeing Him from the strength of certainty and eemaan. It is as you are seeing Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, with your eyes. 
  • The second level: It is that you worship Allaah knowing that He sees you and observes you, therefore, you do not disobey Him and contradict His command, He the Perfect and Most High.

This is the level of al-ihsaan and it is highest of the levels of the religion. Whoever reaches it has reached the highest of the levels of the religion. Before it is the level of eemaan, and before that is the level of al-Islaam.

The deen has a number of domains: 

The first domain: al-Islaam. It is wide to such an extent that the hypocrite enters within it and is called a Muslim and is treated like a Muslim, because he has submitted to Islaam outwardly. So therefore, he enters within the domain of Islaam. And the person who is weak in eemaan [enters the domain of Islaam], but he has nothing from eemaan except a mustard seed of it. 

The second domain: It is more restricted and more specific – the domain of al-eemaan. The hypocrite in belief does not enter into it whatsoever. Rather, only the people of eemaan enter into it, and they are two categories: those who are complete in eemaan and those who are deficient in eemaan. So, the sinful believer and dutiful believer both enter into it. 

The third domain: It is more restricted than the second one – the domain of al-ihsaan. It just as the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam made clear. No one will enter into it except the people of complete eemaan.


The Evidence for al-Ihsaan 

And the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا وَّالَّذِينَ هُم مُّحْسِنُونَ

«Allaah is with those who fear Him and are dutiful to Him; and He is with those who are people of ihsaan.» [16:128]

And His saying, He the Most High:

وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى الْعَزِيزِ الرَّحِيمِ الَّذِي يَرَاكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ وَتَقَلُّبَكَ فِي السَّاجِدِينَ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

«And place your reliance upon the All-Mighty, the Bestower of Mercy. He who sees you when you stand to pray. And who sees your movements along with those who pray along with you. Indeed! He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.» [26:217-220]

And His saying, He the Most High:

وَمَا تَكُونُ فِي شَأْنٍ وَمَا تَتْلُو مِنْهُ مِن قُرْآنٍ وَلَا تَعْمَلُونَ مِنْ عَمَلٍ إِلَّا كُنَّا عَلَيْكُمْ شُهُودًا إِذْ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا يَعْزُبُ عَن رَّبِّكَ مِن مِّثْقَالِ ذَرَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي السَّمَاءِ وَلَا أَصْغَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ وَلَا أَكْبَرَ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ

«And you are not (O Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam) engaged in any matter nor do you recite the Book of Allaah, – nor do you do any action (O people), except that We are witness in your deeds when you do them. And not even that which is of the weight of the tiniest ant is hidden from your Lord on the earth or in the heavens. Nor is there anything smaller than that or greater than it except that it is written in a Clear Book [10:61] [47]


[47] : Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

This is the proof for the first level of al-ihsaan:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا وَّالَّذِينَ هُم مُّحْسِنُونَ

«Allaah is with those who fear Him and are dutiful to Him, and He is with those who are people of ihsaan.» [16:128]

The aayah proves that Allaah is with the people of ihsaan. They are those who worship Allaah as if they were seeing Him, so Allaah is with them in a specific sense of Ma`iyyah (Allah being with creation) – the Ma`iyyah with regard to aiding, helping, and tawfeeq (guiding them to and granting them attainment of correctness).

And His saying, He the Most High:

وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى الْعَزِيزِ الرَّحِيمِ الَّذِي يَرَاكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ وَتَقَلُّبَكَ فِي السَّاجِدِينَ

«And place your reliance upon the All-Mighty, the Bestower of Mercy. He who sees you when you stand to pray. And who sees your movements along with those who pray along with you.» [26:217-219]

This is a proof for the second level. This is a proof for his saying [sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam]: «Then, He certainly sees you

«And place your reliance» Meaning: trust your affairs «to the All-Mighty, the Bestower of Mercy» He is Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

«When you stand to pray» You stand for worship and the prayer.

«And who sees your movements along with those who pray along with you» He sees you whilst you are performing your rukoo` (bowing) and whilst you are performing your sajdah (prostration). He sees you in all the states of worship; standing, bowing, and prostrating. He, the Perfect and Most High, sees you.

«Indeed! He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing» The One who hears your sayings. The One who knows your sayings, He the Perfect and Most High.

And His saying, He the Most High:

وَمَا تَكُونُ فِي شَأْنٍ وَمَا تَتْلُو مِنْهُ مِن قُرْآنٍ وَلَا تَعْمَلُونَ مِنْ عَمَلٍ إِلَّا كُنَّا عَلَيْكُمْ شُهُودًا إِذْ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ

«And you (O Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam) are not engaged in any matter nor do you recite the Book of Allaah, – nor do you do any action (O people), except that We are witness in your deeds when you do them.» [10:61]

This is a proof for the second level.

«And you (O Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam) are not engaged in any matter» This is an address to the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam. In any affair from your affairs, from the affairs of worship or other than it – all of your actions and your movements – you will not be engaged in any affair at all.

«Nor do you recite from it (i.e. Book of Allaah)» Meaning: from Allaah, because the Qur`aan is from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Or the pronoun could refer back to the affair, so the meaning would be: From the affairs which you are engaged in is recitation of the Qur`aan.

«Nor do you do (O people)» This is [an address] for all of the nation, for the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and other than him.

«Any action» Meaning: Any action from the actions, whether good or bad.

«Except that We are witness [in your deeds]» We are seeing you, observing you, and witnessing you. This is a proof for his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam: «Then indeed, He sees you

«When you do them» You are carrying it out and you are doing it. So, this gives a proof for the second level from the levels of ihsaan, in that He, the Majestic and Most High, witnesses the action of every doer of an action. He, the Perfect and Most High, sees him, knows him, and observes him. Nothing is hidden from him.

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَخْفَىٰ عَلَيْهِ شَيْءٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي السَّمَاءِ

«Nothing whatsoever in the earth or in the heavens is hidden from Allaah.» [3:5]


[2] Ihsaan between the person and rest of the creation


As for ihsaan between the servant and the creation, then its meaning is: doing good to them and withholding from harming them.

Such that you feed the hungry person, cloth the person without clothing, assist the needy person with your position, and that you intercede for the one who needs to be interceded for. You do that which is good with all the different aspects of good. You are hospitable to the guest and you are generous towards the neighbor. Nothing but good emanates from you towards the neighbor, and you withhold harming him. So, no harm comes from you towards him or towards anyone else.

  1. From the people, there are who are such that nothing but harm comes from them, and
  2. From the people there are those whom harm and good comes. And
  3. From the people, there are those whom nothing but good comes from them. This is the highest of the levels.

Doing good towards the people and withholding harm from them is ihsaan (good and fine treatment) towards the people:

أَحْسِنُوا ۛ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

«Do good. Allaah loves al-Muhsineen (the doers of good).» [2:195]

Even towards the animals, it is obligatory that you treat them well and make available for them whatever they need and that you withhold harming them and that you are gentle with them. This is from ihsaan towards the animals.

Even a person who is going to be rightfully executed, you should not torture him, rather, you should execute him in a fine and tranquil manner. A person who is obligatory to execute, and someone it is obligatory to carry a hadd (prescribed punishment) upon, then it is carried out upon him with gentleness. There is to be no mutilation, no torture, and no beating to death.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

»إن الله كتب الإحسان على كل شيء ، فإذا قتلتم فأحسنوا القتلة ، وإذا ذبحتم فأحسنوا الذبح«

«Allaah has obligated ihsaan with regard to everything. So, when you kill, then kill in a fine manner. And when you slaughter an animal, then slaughter in a good manner

[Reported by Muslim no. 1955 as a hadeeth of Shaddaad bin Aws, radiy Allaahu `anhu.]

So, [the principle of ihsaan applies] to execution or other than it from that which necessitates prescribed punishment.

«When you slaughter» Meaning: when you slaughter animals which are to be eaten, then slaughter in a fine manner:

» وليحد  أحدكم شفرته ، وليرح ذبيحته «

«Let one of you sharpen his knife and give relief to the animal which he is slaughtering

Therefore, you are to treat with ihsaan even the animals. Allaah forgave the prostitute woman from the People of Israaeel on account that she gave a drink of water to a dog which had its tongue hanging out from thirst. So, she gave it water to drink and Allaah thanked her for that and forgave her, her sin.[2] This is a tremendous sin and it is prostitution, meaning: zinaa (fornication). But Allaah forgave her on account of that – because she treated the thirsty animal in a fine manner.

So how about something other than a dog? If you were to treat a hungry person from the Muslims with ihsaan, or from the descendants of Aadam, even if he is a disbeliever – if you were to treat him well, then Allaah, the Majestic and Most High will thank you for that fine treatment. He, the Most High, said:

أَحْسِنُوا ۛ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

«Do good. Allaah loves al-Muhsineen (the doers of good).» [2:195]


[3] Ihsaan (Perfection) of the Action


The third type: It is perfection of the action. Whatever action you do, it is obligatory that you perfect it and not so that it should be said: “So-and-so has done such-and-such very well.” There occurs in the hadeeth:

» إن الله يحب إذا عمل أحدكم عملا أن يتقنه «

«Allaah loves that one when one of you does an action that he perfects it

[Reported by al-Bayhaqee in Shu`ab al-Eemaan 4/334 no. 5313 and no. 5314 from a hadeeth of `Aa.ishah, radiy Allaahu `anha. [Declared hasan (good) by Shaikh al-Albaanee in Saheeh al-Jaami`. He spoke about it in Silsilatul-Ahaadeeth asSaheehah no. 1113].


Footnotes:

[2] Refer to al-Bukhaaree no. 3467, Muslim no. 2245 as a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah, radiy Allaahu `anhu.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/belief/imaan-faith-pillars

Eemaan has 70 and odd branches, its highest of them is the saying of “Laa ilaaha illAllaah” – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 32 – Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

The Second Level is Eemaan  

المرتبة الثانية : الإيمان : وهو بضع وسبعون شعبة ، فأعلاها قول : لا إله إلا الله ، وأدناها إماطة الأذى عن الطريق ، والحياء شعبة من الإيمان 

The second level is al-Eemaan (true faith) and it has seventy and odd branches, its highest of them is the saying of “Laa ilaaha illAllaah” and the lowest of them is removal of that which is harmful from the path; and al-hayaa (a sense of shame) is a branch of eemaan.[42]


[42] : Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Eemaan is more inclusive than Islaam, so every believer is a Muslim, but not every Muslim is a believer. So eemaan is more inclusive with respect to itself, and it is more specific with regard to its people.

Eemaan in the language is at-tasdeeq (to believe, to attest with the heart).

He the Most High, said upon the tongue of the brothers of Yoosuf:

 وَمَا أَنتَ بِمُؤْمِنٍ لَّنَا

Meaning: you won’t believe us. (12:17)

As for [the meaning of] eemaan in the legislation, then it is as explained by the people of the Sunnah and Jamaa`ah:

Speech of the tongue, belief of the heart, and action of the limbs.
It increases with obedience, and it decreases through sin.

It is with this explanation, a reality relating to the legislation, because realities are three: a reality which relates to the language, a reality with regards to the legislation, and a reality relating to people’s custom.

So the explanation of eemaan with this explanation is a reality relating to the legislation. So, eemaan moves from the meaning in language to the meaning in Islaamic legislation.

So, eemaan is: speech upon the tongue – there has to be speech and acknowledgment with the tongue. And it is belief in the heart, when a person speaks upon his tongue, he must be believing it in his heart, otherwise he will be just like the hypocrites, those who: 

 يَقُولُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِم مَّا لَيْسَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ

They say with their tongues that which is not in their hearts. [48:11]

And speech upon the tongue, and belief in the heart will not suffice, rather there must be action on the limbs also, and carrying out the obligatory duties is essential, and avoiding the prohibitions. So the person does the acts of obedience and he avoids the forbidden acts, all of this is from eemaan. With this definition, it comprises the whole of the religion. However, these acts of obedience and these many legislated duties, some of them are a part of the reality of eemaan, and some of them are things which are a completion of eemaan.

Eemaan has pillars and branches, and the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam explained them in two hadeeth. He explained the arkaan (pillars) of eemaan in the hadeeth of Jibreel, and he explained the branches of eemaan in the hadeeth of «Eemaan is seventy and odd branches». This will follow in shaa’ Allaah.

Eemaan and Islaam, if they are mentioned together, then each of them has its own meaning. When only one of them is mentioned, then it enters along with the other. If they are mentioned together, then Islaam is explained to be the outward actions, and they are the five pillars of Islaam, and eemaan is explained to be the inward actions which are the six pillars, and their places are in the heart. All of these must be found together in a Muslim. The Muslim must be one who has eemaan and who establishes the pillars of Islaam and the pillars of eemaan – he must gather all of them.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

»الإيمان بضع وسبعون شعبة ، أو بضع وستون شعبة«

«Eemaan is of seventy and odd branches, or sixty and odd branches.» There are two narrations.

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (9) with the wording «sixty and odd» and Muslim (35) with both wordings from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radi Allaahu `anhu.]

His saying «odd»: it is a number between three and nine. So if it is said: «ten and odd,» then it means a number between thirteen until nineteen, and if it is said «odd» on its own, then it means something between three and nine.

His saying «branches»: a branch is a part of the thing, meaning that the pillars have seventy and odd parts or sections.

His saying «the highest one of them»: meaning: the highest of the branches is the saying Laa ilaaha illaAllaah.  It is the head of Islaam and it is the head of eemaan, it is the first pillar, and it is the entry point of the religion.

His saying «the lowest one of them»: meaning: the last of them and the least one of them.

His saying «removing that which is harmful from the path»: meaning: removing that which is harmful from the path which is walked upon. And «that which is harmful» is everything which causes harm to the people, whether it be thorns, rocks, filthy things or refuse, everything which causes harm to people upon their path. And placing that which is harmful upon their path is forbidden, because the path is for those who wish to precede upon it, and harm impedes those who want to proceed, or puts them in danger, such as stopping his car upon the road, this is from causing harm – and letting water flow out from the house unto the path, this is from harm – and putting rubbish upon the pathway, this is from causing harm, whether it be upon the road, the town, or in the countryside – placing a rock, pieces of timber, iron upon the pathways of the people, digging holes in the roads of the people – all of this is from causing harm. So if a Muslim comes and removes this harm, and clears the path of it, then this is a proof for his eemaan. So, placing that which is harmful upon the path is from the branches of kufr, and removing harm from the path is from the branches of eemaan.

His saying «al-hayaa (true sense of shame is a branch of eemaan)»: al-hayaa is a characteristic which Allaah places in a person which leads him to carry out whatever will beautify and adorn him; and which prevents him from things which will contaminate and disfigure him. And al-hayaa which leads a person to perform that which is good, and to withhold from that which is evil is praiseworthy. As for shame or shyness which prevents a person from doing something good, from seeking knowledge, and from asking about things which are a problem to his understanding, then this is blameworthy shyness. This is because it is blameworthy embarrassment.

And the pillars of eemaan are many as you have come to know there are seventy and odd. Al-Imaam al-Bayhaqee wrote a large work in which he mentioned the branches of eemaan, it has an abridgment which has been printed.

From the proofs of the scholars that eemaan is speech upon the tongue, belief in the heart and action on the limbs is his saying sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam:

» أعلاها لا إله إلا الله «

« The highest of them is none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah. » This is a proof for sayings. And his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam:

» أدناها إماطة الأذى عن الطريق «

« And removal of that which is harmful from the path » is an action. It proves that actions are from eemaan. And his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam:

» الحياء شعبة من الإيمان «

« al-hayaa is a branch from eemaan .» This is something in the heart, al-hayaa is in the heart. This is a proof that eemaan is sayings upon the tongue, belief in the heart, and actions upon the limbs.

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/belief/imaan-faith-pillars

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Bismillaah
Moon Sighting - Hilal of Ramadan - Hilal of Shawwal

[Translation Source: Darussalam English Publication of Bulugh al-Maraam]

Explained by Dr. Saleh as Saleh rahimahullaah based on the explanation of Shaykh Uthaymeen rahimahullaah

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Related Links:

Intention (Niyyah) to Fast Ramadhan – Bulugh al-Marâm | Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

BismillaahIntention to Fast Ramadhan

[Translation Source: Darussalam English Publication of Bulugh al-Maraam]

Explained by Dr. Saleh as Saleh rahimahullaah based on the explanation of Shaykh Uthaymeen rahimahullaah

[Souncloud Audio Link

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