“iyyāka na’budu wa iyyāka nasta’īn” – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

The Explanation of Verse 4 of Sooratul Faatiha

 إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ 

iyyāka na’budu wa iyyāka nasta’īn

You alone we worship, and from you alone we seek help.

“You alone” (iyyāka): This is a case in grammar when the direct object comes before the verb, “we worship” (na’budu). In Arabic grammar, when the direct object precedes the verb, it gives a sense of restriction, so the meaning would be, “We do not worship anyone or anything except you alone.”

“we worship” (na’budu): Meaning: We humble ourselves to you in complete humility.

In this way, you find the believers placing the most honorable part of their bodies (their faces) at the level of their feet in humility to Allah (عزّ وجلّ). They prostrate on the ground, covering their foreheads with dirt. This is from their humbleness before Allah. And if another person were to say, “I will give you the whole world and what it contains, just prostrate to me once,” you will never find true believers accepting this because this type of humility is a form of worship specifically for Allah alone.

The word “worship” includes doing everything Allah commands and avoiding everything he forbids. Whoever is not in accordance with this, not carrying out what he is commanded to do and avoiding what he is forbidden to do then he is not a true worshipper and servant. A worshipper is someone who obeys the one he worships in whatever he legislates. So, worship requires that mankind carry out everything they are commanded to do and avoid everything they are forbidden from doing. However, it is not possible to fulfill all of these duties without the help and assistance of Allah. Because of this, Allah ( سبحانه وتعالى ) then says:

“and from you alone we seek help” (wa iyyāka nasta’īn): Meaning, “We do not seek the help of anyone else in worship or in anything else.” This “seeking of help” is to request the help and assistance, and Allah combines between worship and the seeking of assistance or reliance in many places the noble Qur’an. This is because worship could not be completely established except with the help of Allah by entrusting one’s affairs to him, and relying on him.

Points of Benefit of al-Fātiḥah, Verse 4:

1. From the virtues of this verse is the sincerity in worship that is due to Allah alone as he says, “You alone we worship“. It shows that this worship is due only to Allah by the direct object (“You”) coming before the verb (“we worship”) according to the rules of Arabic grammar.

2. Another point is that seeking help is also sincerely and solely for Allah based on the statement, “and from you alone we seek help“. Likewise, the direct object precedes the verb indicating a sense of restriction just like in the first part of the verse.

Those points being said, what if someone asks:

How is it that seeking help is exclusively for Allah alone when there has come in another verse:

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى 

And help one another in righteousness and piety.[Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:2]

So, how do we understand the previous statements about seeking help only from Allah when, here in this verse, Allah confirms that seeking help from other than himself is permissible (rather it is a command here)? Also, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

 تُعِيْنُ الرَّجُلَ فِي دَابَّتِهِ، فَتَحْمِلُهُ عَلَيْهَا، أَوْ تَرْفَعُ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا مَتَاعَهُ صَدَقَةٌ 

Helping someone onto his riding animal, carrying him on it, or lifting his belongings up to him while he is on it – all of these are (considered) acts of charity. [Recorded by Al-Bukhaaree (no. 2891) and Muslim (no. 1009)]

The answer to this question is that the act of seeking help and assistance is of two types. The first type is to request help while entrusting all affairs to the one you ask from. For example, you rely completely on Allah and you realize that any result you seek will not come from your own power or capability. This type of seeking help is specific for Allah ( تعالى ); he alone deserves this type.

The second type is to request help or cooperation in something you want to accomplish. This type is permissible as long as the one being requested is living and capable of doing what is asked of him. This is not considered a form of worship. This is the type that Allah refers to when saying:

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى

And help one another in righteousness and piety. [Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:2]

If it is further asked, “Is seeking help from the creation permissible at all times and in all situations?

The answer is no. Requesting help from the creation is only allowed when the one being asked is fully capable of what he is being asked for, otherwise seeking his help is not permissible. An example would be asking help from someone dead in his grave; this is prohibited, rather it is major Shirk (the associating of partners with Allah in worship)! This is because the person in his grave does not even have the ability to help himself, so how could he help someone else? Similarly, if someone seeks the help of another person who is not present with him such as a person believing that someone else in the far eastern part of the world could help him with something in his (the one seeking help) land – this is also major Shirk because the person whose help is sought is not capable of helping the seeker while they are in different lands.

If it is now asked, “So, is it permissible to seek help from the creation if these conditions are met?

The answer is that it is better not to ask anyone for any help unless it is absolutely necessary or if it is known that the person would be happy to provide help. In this case, one could request his assistance in order to please him. The act that you seek another’s help in fulfilling must also not be something sinful and prohibited.

Posted from the article : Explaining Surah al-Fatihah – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

Related Links:

A man will be rewarded only for what he intended – Dr. Saleh as-Saleh [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Umdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification

[Souncloud Audio Link]

The First Hadeeth

After this introduction, the first hadeeth concerns the intention. This is the hadeeth of ‘Umar ibn al Khataab (radiyallaahu ‘anhu), the leader of the believers and the second khalifah.

Ameerul-Mu’mineen, Abi Hafs (may Allaah be pleased with him) said that: “The Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

(The value of) an action depends on the intention behind it. A man will be rewarded only for what he intended. The emigration of one who emigrates for the sake of Allaah and His Messenger (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) is for the sake of Allaah and His Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) ; and the emigration of one who emigrates for gaining a worldly advantage or for marrying a woman is for what he has emigrated.” [Sahih Muslim, Book 020, Number 4692]

The Narrator

‘Umar ibn al Khataab (radiyallaahu ‘anhu), the second khalifah, was from the notables of Quraysh. He accepted Islaam in the fifth or sixth year after the advent of Prophet Muhammad’s (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) message, and in his acceptance of Islaam there was a might for the Muslims. He attended all the battlefields and took the line after Abu Bakr’s (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) covenant to him and he established the Khilafah in the best way after Abu Bakr. In the 23rd year (after Hijrah), four nights before the end of the month of Dhul Hijjah, he was stabbed by a magian after he made the takbeer for Salaatul-Fajr. He was carried to his home and he died three nights later. He was buried with the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), and Abu Bakr in the apartment of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her). And his Khilafah lasted ten years six months and a few days. May Allaah be pleased with him and with all the companions.

The Subject and Overall Explanation

The subject of the hadeeth is making clear the rank of the intention vis-a-vis the actions. This is a great and comprehensive hadeeth, making clear that the intention is comprehensive, covering all actions such that there is no action without intention. And therefore, the actions correctness or corruption, the reward upon it or the punishment, is dependent upon the intention. And each person shall have but that which he intended, whether it is a noble objective or a lowly, despicable one.

The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), made that clear in order to incite the doer to aim high in his intention seeking Allaah’s Face and the Final Abode and to keep away from the lowly intentions and base ranks. So if the intention is correct, intending the Face of Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aalaa), then it is acceptable and if otherwise then it will not be (acceptable) because Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aalaa) is Most Sufficient and in no need of partners.

Then the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) gave a similitude in migration so that it may be reference for the rest of actions. So those who migrate have different intentions and thus the reward will vary to a great extent, even though the action is one (and that is the migration). So whoever migrates to Allaah and His Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), seeking the reward of Allaah and the victory for the Deen and giving help to the Deen then he is the sincere Muhaajir (immigrant), who attained in his intention the highest and most noble objectives. And whoever migrates seeking this lowly life and its vanishing enjoyments is the one who went base in his intention and therefore of the Hereafter he shall have no share. The one who migrates from the land of shirk seeking the reward of Allaah and the protection of His Deen and the support of the Deen and seeking to learn the Shari’ah, so his hijrah (migration) is fee sabeelillaah and Allaah will keep him steadfast on that.

And the intention distinguishes the worship from the habit. Take for example al-ghusl (taking a bath): If it is done intending to lift the janabah (the sexual defilement) then it is ‘Ibaadah (worship). And if it is done for cleansing or to cool off then it is ‘aadah (a habit).

From the Benefits of this Hadeeth

1. Emphasizing the importance of the Niyyah (intention) concerning the actions. And that the correctness of deeds and the recompense is in accordance with the intention.

2. Inciting to have sincerity in the intention and making clear the merit of that.

3. Warning from seeking and intending this lowly life in our actions.

4. Showing that people differ concerning their intentions and that each will have that which is in accordance with his own intention. (A man will be rewarded only for what he intended.)

5. At-Taharatu minal `amal (purification is from actions), and therefore it cannot be established without a Niyyah (intention). Everyone who performs the purification, then his purification is in accordance with his intention (and this is the point of evidence in this hadeeth which fell under the chapter of purification).

6. The excellence in teaching by the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), and his perfect eloquence and clarification where he mentions the foundations and the principles foundations then he explains them by examples.

This hadeeth is evidence for the intentions place is the heart and utterance of it is an innovation. Also, it is a must to be careful concerning ar-Riyaa (showoff and seeking fame for the sake of this life). And that the hijrah (the migration) from the land of shirk to the land of Islam is from the most meritorious of deeds if the Face of Allaah is intended in that. This is in summary the points relevant to this matter.

The Questions for this Hadeeth

  1. What is intended by hijrah (migration) in this hadeeth?
  2. How is the manner of migration to the Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), after his death? What does it mean?
  3. Why did the author (rahimahullaah) chose this hadeeth of ‘Umar in this chapter of purification? What is the point of relevance?
  4. When did ‘Umar accept Islaam?
  5. What is the Islaamic meaning of Taharah (purification)?

Posted from: Hadith 01 of  Explanation of Umdatul Ahkaam – by Saleh as Saleh [PDF]

Related Links:

“Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you & those who were before you so that you may become Al-Muttaqun” – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh As-Saleh [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Excellent Benefits from the Tafseer of the Verse 21 from Sooratul Baqarah

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become Al-Muttaqun.

[Surah al-Baqarah 2:21]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Posted fromTafseer – Explanation Surah Al-Baqarah – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio Series|En]. Explanation Based on Shaykh Uthaymeen’s Tafseer

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“And Worship your Lord until the Certainty comes to you” – Tafseer Ibn Katheer

Bismillaah

(وَاعْبُدْ رَبَّكَ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَكَ الْيَقِينُ )

(And worship your Lord until the certainty comes to you) (15: 99)

Al-Bukhari said: “Salim said, (This means) death.”’ This Salim is Salim bin Abdullah bin Umar.

Ibn Jarir also recorded from Salim bin Abdullah, (وَاعْبُدْ رَبَّكَ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَكَ الْيَقِينُ ) (And worship your Lord until the Yaqin comes to you.) He said, “Death.”

It is reported in the Sahih from Umm Al-Ala’- one of the women of the Ansar – that when the Messenger of Allah entered upon Uthman bin Mazun after he had died, Umm Al-Ala’ said, “May the mercy of Allah be upon you, Abu As-Saib. My testimony over you is that Allah has honored you.”

The Messenger of Allah said,

«وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ أَنَّ اللهَ أَكْرَمَهُ؟»

(How do you know that Allah has honored him)

I said, “May my father and mother be sacrificed for you, O Messenger of Allah! If not him, then who else

He said,

«أَمَّا هُوَ فَقَدْ جَاءَهُ الْيَقِينُ، وَإِنِّي لَأَرْجُو لَهُ الْخَيْر»

(As far as he is concerned, the death has come to him, and I hope for good for him.)

This is evidence that the meaning of this Ayah, (وَاعْبُدْ رَبَّكَ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَكَ الْيَقِينُ ) (And worship your Lord until the certainty comes to you.) is that acts of worship, such as prayer and the like, are obligatory on man so long as his mind is sound, so he should pray according to his best ability.

It was reported in Sahih Al-Bukhari from Imran bin Husayn that the Messenger of Allah said:

«صَلِّ قَائِمًا، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَسْتَطِعْ فَقَاعِدًا، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَسْتَطِعْ فَعَلَى جَنْب»

(Pray standing, and if you cannot, then sitting, and if you cannot, then on your side.)

From this we may understand that it is a mistake to interpret Yaqin (the certainty) as Marifah (“spiritual knowing”) as some of the Sufis do. According to them, when one of them attains the level of Marifah, they consider him to be free of these obligations. This is disbelief, misguidance and ignorance. The Prophets – peace be upon them – and their companions, were the most knowledgeable of people about Allah, about His rights, His attributes, and the glorification that He deserves. But at the same time, they were the people who worshipped Him the most, continuing in good deeds until the time they died. Therefore, what is meant by Yaqin here is death, as we have stated above.

To Allah be praise and thanks. Praise be to Allah for His guidance. It is to Him that we turn for help and it is in Him that we put our trust. He is the One Whom we ask to help us to reach the best of circumstances, for He is the Most Generous and Kind.

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer, Al-Hijr Ayah 99, Darussalam English Publications

An-Nadhr (Vows) and their Evidence – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 25 Part C
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


An-Nadhr (Vows) and their Evidence

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the proof for vows:

يُوفُونَ بِالنَّذْرِ وَيَخَافُونَ يَوْمًا كَانَ شَرُّهُ مُسْتَطِيرًا

They fulfill their vows and they fear a Day whose evil will be widespread [76:7] 26


[26]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

An-Nadhr (making a vow): it is that a person makes something binding upon himself which was not originally binding upon him in the legislation, such as his making a vow that he will perform a fast, or his making a vow that he will give such and such in charity – then it becomes binding upon him to carry out his vow, because of the saying of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam:

من نذر أن يطيع الله فليطعه

Whoever makes a vow that he will obey Allaah, then let him obey Him

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (6696 & 6700) from a hadeeth of Aa’ishah radiy Allaahu ‘anhaa.]

And making a vow is a type from the types of worship, it is not permissible to do it except for Allaah. So whoever makes a vow for a grave or for an idol or for other than that, then he has committed shirk with Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and it will be a vow of sin and shirk. And the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

ومن نذر أن يعصي الله فلا يعصه

And whoever makes a vow that he will commit an act of disobedience to Allaah, then let him not disobey Him”.

PS: Dawud Burbank (rahimahullah) covers some more benefits from the Explanation of Shaykh Uthaymeen rahimahullah at the end of this short clip ( this is not transcribed)

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Adh-Dhabh (Sacrificing or Slaughtering), its Types and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 25 Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Adh-Dhabh (Sacrificing or Slaughtering), its Types and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the proof for sacrificing is His saying He the Most High:

قُلْ إِنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Say: My prayer and my sacrificing and my living and my dying are all for Allaah alone, the Lord of the whole of creation [6:162]

And from the sunnah:

لَعَنَ اللهُ مَنْ ذَبَحَ لِغَيْرِ الله

“Allaah has cursed the one who sacrifices for other than Allaah.”[1]  25


[25]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

adh-Dhabh (sacrificing or slaughtering) is of four types:

Firstly: sacrificing which is done to seek closeness and to honour and venerate someone, and this is not permissible except for Allaah the Perfect and Most High, because it is an act of worship involving wealth. So therefore it is not permissible to sacrifice for the jinn nor for the devils nor for the kings nor for the leaders in order to show honour and veneration of them, because this is worship – it is not permissible except for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

So those people who sacrifice for the jinn in order to gain safety from their evil, or in order for a sick person to be cured, as is done by the soothsayers and by the astrologers, those who claim to be able to heal or cure, and who say to the people, “if you sacrifice such and such in order to cure your sick person and do not mention the Name of Allaah upon it” – this is major shirk which takes a person outside of the religion and this is what Allaah the Most High has said in warning against doing it for other than Allaah:

قُلْ إِنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Say: My prayer and my sacrificing and my living and my dying are all for Allaah alone, the Lord of the whole of creation [6:162]

And He said:

فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ

So pray for your Lord and sacrifice to Him [108:2]

Meaning: make sacrifice for your Lord.

The second type of sacrifice is: slaughtering an animal in order to obtain meat to eat. This, there is no harm in it, because it is not something slaughtered to draw closer to anyone or to venerate anyone, it is just being sacrificed for a need, and eating is from that; so this, there is no harm in it, because it is not a type of worship, and it can be slaughtered in order to sell the meat.

The third type of sacrifice is: sacrificing which is done at times of joy and happiness, on the occasion of a marriage or on the occasion of settling in a new home or someone returning after an absence, or the like of that, by gathering one’s relatives and then performing a sacrifice in order to show one’s happiness and joy at what has occurred. This, there is no harm in it, because it does not contain veneration of anyone, and it is not seeking to draw closer to anyone, rather it is just a case of joy and happiness at something that has occurred.

Fourthly: sacrificing in order to give meat away in charity for the poor people and the needy and the destitute, this is counted as being a sunnah, and it enters into worship.

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Muslim (1978) from a hadeeth of Alee ibn Abee Taalib radiy Allaahu ‘anhu. 

`Alee (radiyallaahu `anhu) said: Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) narrated to me four words, saying:

  1. “Allaah curses whoever slaughters to other than Allaah.
  2. Allaah curses whoever curses his parents.
  3. Allaah curses the one who shelters an innovator or wrongdoer.
  4. Allaah curses the one who alters the boundaries of a land.”

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Al-Istighātha (Seeking Rescue and Deliverance) and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 25 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Al-Istighaathah (Seeking Rescue and Deliverance) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the Proof for al-Istighaathah (seeking rescue and deliverance):

إِذْ تَسْتَغِيثُونَ رَبَّكُمْ فَاسْتَجَابَ لَكُمْ

Remember when you sought the aid and deliverance of your Lord, and He responded to you [8:9] 24


[24]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Istighaathah is a type of the types of worship, and it is seeking al-Ghauth (deliverance or rescue), and it does not occur except at times of adversity or great difficulty, when a person comes to be in a situation of adversity, then he seeks deliverance and rescue from Allaah and he seeks salvation from this adversity.

And al-Istighaathah (seeking rescue and deliverance) is of two types:

The first type is: al-Istighaathah (seeking rescue) from a created being, with regard to something that no-one is able to do except Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and this is shirk. So whoever seeks rescue and deliverance from other than Allaah, whether it be from a jinn or a human or those people who are absent or from the dead, then this is shirk along with Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. So seeking rescue and deliverance through the dead and those who are absent from the devils and the jinn, this is shirk along with Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

The second type is: seeking aid and rescue from a created being who is present and who is alive with regard to something he is able to do – this is permissible. He the Most High said in the story of Moosaa:

فَاسْتَغَاثَهُ الَّذِي مِن شِيعَتِهِ عَلَى الَّذِي مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ

So the man who was upon his religion (i.e. the religion of Moosaa) he called to him for assistance and rescue against the one who was an enemy [28:15]

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Al-Isti‘aadhah (Seeking Refuge) and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 24 Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Al-Isti‘aadhah (Seeking Refuge) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the proof for Al-Isti‘aadhah (seeking refuge) is His saying, He the Most High:

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ

Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of the Dawn [113:1] 22


[22]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Isti‘aadhah: means seeking refuge with someone who can defend you against something disagreeable which you fear in order that he should repel from you this thing. This is al-Isti‘aadhah. 

And al-Isti‘aadhah is a type from the types of worship. It is not permissible for you to seek refuge in other than Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. So whoever seeks refuge with a grave or with an idol, or with anything besides Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, then he will be a mushrik, who has committed major shirk.

And He the Most High said:

وَأَنَّهُ كَانَ رِجَالٌ مِّنَ الْإِنسِ يَعُوذُونَ بِرِجَالٍ مِّنَ الْجِنِّ فَزَادُوهُمْ رَهَقًا

And there used to be men from mankind who would seek refuge in men from the jinn, and they only increased them in transgression. [72:6]

The Arabs in the days of ignorance, when they stopped off at a place on the earth, one of them used to say, “I seek refuge in the chief of this valley”: meaning the chief one from the jinn; he would seek refuge from the evil of the foolish ones of his people.

So the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said refuting that and making clear what is legislated in place of it:

“Whoever stops off at a place and he says, “I seek refuge in the perfect words of Allaah from the evil of whatever He has created”, then nothing will harm him until he travels on from that stopping place of his.”[1]

This is the correct replacement, seeking refuge in the perfect words of Allaah instead of seeking refuge in the jinn.

He the Most High said:

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ

Say, “I seek refuge in the Lord of the Dawn” [113:1]

Al-Falaq”, is the dawn, and the Lord of the dawn, He is Allaah the Perfect and Most High, just as He the Most High said:

فَالِقُ الْإِصْبَاحِ

Allaah is the One Who causes the dawns to break [6:96]

Meaning: the One Who brings out the light of the day into the darkness of the night. Who is able to do that except Allaah the Perfect and Most High?

أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ

I seek refuge in the Lord of the Daybreak [113:1]

Meaning the Lord of dawn when it breaks, the Sovereign Owner, the One who controls it, the One having full ability over it.

مِن شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ

From the evil of that which He created [113:2]

This covers the evil of all of the created beings, he seeks refuge in Allaah from the evil of all of the created beings. This will suffice you for every seeking refuge and every seeking protection which the people do.

وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ

And from the evil of the Ghaasiq (darkening night) as it comes with its darkness (or the moon as it sets or goes away) [113:3] 

Al-Ghaasiq”, is the darkness of the night; since in the darkness wild animals and wild beasts come out so then you are in danger, so you seek refuge in Allaah from the evil of this darkness and whatever is beneath it from these harmful things.

وَمِن شَرِّ النَّفَّاثَاتِ فِي الْعُقَدِ

And from the evil of those who blow upon knots [113:4]

And they are the sorcerers, you seek refuge in Allaah from sorcery / magic and its people, because sorcery / magic is tremendous evil.

وَمِن شَرِّ حَاسِدٍ إِذَا حَسَدَ

And from the evil of the envier when he envies [113:5]

Al-Haasid, the envier, he is the one who hopes and wishes for favours to pass away from other people; when he sees someone having a favour then he becomes furious, and he wishes for this blessing to pass away out of envy and out of transgression and Allaah’s refuge is sought. And it is one of the worst of blameworthy qualities, because it involves raising objections against Allaah, and it involves evil towards the creation.

And entering into it is the person who gives the evil eye, the one who causes harm with his look, because striking with the evil eye is a type of envy, so you should seek refuge in Allaah from these evils.

So this indicates that al-Isti‘aadhah (seeking refuge) is worship, it is not permissible to be directed to other than Allaah, so you do not seek refuge in a created being, and whoever seeks refuge in a created being then he has committed shirk with Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

And the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said to ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Abbaas radiy Allaahu ‘anhumaa:

“And if you seek aid then seek the aid of Allaah”[2]


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And His saying, He the Most High:

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ

Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of Mankind. [114:1] 23


[23]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

And in His saying, He the Most High:

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ
مَلِكِ النَّاسِ
إِلَٰهِ النَّاسِ
مِن شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ
الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ

Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of Mankind. The King of mankind. The One Who is rightfully worshipped by mankind. From the evil of the whisperer, who whispers and then withdraws. The one who whispers into the hearts of mankind. From jinn and from men. [114:1-6]

Allaah the Mighty and Majestic commands seeking refuge in the Lord of mankind, the King of mankind, the One Who is rightfully worshipped by mankind – these are all Names and Attributes of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and it contains the three types of tawheed: Tawheed-ur-Ruboobiyyah (Tawheed of Lordship), Tawheed-ul-Uloohiyyah (Tawheed of worship) and Tawheed-ul-Asmaa wasSifaat (Tawheed of Allaah’s Names and Attributes).

Seek refuge in Allaah and in these Names and Attributes, seek refuge in Allaah from the evil of al-Waswaas (the whisperer) – and he is Satan. As for Wiswaas (a whispering) then that is a verbal noun from the verb waswasa yuwaswisu. As for al-Waswaas then it is a name from the names of Satan, because he whispers to mankind and gives him false ideas, and he pre-occupies him in order to cast terror into his heart and uncertainty and confusion in his affairs, particularly with regard to the affair of worship, because Satan whispers to man in acts of worship until he confuses him regarding his prayer or his act of worship, and then finally the person comes out from his prayer believing that it was null and void. Or he prays and then he believes that he was not upon wudhoo’, or that he did not stand up for such and such, or that he did not perform such and such, the person comes to suffer from whispers and he is not calm in his worship.

So Allaah the Majestic and Most High has given us the remedy for this dangerous matter, and that is that you seek refuge in Allaah from the evil of this whisperer who is al-Khannaas. 

al-Khannaas: meaning the one who departs and moves away, so he whispers when you are negligent of the remembrance of Allaah, and he withdraws – meaning he falls back when you remember Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. So he whispers when the person is inattentive, and he is one who withdraws and moves away when one remembers Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

مِن شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ
الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ

The one who whispers into the hearts of mankind. From jinn and from mankind [114:5-6]

It is as if the meaning – and Allaah knows best – that there are those who whisper from the jinn and from mankind as well – those who whisper things to the people; they come to the people and they cause them to have doubts, so just as there are devils from the jinn who whisper evil, then likewise there are devils from mankind who whisper also, so you should seek refuge in Allaah from the evil of the two tribes.

And therefore the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

“No-one seeking refuge has sought refuge by means of the like of these two” [3]

Meaning: these two soorahs (Soorat-ul-Falaq and Soorat-un-Naas). So it is befitting for the Muslim that he should read these two after the prayers and that he should repeat them again and again, and that he should recite these two when he goes to sleep along with Aayat-ul-Kursee and Soorat-ul-Ikhlaas.

He should recite Aayat-ul-Kursee and Soorat-ul-Ikhlaas and the two soorahs for seeking refuge, he should recite them after every prayer, and repeat them three times after maghrib and after fajr, and likewise recite these two when you go to sleep in order that Satan should move away from him and not disturb his sleep for him and not trouble him with nightmares.

The witness from these two soorahs is that Allaah has commanded seeking refuge in Him alone, so this proves that seeking refuge in other than him, whether it be jinn or mankind or any created thing, that that is not permissible because it is a type from the types of worship.

[1] Reported by Muslim (2708) from a hadeeth of Khawlah bint Hakeem as-Sulamiyyah radiy Aallaahu ‘anhaa

[2] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (2516)

[3] Reported by Aboo Daawood, An-Nasaa’ee and Ahmad from a hadeeth of ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir radiy Allaah ‘anhu [Saheeh – Sh Al-Albaanee]

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Al-Isti‘aanah (Appealing for Aid and Assistance) and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 24 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Al-Isti‘aanah (Appealing for Aid and Assistance) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the proof for Al-Isti‘aanah (appealing for aid and assistance) is His saying, He the Most High:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You alone do we worship and to You alone do we appeal for aid [1:5]

And there occurs in the hadeeth:

“If you seek aid, then seek the aid of Allaah”[1], 12


[12]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Isti‘aanah: means seeking aid and assistance, and it is of two types:

The first type (which is worship): is seeking assistance upon something which no-one but Allaah is able to do; then directing this to other than Allaah is shirk, whoever seeks aid and assistance of other than Allaah with regard to something which only Allaah can carry out, then he has committed shirk, because he has directed a type from the types of worship to other than Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

The second type (which is not worship): seeking aid upon something which someone from the creation is able to carry our, so you may seek someone’s help to build a wall along with you or to carry some luggage along with you or to help you to do something which is permissible which you wish to do, just as He the Most High said:

 وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَىٰ ۖ وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ

And help one another upon righteousness and dutifulness towards Allaah, and do not help one another upon sin and transgression [5:2]

So al-Isti‘aanah (seeking aid and assistance) with regard to everyday matters which the people are able to do, there is no harm in this, because it is co-operation upon righteousness and dutifulness to Allaah. And He sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

“And Allaah continues to aid the servant for as long as the servant is aiding his brother”

[Reported by Muslim (2699) from a hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah radiy Allaahu ‘anhu]

As for seeking aid and assistance from someone from the creation with regard to something which no-one can carry out except Allaah, for example bringing about provision and repelling harm, then this cannot be except for Allaah; such as seeking the aid of the dead and seeking the aid of the jinn and the devils, and seeking the aid of people who are absent and they cannot hear your calling out their names – this is major shirk, because you are seeking aid from those who are not able to aid you.

So His saying, He the Most High:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You Alone do we worship and Your aid Alone do we seek [1:5] 

Iyyaka na‘budu”, (You Alone do we worship): this is a case of putting the governed word before the operative word. The governed word, “You”, is in the accusative case and, “We worship” is the governing word which caused, “Iyyaka” to be in the accusative case. And putting the governed word before the operative word indicates restriction. So the meaning of, “Iyyaka Na‘budu”, is – we do not worship anyone else besides You. So worship is restricted (to only be) for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

Wa Iyaaka nasta‘een”, (and Your aid Alone do we seek): this is a restriction of seeking aid (to only be) from Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and that is with regard to those affairs which no-one is able to carry out except Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

And in His saying, “Iyaaka nasta‘een”, (Your aid Alone do we seek): it shows freeing onself from, “Hawl” and “Quwwah” – from any claim to having the ability to change things and from having power, and that a person has no power except with Allaah’s aid, and that no-one is able to do anything except with the aid of Allaah the Mighty and Majetic, and this is the utmost worship and servitude to Allaah, when a person frees himself from shirk, and he frees himself from, Hawl – from any claim to being able to bring about change, and from having Quwwah – from himself having power. So this is the utmost worship and servitude to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

[1] Reported by At-Tirmidhee as a hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas radiy Allaahu ‘anhumaa (part of hadeeth 19 in An-Nawawee’s 40 hadeeth)

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Al-Inaabah (Turning Repentantly and Obediently) and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 23 Part D
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Al-Inaabah (Turning Repentantly and Obediently) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the proof for al-Inaabah (turning repentantly and obediently) is His saying, He the Most High:

وَأَنِيبُوا إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ وَأَسْلِمُوا لَهُ 

So turn in repentance and obedience to your Lord and submit to Him [39:54] 20


[20]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Inaabah: it means returning and it has the meaning of at-Tawbah (repenting), and repenting and al-Inaabah have one and the same meaning. However some of the scholars have said al-Inaabah is more specific than at-Tawbah (repenting), meaning it is more emphasized because it, Inaabah is Tawbah (repenting) but along with turning to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, meaning it is a specific repentance, and a person may repent and leave the sin and not return to it, and he may regret it, however his turning to Allaah may be a weak turning. Whereas al-Inaabah then indeed it means turning towards to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And therefore He said:

.. وَأَنِيبُوا إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ وَأَسْلِمُوا لَهُ

So turn in repentance and obedience to your Lord and submit to Him …

Meaning turn back to Him and turn fully to Him, He the Perfect and Most High.

مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْعَذَابُ ثُمَّ لَا تُنصَرُونَ ..

… before the punishment comes to you and then you will not be helped [39:54]

When the punishment which destroys and annihilates comes, then repentance will not be accepted from those who repent at that time.

فَلَوْلَا كَانَتْ قَرْيَةٌ آمَنَتْ فَنَفَعَهَا إِيمَانُهَا إِلَّا قَوْمَ يُونُسَ لَمَّا آمَنُوا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُمْ عَذَابَ الْخِزْيِ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا

Except for the people of Yunus when they believed, then we took away from them the humiliating punishment [10:98]

This was an exception, otherwise when the punishment which destroys descends, then repentance is not accepted, and therefore He said:

مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْعَذَابُ ثُمَّ لَا تُنصَرُونَ ..

.. before the punishment comes to you and then you will not be helped [39:54] 

So at-Tawbah (repenting) and al-Inaabah (turning repentantly and obediently), they have an appointed time and they have a limit, so repentance will not be accepted from the person who is experiencing the death rattle, or someone to whom death comes, and the repentance will not be accepted from one whom the punishment which destroys and annihilates descends upon. And repentance will not be accepted when the sun comes out from its place of setting before the establishment of the Hour. Repentance will not be accepted then. So therefore Allaah encourages the servant upon at-Tawbah (repenting) and al-Inaabah (turning repentantly and obediently) before the time limit comes to its end.

مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْعَذَابُ ثُمَّ لَا تُنصَرُونَ

Before the punishment comes to you and then you will not be helped [39:54]

So the witness is His saying:

وَأَنِيبُوا إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ وَأَسْلِمُوا لَهُ

Turn to your Lord repentantly and obediently [39:54]

This indicates that al-Inaabah (turning repentantly and obediently) is a type from the types of worship because He said, “to your Lord”. So this shows that it is a type from the types of worship.

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Al-Khashyah (Fear and Awe) and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 23 Part C
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Al-Khashyah (Fear and Awe) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

The proof for al-Khashyah (awe) is His saying, He the Most High:

 فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ 

So do not have Khashyah (awe) of them [2:150] 19


[19]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Khashyah (awe) is a type of Khawf (fear), and it is more specific than just fear. And it is said al-Khashyah (awe) is fear which is mixed with veneration. He the Most High said:

 فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ 

So do not have Khashyah (awe) of them [2:150]

Allaah the Perfect and Most High commanded having Khashyah (awe) of Him alone.

He the Most High said in the aayah:

فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِي وَلِأُتِمَّ نِعْمَتِي عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

So do not have Khashyah (awe) of them, but rather have Khashyah (awe) of Me, and so that I may complete My favour upon you and so that you may be guided. [2:150]

So He commanded having Khashyah (awe) of Him, He the Perfect and Most High, and He said in description of those who pray salaah:

وَالَّذِينَ هُم مِّنْ عَذَابِ رَبِّهِم مُّشْفِقُونَ

And those who have fear of the punishment of their Lord [70:27]

Meaning they have fear, they are the elite ones from the creation, they have fear of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And He said about the Angels:

يَخَافُونَ رَبَّهُم مِّن فَوْقِهِمْ وَيَفْعَلُونَ مَا يُؤْمَرُونَ

They have fear of their Lord from above them, and they do whatever they are commanded [16:50]

The elite of the creation from the Angels and the Messengers and the beloved and the obedient servants and the righteous ones, they have the utmost Khashyah (awe) of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and Khawf (fear) of Him, He the Perfect and Most High and Rahbah (dread) of Him.

So ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khawf (fear) and al-Khashyah (awe), all of them have a single meaning, even though some of them are more specific than others. However they all share in being Khawf (fear) of Allaah the Perfect and Most High. And these are from the characteristics of the Prophets and the righteous servants of Allaah, and they are tremendous types of worship and they are from the actions of the hearts which are not known except to Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Ar-Raghbah, Ar-Rahbah and al-Khushoo – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 23 Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Ar-Raghbah (fervent desire) and Ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khushoo‘ (reverence and humility), and the Proof for Each

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:    

And the proof for Ar-Raghbah (fervent desire) and Ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khushoo‘ (reverence and humility), is His saying, He the Most High: 

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ وَيَدْعُونَنَا رَغَبًا وَرَهَبًا ۖ وَكَانُوا لَنَا خَاشِعِينَ

They used to hasten to perform acts of devotion to Allaah, and they used to worship Us raghaban (upon love and desire), and rahaban (upon fear), and they were were reverent and humble before Allaah [21:90] 18


[18]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Ar-Raghbah (fervent desire): it means seeking something which is praiseworthy.

Ar-Rahbah (dread): is fear of something which is dreaded.

He the Most High said:

 وَإِيَّايَ فَارْهَبُونِ

And have dread of Me [2:40]

And it is a type of Khawf (fear);

ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khawf (fear) have one and the same meaning.

al-Khushoo‘ (reverence and humility): it is a type of humbling oneself to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And humbly submitting and humbling onself before Him, He the Perfect and Most High – it is from the greatest of levels of worship.

His saying, He the Most High, “Innahum”, (they): this pronoun refers back to the Prophets, since in Soorat-ul-Anbiyaa Allaah has mentioned the stories of the Prophets, and then He said:

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ وَيَدْعُونَنَا رَغَبًا وَرَهَبًا ۖ وَكَانُوا لَنَا خَاشِعِينَ

They used to hasten to perform acts of devotion to Allaah, and they used to worship Us raghaban (upon love and desire), and rahaban (upon fear), and they were were reverent and humble before Allaah [21:90]

So His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ

They used to hasten upon doing acts of good [21:90]

Meaning: they would race to them, and they would hasten to them. This is the characteristic of the Prophets ‘alaihimussaalatu wassalaam, they would not be lazy and they would not behave as if they were powerless, rather they hastened to doing good deeds, and they raced towards them.

His saying, He the Most High:

وَيَدْعُونَنَا رَغَبًا

And they invoked and worshipped us with Raghbah [21:90]

Meaning: desiring what lies with Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, desiring attainment of what they wished for.

وَرَهَبًا

And His saying, He the Most High, wa rahaban”, (with dread): meaning with fear of Us, so they called upon Allaah to have mercy upon them, and they called upon Him not to punish them, and not to bring them to account and not to seize them with punishment. So they had hope for the mercy of Allaah, and they feared His punishment, just as He the Most High said:

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ يَبْتَغُونَ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمُ الْوَسِيلَةَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ وَيَرْجُونَ رَحْمَتَهُ وَيَخَافُونَ عَذَابَهُ ۚ إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ كَانَ مَحْذُورًا

Those whom they call upon, themselves seek a means of nearness to draw themselves closer to their Lord, to see which of them can draw closest to Him. They hope for His mercy and they fear His punishment [17:57]

So they call upon Allaah having fear of Him, and they worship and call upon Him desiring what lies with Him (from reward), they call upon Allaah so that He should ordain good for them and repel evil from them.

وَكَانُوا لَنَا خَاشِعِينَ

And they were reverent and humble towards Us [21:90]

Meaning: they were reverential, humbly submitting, humble before Allaah, the Mighty ad Majestic. So they gathered between three characteristics: Ar-Raghbah (fervent desire) and Ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khushoo‘ (reverence and humility). These are the characteristics of the Prophets sallallaahu ‘alaihim was allam and these three types are from the types of worship of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

And it contains a refutation of Soofees, those who say, “We do not worship Allaah out of desire for His reward, nor out of fear of His punishment, we only worship Him out of love of Him alone”. This is false and futile speech, because the Prophets called upon and worshipped Allaah, raghaban wa rahaban (with fear and with hope) and they were the most complete of the creation.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

At-Tawakkul (Trust and Reliance) and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 23 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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at-Tawakkul (Trust and Reliance) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:  

And the proof for at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) is His saying, He the Most High:

وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَتَوَكَّلُوا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

And place your reliance and trust in Allaah if you are true believers [5:23]

And His saying:

وَمَن يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَهُوَ حَسْبُهُ

And whoever places his trust and reliance in Allaah, then He will suffice him [65:3] 17


[17]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

at-Tawakkul is to entrust your affairs and to place reliance in Allaah the Perfect and Most High, and to entrust affairs to Him, He the Perfect and Most High – this is at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance). And it is from the greatest of the types of worship, and therefore He said:

وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَتَوَكَّلُوا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

And place your reliance and trust in Allaah if you are true believers [5:23]

The preposition and the word with it are put before the governing word, to indicate restriction.

.. وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَتَوَكَّلُوا

And upon Allaah place your reliance and trust … 

Meaning upon Him and not upon anyone else besides Him, then He said:

إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ ..

… if you are people of eemaan [5:23]

So He made it a condition of eemaan to have trust and reliance upon Allaah the Perfect and Most High. And this shows that whoever does not place his trust and reliance upon Allaah, then he is not a believer. So therefore at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) is a tremendous act of worship. So therefore the believer always places his trust and reliance upon Allaah and depends upon Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

And Allaah, from His Names is Al-Wakeel (the Trustworthy Disposer of Affairs) meaning: the One to Whom the affairs of His servants are entrusted, He the Perfect and Most High. So at-Tawakkul (placing trust and reliance) cannot be except upon Allaah, and it is not permissible to say, “I place my reliance in so-and-so”, because at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) is worship, and worship cannot be except for Allaah.

As for when you delegate someone from the creation to carry something out for you, then this is not called tawakkul (trusting in them), it is called tawkeel (entrusting), and al-wikaalah (authorising or entrusting), this is something well-known, that you entrust and authorise someone to carry out some need for you. And the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, he delegated some people to deputise for him in carrying out certain duties. So at-tawkeel (entrusting or delegating) is something other than at-Tawakkul (having trust and reliance). So at-Tawakkul is worship, and it cannot be except for Allaah, and it is not permissible for you to say, “I placed my trust and reliance in so-and-so”. Rather you should say, “I have entrusted someone with something”. And along with this, you entrust and authorize someone, but you do not place your trust and reliance in him, rather you place your trust and reliance in Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. So notice the difference between the two matters and at-Tawakkul and at-tawkeel.

And from the characteristics of the believers is that which Allaah the Most High mentioned with His saying:

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِذَا تُلِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُهُ زَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَانًا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ

That the believers are only those who when Allaah is mentioned, their hearts tremble and when His Signs are recited to them it increases them in eemaan, and they place their trust and reliance upon their Lord. [8:2]

These are from the attributes of the believers, so therefore trust and reliance is a tremendous act of worship, it cannot be except for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, because He is al-Qaadir (the One Fully Able to do everything), and He is al-Maalik (the Owner) of everything, and He is fully able to bring about for you whatever you desire. As for the created being, then he might not be able to bring about something for you that you desire, so you may entrust him with carrying something out. However trust and reliance is to be upon Allaah with regard to attainment of that thing.

Then you should know that at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) does not negate and contradict using the means to an end. So the Muslim gathers between having reliance and trust in Allaah and utilizing the means, and there is no contradiction between them. So you carry out the means which you have been commanded to do. However you do not place your trust and reliance upon the means, rather you place your trust and reliance upon Allaah. You, you plant the seeds for crops in the earth – this is a means. However, you do nor place reliance upon the planting and your own action, rather you have reliance upon Allaah with regard to the growth of this plant, and with regard to its producing fruit and with regard to its being kept safe, and with regard to its being good and suitable, and therefore He says:

أَفَرَأَيْتُم مَّا تَحْرُثُونَ

أَأَنتُمْ تَزْرَعُونَهُ أَمْ نَحْنُ الزَّارِعُونَ

Do you see the seed which you sow? Do you make it grow or are We the One Who causes it to grow? [56:63-64]

So the One Who causes it to grow in reality, He is Allaah, but as for you, then you have just carried out the means only. It may produce this plant and grow or it may not produce it. And if it grows, it may be good and fitting, and it may not be good. It may be struck by some calamity, and will pass away.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Ar-Rajaa’ (Hope) will not be correct except along with Righteous Action – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 22 Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Ar-Rajaa’ (hope and longing) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And the proof for ar-Rajaa’ (hope and longing) is His saying, He the Most High:

فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا

So whoever has hope in the meeting with his Lord and in His reward then let him perform righteous actions and not associate anyone in worship with his Lord [18:110] 16


[16]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, He the Most High, “man kaana yarjoo”: meaning he has hope for the reward of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and in seeing Him openly on the Day of Resurrection, whoever has hope in seeing Allaah openly with his eyes on the day of resurrection, then let him perform righteous deeds, he should carry out the means which will enable him to attain this goal, which is the reward of entry into Paradise and of being saved from the Fire and of looking upon the Face of Allaah – this necessarily follows on, because whoever enters Paradise, then he will see Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا

So whoever has hope in the meeting with his Lord and in His reward then let him perform righteous actions [18:110]

This shows that hope alone is not sufficient, rather there must be action, as for your just having hope in Allaah, but you do not act, then this is to abandon the use of the means. So praiseworthy hope is that which occurs along with righteous action. As for hoping which is not praiseworthy, then it hope which does not have righteous action along with it.

And righteous action is that which fulfills two conditions:

  1. The first: is that it is done purely and sincerely for Him, the Mighty and Majestic.
  2. The second: is that it is done following the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.

So an action will not be righteous unless it fulfills these two conditions: that it is done purely and sincerely seeking the Face of Allaah, it does not contain any shirk, and that it should be a correct action, done upon the Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, not containing innovation. So if the two conditions are met then it will be a righteous action, and if any condition is missing, then it will be a corrupt action, it will not benefit the person who does it.

So action which contains shirk will be rejected for the person, and likewise action which contains innovation, it will be rejected for the person. He sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

Whoever does an action which is not in accordance with our affair, then it will be rejected” [1]

So this aayah contains ar-Rajaa’ (hope and longing), and that it is an act of worship to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And it shows that hope will not be correct except along with righteous action.

[1] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in disconnected form straight after hadeeth 7350, and reported by Muslim as hadeeth 1718/17 from a hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah radiy Allaahu ‘anhaa. And also reported by al-Bukhaaree in connected form as hadeeth 2697 and Muslim as hadeeth 1718/17 from ‘Aa’ishah radiy Allaahu ‘anhaa, that she said, Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu’ alaihi wa sallam said, “Whoever introduces into this affair of ours that which is not from it will have it rejected”.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Al-Khawf (fear), its Types and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 22 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Al-Khawf (fear), its Types and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And the proof for Al-Khawf (fear) is His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّمَا ذَٰلِكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوْلِيَاءَهُ فَلَا تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

That is just Satan, he incites you to fear his allies. So do not fear them, but rather fear Me if you are truly believers [3:175] 15


[15]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Khawf (fear) is a type from the types of worship, and it is an act of worship of the heart, just the same as is the case with al-Khawf (fear) and al-Khashyah (awe) and ar-Raghbah (fervent desire) and ar-Rahbah (dread) and ar-Rajaa’ (hope and longing) and at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) – all of these are acts of worship of the heart.

Al-Khawf (fear) is apprehension of something unpleasant, and it is of two types:

  1. Al-Khawf-ul-‘Ibaadah (fear which is worship)
  2. Al-Khawf-utTabee‘ee (natural fear).

The first type: Khawf-ul-‘Ibaadah (fear which is worship), directing this to other than Allaah is shirk, and that is that a person fears someone other than Allaah with regard to something which no-one besides Allaah is able to do, such as his fearing someone being able to cause him to become ill, or being able to take his soul, or to cause his child to die, as is done by many of the ignorant people. They fear regarding their wives’ pregnancies and for their children, from the jinn, they fear sorcerers, they fear the dead, and so therefore they do actions involving shirk to free themselves from this fear. So this is something which no-one is able to do but Allaah, illnesses and death and bringing provision and cutting off life-span, these matters, no-one is able to do them except Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and likewise sending down blessings or other than that. These matters cannot come about except from Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, so if he fears anyone with regards to anything which only Allaah can carry out, then this is major shirk, because it is diverting a type of worship to other than Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. Like those who fear the graves and of the tombs and of the jinn and of the devils that they can strike them with evil or cause some harm to descend upon them, and so therefore they go and perform actions of nearness to these things to repel their harm, or out of fear of them – this is major shirk. He says, “I fear, if I don’t make a sacrifice for him, that he will afflict me with something, or afflict my children or my wealth, or the like of that, just as was said by the people of Hood:

إِن نَّقُولُ إِلَّا اعْتَرَاكَ بَعْضُ آلِهَتِنَا بِسُوءٍ

All that we say is that some of our gods have struck you with evil [11:54]

They threatened him with their gods and they tried to make him fear their objects of worship.

قَالَ إِنِّي أُشْهِدُ اللَّهَ وَاشْهَدُوا أَنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ

مِن دُونِهِ ۖ فَكِيدُونِي جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ لَا تُنظِرُونِ

إِنِّي تَوَكَّلْتُ عَلَى اللَّهِ رَبِّي وَرَبِّكُم

He said, “I call Allaah to witness, and you should bear witness, that I am free of whatever you associate in worship along with Him. So plot all of you against me and don’t give me any respite. I have placed my reliance upon Allaah, my Lord and your Lord.” [11:54-56]

This is tawheed, he challenges them, all of them, them and their idols.

So then all of you plot against me, and then don’t give me any respite [11:55]

Don’t give me some time, rather plot against me from this moment, and they were not able to do anything against him, rather Allaah aided him against them.

So the person who fears other than Allaah with regard to things that only Allaah can do, then he has committed major shirk, and this is called the fear which is worship, and the fear which is shirk. Many people have fear of the graves, or of the awliyaa’ (the beloved and obedient servants of Allaah), they fear Satan, they fear the jinn, and therefore they do acts of devotion, putting forward offerings to them, putting forward sacrifices for them, and making vows and giving foods, and other than that, such as throwing money upon their tombs in order to be saved from their evil, or to attain something of their good. Then this is khawf-ul-‘ibaadah (fear which is worship).

The second type: al-Khawf-utTabee‘ee (natural fear): and it is that you fear something which is clear and apparent which is able to do that which you fear from it, such as your fearing a snake or a scorpion or an enemy, these are matters which are clear and visible and are well-known matters, so fearing them is not called shirk, this is natural fear of something which is apparent and known, because you are fearing a means which is clear and apparent, and something which it is desirable for you to protect yourself from and take precaution against, so therefore you take up weapons, you take up a stick to kill a snake or a scorpion, and to kill a wild animal, because these are matters which are felt by the senses, and they contain well-known harm. So if you fear them, then this is not called shirk, rather it is called natural fear.

And therefore Allaah said with regard to Moosaa ‘alaihissalaam:

فَخَرَجَ مِنْهَا خَائِفًا يَتَرَقَّبُ

So he departed from it in a state of fear [28:21]

Meaning from the city

Fearful, looking about [28:21]

Having fear of his enemies, because he had killed one of them.

And he ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam fled to Madyan, and he was on the lookout, and he was fearing that they would catch him, so this is natural fear. However, a person needs to learn to seek shelter and protection in Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and to take hold of the means through which he can repel harm, and he relies upon Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and has reliance upon Allaah. He the most High said:

فَلَا تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

So do not fear them (the allies of Satan) but rather fear Me if you are truly believers [3:175]

This aayah is in the soorah Aal-i-‘Imraan in the story of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam along with the people of shirk on the day of Uhud, when the people of shirk threatened them and said, “We will return to them and wipe then out.” So therefore Allaah the Majestic and Most High says:

إِنَّمَا ذَٰلِكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوْلِيَاءَهُ فَلَا تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

That is just Satan, he incites you to fear his allies. So do not fear them, but rather fear Me if you are truly believers [3:175]

This warning and this threat was just from Satan, meaning he tries to cause you to fear his allies, or to cause whoever will submit to him to fear, from the people and to fear him. Then he will gain ascendancy over them.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Du‘aa (Supplication) is the Core of worship – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 21
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Islaam and Eemaan and Ihsaan and the Proof for Each

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

وأنواعُ العبادةِ التي أَمَرَ اللهُ بها: مثلُ الإسلامِ، والإيمانِ، والإحسان

And all the types of worship which Allaah has commanded such as Al-Islaam, and Al-Eemaan and Al-Ihsaan 11


[11]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

And the Shaikh, rahimahullaah, he quoted some examples for worship, as a case of quoting examples, not as a case of restriction because they are more than what he mentioned. And it would not be possible to mention them all in a brief treatise. However he mentioned some examples.

And Shaikh-ul-Islaam (Ibn Taymiyyah) has a separate treatise which is called Al-‘Uboodiyyah (worship and servitude), which researches the matter of worship and the types of worship and an explanation of the deviations which occurred from the Soofees and others with regards to worship, and it is a valuable treatise which the student of knowledge needs to read.

His saying rahimahullaah, “such as Islaam, and Eemaan and Ihsaan”: these three types are the greatest of the types of worship, and an explanation of them will follow in the speech of the Shaikh rahimahullaah with regard to the second fundamental principle. And he mentioned them here because they are from the types of worship.

So Islaam with its five pillars, the two testifications of faith, and establishment of the prayer and giving the zakaat and fasting Ramadaan and making Hajj to the sacred House of Allaah – these are all acts of worship which are maaliyyah (relating to wealth) and badaniyyah (relating to the body).

And likewise Eemaan with its six pillars, it is from the actions of the heart, eemaan in Allaah and in His Angels and in His Books and in His Messengers and in the Last Day and eemaan in Al-Qadr (pre-decree), the good of it and the bad of it, this is worship of the heart.

And likewise al-Ihsaan which is a single pillar, and it is that you worship Allaah as if you are seeing Him, and even though you do not see him, then He certainly sees you. This is the highest of the types of worship, because al-Ihsaan is the highest of all the types of worship.

And these are called the levels of the religion, since together they are the religion, because Jibreel when he asked the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam in the presence of his Companions, and the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam responded to the question about Islaam and Eemaan and Ihsaan, he then said:

هذا جبريل أتاكم يعلمكم أمر دينكم

“This was Jibreel, he came to you to teach you the affair of your religion”

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (4777) and reported by Muslim (8, 9 and 10) from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiy Allaahu ‘anhu.]

 So he called these three the religion.


Ad-Du ‘aa (Supplication) its Categories and its Proof. 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

ومنهُ الدعاءُ، والخوفُ، والرجاءُ، والتوكلُ، والرغبةُ، والرهبةُ، والخشوعُ، والخَشيةُ، والإنابةُ، والاستعانةُ، والاستعاذةُ، والاستغاثةُ، والذَّبْحُ، والنذرُ، وغيرُ ذلك من أنواع العبادةِ التي أَمرَ اللهُ بها كلُّها لله تعالى

And from it is ad-Du‘aa (supplication) and al-Khawf (fear) and ar-Rajaa’ (hope and longing) and at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) and ar-Raghbah (fervent desire) and ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khushoo‘ (reverence and humility) and al-Khashyah (awe) and al-Inaabah (turning repentantly) and al-Isti‘aanah (appealing for aid and assistance) and al-Isti‘aadhah (seeking refuge) and al-Istighaathah (seeking deliverence and rescue) and adh-Dhabh (sacrificing) and an-Nadhr (making vows), and other than that from the types of worship which Allaah has commanded, all of them are to be done exclusively for Allaah the Most High12


[12]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His saying, “and from it is ad-Du‘aa (supplication)”: meaning and from the types of worship is ad-Du‘aa (supplication); he began with it because it is the greatest of the types of worship.

And ad-Du‘aa (supplication) is of two categories: Du‘aa of worship and Du‘aa of making request:

Du‘aa-ul-‘Ibaadah (Du‘aa of worship): is to praise and extol Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, just as occurs at the beginning of Al-Faatihah:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ
إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

All Praise is for Allaah the Lord of the whole of creation, the Extremely Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy, the Sovereign Owner of the Day of Recompensing, You Alone do we worship, and Your Aid alone do we seek [1:2-5]

All of that is Du‘aa of worship.

اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ

Guide us upon the straight path [1:6]

to the end of the soorah, this is Du‘aa of request.

Du‘aa-ul-Mas’alah (Du‘aa of making request): it is to request something from Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, such as requesting guidance and requesting provision and requesting knowledge from Allaah, and requesting for at-Tawfeeq (the granting of success in attaining what is correct).


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وَأَنَّ الْمَسَاجِدَ لِلَّهِ فَلَا تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللَّهِ أَحَدًا

And that the places of prayer are to be for Allaah alone, so do not invoke or call upon anyone along with Allaah [72:18] 13 


[13]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Al-Masaajid”: this word is used to mean the places where prostration is made, and those places where the prayer is performed, and they are the most beloved place to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and there occurs an encouragement with regard to building them and preparing them, so he sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

من بنى مسجدا لله كمفحص قطاة أو أصغر بنى الله له بيتا في الجنة

“Whoever builds a mosque for Allaah like the nesting-place of a sand grouse or even smaller, then Allaah will build for him a house in Paradise” [1]

Allaah says:

إِنَّمَا يَعْمُرُ مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ

That the mosques of Allaah are to be maintained only by those people who truly believe in Allaah and in the Last Day [9:18] 

Maintaining means physical maintenance and spiritual maintenance, maintaining them by clay, and whatever it needs so that it can shelter those who pray, and can shade them from the heat, and can shelter them from the cold and maintaining them through worship, by the prayer and the recitation of the Qur’aan and the remembrance of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

And this word masaajid is also used to mean the seven parts of the body which prostrate, and they are: the forehead and the nose, and the two hands and the two knees and the tips of the two feet, because they perform prostration to Allaah. And the aayah covers both meanings. “And the Masaajid”: meaning the places where prayer is performed, and the parts of the body which perform prostration for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

فَلَا تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللَّهِ أَحَدًا

So do not invoke or call upon anyone along with Allaah [72:18]

Do not make these places of prayer, and these places, a place for shirk and for calling upon other than Allaah. Rather it is obligatory that the mosques be purified from any shirk, so there can be no graves in them, and there can be no calling upon other than Allaah in them, and there can be no innovations in them and no newly introduced affairs and no innovated soofee circles.

It is obligatory that the mosques are purified from innovations and from shirk and from sins because they are for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic alone, so there cannot be in them except that which is pleasing to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, so do not call upon anyone besides Allaah in these mosques, or utilise the parts of your body in prostrating to other than Allaah the Mighty and Majestic – because this is major shirk just like the person who prostrates to an idol or to a grave or who prostrates to some false object of worship – this is prostrating to something other than Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

So the witness is in His saying:

فَلَا تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللَّهِ أَحَدًا

So do not invoke or call upon anyone along with Allaah [72:18]

This is a command so make supplication purely for Him alone.

And His saying, “ahadan (anyone)”: this is general and it covers everything which is called upon besides Allaah, whether it be an Angel or a Prophet or a walee (beloved righteous servant) or a tree or a rock – it covers everything which is called upon besides Allaah the Mighty and Majestic – then this will be major shirk.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

So whoever directs anything from them to other than Allaah, then he is a mushrik (person of shirk), a kaafir (disbeliever), and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وَمَن يَدْعُ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَٰهًا آخَرَ لَا بُرْهَانَ لَهُ بِهِ فَإِنَّمَا حِسَابُهُ عِندَ رَبِّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الْكَافِرُونَ

And whoever worships any other object of worship along with Allaah, which he has no proof for, then his reckoning will be with his Lord, indeed the disbelievers will not prosper [23:117]

And in the hadeeth there occurs:

“Supplication is the core of worship” [2]

And the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِي سَيَدْخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ دَاخِرِينَ

And your Lord said, “Call upon Me, I will respond to you. Those who are too haughty and proud to worship Me will enter Hell-fire in disgrace.” [40:60] 14


[14]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

.. وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ

And your Lord has said … 

Meaning, your Lord has commanded you and said:

ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ

Invoke and call upon Me, and I will respond to you [40:60]

He has commanded making du‘aa (supplication) to Him, He the Perfect, and He has promised to respond, and this is from His generosity, He the Perfect and Most High, because of He has no need at all of our supplication, rather we need to make supplication to Him, He the Perfect and Most High. So He is commanding us with something which we need and which will be to our welfare. And He the Perfect becomes angry if you abandon making request of Him, whereas with regards to the creation, the creation becomes angry if you make request of him – therefore the poet said:

Allaah becomes angry if you abandon asking Him
But the children of Aadam, when you ask, he becomes angry.

And another one said:

So if you were to ask the people only for some soil, they would almost
When it was said, “Give it”, become irritated and withhold it

So the people are of three categories:

  1. The first: are those who do not make du‘aa to Allaah at all, so he is too proud and haughty to worship Allaah.
  2. The second: is the one who makes du‘aa to Allaah, however, he makes supplication to other than Him also, so he is a mushrik (a person of shirk).
  3. The third: is one who makes du‘aa to Allaah, making du‘aa purely and sincerely for Him, so he is a muwahhid (a person of tawheed).

And there occurs in the hadeeth that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

الدعاء مخ العبادة

Du‘aa is the core of worship”

And in one narration:

الدعاء هو العبادة

Du‘aa is worship” 

So this shows the tremendousness of du‘aa and that it is the greatest of the types of worship because the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

… مخ العبادة

“… it is the core of worship”

And in one narration:

الدعاء هو العبادة

Du‘aa is worship”

And the second narration is more authentic than the narration: الدعاء مخ العبادة  “Du‘aa is the core of worship”

And the meaning is one and the same.

So the hadeeth with its two narrations clearly shows how tremendous du‘aa is, and that it is the greatest of the types of worship. Just as he sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

الحج عرفة

“The Hajj is ‘Arafah”[3]

Meaning that the standing in ‘Arafah in Hajj is the greatest pillar from the pillars of the Hajj. It doesn’t mean that the whole of the Hajj is just ‘Arafah, but rather that the standing in ‘Arafah is the greatest of the pillars of the Hajj and likewise, worship is not restricted to just being du‘aa, but rather supplication is the greatest of its types. Therefore he said:

الدعاء هو العبادة

Du‘aa is worship”

To show the greatness of supplication, and to clearly show its status.

And then the Shaikh rahimahullaah mentioned the proofs for the different types of worship which he mentioned, and they are al-Khawf (fear) and ar-Rajaa’ (hope and longing) and at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) and ar-Raghbah (fervent desire) and ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khushoo‘ (reverence and humility) and al-Khashyah (awe) and al-Inaabah (turning repentantly) and al-Isti‘aanah (appealing for aid and assistance) and al-Isti‘aadhah (seeking refuge) and al-Istighaathah (seeking deliverence and rescue) and adh-Dhabh (sacrificing) and an-Nadhr (making vows), and other than that from the types of worship which Allaah has commanded, all of them are to be done exclusively for Allaah.

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Ahmad from a hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas radiy Allaahu ‘anhumaa and reported by Ibn Maajah and Ibn Khuzaimah from a hadeeth of Jaabir ibn ‘Abdillaah radiy Allaahu ‘anhumaa, and was declared saheeh by Shaikh Al-Albaanee

[2] Reported by at-Tirmidhee from a hadeeth of Anas ibn Maalik radiy Allaahu ‘anhu. Shaykh Al-Albaanee mentioned in his checking of Al-Mishkaat that the hadeeth with this wording, its chain of narration is weak, because it contains Ibn Lahee’ah who had a poor memory. What is correct is the hadeeth of An-Nu’maan ibn Basheer radiy Allaahu ‘anhumaa who said Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said, “Supplication, it is worship”, and then the Prophet sallallaahu‘ alaihi wa sallam recited the aayah, And your Lord said, “Call upon Me, I will respond to you[40:60]”, reported by Ahmad and the four Sunan, declared saheeh by Shaykh Al-Albaanee.

[3] Reported in the four Sunan (Aboo Daawood, At-Tirmidhee, An-Nasaa’ee and Ibn Maajah) from a hadeeth of ‘AbdurRahmaan ibn Ya‘mar ad-Daylee radiy Allaahu ‘anhu declared authentic by Shaykh Al-Albaanee.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Do not Prostrate to the Sun nor to the Moon, but rather Prostrate to Allaah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 18 (7:48 –  33:25)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Proof for His Lordship and His Divinity and Right to All Worship, He the Perfect and Most High

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ اللَّيْلُ وَالنَّهَارُ وَالشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ ۚ لَا تَسْجُدُوا لِلشَّمْسِ وَلَا لِلْقَمَرِ وَاسْجُدُوا لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَهُنَّ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ

And from His signs are the night and the day and the sun and the moon. Do not prostrate to the sun nor to the moon, but rather prostrate to Allaah, the One Who created them if you truly worship Him. [41:37] 7


[7]: Shaykh Fawzan’s Explanation:

This is a proof for His Ruboobiyyah (Lordship) and Ilaahiyyah (Divinity and Right to Worship), He the Perfect and Most High.

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ اللَّيْلُ وَالنَّهَارُ وَالشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ

And from His signs are the night and the day and the sun and the moon [41:37]

The sun and the moon: the sun is the tremedous star which gives light to the creation, as a lamp burning and shining, just as Allaah the Most High said:

وَجَعَلْنَا سِرَاجًا وَهَّاجًا

And We have made it (the sun) a lamp, burning and shining. [78:13]

And the moon is a light which brightens the night-time and gives light to the pathway of the people. And from their benefits also is the well-being of the creation through its trees and its fruits and oceans. So if the sun were hidden away from the creation, then the creation would suffer harm, and many of the means of livelihood and their welfare would be corrupted and if the moon were hidden away, then likewise. The moon also brings about benefit for their fruits and their trees, along with what it contains also from awareness of reckoning (of time periods). He the Most High said:

هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ ضِيَاءً وَالْقَمَرَ نُورًا وَقَدَّرَهُ مَنَازِلَ لِتَعْلَمُوا عَدَدَ السِّنِينَ وَالْحِسَابَ

And We made the moon a light and appointed set phases for it so that you should know the number of years and the reckoning of the months days and hours. [10:5]

And He the Most High said:

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْأَهِلَّةِ ۖ قُلْ هِيَ مَوَاقِيتُ لِلنَّاسِ وَالْحَجِّ

They ask you about the crescent moons, then say: They are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for the Hajj [2:189]

So the crescent moons bring benefit for awareness of time-periods and deadlines, deadlines for debts and deadlines for the waiting periods of the women, and the set times for acts of worship and fasting and Hajj, all of them are known by reckoning based upon these two lights, the sun and the moon. So the solar reckoning and the lunar reckoning contain many benefits for all of the creation.

And from those things which He has created are the seven heavens. He the Most High said:

اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَمِنَ الْأَرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ

Allaah is the One Who created seven heavens, and their like from the earth. [65:12]

الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ طِبَاقًا

Allaah the One Who created seven heavens in levels (one above the other) [67:3]

Each being above the other, the lowest heaven, then the one which follows it up until the seventh one. And above them all is the Throne of the Most Merciful, He the Perfect and Most High.

And the earths are seven just as He the Most High said:

الْأَرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ

And their like from the earth [65:12]

So they are seven levels or layers also, and every level from the levels of the seven heavens and the earths have inhabitants and occupants. And whatever planets and stars are in the heavens the sun and the moon and whatever is in the earth from created things from animals with their different types and from mountains and trees and rocks and minerals and oceans. These are from the signs of Allaah the Perfect and Most High, the creational signs, which are seen and witnessed.

He rahimahullaah said: and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ اللَّيْلُ وَالنَّهَارُ وَالشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ ۚ لَا تَسْجُدُوا لِلشَّمْسِ وَلَا لِلْقَمَرِ وَاسْجُدُوا لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَهُنَّ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ

And from His signs are the night and the day and the sun and the moon. Do not prostrate to the sun nor to the moon, but rather prostrate to Allaah, the One Who created them if you truly worship Him. [41:37]

And from His signs is the night: meaning from His signs which prove Lordship and His Ability and His sole right to worship to the exclusion of all else besides Him, is the night which brings darkness, and the daytime which brings light to the whole of the creation. This is from the amazing signs of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

So who can make the whole of the creation dark, all at once, and then make the whole of the creation bright, all at once? He is Allaah the Perfect and Most High. If all of the creation were to gather together to make one part of the earth bright, they would not be able except to make a restricted area bright, if they brought all the electrical generators which are in the world, all of them, they could not make bright except a restricted portion of the earth. As for the sun and the moon then they bring light to the whole of the earth, the night and the day follow each other in succession, and the sun and the moon likewise.

He the Most High said:

لَا تَسْجُدُوا لِلشَّمْسِ وَلَا لِلْقَمَرِ وَاسْجُدُوا لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَهُنَّ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ

Do not prostrate to the sun nor to the moon, but rather prostrate to Allaah, the One Who created them, if it is He that you truly worship. [41:37]

This is a nullification of shirk: Do not prostrate to created things. Since from the greatest of the created things are the sun and the moon, and because the people of shirk, they used to worship the sun and prostrate to it, and from them were those who used to worship the moon and the stars, such as the people of Ibraaheem, they would build for them temples in the form of the stars and they would worship them. So His saying, He the Most High:

لَا تَسْجُدُوا لِلشَّمْسِ

Do not prostrate to the sun [41:37]

As-Sujood means placing the forehead upon the ground in humble submission to the one who is worshipped, and it is the greatest of the types of worship, and Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallaam said:

أقرب ما يكون العبد من ربه وهو ساجد

“The closest that the servant comes to his Lord is whilst he is in prostration” [1]

[1]  Reported by Muslim (482) from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiy Allaahu ‘anhu. [And the narration of Muslim has a completion at the end, “So therefore make plentiful supplication.”]

So the greatest of the types of worship is prostration upon the ground, since your face is the thing which you cherish the most, you have placed it for Allaah upon the ground, as an act of worship for Allaah and in submission before Him, He the Perfect and Most High. This is true prostration, and it is not befitting to perform it as worship except for Allaah.

As for prostrating to the sun and the moon, then it is prostration to a created thing, which does not have the right to be prostrated to. So it is not permissible to prostrate to created things, but rather prostration is only for the Creator of the created things. As for the created things, then they are just like you, something created, something managed and controlled. Would you prostrate to a created being who is incapable, just the same as you? This is not permissible. Where have the intellects gone?

Prostration is only deserved by the Creator, He the Perfect and Most High, who is not rendered incapable by anything. So prostration is the right of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, it is not the right of the creation, no matter how great and large the created being is, it is still a created being who is weak and managed and controlled.

لَا تَسْجُدُوا لِلشَّمْسِ وَلَا لِلْقَمَرِ وَاسْجُدُوا لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَهُنَّ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ

Do not prostrate to the sun nor to the moon, but rather prostrate to Allaah, the One Who created them, if it is He that you truly worship. [41:37]

So what is obligatory is that we do not worship except Allaah. So if you make prostration to Him and you also prostrate to other than Him, then you are not worshippers of Allaah with correct worship. Rather you are worshipping Him along with shirk, and shirk corrupts and destroys worship.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Everything besides Allaah is a created being, and I am one of those created beings – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 17 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Previous ClassIf it is said to you, “Who is your Lord?


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

وكلُّ ما سِوَى اللهِ عالََمٌ وأنا واحدٌ من ذلكَ العالَمِ

And everything besides Allaah is a created being, and I am one of those created beings.4


[4]: Shaykh Fawzan’s Explanation:

Then the Shaikh rahimahullah, explained the manner in which this aayah is used as an evidence.

So his saying, “And everything besides Allaah is a created being, and I am one of those created beings.”: so therefore Allaah is my Lord, because Allaah is the Lord of all of the created beings and I am one of the created beings. So no-one is able to say, “I have a lord besides the Lord of the creation”, neither an unbeliever nor a Muslim. This will not be possible ever and no person with intellect will say it. This is a proof for the Ruboobiyyah (Lordship) of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and since He is the Lord of the whole of the creation, then therefore He is the One deserving worship, and this nullifies the worship of others besides Him, He the Perfect and Most High, and therefore after it He said:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You alone do we worship and Your aid alone do we seek. [1:5]

This indicates restriction, because the fact that the governed word is brought forward, “Iyyaaka”, and the governing verb نَعْبُدُ is put back, indicates restriction. So, “You, we worship”, is different to, “we worship you”, because saying, “we worship”, this is merely affirmation. However, “You, we worship”, this includes negation and affirmation, meaning, “we do not worship anyone else besides you”. And worship will not be correct except with negation and affirmation, and it is the meaning of Laa ilaaha illallaah, for it contains negation and affirmation, a negation for the right to be worshipped from everything else besides Allaah, and affirmation of it for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

If it is said to you, “Who is your Lord? – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 16
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Previous Class: These Three Fundamental Principles have Tremendous Importance


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

فإذا قيلَ لكَ: مَنْ رَبُّكَ؟ فقلْ ربي اللهُ الذي ربّاني ورَبَّى جميعَ العالمينَ بنعمِهِ

So if it is said to you, “Who is your Lord?”, then say, “My Lord is Allaah who nurtured me and all of the creation with His favours.” 2


[2]: Shaykh Fawzan’s Explanation:

The Shaikh rahimahullaah having explained the three fundamental principles in general terms, wanted to explain them in detail one by one, with their evidences from the Book and the Sunnah, and from Allaah’s signs within the creation, and from the intellectual evidences. And it is likewise obligatory to base creed and belief upon proofs from the Book and the Sunnah, and upon examination of the signs which Allaah has placed within the creation so that it should be firmly grounded and firmly established in the heart and so that all doubts are removed.

As for creed and beliefs based upon shubuhaat (incorrect suspicions) and upon doubts and upon sayings of the people and upon blind-following, then these will be beliefs which are short-lived and will not remain firmly established, and they will be open to being disproven and they will be open to being totally refuted.

So creed and belief and the rest of the rulings of the legislation are not established except with proofs of the Book and the Sunnah and with accepted intellectual proofs. And therefore the Shaikh rahimahullaah he quoted many proofs for these three fundamental principles, so no principle from them occurs except that he has support it with evidences and proofs about which there is certainty which repel doubts and false desires and which firmly implant the creed and belief in the heart.

His saying rahimahullaah, “So if it is said to you”: meaning if you are asked about your Lord, and this is a question which will occur, you will be indeed asked about it in this world and in the hereafter, so it is essential that you have knowledge of your Lord the Mighty and Majestic, and that you respond with the correct response based upon certainty and clear proof. So then say, “My Lord is Allaah”, this is the answer, “the One Who nurtured me and nurtured the whole of the creation with His favours.” This is using an intellectual proof.

So Ar-Rabb, the Lord the Majestic and Most High, He is the One who nurtures all of His servants with His favours and nourishes them with the provision which He gives. He creates them after they were previously nothing mentioned, they were in the wombs of their mothers, in one form of creation after another within three depths of darkness. And He causes provision to reach them, even in the wombs of their mothers, and therefore the body of the fetus develops in the womb of the mother and grows larger, because the provision from Allaah the Perfect and Most High reaches it and nourishment reaches it.

Then the soul is breathed into it so it moves and it comes to life, by the permission of Allaah. This is tarbiyyah (nurturing) in the womb. Then when it comes out, then Allaah the Perfect nurtures it with His favours giving it health and well-being and He causes the milk of its mother to flow for it, so it is nourished until it can eat food and can do without milk. Then little by little its intellect grows and its hearing and seeing develops, it develops little by little until it reaches puberty then it develops further until it reaches its full strength, until it reaches forty years old and it is at the limit of its strength.

So who is it that nourishes it from the day when He created it in the womb of its mother until it dies, who is it who nourishes it, then who is it who causes this food and this drink to be digested and absorbed in its body so that it reaches every cell and every muscle and every place in its body, who is it who makes food and drink appetizing for it, who is it who causes that to pass through and who removes what is harmful from it, who is it who does this and nurtures this human being, is it not Allaah the Perfect and Most High? This is the Lord the Perfect and Most High, the one who nurtures, He is the one who nurtured me and nurtured all of the created beings by His favours.

Everything upon the face of the earth from the realms of humans and animals and the realm of the land and the sea, from the greatest created thing to the smallest created thing upon the land and the sea, all of them are nourished by His favours and His provision. He the Most High said:

أَمَّنْ هَٰذَا الَّذِي يَرْزُقُكُمْ إِنْ أَمْسَكَ رِزْقَهُ

Or who is it that could give you provision if your Lord were to withold the provision which He gives to you? [67:21]

And He said:

وَمَا مِن دَابَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَّا عَلَى اللَّهِ رِزْقُهَا وَيَعْلَمُ مُسْتَقَرَّهَا وَمُسْتَوْدَعَهَا

And there is no creature upon the earth except that its provision is dependent upon Allaah and He knows its dwelling place and its resting place. [11:6]

And He said:

وَكَأَيِّن مِّن دَابَّةٍ لَّا تَحْمِلُ رِزْقَهَا اللَّهُ يَرْزُقُهَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ ۚ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

And how many a creature there is which does not carry its own provision. Allaah provides for it and for you. He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing. [29:60]

This is the Lord, the One free of all imperfections:

ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ

That is Allaah your Lord so worship Him alone. [10:3]

As for other than Allaah the Majestic and Most High, then it does not possess and have ability over anything from that, neither the idols nor anything else, no-one else possesses and has ability over granting provision, rather it is one who is provided for, it is a created being like yourself.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And He is the One Whom I worship and there is no other whom I worship besides Him, and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

All praise is for Allaah the Lord of the whole of creation [1:2] 3


[3]: Shaykh Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, “And He is the One Whom I worship”: the Lord, the One who is like this He is the One who deserves worship from me and from other than me. Then the Shaikh also draws attention to the fact that it is not sufficient to affirm Ruboobiyyah (Allaah’s Lordship), it is not sufficient that you say, “My Lord is Allaah who nurtured me with His favours.”

This is not sufficient, you must acknowledge His right to all worship, and you must make all worship purely and sincerely for Him. And this is the difference between the person of tawheed and the person of shirk. So the person of tawheed affirms the Lordship of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and he affirms His sole right to worship, He alone with no partner, whereas the person of shirk, he affirms the Lordship of Allaah, however he is one who associates others along with Him in his worship of Him. He associates along with Him those who do not create and do not provide provision and do not possess anything. This is the difference between the person of tawheed and the person of shirk. The person of tawheed says, “My Lord is Allaah and He is the One Whom I worship, and I have no other one whom I worship besides Him.”, whereas the person of shirk, he says, “My Lord is Allaah.” However worship with him is not solely for Allaah, so he worships along with Allaah, trees and rocks and beloved servants of Allaah and righteous people and graves. So he becomes a person of shirk, and the affirmation of Lordship does not benefit him, and it does not enter him into Islaam.

So his saying, “And He is the One Whom I worship”: meaning the Deity Whom I worship.

And his saying, “And I have no other whom I worship besides Him”: neither from the Angels nor from the Messengers nor from the righteous people nor from trees nor rocks nor anything else, I have nothing which I worship besides Him, He the Perfect and Most High. This is affirmation of tawheed with the proof, and this is an intellectual proof, and then he mentioned the textual proof the Qur’aan.

And the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

All Praise is for Allaah, the Lord and Nurturer of the whole of the creation. [1:2]

This aayah is the start of the Qur’aan in the Mus-haf (written copy of the Qur’aan), there is nothing before it except for, “In the Name of Allaah, the Extremely Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy.” And it is the conclusion of the speech of the people of Paradise, He the Most High said:

وَآخِرُ دَعْوَاهُمْ أَنِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

And the conclusion of their call will be that all Praise is for Allaah, the Lord of the whole of creation [10:10]

And Allaah the Majestic and Most High began this creation with this phrase.

He the Most High said:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَجَعَلَ الظُّلُمَاتِ وَالنُّورَ

All praise is for Allaah He Who created the heavens and the earth and made the darkness and the light. [6:1]

And He will conclude the creation with it. He the Most High said:

وَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُم بِالْحَقِّ وَقِيلَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

And judgement will be passed upon them all with justice, and judgement will be concluded by its being said that all praise is for Allaah the Lord of creation [39:75]

So He began the creation with it and He concluded with it, so it is a tremendous saying.

So His saying He the Most High, “Al-Hamd: it is praise of the One Who is being praised along with love of Him and veneration of Him. And the, “Al-”, in, “Al-Hamd”, is to make it totally comprehensive, meaning all praise is for Allaah, it belongs to Him and He is deserving of it, so He is the One Who deserves total and unrestricted praise. As for other than him, then he can be praised in accordance with the level of the fine and good things which he does. As for total and unrestricted and complete praise then it is for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, because favours, all of them are from Him.

And even the created being if he does something good to you, then it is from Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, He is the One Who caused this created being to do something useful for you, and He is the One Who enabled him to do good for you, so indeed praise returns to Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

And his saying, “Lillaah”: the jaar and the majroor are connected to something left unmentioned which is the predicate for the subject. So the phrase means: praise exists or is confirmed for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

And, “Allaah”: means, the One possessing Divinity and the right to be worshipped over the whole of His creation. And this Name, no-one else besides Him, He the Perfect can be called it, no-one can be called Allaah. Even the Pharoah, he did not say, “I am Allaah”, rather he said, “I am your Lord”. So this Name is particular to Allaah, no-one can ever be called it, and no-one has the audacity to say, “I am Allaah.”

Rabbi”: this is a qualifying noun for Allaah’s Name, and it is in the genitive case and it is a governing noun.

Al-‘Aalameen”: is a governed noun in the genitive case, and the sign that it is in the genitive case is the, “yaa”. Because it it joined to the sound masculine plural.

So it is clear that praise, all of it, and extolling, all of it, is for Allaah the Lord of the whole of creation.

And the world of the Angels and the world of inanimate objects and of birds and the world of beasts of prey and the world of animals and the world of insects and of ants and the many worlds or realms of creation that there are upon the land and in the sea, they are not known except to Allaah, and no-one can enumerate them except Allaah. All of them, Allaah is their Lord.

Rabb-ul-‘Aalameen”, (the Lord of all of the creation): this cannot be applied except to Allaah the Perfect the Mighty and Majestic. It is not possible for anyone to be called, “Rabb-ul-‘Aalameen”.

So if it said, “Ar-Rabb”, (The Lord): then this cannot be used except for Allaah the Majestic and Most High, it cannot be used except for Him. As for a created being, then the term can be used restrictedly so that it is said, Rabb-ad-Daar “the master of the house”, or, “the owner of the animal”, meaning its owner and its master.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

The Definition of Shirk – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 15 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Previous Class: The Most Serious Thing Which Allaah Forbade is Shirk


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And the most serious thing which He forbade is shirk

وهو دعوةُ غيرهِ معهُ

And it is to call upon other than Him along with Him.19


[19]: Shaykh Fawzan’s Explanation

This is the definition of shirk: it is to call upon other than Him along with Him – meaning that something from ‘ibaadah (worship) is directed to other than Allaah, whether it be (to) an angel from the angels or a prophet from the prophets or a righteous person from the righteous people or a building from the buildings or other than that from all the created beings. So whoever directs anything from worship to other than Allaah, then this is the greatest thing that Allaah has forbidden. This is shirk.

So know the explanation of tawheed and the explanation of shirk because there are from the people those who explain tawheed with other than its true explanation and those who explain shirk with other than its true explanation.

From the people are those who say, “Shirk is shirk with regards to Haakimiyyah (judgement and legislation)”. And this has appeared now unfortunately. Al-Hukm bi ghayri ma anzal Allaah  (judging by other than that which Allaah sent down) is a type from the types of shirk called shirk-ut-Taa‘ah (shirk of obedience). There is no doubt that obeying a created being in declaring lawful that which Allaah has made forbidden or in declaring forbidden that which Allaah has made lawful, this is a type of shirk  – however there is that which is more serious than it and it is worshipping other than Allaah by slaughtering and making vows and performing tawaaf (circumambulation) and calling for rescue. So what is obligatory is to warn against all shirk, not to take up something from it and to leave aside that which is worse and more dangerous than it. So shirk is not to be explained as being only shirk-ul-Haakimiyyah or shirk in political affairs. And (these people) say: “Shirk of the graves, this is just simple shirk”, meaning it is something easy. This is insolence towards Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. Shirk is the worst thing that Allaah has forbidden and it is to call upon something else besides Him along with Him. This is shirk.

And from them are those who say that, “Shirk is to have love of the dunyaa (worldly life) and to have love of wealth.”

Wealth is something which Allaah has made beloved (to people) with their natural love. 

وَتُحِبُّونَ الْمَالَ حُبًّا جَمًّا

And you love wealth with immense love. [89:20]

وَإِنَّهُ لِحُبِّ الْخَيْرِ لَشَدِيدٌ

And indeed he (man) is certainly fervent in love of khayr [100:8]

Meaning: (of) wealth.

قُلْ إِن كَانَ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ وَإِخْوَانُكُمْ وَأَزْوَاجُكُمْ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ وَأَمْوَالٌ اقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا وَتِجَارَةٌ تَخْشَوْنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَاكِنُ تَرْضَوْنَهَا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَجِهَادٍ فِي سَبِيلِهِ فَتَرَبَّصُوا حَتَّىٰ يَأْتِيَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ

Say: If your fathers and your children… 

Up to His statement:

.. أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُم

are more beloved to you. [9:24]

He said: ‘are more beloved to you’, and He did not criticize them for loving them (their fathers, their children, etc). Rather He criticized them for giving precedence to love of them over the love of Allaah. Love of wealth is not shirk because it is a natural love. The people have need of wealth and they love it; love of wealth is not shirk because it is (a case) of love of things which are beneficial through which the people derive benefit. However those people who say these sayings  (that shirk is love of wealth) – either they are ignorant people who do not know tawheed and shirk – or otherwise they are people who deliberately turn away, wishing to turn the people away from these realities towards things which they want and purposes which they desire . And Allaah knows best about people’s intentions and goals.

So what is important is that this is not shirk; shirk is to call upon other than Allaah along with Him or to direct anything from the types of worship to other than Allaah  – such as sacrifice, and making vows, and supplicating and calling for rescue and seeking aid and turning for refuge and fear and hope and other than that – this is shirk which is the greatest of sins, calling upon other than Him along with Him, He the Perfect and Most High, because ad-Du‘aa (supplication) is the greatest type of worship, just as He, the One free of all imperfections, said:

لَهُ دَعْوَةُ الْحَقِّ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ لَا يَسْتَجِيبُونَ لَهُم بِشَيْءٍ

The True Call is that which is for Allaah; and those whom they call upon besides Him cannot respond to them with anything. [13:14]

And He said:

فَادْعُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُونَ

So call upon Allaah, making the religion purely and sincerely for Him even though the disbelievers detest it. [40:14]

So supplicating to other than Allaah is the shirk which Allaah and His Messenger made forbidden. As for these lesser matters which they declare shirk to be then that is not the case. However it is to be said: some of them are a part of shirk; however there is that which is more dangerous than it and more important than it because shirk is of levels, some of them are worse than others. And Allaah’s refuge is sought.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And the proof is His saying, the Most High:

وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا

And worship Allaah, and do not associate anything along with Him [4:36] 20


[20]:  Shaykh Fawzan’s Explanation

His saying, “And the proof is His saying, the Most High:

وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا

And worship Allaah, and do not associate anything along with Him. [4:36]”: 

We have said that the proof that the greatest thing that Allaah has commanded is tawheed is His saying:

وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا

And worship Allaah, and do not associate anything along with Him. [4:36]

Then he mentioned the rest of the rights (in the rest of the above ayah). So the fact that He began with tawheed and with the prohibition of shirk, this is a proof that tawheed is the greatest thing which Allaah has commanded because He said:

وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ

And worship Allaah.. 

And He followed it with His saying:

وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا

and do not associate anything along with Him. [4:36] 

So this is a prohibition. He began with the command for tawheed and the prohibition from shirk. So this proves that the greatest thing that Allaah has commanded is tawheed and the worst thing that He has forbidden is shirk, because Allaah began with that. And He, the Perfect, does not begin except with the most important thing and then what is next in importance. This is the way in which the aayah is a proof.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links: