Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: He called the people to tawheed & warned against shirk for 10 years in Makkah  – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 42 (Part A)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Time Period of the Call in Makkah 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

أخذ على هذا عشر سنين يدعو إلى التوحيد

He carried this out for ten years calling to tawheed[60]


[60] :Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His statement: «He carried this out for ten years calling to tawheed» meaning: He called the people to tawheed and warned against shirk for ten years in Makkah. He was calling to tawheed and forbidding shirk, because they used to direct worship to the idols.

And the wisdom in Allaah’s sending him as a prophet in Makkah was that Makkah is Umm al-Quraa (the mother of all the cities), that to which all the cities relate back to. Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, says:

وَمَا كَانَ رَبُّكَ مُهْلِكَ الْقُرَىٰ حَتَّىٰ يَبْعَثَ فِي أُمِّهَا رَسُولًا

«And your Lord would not destroy the townships until He sent a Messenger in their original one.» [28:59]

The ‘Umm‘ is the source to which something relates back to and the foundation which it relates back to; this is the Umm.

His saying, He the Most High:

هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ

«They are the foundation of the Book.» [3:7]

Meaning: The source to which the aayaat which are mutashaabihah (unclear) are referred back to.

Likewise Makkah has been honored by Allaah, in that it is the original place to which the whole of the people of the Earth resort back, and Muslims in the different regions of the Earth return to Makkah. So it is Umm al-Quraa with the meaning that it is the place of return. Allaah sent His Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam in Makkah because it is Umm al-Quraa.

He remained in it for thirteen years forbidding the people of Makkah from shirk and commanding them with tawheed, because the people of Makkah are the example for others besides them.

Therefore, it is binding that Makkah should remain, until the establishment of the Hour, as an abode of tawheed and a beacon for the call to Allaah, and everything which conflicts with that must be kept away from it. So, shirk, innovations, and false superstitions must be kept away from it, because the people always look towards it. What is done in it is propagated around the world. So, if what is done in it is good, then good will spread about and if the opposite is the case, then evil will spread.

So it is obligatory that Makkah be kept pure always and for this reason, He, the Majestic and Most High, said:

وَعَهِدْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ أَن طَهِّرَا بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْعَاكِفِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ

«And We enjoined Ibraaheem and Ismaa`eel that they should purify My House for those people who make tawwaaf, and those who stay there for worship and those who bow and prostrate.» [2:125]

So it is obligatory that Makkah be purified from everything that conflicts with Islaam, so that the religion can emanate from it and the call to the East and Western parts of the Earth, because Allaah sent His Prophet in it and he began his call `alaihissalaatu wassalaam from it.

The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam remained in Makkah for thirteen years; from them were ten years in which he called to tawheed and forbade from shirk (only) and he was not commanded with anything other than that. He was not commanded with the prayer nor with the zakaat nor with fasting nor with Hajj (the Pilgrimage). Rather his call was restricted to warning against shirk and to commanding tawheed.

He would say to them:

Say that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, you will be successful!

And they would say:

أَجَعَلَ الْآلِهَةَ إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا ۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ عُجَابٌ

«Does he make all the objects of worship a single object of worship? Indeed this is something very strange!» [38:5]

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/muhammad

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: Early Life and the Coming Down of the Revelation to Him – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 41
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

He lived for sixty-three years: forty before Prophet-hood and twenty-three as a Prophet and Messenger. He was sent as a Prophet through [the revelation of]Iqra  [58]


[58] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He was born in Makkah sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and breastfed amongst the tribe of Banoo Sa`d with Haleemah as-Sa`diyyah. His father, `Abdullaah, died whilst he was still in the womb and his mother died a short time after his birth. So he was taken care of by Umm Ayman al-Habashiyyah whom he inherited from his father. He came to be under the guardianship of his grandfather, `Abdul-Muttalib, then `Abdul-Muttalib died and his guardianship moved to his paternal uncle, Aboo Taalib.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam lived for forty years before prophet-hood being well-known for trustworthiness, truthfulness, generosity, for avoiding the worship of idols and avoiding the drinking of khamar (alcohol). He had not used to do what the people of the day of ignorance did, rather he `alaihissalaatu wassalaam used to go out to the cave of Hiraa and worship in it for days at a time. He would worship Allaah upon the religious way of Ibraaheem upon tawheed. Then, when he reached the age of forty  `alaihissalaatu wasalaam, the revelation came down upon him such that Jibreel came to him whilst he was in the cave of Hiraa, and said to him: “Recite!” He said: “I cannot recite,” – meaning: I am not able to read. So he pressed him very tightly and then released him and said: “Recite!” He said: “I am not able to recite!” Then, he pressed him a second time and released him and said: “Recite!” He said: “I cannot recite!” So, he pressed for third time and  said:

اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ – خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ

«Recite! In the Name of your Lord Who created, who created man from a clot of blood.» [96: 1-2]

This was his sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam prophet-hood. Allaah made him a prophet through [the aayah] “Iqra.”

Then, he went to his house shaking from fear, because he had encountered something which he had not known before, an extremely frightening matter. So, he found his wife Khadijah radiyallaahu`anha, and she covered him up and calmed him down. She said to him: “Know! By Allaah! Allaah will not humiliate you for indeed you maintain the ties of kinship, you show hospitality to the guest, you look after the orphans, and you help people who have been struck by calamities.” So, she prepared him and took him to her paternal uncle, Waraqah ibn Nawfal. He was a man who devoted himself to worship and who read the previous scriptures and who worshipped Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. When he informed him of what he had seen, he said: “This was the spirit who used to descend to Moosaa,” meaning: Jibreel `alaihisalaam. 


The Coming Down of the Revelation to him (sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam)

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

He was sent as a Messenger with al-Muddathir. His land was Makkah and he made migration to al-Madeenah. Allaah sent him to warn against shirk and to call to tawheed. The proof is His saying:

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ – قُمْ فَأَنذِرْ – وَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّرْ – وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ – وَالرُّجْزَ فَاهْجُرْ  – وَلَا تَمْنُن تَسْتَكْثِرُ – وَلِرَبِّكَ فَاصْبِرْ

«O you wrapped (in garments)! Arise and warn! And exalt your Lord! And purify your garments! And shun the idols! And do not give anything in order to receive more in return! And patiently persevere for the sake of your Lord!» [74:1-7] [59]


[59] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

There came down to him, His saying, He the Most High:

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ – قُمْ فَأَنذِرْ

«O you wrapped (in garments)! Arise and warn!» [74:1-2]

This was him being sent as a Messenger and this is the meaning of the saying of the Shaykh:

«He was sent as a Prophet through [the revelation of] Iqra. and he was sent as a Messenger with al-Muddathir

The difference between a prophet and a Messenger is that a prophet (nabiyy) is one to whom Allaah has revealed way, but he was not commanded to convey it, whereas a rasool (Messenger) is one to whom a revealed way was sent and he was commanded to convey it. The clarification of that is that the Messenger is one to whom a revealed law comes down and a book, so he (sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam) was sent as a prophet through Iqra. and he was sent as a messenger through al-Muddathir at the age of forty. This was the case with the prophets. A prophet is sent with a revealed law and book from before him and he is entrusted with certain duties like the prophets of Banoo Israa`eel who came after Moosaa.

«al-Muddathir» means the one who is wrapped up, because he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was struck by alarm, so he said: “Cover me up with garments! Cover me up with garments!” Meaning: Cover me up. Therefore, Allaah sent down to him:

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ – قُمْ فَأَنذِرْ – وَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّرْ

«O you wrapped (in garments)! Arise and warn! And exalt your Lord!» [74:1-3]

 Meaning: Exalt and venerate Him.

وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ

«And purify your garments!» [74:4]

Meaning: Purify your deeds from shirk, because a person’s actions are garments. Allaah, the Most High, said:

وَلِبَاسُ التَّقْوَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ

«And the clothing of dutifulness to Allaah, that is better.» [7:26]

Dutifulness is called clothing.

وَالرُّجْزَ فَاهْجُرْ

«And keep away from Ar-Rujz (the idols)! »[74:5]

«ar-Rujz» ar-Rujz (filth) means the idols.

«Shun [the idols]» meaning: abandon and keep well away from them.

So, Allaah raised him as a Prophet at the age of forty and he remained in Makkah for thirteen years, calling the people to tawheed and to the abandonment of the worship of idols. There were many discussions which he had with the people of shirk. He suffered harm upon himself and upon those who believed in him and his followers. The people of shirk caused many difficulties throughout the thirteen years.

Three years before the migration, he was taken on the Night Journey to Jerusalem. He was taken up through the heavens and the five daily prayers were made obligatory upon him. So, he prayed in Makkah for three years. Then, the Quraysh plotted to kill and attack him, so Allaah permitted him to migrate to al-Madeenah. So, he migrated to al-Madeenah after he had met with the Ansaar in the first and second pledge of al-`Aqabah.

He migrated to al-Madeenah and remained there for ten years. So, altogether, it was twenty-three years [of prophet-hood]. After the prophet-hood, he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam lived twenty-three years, thirteen years in Makkah laying the foundations of the call to tawheed, and for ten years in al-Madeenah. Then, Allaah took his soul at the age of sixty-three years. So, his life-span in Messenger-ship was twenty-three years.

This blessing which Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, sent down upon him, this abundant knowledge, this jihaad, and this establishment which He granted him upon the earth was all in this short time of twenty-three years. This is one of the signs of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, and from the blessings given to the prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, the blessings of his call and the blessings of the revelation which was sent down to him. And before all of this, it came about through the aid of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. He is the One who helped him. He is the One who defended him and aided him until he conveyed His call to the East and the West. All praise is for Allaah, the Lord of the whole of creation.

His saying: «Allaah sent him to warn against shirk and to call to tawheed» This is his call sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, warning against shirk and calling to tawheed. And this is what is obligatory for the du`aat (callers) to precede upon in their call, that they should focus upon warning against shirk and calling to tawheed before everything, otherwise their call will not be upon the manhaj (methodology) of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.

Allaah sent the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam with warning against shirk and calling to tawheed, so it is essential to lay this foundation down first of all. After that, the person can direct his attention to the rest of the matters, since matters will not be correct and sound except with the presence of tawheed. If all of the people were to abandon zinaa (fornication), intoxicants, stealing, and they took on every virtuous quality from deeds and behavior, but did not abandon shirk, there would be no benefit in these matters and it will not benefit them. Whereas, if the people were to remain free of shirk, but had major sins less than shirk, then there is hope for such a person that Allaah will either forgive him or punish him in accordance with the level of his sins. But his final destination will be to Paradise because he is a person of tawheed. 

So Tawheed is the fundamental basis and foundation. There is no salvation except with the presence of tawheed firstly. Therefore, it is obligatory to concentrate and always give attention to it and to call the people to it and to teach it to the people and to explain it to them, what is the meaning of tawheed and what is the meaning of shirk. The Muslim must be aware of this matter and attain certainty concerning it. He should check himself so that he does not fall into anything from shirk or infringe tawheed. This matter is essential and the da`wah must proceed upon this basis.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

The meaning of «Arise and warn!» is to warn against shirk and call to tawheed. «And exalt your Lord!» meaning: venerate Him with tawheed. «And purify your garments!» meaning: purify your deeds from shirk. «And shun ar-rujz» ar-rujz means the idols and «shunning» meaning: abandoning them and disassociating from them and their people.


Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/muhammad

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: His Name and Lineage – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 40
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Third Fundamental Principle:
Knowledge About Our Prophet Muhammad –sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam
His Name, His Lineage, and His Early Life 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

الأصل الثالث : معرفة نبيكم محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم 

The third fundamental principle: Knowledge about your Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam.[56]


[56] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His saying: «The third fundamental principle» meaning: from the three fundamental principles, because the Shaykh (rahimahullaah) has mentioned at the start of the treatise that it is obligatory upon every Muslim male and female to have knowledge of these three fundamental principles, and they are: knowledge of Allaah, knowledge of the religion of Islaam, and knowledge about His Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam with the evidences.

As for the first and second fundamental principles, then a clarification of them has preceded and an explanation of their evidences. 

The third fundamental principle: It is knowledge about the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam, because of the fact that the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam is an intermediary between Allaah and His creation with regard to conveying His Religion and His Message. Therefore, it is obligatory to know about him, `alaihissalaatu wasalaam.  Otherwise, how could you follow a person whom you do not know of?

So, you must know about him with regard to his name, the land he was born and grew up in, the land to which he migrated and that you know the extent of his lifespan `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. And the phases of his life, `alaihissalaatu wasalaam and the phases of the time period which he was sent in this world. That you also know what occurred before Prophet-hood and after it and before the migration, and after it. That you know how the revelation first came to him, `alaihissalaatu wasalaam and when the revelation began, and what is the aayah which proves his Prophet-hood and the aayah which proves His Messenger-ship. That you can quote the aayahs which prove His Prophet-hood and the aayahs which prove His Messenger-ship. You must know this; that you know his lineage and which tribe he was from, because the Arabs are made of tribes and he was an Arab without any doubt. So, knowledge of these matters is essential about the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam through studying the aayahs and the ahaadeeth which are connected to these matters.

And you look into the life of the Messenger sallallaahu`alayhi wa sallam and his call, in order that you should know these matters about your Prophet whom you are commanded to follow and take as an example.


His Name, His Lineage

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

وهو محمد بن عبد الله بن عبد المطلب بن هاشم من قريش ، وقريش من العرب ،  والعرب من ذرية إسماعيل بن إبراهيم الخليل ، عليه وعلى نبينا أفضل الصلاة والسلام

He is Muhammad, the son of `Abdullaah, the son of `Abdul-Muttalib, the son of Haashim, who is from Quraysh. Quraysh are from the Arabs, and the Arabs are from the descendants of Ismaa`eel, the son of Ibraaheem, al-Khaleel(the specially beloved one). May the most excellent salaat (extolment) and salaam(peace and security) be upon him and our Prophet.[57]


[57Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

This is his name and lineage. His name is Muhammad `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. He has other names besides Muhammad. However, the most famous one of his names is Muhammad and Allaah mentioned that in the Qur.aan in a number of aayahs.

مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ

«Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah» [48:29]

And His saying:

وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ

«And Muhammad is not except a Messenger, Messengers have passed away before him.» [3:144]

And His saying:

مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ

«Muhammad is not the father of any of your men.» [33:40]

And His saying:

«And those who have eemaan (truly believe) and perform righteous deeds, and believe in that which was sent down upon Muhammad (sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam), for it is the truth from their Lord.» [40:2]

So, Allaah mentioned his name Muhammad in a number of aayaahs.

From his names is Ahmad. Allaah mentioned in His saying regarding the glad tidings given by al-Maseeh `alaihissalaam:

وَإِذْ قَالَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُم مُّصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيَّ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَمُبَشِّرًا بِرَسُولٍ يَأْتِي مِن بَعْدِي اسْمُهُ أَحْمَدُ

«And remember when `Eesaa ibn Maryam, said: “O Children of Israa.eel! I am Allaah’s Messenger to you confirming what came before me from the Tauraat, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger who will come after me, whose name will be Ahmad.» [61:6]

So, he is Muhammad and Ahmad. The meaning of that is one abundant in praise, `alaihissalaatu wa salaam, and abundant in attributes for which he is to be praised.

From his names are: the Prophet of Mercy (نبي الرحمة), the Prophet of Great War (نبي الملحمة) – meaning jihaad in Allaah’s Cause – the one after whom the people will be resurrected (الحاشر), and the final Prophet (والعاقب), `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. The one who is such that the people will be resurrected after his being sent as a Prophet, because he is the last of the Messengers, sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. So, there is nothing after him except for the establishment of the Hour. After his Messenger-ship, the Hour will be established and the people will be resurrected for recompensing and accounting.

Whoever wants to get knowledge of these matters (Names and Meanings) , let him refer back to the Book Jalaa.ul-Afhaam fee asSalaati was-Salaam `alaa Khayril-Anaam of the Imaam Ibnul-Qayyim (rahimahullaah).

As for his lineage: He is Muhammad, the son of `Abdullaah, the son of `Abdul-Muttalib, the son of Haashim, the son of `Abdul-Manaaf, the son of Qusay, the son of Kilaab.

He was from the tribe of Quraysh which is the noblest of the tribes, and Quraysh are from the descendants of Ismaa`eel `alaihissalaatu wasalaam.

The Arabs are of two categories upon the most famous saying:

  • The original Arabs: They were the descendants of Qahtaan.
  • The assimilated Arabs: They were the descendants of `Adnaan from the descendants of Ismaa`eel `alaihissalaam, the son of Ibraaheem, al-Khaleel, `alaihissalaam. They were called al-Musta`rabah (the assimilated Arabs) because they learned the Arabic language from the original Arabs.

When the tribe of Jurhum came and settled in Makkah beside Haajir, the mother of Ismaa`eel and her son Ismaa`eel whilst he was young – when they found the well of Zamzam, they settled there and made an agreement with Haajir that they should settle beside her and that she should permit them to take water from the well. Ismaa`eel `alaihissalaam was a suckling infant at that time, then he grew older and took the Arabic language from the tribe of Jurhum, and they were from the original Arabs. He married from the tribe of Jurhum and descendants came from him who learnt the Arabic language. They grew up with the Arabs and became Arabs themselves by assimilation. They are the descendants of `Adnaan. As for the original Arabs, then they are the descendants of Qahtaan whose origin was from Yemen.

Some of the scholars said: The original Arabs themselves were of two categories: Arabs who became extinct and Arabs who remained.

The Arabs who became extinct were the ones who were destroyed. They were the people of Nooh, `Aad, and Thamood, and Shu`ayb.

As for the remaining Arabs, then they are those who are divided into the original Arabs and the assimilated Arabs.

The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was from the descendants of Haashim (the tribe of Haashim), and Haashim was from the descendants of Ismaa`eel, `alaihissalaatu wa salaam. His name was Muhammad, the son of `Abdullaah, the son of `Abdul-Muttalib.

And [regarding] `Abdul-Muttalib, this was not his name, his name was Shaybah. However, he was called `Abdul-Muttalib because his paternal uncle, al-Muttalib, the son of Manaaf, brought him from al-Madeenah whilst he was little from his maternal uncles, Banoo an-Najaar. So, when the people saw him being dark from travelling, they thought he was a slave owned by al-Muttalib. So, they said: `Abdul-Muttalib (the slave of Muttalib), the son of Haashim, the son of `Abdul-Manaaf. `Abdul-Manaaf had four sons: Haashim who was the grandfather of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam, al-Muttalib, `Abd-Shams, and Nawfal.

Banoo Haashim are called the Haashimiyyoon and Banoo Muttalib are called the Muttallibiyyoon.

As for  `Abd- Shams, then from them was `Uthmaan –radiyallaahu `anh and Banoo `Umay-yah. They were all from `Abd- Shams.

As for Nawfal, he had descendents, from them: Jubayr bin Mut`im and Hakeem ibn Hizaam.

Ibraaheem `alaihissalaatu wasalaam had Ismaa`eel and he was the eldest. He is the grandfather of the Arab descendants of `Adnaan. And Ishaaq is the grandfather of the children of Israa.eel, and all of the Prophets were from the descendants of Ishaaq, except for our Prophet `alaihissalaatu wasalaam, he was from the descendants of Ismaa`eel, he was the final prophet.

As for his birth: He sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam was born in the year of the elephant. It is the year when Abrahah, the King of Yemen came towards Makkah. He was sent on a mission by the (christian) King of the Abyssinians to demolish the Ka`bah. With him, there was a very large elephant, so when he reached the place which is called al-Mughamas, nothing remained except for him to enter Makkah and demolish the Ka`bah. The people of Makkah had already separated and climbed into the mountains because they had no strength to oppose him. So, he wanted to go on to the Ka`bah, but the elephant was held back and it refused to get up from the ground. Allaah held it back. When he turned it in the direction other than the direction of Makkah, it would get up and trod. And when he pointed it in the direction of Makkah, it was prevented and unable to walk, and whilst they were in that condition, they saw two flocks of birds coming from the direction of the ocean and they had with them stones. Each bird had two stones with it, a stone in its beak and a stone between its feet. They threw these little stones down and they would strike the head of the man and it would come out from his anus and split him in two halves. So, Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, destroyed him.

Allaah sent down, with regard to that, reminding the Quraysh, Sooratul-Feel:

أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّكَ بِأَصْحَابِ الْفِيلِ – أَلَمْ يَجْعَلْ كَيْدَهُمْ فِي تَضْلِيلٍ – وَأَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ طَيْرًا أَبَابِيلَ – تَرْمِيهِم بِحِجَارَةٍ مِّن سِجِّيلٍ

«Do you not see how your Lord dealt with the Companions of the Elephant? Did He not make their plan go astray? And He sent against them birds, in flocks, striking them with stones of clay.» [105:1-4]

[The stones were] from Hell, and Allaah’s refuge is sought.

فَجَعَلَهُمْ كَعَصْفٍ مَّأْكُولٍ

«So He made them like straws of corn devoured.» [105:5]

They became like dry straw which have been eaten by animals and excreted.

This was the story of the elephant, so Allaah defended His Sacred House and destroyed this tyrant Abrahah, and in this year, Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was born. There appeared along with his birth signs; light appeared along with him which caused the castles of Shaam to shine. In the night of his birth, the idols shook. The throne room of Kisraa (the emperor of Persians) shook and some balconies from it fell down in the night the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was born. These were signs of the descending of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam as a Prophet. The devils were thrown into commotion in that tremendous night.

He was born in the mountain-pass of `Alee, he was born in Makkah (close to the Ka’bah) . However, the precise location of the house is not confirmed.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/muhammad

Al-ihsaan (Perfection) : It’s Categories and Levels – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 36 – Part B & Lesson 37
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Third Level is al-Ihsaan 

The Definition of Ihsaan 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

:المرتبة الثالثة : الإحسان ، ركن واحد ، وهو 

أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه ، فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه يراك

The third level is al-ihsaan. It is a single pillar and it is: «That you worship Allaah as if you were seeing Him, and even though you do not see Him, He certainly sees you.»46


[46]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Al-Ihsaan in the language means to perfect something and complete it. It is derived from al-husun which means al-jamaal (beauty), the opposite of ugliness.

And it is divided into (three) categories: 

  • Firstly: Al-Ihsaan (Perfection) of what lies between the servant and his Lord. This is what is meant (in this book here). 
  • Secondly: Al-Ihsaan (Perfection) of what is between the servant and the rest of the people. 
  • Thirdly: Doing well and perfecting what you do. When a person makes something or does an action, then it is obligatory upon him that he perfects it and does it completely. 

[1] Ihsaan (perfection) of what lies between the servant and his Lord


The first type is ihsaan (perfection) of what lies between the servant and his Lord. The Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam explained it when Jibreel asked him in the presence of the companions as will follow. He said:

«Ihsaan is that you worship Allaah as if you were seeing Him,
and even though you do not see Him, He certainly sees you

So ihsaan between the servant and his Lord is his perfecting the action which Allaah has made a duty upon him, that he does it correctly, purely and sincerely for the Face of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

So, an action in which there is ihsaan between the servant and his Lord is that which is done sincerely for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and done with the following of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.

Al- ihsaan is of two levels :

The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam made clear that ihsaan is of two levels, one of them being higher than the other: 

The first level is that you worship Allaah as if you were seeing Him such that your certainty and eemaan in Allaah reaches such a level that it is as if you are actually seeing Allaah with your eyes. You have no hesitancy or doubt, rather it is as if Allaah is in front of you, He the Perfect and Most High, and you are seeing Him openly. Whoever reaches this level has reached the limit of ihsaan. You worship Allaah as if you are seeing Him on account of the completeness of certainty and sincerity, which is as if you are seeing Allaah with your eyes.

Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, will not be seen in this world, rather He will only be seen in the Hereafter. However, you see Him with your heart to the extent that it is as if you are seeing Him with your eyes. Therefore, He will reward the people of ihsaan in the Hereafter that they will see Him, He the Perfect and Most High. This is since they used to worship Him as if they were seeing Him in this world. So, Allaah rewards them by giving them the opportunity to see Him with their eyes in the abode of bliss. He, the Most High, said:

لِّلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا الْحُسْنَىٰ وَزِيَادَةٌ

«For the people of ihsaan there will be the best reward of Paradise and something extra.» [10:26]

Something extra is looking upon the Face of Allaah. The reason is that they perfected their deeds in this world, so Allaah gave them the best reward which is Paradise. And He will give them an increase which is seeing Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. So therefore, you worship Allaah as if you are actually witnessing Him, upon love and longing to meet Him, He the Perfect and Most High. You feel delight in obedience to Him and you feel calm and obedience to Him, He the Perfect and Most High. You eagerly desire obedience to Him. This is the path of the people of ihsaan. 

The second level: If you do not reach this tremendous level (first level), then you worship Him upon the path of al-muraqabah (watchfulness) such that you know that Allaah sees you, knows your condition, and knows what lies within yourself. Therefore, it is not befitting that you should disobey Him and contradict His command when He sees and observes you. This is a good state, however, it is less than the first one. So, as long as you know that He sees you, then you therefore perfect your worship of Him and you do it well, because you know that Allaah is seeing you. And for Allaah is the Highest example. If you were in front of a created being who had status and he commanded you with a command, and you were carrying this matter out in front of him and he was looking at you, would it be befitting that you be negligent in the performance of this action? 

So in summary, ihsaan is of two levels: 

  • The level of witnessing with the heart: It is that you worship Allaah as if you are seeing Him from the strength of certainty and eemaan. It is as you are seeing Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, with your eyes. 
  • The second level: It is that you worship Allaah knowing that He sees you and observes you, therefore, you do not disobey Him and contradict His command, He the Perfect and Most High.

This is the level of al-ihsaan and it is highest of the levels of the religion. Whoever reaches it has reached the highest of the levels of the religion. Before it is the level of eemaan, and before that is the level of al-Islaam.

The deen has a number of domains: 

The first domain: al-Islaam. It is wide to such an extent that the hypocrite enters within it and is called a Muslim and is treated like a Muslim, because he has submitted to Islaam outwardly. So therefore, he enters within the domain of Islaam. And the person who is weak in eemaan [enters the domain of Islaam], but he has nothing from eemaan except a mustard seed of it. 

The second domain: It is more restricted and more specific – the domain of al-eemaan. The hypocrite in belief does not enter into it whatsoever. Rather, only the people of eemaan enter into it, and they are two categories: those who are complete in eemaan and those who are deficient in eemaan. So, the sinful believer and dutiful believer both enter into it. 

The third domain: It is more restricted than the second one – the domain of al-ihsaan. It just as the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam made clear. No one will enter into it except the people of complete eemaan.


The Evidence for al-Ihsaan 

And the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا وَّالَّذِينَ هُم مُّحْسِنُونَ

«Allaah is with those who fear Him and are dutiful to Him; and He is with those who are people of ihsaan.» [16:128]

And His saying, He the Most High:

وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى الْعَزِيزِ الرَّحِيمِ الَّذِي يَرَاكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ وَتَقَلُّبَكَ فِي السَّاجِدِينَ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

«And place your reliance upon the All-Mighty, the Bestower of Mercy. He who sees you when you stand to pray. And who sees your movements along with those who pray along with you. Indeed! He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.» [26:217-220]

And His saying, He the Most High:

وَمَا تَكُونُ فِي شَأْنٍ وَمَا تَتْلُو مِنْهُ مِن قُرْآنٍ وَلَا تَعْمَلُونَ مِنْ عَمَلٍ إِلَّا كُنَّا عَلَيْكُمْ شُهُودًا إِذْ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا يَعْزُبُ عَن رَّبِّكَ مِن مِّثْقَالِ ذَرَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي السَّمَاءِ وَلَا أَصْغَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ وَلَا أَكْبَرَ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ

«And you are not (O Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam) engaged in any matter nor do you recite the Book of Allaah, – nor do you do any action (O people), except that We are witness in your deeds when you do them. And not even that which is of the weight of the tiniest ant is hidden from your Lord on the earth or in the heavens. Nor is there anything smaller than that or greater than it except that it is written in a Clear Book [10:61] [47]


[47] : Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

This is the proof for the first level of al-ihsaan:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا وَّالَّذِينَ هُم مُّحْسِنُونَ

«Allaah is with those who fear Him and are dutiful to Him, and He is with those who are people of ihsaan.» [16:128]

The aayah proves that Allaah is with the people of ihsaan. They are those who worship Allaah as if they were seeing Him, so Allaah is with them in a specific sense of Ma`iyyah (Allah being with creation) – the Ma`iyyah with regard to aiding, helping, and tawfeeq (guiding them to and granting them attainment of correctness).

And His saying, He the Most High:

وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى الْعَزِيزِ الرَّحِيمِ الَّذِي يَرَاكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ وَتَقَلُّبَكَ فِي السَّاجِدِينَ

«And place your reliance upon the All-Mighty, the Bestower of Mercy. He who sees you when you stand to pray. And who sees your movements along with those who pray along with you.» [26:217-219]

This is a proof for the second level. This is a proof for his saying [sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam]: «Then, He certainly sees you

«And place your reliance» Meaning: trust your affairs «to the All-Mighty, the Bestower of Mercy» He is Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

«When you stand to pray» You stand for worship and the prayer.

«And who sees your movements along with those who pray along with you» He sees you whilst you are performing your rukoo` (bowing) and whilst you are performing your sajdah (prostration). He sees you in all the states of worship; standing, bowing, and prostrating. He, the Perfect and Most High, sees you.

«Indeed! He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing» The One who hears your sayings. The One who knows your sayings, He the Perfect and Most High.

And His saying, He the Most High:

وَمَا تَكُونُ فِي شَأْنٍ وَمَا تَتْلُو مِنْهُ مِن قُرْآنٍ وَلَا تَعْمَلُونَ مِنْ عَمَلٍ إِلَّا كُنَّا عَلَيْكُمْ شُهُودًا إِذْ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ

«And you (O Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam) are not engaged in any matter nor do you recite the Book of Allaah, – nor do you do any action (O people), except that We are witness in your deeds when you do them.» [10:61]

This is a proof for the second level.

«And you (O Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam) are not engaged in any matter» This is an address to the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam. In any affair from your affairs, from the affairs of worship or other than it – all of your actions and your movements – you will not be engaged in any affair at all.

«Nor do you recite from it (i.e. Book of Allaah)» Meaning: from Allaah, because the Qur`aan is from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Or the pronoun could refer back to the affair, so the meaning would be: From the affairs which you are engaged in is recitation of the Qur`aan.

«Nor do you do (O people)» This is [an address] for all of the nation, for the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and other than him.

«Any action» Meaning: Any action from the actions, whether good or bad.

«Except that We are witness [in your deeds]» We are seeing you, observing you, and witnessing you. This is a proof for his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam: «Then indeed, He sees you

«When you do them» You are carrying it out and you are doing it. So, this gives a proof for the second level from the levels of ihsaan, in that He, the Majestic and Most High, witnesses the action of every doer of an action. He, the Perfect and Most High, sees him, knows him, and observes him. Nothing is hidden from him.

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَخْفَىٰ عَلَيْهِ شَيْءٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي السَّمَاءِ

«Nothing whatsoever in the earth or in the heavens is hidden from Allaah.» [3:5]


[2] Ihsaan between the person and rest of the creation


As for ihsaan between the servant and the creation, then its meaning is: doing good to them and withholding from harming them.

Such that you feed the hungry person, cloth the person without clothing, assist the needy person with your position, and that you intercede for the one who needs to be interceded for. You do that which is good with all the different aspects of good. You are hospitable to the guest and you are generous towards the neighbor. Nothing but good emanates from you towards the neighbor, and you withhold harming him. So, no harm comes from you towards him or towards anyone else.

  1. From the people, there are who are such that nothing but harm comes from them, and
  2. From the people there are those whom harm and good comes. And
  3. From the people, there are those whom nothing but good comes from them. This is the highest of the levels.

Doing good towards the people and withholding harm from them is ihsaan (good and fine treatment) towards the people:

أَحْسِنُوا ۛ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

«Do good. Allaah loves al-Muhsineen (the doers of good).» [2:195]

Even towards the animals, it is obligatory that you treat them well and make available for them whatever they need and that you withhold harming them and that you are gentle with them. This is from ihsaan towards the animals.

Even a person who is going to be rightfully executed, you should not torture him, rather, you should execute him in a fine and tranquil manner. A person who is obligatory to execute, and someone it is obligatory to carry a hadd (prescribed punishment) upon, then it is carried out upon him with gentleness. There is to be no mutilation, no torture, and no beating to death.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

»إن الله كتب الإحسان على كل شيء ، فإذا قتلتم فأحسنوا القتلة ، وإذا ذبحتم فأحسنوا الذبح«

«Allaah has obligated ihsaan with regard to everything. So, when you kill, then kill in a fine manner. And when you slaughter an animal, then slaughter in a good manner

[Reported by Muslim no. 1955 as a hadeeth of Shaddaad bin Aws, radiy Allaahu `anhu.]

So, [the principle of ihsaan applies] to execution or other than it from that which necessitates prescribed punishment.

«When you slaughter» Meaning: when you slaughter animals which are to be eaten, then slaughter in a fine manner:

» وليحد  أحدكم شفرته ، وليرح ذبيحته «

«Let one of you sharpen his knife and give relief to the animal which he is slaughtering

Therefore, you are to treat with ihsaan even the animals. Allaah forgave the prostitute woman from the People of Israaeel on account that she gave a drink of water to a dog which had its tongue hanging out from thirst. So, she gave it water to drink and Allaah thanked her for that and forgave her, her sin.[2] This is a tremendous sin and it is prostitution, meaning: zinaa (fornication). But Allaah forgave her on account of that – because she treated the thirsty animal in a fine manner.

So how about something other than a dog? If you were to treat a hungry person from the Muslims with ihsaan, or from the descendants of Aadam, even if he is a disbeliever – if you were to treat him well, then Allaah, the Majestic and Most High will thank you for that fine treatment. He, the Most High, said:

أَحْسِنُوا ۛ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

«Do good. Allaah loves al-Muhsineen (the doers of good).» [2:195]


[3] Ihsaan (Perfection) of the Action


The third type: It is perfection of the action. Whatever action you do, it is obligatory that you perfect it and not so that it should be said: “So-and-so has done such-and-such very well.” There occurs in the hadeeth:

» إن الله يحب إذا عمل أحدكم عملا أن يتقنه «

«Allaah loves that one when one of you does an action that he perfects it

[Reported by al-Bayhaqee in Shu`ab al-Eemaan 4/334 no. 5313 and no. 5314 from a hadeeth of `Aa.ishah, radiy Allaahu `anha. [Declared hasan (good) by Shaikh al-Albaanee in Saheeh al-Jaami`. He spoke about it in Silsilatul-Ahaadeeth asSaheehah no. 1113].


Footnotes:

[2] Refer to al-Bukhaaree no. 3467, Muslim no. 2245 as a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah, radiy Allaahu `anhu.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/belief/imaan-faith-pillars

Eemaan has 70 and odd branches, its highest of them is the saying of “Laa ilaaha illAllaah” – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 32 – Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

The Second Level is Eemaan  

المرتبة الثانية : الإيمان : وهو بضع وسبعون شعبة ، فأعلاها قول : لا إله إلا الله ، وأدناها إماطة الأذى عن الطريق ، والحياء شعبة من الإيمان 

The second level is al-Eemaan (true faith) and it has seventy and odd branches, its highest of them is the saying of “Laa ilaaha illAllaah” and the lowest of them is removal of that which is harmful from the path; and al-hayaa (a sense of shame) is a branch of eemaan.[42]


[42] : Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Eemaan is more inclusive than Islaam, so every believer is a Muslim, but not every Muslim is a believer. So eemaan is more inclusive with respect to itself, and it is more specific with regard to its people.

Eemaan in the language is at-tasdeeq (to believe, to attest with the heart).

He the Most High, said upon the tongue of the brothers of Yoosuf:

 وَمَا أَنتَ بِمُؤْمِنٍ لَّنَا

Meaning: you won’t believe us. (12:17)

As for [the meaning of] eemaan in the legislation, then it is as explained by the people of the Sunnah and Jamaa`ah:

Speech of the tongue, belief of the heart, and action of the limbs.
It increases with obedience, and it decreases through sin.

It is with this explanation, a reality relating to the legislation, because realities are three: a reality which relates to the language, a reality with regards to the legislation, and a reality relating to people’s custom.

So the explanation of eemaan with this explanation is a reality relating to the legislation. So, eemaan moves from the meaning in language to the meaning in Islaamic legislation.

So, eemaan is: speech upon the tongue – there has to be speech and acknowledgment with the tongue. And it is belief in the heart, when a person speaks upon his tongue, he must be believing it in his heart, otherwise he will be just like the hypocrites, those who: 

 يَقُولُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِم مَّا لَيْسَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ

They say with their tongues that which is not in their hearts. [48:11]

And speech upon the tongue, and belief in the heart will not suffice, rather there must be action on the limbs also, and carrying out the obligatory duties is essential, and avoiding the prohibitions. So the person does the acts of obedience and he avoids the forbidden acts, all of this is from eemaan. With this definition, it comprises the whole of the religion. However, these acts of obedience and these many legislated duties, some of them are a part of the reality of eemaan, and some of them are things which are a completion of eemaan.

Eemaan has pillars and branches, and the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam explained them in two hadeeth. He explained the arkaan (pillars) of eemaan in the hadeeth of Jibreel, and he explained the branches of eemaan in the hadeeth of «Eemaan is seventy and odd branches». This will follow in shaa’ Allaah.

Eemaan and Islaam, if they are mentioned together, then each of them has its own meaning. When only one of them is mentioned, then it enters along with the other. If they are mentioned together, then Islaam is explained to be the outward actions, and they are the five pillars of Islaam, and eemaan is explained to be the inward actions which are the six pillars, and their places are in the heart. All of these must be found together in a Muslim. The Muslim must be one who has eemaan and who establishes the pillars of Islaam and the pillars of eemaan – he must gather all of them.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

»الإيمان بضع وسبعون شعبة ، أو بضع وستون شعبة«

«Eemaan is of seventy and odd branches, or sixty and odd branches.» There are two narrations.

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (9) with the wording «sixty and odd» and Muslim (35) with both wordings from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radi Allaahu `anhu.]

His saying «odd»: it is a number between three and nine. So if it is said: «ten and odd,» then it means a number between thirteen until nineteen, and if it is said «odd» on its own, then it means something between three and nine.

His saying «branches»: a branch is a part of the thing, meaning that the pillars have seventy and odd parts or sections.

His saying «the highest one of them»: meaning: the highest of the branches is the saying Laa ilaaha illaAllaah.  It is the head of Islaam and it is the head of eemaan, it is the first pillar, and it is the entry point of the religion.

His saying «the lowest one of them»: meaning: the last of them and the least one of them.

His saying «removing that which is harmful from the path»: meaning: removing that which is harmful from the path which is walked upon. And «that which is harmful» is everything which causes harm to the people, whether it be thorns, rocks, filthy things or refuse, everything which causes harm to people upon their path. And placing that which is harmful upon their path is forbidden, because the path is for those who wish to precede upon it, and harm impedes those who want to proceed, or puts them in danger, such as stopping his car upon the road, this is from causing harm – and letting water flow out from the house unto the path, this is from harm – and putting rubbish upon the pathway, this is from causing harm, whether it be upon the road, the town, or in the countryside – placing a rock, pieces of timber, iron upon the pathways of the people, digging holes in the roads of the people – all of this is from causing harm. So if a Muslim comes and removes this harm, and clears the path of it, then this is a proof for his eemaan. So, placing that which is harmful upon the path is from the branches of kufr, and removing harm from the path is from the branches of eemaan.

His saying «al-hayaa (true sense of shame is a branch of eemaan)»: al-hayaa is a characteristic which Allaah places in a person which leads him to carry out whatever will beautify and adorn him; and which prevents him from things which will contaminate and disfigure him. And al-hayaa which leads a person to perform that which is good, and to withhold from that which is evil is praiseworthy. As for shame or shyness which prevents a person from doing something good, from seeking knowledge, and from asking about things which are a problem to his understanding, then this is blameworthy shyness. This is because it is blameworthy embarrassment.

And the pillars of eemaan are many as you have come to know there are seventy and odd. Al-Imaam al-Bayhaqee wrote a large work in which he mentioned the branches of eemaan, it has an abridgment which has been printed.

From the proofs of the scholars that eemaan is speech upon the tongue, belief in the heart and action on the limbs is his saying sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam:

» أعلاها لا إله إلا الله «

« The highest of them is none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah. » This is a proof for sayings. And his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam:

» أدناها إماطة الأذى عن الطريق «

« And removal of that which is harmful from the path » is an action. It proves that actions are from eemaan. And his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam:

» الحياء شعبة من الإيمان «

« al-hayaa is a branch from eemaan .» This is something in the heart, al-hayaa is in the heart. This is a proof that eemaan is sayings upon the tongue, belief in the heart, and actions upon the limbs.

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https://abdurrahman.org/belief/imaan-faith-pillars

The True Meaning of “Laa ilaaha illAllaah” and It’s Explanation from the Qur’an – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 27 Part B & Lesson 28
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

ومعناها لا معبودَ بحقٍّ إلا اللهُ وحده؛ (لا إله) نافيًا جميعَ مَا يُعْبدُ مِنْ دونِ اللهِ (إلا الله) مُثْبِتًا العبادةَ له وحدَهُ لا شريكَ لهُ في عبادتِهِ، كما أنَّه ليس له شريك في مُلْكِه

And its meaning is none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah; laa ilaaha (nothing has the right to be worshipped) is a negation of everything which is worshipped besides Allaah. Illallaah (except Allaah) affirms worship for Allaah Alone, and that none is given any share of worship along with Him, just as He has no sharer in His Sovereignty.34


[34]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, “And its meaning is none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah”: the meaning of laa ilaaha illAllaah is not as is said by the people of falsehood: “there is no creator and there is no provider except Allaah”, because this is tawheed-ur-Ruboobiyyah (tawheed of Lordship), the people of shirk agreed to that, but they would not say laa ilaaha illAllaah. He the Most High said:

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا إِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ

وَيَقُولُونَ أَئِنَّا لَتَارِكُو آلِهَتِنَا لِشَاعِرٍ مَّجْنُونٍ

When it was said to them, “laa ilaaha illAllaah(none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah), they became proud, and they say, “are we to abandon worshipping our gods for a crazy poet?” [37:35-36]

“Aalihatinaa” means: those things which we worship.

لِشَاعِرٍ مَّجْنُونٍ ..

… in favour of a crazy poet?” [37:35-36]

They meant the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, they described him with poetry and madness, because he had said to them, “Say: laa ilaaha illAllaah”, and he forbade them from the worship of idols.

And when he said to them, “Say: laa ilaaha illAllaah”, they said:

أَجَعَلَ الْآلِهَةَ إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا ۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ عُجَابٌ

Has he made all of the objects of worship a single One to be worshipped? This is something very strange [38:5]

They thought that there were many gods to be worshipped.

So therefore this shows that its meaning is – nothing truly deserves worship except Allaah. Whereas if its meaning were – there is no creator and there is provider except Allaah – then they agreed to that, and they did not question it. So if that were its meaning they would not have refused to say laa ilaaha illAllaah, because they used to say when they were asked, “Who created the heavens and the earth?”, they used to say, “Allaah”. And when they were asked, “Who creates? Who gives provision? Who gives life and gives death and who controls the earth?”, they used to say , “Allaah”. They acknowledged this. So if that were the meaning of laa ilaaha illAllaah then they would have consented to it. However its meaning is, “None has the right to be worshipped except Allaah”.

If you were to say, “Nothing is worshipped except Allaah”, this would be a great error, because then all the objects of worship would be Allaah, High and Exalted is Allaah above this. Rather if you restrict it and you say, “bihaqq” (nothing is deservedly worshipped), then all the objects of worship are negated except Allaah the Perfect and Most High. You must therefore say, None has the right to be worshipped truly, meaning none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah. Then he explained that in accordance with the wording of the saying:

laa ilaaha: is a negation, it negates the right to worship from everything besides Allaah.

illAllaah: this is affirmation of worship for Allaah alone with no partner.

So laa ilaaha illAllaah includes negation and affirmation, and tawheed has to have negation and affirmation both. Affirmation alone will not suffice; and negation would not suffice on its own. There must be negation and affirmation, just as He the Most High said:

فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ

So whoever rejects the false objects of worship, and truly believes in and worships Allaah [2:256]

وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا

And worship Allaah and do not associate anything in worship along with Him [4:36]

So if you say, “Allaah is One who deserves worship”, this will not suffice, because Al-Laat is one who was worshipped, and Al-‘Uzza is one who was worshipped, and Manaat was an object of worship, all of the idols were called gods, or objects of worship. So therefore you must say, “laa ilaaha illAllaah”, none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah – there must be combination between negation and affirmation so that therefore tawheed is actualized and shirk is negated.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

: وتفسيرها الذي يوضحها قوله تعالى

And its explanation which will make it clear is His saying, He the Most High:

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ إِنَّنِي بَرَاءٌ مِّمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ

إِلَّا الَّذِي فَطَرَنِي فَإِنَّهُ سَيَهْدِينِ

وَجَعَلَهَا كَلِمَةً بَاقِيَةً فِي عَقِبِهِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

And remember when Ibraaheem said to his father and to his people “I am totally free of everything that you worship except for the One who created me, for He will guide me”. And Allaah made it a saying to persist amongst his progeny so that they might remember and return to obedience to their Lord. [43:26-28] 35


[35Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

The best thing to explain the Qur’aan is the Qur’aan. So laa ilaaha illAllaah has been explained by Allaah in the Qur’aan, and that is in the saying of His Khaleel, His specially chosen One (Ibraheem ‘alaihisalaatu wassalaam), in that which Allaah mentioned from him: 

إِنَّنِي بَرَاءٌ

I am totally free [43:26]

This is negation; it has the same meaning of laa ilaaha (none has the right to be worshipped): 

إِلَّا الَّذِي فَطَرَنِي

Except for the One who created me [43:27]

Meaning: except for Allaah. This is affirmation.

So this aayah is a complete and full explanation of the meaning of laa ilaaha illAllaah.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And His saying, He the Most High:

قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ

Say : O people of the Scripture, come to a word of justice between us that we will single out Allaah with all worship and will not worship anything else besides Him, nor will we take one another as lords besides Allaah. Then if they turn away then say bear witness that we are Muslims submitting to Allaah and making our worship purely and sincerely for him. [3:64] 36


[36]  Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

And His saying, He the Most High:

قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا

Say: O people of the Scripture, come to a word of justice between us that we will single out Allaah with all worship and will not worship anything else besides Him. [3:64]

This aayah from Soorah Aal-i-‘Imraan came down with regard to the deputation of Najraan, the Christians who came to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam and debated him and asked him questions, and a long conversation occurred between them and him. They were Christians from the Christians of the Arabs. And in the end, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam requested from them Al-Mubaahala (calling down Allaah’s curses upon whoever was lying):

 فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءَنَا وَأَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَنِسَاءَنَا وَنِسَاءَكُمْ وَأَنفُسَنَا وَأَنفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَل لَّعْنَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِينَ

Then say: Come, let us call our children and your children, our womenfolk and your womenfolk, ourselves and yourselves – then let us invoke and call down Allaah’s Curse upon the liars. [3:61]

So when he requested al-Mubaahalah (calling down curses upon the liars), they feared and they did not engage in calling down the curses along with him, ‘alaihisalaatu wassalaam. Rather, they handed over the Jizyah because they knew that they were upon falsehood, and that he was the Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.

نبتهل: Meaning, let us call the curse down upon the liar from us. They knew that they were the ones who were the liars, and if they had engaged in calling down curses, fire would have descended upon them and consumed them in their places. Therefore they said no, we won’t do so – rather, we will hand over the Jizyah (special tax) and we will not engage in calling Allaah’s curses down upon the liars. So the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam accepted the payment of Jizyah from them.  And it had become clear to them that Allaah had indeed commanded him with what was contained in this aayah.

This aayah contains the meaning of laa ilaaha illAllaah (none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah). His saying:

أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ

That we will not worship [3:64]

This is a negation. And His saying:

إِلَّا اللَّهَ

Except Allaah. [3:62]

This is affirmation.

And this is the ‘Adl (justice) for which the heavens and the earth are established. So the heavens and the earth are established upon tawheed (singling out Allaah with all worship) and upon al-‘Adl. So we do not associate anything in worship along with Him, neither with the Messiah, whom they claim is a lord and whom they worship besides Allaah, nor anyone besides the Messiah, not even Muhammad ‘alaihisalaatu wassalaam, and not any one from the Prophets, not anyone from the righteous, nor anyone from the awliyaa (beloved servants of Allaah):

أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا

That we will not worship except Allaah, and we will not associate anything at all with Him. [3:64]

وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ

And we will not take one another as lords besides Allaah. [3:64]

Meaning: Just as you (i.e. the people of the Book) have taken the Rabbis and monks as lords besides Allaah the Most High:

اتَّخَذُوا أَحْبَارَهُمْ وَرُهْبَانَهُمْ أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَالْمَسِيحَ ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا

They took their rabbis and their monks as lords besides Allaah and (they) also (took as their Lord) the Messiah, son of Maryam, and they were not commanded except that they should worship a single God. [9:31]

The taking of rabbis and monks as lords besides Allaah is something which Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam explained as being their obedience to them in declaring lawful that which Allaah has made forbidden and making forbidden that which Allaah had made lawful.[1] This is the meaning of their taking them as lords besides Allaah, since they used to declare lawful that which Allaah has made forbidden, and  declare forbidden which Allaah has made lawful. So the people obeying them upon that is taking them as Lords. This is because the One who legislates for the people and declares things to be lawful and forbidden for the people is Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا

So, if they turn away. [3:64]

Meaning: (They) do not accept the call to tawheed:

فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ

Then say: Bear witness that we are Muslims (obedient to Allaah, worshiping Him alone). [3:64]

They call them to bear witness that they were muwahiduun (people of tawheed) and that they were kuffaar (unbelievers).  So they made clear to them the falsity of what they were upon. And this aayah shows Al-Baraa’a (freeing oneself) from the religion of the people of shirk and it clearly states “(We) bear witness that we are Muslims.” This contains the obligation of clearly announcing the falsity of what the people of shirk are upon and not remaining silent about it, and of clearly announcing the falsity of shirk and of refuting its people.

In summary:

Laa ilaaha illAllaah (none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah) has two pillars, and they are:

  1. An-Nafee (negation) and
  2. Al-Ithbaat (affirmation).

So if it is said to you: What are the pillars of laa ilaaha illAllaah? Then say, negation and affirmation.

Its conditions are seven, and it (saying the shahadah) will not benefit except with these conditions; someone has written them in a line of poetry and said:

Knowledge, certainty, purity and sincerity and your being truthful

                             Along with love, compliance, and acceptance of them

1.Knowledge: Its opposite is ignorance, so the person who says Laa ilaaha illAllaah with his tongue, but is ignorant of its meaning, then laa ilaaha illAllaah will not benefit him.

2.Certainty: Such that he does not have any doubt. This is because some people may know its meaning, however, they have a doubt about it, so his knowledge is not correct. He must have certainty of laa ilaaha illAllaah and that it is true.

3.Purity and Sincerity: Its opposite is ash-Shirk. Some people say laa ilaaha illAllaah, but they do not abandon shirk as is presently the case today with the worshippers of the graves. Those people will not be benefited by (saying) laa ilaaha illAllaah because from its conditions is abandoning shirk.

4.Being truthful: Its opposite is falsehood and lying. This is because the munaafiquun say laa ilaaha illAllaah, but they are liars in their hearts; they do not believe its meaning. Allaah the Most High said:

إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ قَالُوا نَشْهَدُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُهُ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لَكَاذِبُونَ

اتَّخَذُوا أَيْمَانَهُمْ جُنَّةً

When the hypocrites come to you, they say: “We bear witness that you are the Messenger of Allaah indeed.” But Allaah knows that you are indeed His Messenger, and Allaah bears witness that the hypocrites are liars. They take their oaths as a shield to screen them. [63:1-2]

5.Love: That the person loves this saying and is an ally to its people. As for the person who does not love it or does not love its people, then it will not benefit him.

6.Compliance: It is the opposite of turning away from it and abandoning it, and it is complying with what it (this saying) indicates with regard to worshipping Allaah Alone and not associating anything with Him, and it is complying with His commands. Since you have acknowledged and have borne witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah Alone, then it becomes binding upon you to comply with His rulings and His religion. As for your saying laa ilaaha illAllaah, and you do not comply with His legislations, then laa ilaaha illAllaah will not benefit you.

7.Acceptance: Acceptance which negates Ar-Rad (rejection) – such that you do not reject anything from the rights of laa ilaaha illAllaah and whatever it indicates. Rather, you accept everything which laa ilaaha illAllaah indicates and you accept it correctly.

And an eighth condition is added:

And the eighth is added; rejecting whatever things are 

worshipped besides the One who is truly worshipped

Meaning: 8.Freeing oneself from shirk. So a person will not be a muwahid (a person of tawheed) until he frees himself from shirk. 

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ إِنَّنِي بَرَاءٌ مِّمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ

And when Ibraaheem said to his father and his people: I am totally free of whatever you worship. [43:26]

These are the conditions of laa ilaaha illAllaah – eight conditions.

Footnotes:

[1] Refer to the hadeeth of ‘Alee ibn Haatim radiy Allaahu ‘anhu that was reported by At-Tirmidhee (3095). In it Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

“They did not used to directly worship them, but rather, when they (priests or monks) declared something lawful for them, they (the people) would then declare it lawful. And when they declared something forbidden for them, they would take it as being forbidden.”

[Shaikh Al-Albaanee rahimahullaah declared this hadeeth as hasan (good)].

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Allaah bears witness that “Lā ilāha illā Huwa”. Likewise the Angels & the people of knowledge bear witness – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 27 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

So the proof for the shahaadah (testification) is:

شَهِدَ اللَّهُ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَأُولُو الْعِلْمِ قَائِمًا بِالْقِسْطِ ۚ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

Allaah bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped but Him; and likewise the Angels and the people of knowledge bear witness. He Who maintains justice, none has the right to be worshipped but Him, the All-Mighty the All-Wise [3:18]33


[33]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, He the Most High, “He testified“: meaning He judged and He decreed and He informed and He made clear and He made it binding.

So bearing witness from Allaah revolves around these five meanings: judging and decreeing and and informing and clarifying and making binding. So the meaning of, “He testified”, is He the Perfect and Most High decreed it upon His servants and He calls them to know of it and He informed them and He made it binding upon them that none has the right to be worshipped except Him.

laa ilaaha”, (none had the right to be worshipped): this is a negating ‘laa’ which negates everything which is worshipped besides Allaah

illaahu”, (except for Him): this affirms worship for Allaah alone.

And the meaning of, “annahu laailaaha illaahu”, (none has the right to be worshipped but him): it means there is nothing that is worshipped rightfully except  Allaah the Perfect and Most High. As for those who are worshipped besides Allaah, then worship of it is false because of His saying He the Most High:

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرُ

That is because Allaah, He is the true God deserving all worship and those whom they call upon besides Him are futile and false and Allaah He is the Most High the Most Great [22:62]

He the Perfect and Most High testifies to His unity and the right to all worship and He is the most truthful One Who speaks and His bearing witness He the Perfect and Most High is the truest testification there can be because it comes from One Who is All-Wise, All-Aware, All-Knowing, he knows everything so therefore it is a testification which is true.

And the Angels“: they testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Him and they are a species of beings whom Allaah created to worship Him. They are honourable Angels, honoured servants, Allaah created them to worship Him. They declare His perfection night and day, and they never slacken. And also Allaah created them to carry out His commands in the creation, He entrusted them with implementing whatever He commanded, He the Perfect and Most High, from the affairs of the creation. So every Angel from them is entrusted with a duty. And their testification is a true testification, because they are people of knowledge, and of ‘ibaadah (worship) and of ma‘rifah (awareness) of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And they are from the most excellent of the creation, along with the point of disagreement which is are the righteous humans more excellent than the Angels, or are the Angels more excellent than the righteous humans there being disagreement about that point.

And the people of knowledge”: they are of two categories: the Angels, and the second category are the Possessors of Knowledge from mankind. And the Possessors of Knowledge do not testify except with something that is true, contrary to the case with those who are ignorant people, for their testification is not counted. And every species from the creation of Allaah bears witness for Allaah of His Unity and that none has the right to be worshipped but Him. And this is a case of showing the honour and nobility of the people of knowledge since Allaah joined their testification along with His testification, He the Perfect and Most High, and with the testification of His Angels. He counted the testification of the people of knowledge from the creation, and this shows their excellence and their nobility and their status, and they are testifying to the greatest matter that can be testified to, and it is at-Tawheed.

And what is meant by the Possessors of Knowledge – are the people of knowledge of the Legislation (i.e. Islamic knowledge), not as is said by some people that people of knowledge means the people of industry and agriculture, so those people, it is not said about them that they are People of Knowledge unrestrictedly, because their knowledge is limited in scope and is restricted, rather it is to be said, “this person is knowledgeable about arithmetic, this person is knowledgeable about engineering, this person is knowledgeable about medicine”, but it is not said about them that they are the People of Knowledge unrestrictedly. Because this term is not used unrestrictedly except for the people who have Islamic knowledge. And also most of those people are people who have only worldly knowledge, and amongst them are atheists whose knowledge mostly only increases them in ignorance concerning Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and in self delusion and in atheism as you can see today in the disbelieving nations, that they are advanced with regards to industries and with regards to agriculture, however they are disbelievers. So how could it be said that they are the People of Knowledge, those whom Allaah has mentioned in His saying, “and the Possessors of Knowledge”. This is not at all feasible.

And likewise His saying:

إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ

It is only those who have Knowledge amongst His slaves that fear Allaah [35:28]

What is meant is the scholars of Islamic knowledge, those who truly know Allaah and who truly worship Him and who fear Him. As for those people, then most of them do not fear Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Rather they disbelieve in Allaah and deny Him, and they claim that the world has no Lord and that rather nature brought it about and controls it, as is the case with the communists – they reject the Lord, the Perfect and Most High, even though they have worldly knowledge. So how then could we say – those people, they are the People of Knowledge? This is an error. So the term ‘Knowledge’ is not applied unrestrictedly except to its true people, and it is a noble title which cannot be applied to atheists and disbelievers, such that it is said, “they are the people of Knowledge”.

So the Angels and the possessors of Knowledge, they bear witness to Allaah’s Unity and sole right to worship. Therefore the saying of others besides them from the atheists and the people of shirk and the Sabeans, those who disbelieve in Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, is not counted. Those people, they are not counted, neither they nor their saying, because it is something contrary to the testification of Allaah and the testification of His Angels and the testification of those possessing knowledge from His Creation.

And His saying,Qaa’imam bil-Qist, (maintaining justice): this phrase is in the accusative case indicating a state along with, ‘He bore witness’ – meaning whilst establishing justice, He the Perfect and Most High. And the word, “al-Qist”, means al-‘adl (justice) – meaning Allaah the Perfect and Most High establishes justice in everything, and al-‘adl (justice) is the opposite of al-jawr (injustice), and He the Perfect and Most High is a just judge, nothing but justice comes from Him in everything.

Laa ilaaha illahu”, (none has the right to be worshipped but Him): this emphasizes the first sentence.

Al-‘Azeez-ul-Hakeem”, (the Almighty the All-Wise): these are two Names of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, comprising two Attributes from His Attributes, and they are al-‘Izzah (Might) and al-Hikmah (Wisdom).

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

The Meaning of Ad-Deen Al-Islam (The Religion of Islam), its Levels and Pillars – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 25 Part D & Lesson 26
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


The Second Fundamental Principle: Knowledge of the Religion of Islaam 

The Definition of the Religion (Ad-Deen)

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

الأصلُ الثَّاني: معرفةُ دينِ الإسلامِ بالأدلةِ

The second fundamental principle: knowledge of the religion of Islaam with its proofs.27


[27]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

The Shaikh, having finished explaining knowledge of the first fundamental principle, which was knowledge of Allaah the Perfect and Most High, with the evidences, he now moves on to explaining the second fundamental principle, and it is knowledge of the religion of Islaam with the proofs.

So therefore he said, “The second fundamental principle: knowledge and awareness of the religion of Islaam with the proofs.” Then he mentioned its definition and he explained its meaning and then he mentioned its levels.

And his saying rahimahullaah, “knowledge of the Deen of Islaam”. Ad-Deen – it means obedience, for it is said about a person, daana lahu, when he obeys him with regard to what he commanded, and he abandons what he forbade.

And the word Ad-Deen is used to mean al-Hisaab (bringing to account or reckoning), just as occurs in His saying:

مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ

The Sovereign Owner of the Day of Reckoning [1:4]

And it is said, “daanahu”, meaning he brought him to account, just as He the Most High said:

وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ

ثُمَّ مَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ

And what will cause you to understand what is the Day of the Reckoning? Then what will cause you to understand what is the Day of the Reckoning? [82:17-18]

Meaning: the Day of the Reckoning.

يَوْمَ لَا تَمْلِكُ نَفْسٌ لِّنَفْسٍ شَيْئًا ۖ وَالْأَمْرُ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلَّهِ

On the Day when no soul will possess any benefit for any other soul, and the whole affair on that Day will be for Allaah. [82:19]

His saying, “with the proofs”, meaning: knowledge of the religion of Islaam cannot be by way of blind following, or by way of conjecture from the person. The religion must be based upon proofs from the Book and the Sunnah. As for the person who does not know his religion, rather he just blindly follows the rest of the people and he is just a follower of whatever the rest of the people do, then this person does not know his religion as he should, and it is quite appropriate that when he is asked in the grave, that he should say:

هاه ، هاه ، لا أدري ، سمعت الناس يقولون شي ئا فقلته

“Haa, Haa, I do not know. I heard the people saying something, so I said it.”

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (1338) and by Muslim (2870) in abridged form from a hadeeth of Anas radiy Allaah ‘anhu. The full version of the hadeeth is reported by Aboo Daawood (4753) from a hadeeth of al-Baraa’ ibn ‘Aazib radiy Allaah‘ anhu.]

So it is obligatory on a person that he should gain knowledge and awareness of his religion with the proofs from the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, and he will not know this except through learning.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

وهو الاستسلامُ له بالتوحيدِ، والانقيادِ له بالطاعةِ، والبراءةُُ مِنَ الشِّركِ وأهلِهِ

And it is to submit to Him with tawheed and to yield to Him with obedience and to free oneself from shirk and its people.28


[28]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Islaam is derived from, “aslama lish-shay”, meaning he submitted to it. As it is said in the language, “aslama nafsahu lilqatl”, (he submitted himself to being killed)”, meaning that he submitted to being killed. So a person did islaam of himself, means that he submitted to that thing.

So therefore Islaam is submitting one’s face and one’s purpose and resolve and one’s intention to Him, he the Mighty and Majestic.

وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ دِينًا مِّمَّنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ وَاتَّبَعَ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا

And who is better in religion than one who submits his face to Allaah and he is the doer of the good which Allaah legislated and he follows the religious way of Ibraaheem, upright and upon his way, turning away from shirk [4:125]

بَلَىٰ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ

Rather whoever submits his face to Allaah [2:112]

Meaning: he makes his deeds purely and sincerely for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and he yields to Allaah obediently and by choice and with desire and out of love.

Submitting to Allaah with tawheed”: and it is to single out Allaah the majestic and most high with worship, and this is the meaning of tawheed. So whoever worships Allaah alone without attributing a partner to Him, then he has indeed submitted to Him.

His saying, “And yielding to Him, He the Perfect with obedience“: regarding whatever He has commanded you with and whatever He has forbidden you from. So whatever He commanded you with then you do it and whatever He forbids you from then you avoid it, in obedience to Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

His saying, “and freeing oneself from shirk and its people“: freeing oneself means cutting off from and separating from and being far removed from shirk and from the people of shirk, such that you believe the falsity of shirk and keep away from it. And you believe in the obligation of having enmity towards the people of shirk because they are enemies to Allaah, the mighty and majestic, so therefore you do not take them as beloved friends and allies, rather you take them as enemies because they are enemies to Allaah and to his Messenger and to His religion so therefore you do not have love for them and you do not have love and alliance with them rather you cut off from them with regard to the religion and you distance yourself from them and you believe in the falseness of what they are upon so therefore you do not love then with your heart and you do not aid them with your sayings and your actions, because they are enemies to your Lord, and enemies to your religion so how can you have love and alliance with them when they are enemies of Islaam?

It is not sufficient that you submit to Allaah and yield to him with obedience but do not free yourself from shirk and nor from the people of shirk, this will not suffice, you will not be counted as being a Muslim until you have these characteristics:

  • Firstly: submitting to Allaah with tawheed.
  • Secondly: yielding to him with obedience
  • Thirdly: freeing oneself from that which opposes tawheed and that which opposes obedience and it is shirk.
  • Fourthly: freeing oneself from the people of shirk.

By actualizing these characteristics you will be a Muslim, as for if you miss out on a single characteristic from them then you will not be a Muslim. So in these three words the Shaikh summarized the definition of Islaam and how many a person does not know the meaning of Islaam because he has not learned this thing, and if it were said to him, “What is Islaam?“, he will not give you a correct response.


The Levels of the Religion 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

وهو ثلاثُ مراتبَ: الإسلامُ، والإيمانُ، والإحسانُ 

And it is of three levels: Al-Islaam,29 Al-Eemaan and Al-Ihsaan 30


[29]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

The meaning of levels is ascending levels because we have said Islaam is of three levels, some of them being higher than others. The first level from the levels of the religion is Islaam, then after it comes eemaan, then after it comes ihsaan. So therefore Islaam is broader, and eemaan is something more restricted than Islaam, and ihsaan is more restricted than eemaan.

So the sphere of Islaam is wide, the hypocrites, they enter within it if they outwardly comply with Islaam and they outwardly display it and they outwardly adhere to it. If they pray along with the Muslims and they give the zakaat and they do the outward actions, then they are called Muslims and the rulings of the Muslims apply upon them in this world, so they have whatever the Muslims have and upon them will be whatever is upon the Muslims. However in the Hereafter they will be in the lowest depths of the fire because they do not have eemaan rather they just have outward apparent Islaam only.


[30]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, “Al-Eemaan“: this is the second level, and the people who have eemaan they vary in their levels so from them are Al-Muqarraboon (those who draw especially close through good deeds), and from them are Al-Abraar (the righteous ones). Al-Muqarraboon – they are the people of the highest of the levels, and Al-Abraar are lesser than them, and from them there are those who are the person who is one who wronged himself, and he is the one who commits major sins which are less than shirk. Then he is a sinful believer or he is a believer who is deficient in eemaan.

He the Most High said:

ثُمَّ أَوْرَثْنَا الْكِتَابَ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَيْنَا مِنْ عِبَادِنَا ۖ فَمِنْهُمْ ظَالِمٌ لِّنَفْسِهِ وَمِنْهُم مُّقْتَصِدٌ وَمِنْهُمْ سَابِقٌ بِالْخَيْرَاتِ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَضْلُ الْكَبِيرُ

Then we gave the Scripture as inheritance to those whom we chose from our servants. So from them are those who wrong themselves and from them are those who take a middle course and from them are those who are foremost upon good deeds by the permission of Allaah, and that is the great bounty [35:32]

His saying, “Al-Ihsaan”: this is the third level and it is Al-Ihsaan, and it is that the servant does well with regards to what is between him and Allaah, he does well in the worship of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And the Prophet sallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam mentioned Al-Ihsaan:

الإحسان أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه ، فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه يراك

“Al-Ihsaan is that you worship Allaah as if you are seeing him and even though you do not see him then he certainly sees you”

[A part of the long hadeeth reported by al-Bukhaaree (50) and by Muslim (9 and 10) from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiy Allaahu ‘anhu]

Meaning: you have certain knowledge that Allaah sees you wherever you may be.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

وكلُّ مرتبةٍ لها أركانٌ

And every level has pillars.31


[31]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, “and every level has pillars“: pillars is the plural of a pillar, and it is that which something stands upon.

So the pillars of something are its aspects which it stands upon, and it cannot stand without them, and they are within the thing itself, contrary to conditions, for they are outside the thing. For example the conditions of the prayer then they are outside the prayer and come before it. And as for the pillars of the prayer, then they are inside it such as the initial takbeer of the prayer and the recitation of al-Faatihah, so if anything from them is missing, then the prayer will not be correct, just as if there was something missing from the pillars which hold up a building then it will not stand and will not be supported.


The pillars of Islaam

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

فأركانُ الإسلامِ خمسةٌ: شهادةُ أنْ لا إله إلاّ اللهُ، وأنَّ محمدًا رسولُ اللهِ، وإقامُ الصلاةِ، وإيتاءُ الزكاةِ، وصومُ رمضانَ، وحجُّ بيتِ اللهِ الحرامِ

So the pillars of Islaam are five, the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and establishing the prayer, and giving the zakaat and fasting Ramadaan and performing Hajj to Allaah’s sacred house 32


[32]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Islaam will not stand except with these pillars, if they are missing than Islaam will not be upright and the rest of the acts of obedience are matters of completion for these pillars. All the actions of obedience and all good deeds are all actions of completion of these pillars and therefore when Jibreel ‘alaihissalaam asked Allaah’s Messenger sallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam in the presence of the Companions saying:

أخبرني عن الإسلام ، قال : الإسلام أن تشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله ، وتقيم الصلاة ، وتؤتي الزكاة ، وتصوم رمضان ، وتحج البيت إن استطعت إليه سبيلا

“Inform me about Islaam. He replied: Islaam is that you bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and that you establish the prayer and that you give the zakaat and that you fast Ramadaan and that you perform Hajj to the house if you are able to make your way to it”

So he explained Islaam to be these five pillars, however the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar makes it clear that these five are the foundations of Islaam so he sallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

بني الإسلام على خمس

“Islaam is built upon five” 

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (8) and by Muslim (16) from a hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar radiy Allaahu ‘anhu ]

Meaning: that these five are not the whole of Islaam rather they are its pillars and its foundations which it rests upon and the rest of the legislated matters are things which perfect and complete these pillars.

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Applying Kohl (Ithmid) While Fasting in Ramadhan – Bulugh al-Marâm | Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

BismillaahKohl-Fasting-Bulugh al Maraam

[Translation Source: Darussalam English Publication of Bulugh al-Maraam]

Explained by Dr. Saleh as Saleh rahimahullaah based on the explanation of Shaykh Uthaymeen rahimahullaah

[Souncloud Audio Link

Related Links:

An-Nadhr (Vows) and their Evidence – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 25 Part C
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


An-Nadhr (Vows) and their Evidence

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the proof for vows:

يُوفُونَ بِالنَّذْرِ وَيَخَافُونَ يَوْمًا كَانَ شَرُّهُ مُسْتَطِيرًا

They fulfill their vows and they fear a Day whose evil will be widespread [76:7] 26


[26]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

An-Nadhr (making a vow): it is that a person makes something binding upon himself which was not originally binding upon him in the legislation, such as his making a vow that he will perform a fast, or his making a vow that he will give such and such in charity – then it becomes binding upon him to carry out his vow, because of the saying of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam:

من نذر أن يطيع الله فليطعه

Whoever makes a vow that he will obey Allaah, then let him obey Him

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (6696 & 6700) from a hadeeth of Aa’ishah radiy Allaahu ‘anhaa.]

And making a vow is a type from the types of worship, it is not permissible to do it except for Allaah. So whoever makes a vow for a grave or for an idol or for other than that, then he has committed shirk with Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and it will be a vow of sin and shirk. And the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

ومن نذر أن يعصي الله فلا يعصه

And whoever makes a vow that he will commit an act of disobedience to Allaah, then let him not disobey Him”.

PS: Dawud Burbank (rahimahullah) covers some more benefits from the Explanation of Shaykh Uthaymeen rahimahullah at the end of this short clip ( this is not transcribed)

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Adh-Dhabh (Sacrificing or Slaughtering), its Types and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 25 Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Adh-Dhabh (Sacrificing or Slaughtering), its Types and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the proof for sacrificing is His saying He the Most High:

قُلْ إِنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Say: My prayer and my sacrificing and my living and my dying are all for Allaah alone, the Lord of the whole of creation [6:162]

And from the sunnah:

لَعَنَ اللهُ مَنْ ذَبَحَ لِغَيْرِ الله

“Allaah has cursed the one who sacrifices for other than Allaah.”[1]  25


[25]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

adh-Dhabh (sacrificing or slaughtering) is of four types:

Firstly: sacrificing which is done to seek closeness and to honour and venerate someone, and this is not permissible except for Allaah the Perfect and Most High, because it is an act of worship involving wealth. So therefore it is not permissible to sacrifice for the jinn nor for the devils nor for the kings nor for the leaders in order to show honour and veneration of them, because this is worship – it is not permissible except for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

So those people who sacrifice for the jinn in order to gain safety from their evil, or in order for a sick person to be cured, as is done by the soothsayers and by the astrologers, those who claim to be able to heal or cure, and who say to the people, “if you sacrifice such and such in order to cure your sick person and do not mention the Name of Allaah upon it” – this is major shirk which takes a person outside of the religion and this is what Allaah the Most High has said in warning against doing it for other than Allaah:

قُلْ إِنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Say: My prayer and my sacrificing and my living and my dying are all for Allaah alone, the Lord of the whole of creation [6:162]

And He said:

فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ

So pray for your Lord and sacrifice to Him [108:2]

Meaning: make sacrifice for your Lord.

The second type of sacrifice is: slaughtering an animal in order to obtain meat to eat. This, there is no harm in it, because it is not something slaughtered to draw closer to anyone or to venerate anyone, it is just being sacrificed for a need, and eating is from that; so this, there is no harm in it, because it is not a type of worship, and it can be slaughtered in order to sell the meat.

The third type of sacrifice is: sacrificing which is done at times of joy and happiness, on the occasion of a marriage or on the occasion of settling in a new home or someone returning after an absence, or the like of that, by gathering one’s relatives and then performing a sacrifice in order to show one’s happiness and joy at what has occurred. This, there is no harm in it, because it does not contain veneration of anyone, and it is not seeking to draw closer to anyone, rather it is just a case of joy and happiness at something that has occurred.

Fourthly: sacrificing in order to give meat away in charity for the poor people and the needy and the destitute, this is counted as being a sunnah, and it enters into worship.

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Muslim (1978) from a hadeeth of Alee ibn Abee Taalib radiy Allaahu ‘anhu. 

`Alee (radiyallaahu `anhu) said: Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) narrated to me four words, saying:

  1. “Allaah curses whoever slaughters to other than Allaah.
  2. Allaah curses whoever curses his parents.
  3. Allaah curses the one who shelters an innovator or wrongdoer.
  4. Allaah curses the one who alters the boundaries of a land.”

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Al-Istighātha (Seeking Rescue and Deliverance) and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 25 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Al-Istighaathah (Seeking Rescue and Deliverance) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the Proof for al-Istighaathah (seeking rescue and deliverance):

إِذْ تَسْتَغِيثُونَ رَبَّكُمْ فَاسْتَجَابَ لَكُمْ

Remember when you sought the aid and deliverance of your Lord, and He responded to you [8:9] 24


[24]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Istighaathah is a type of the types of worship, and it is seeking al-Ghauth (deliverance or rescue), and it does not occur except at times of adversity or great difficulty, when a person comes to be in a situation of adversity, then he seeks deliverance and rescue from Allaah and he seeks salvation from this adversity.

And al-Istighaathah (seeking rescue and deliverance) is of two types:

The first type is: al-Istighaathah (seeking rescue) from a created being, with regard to something that no-one is able to do except Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and this is shirk. So whoever seeks rescue and deliverance from other than Allaah, whether it be from a jinn or a human or those people who are absent or from the dead, then this is shirk along with Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. So seeking rescue and deliverance through the dead and those who are absent from the devils and the jinn, this is shirk along with Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

The second type is: seeking aid and rescue from a created being who is present and who is alive with regard to something he is able to do – this is permissible. He the Most High said in the story of Moosaa:

فَاسْتَغَاثَهُ الَّذِي مِن شِيعَتِهِ عَلَى الَّذِي مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ

So the man who was upon his religion (i.e. the religion of Moosaa) he called to him for assistance and rescue against the one who was an enemy [28:15]

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Al-Isti‘aadhah (Seeking Refuge) and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 24 Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Al-Isti‘aadhah (Seeking Refuge) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the proof for Al-Isti‘aadhah (seeking refuge) is His saying, He the Most High:

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ

Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of the Dawn [113:1] 22


[22]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Isti‘aadhah: means seeking refuge with someone who can defend you against something disagreeable which you fear in order that he should repel from you this thing. This is al-Isti‘aadhah. 

And al-Isti‘aadhah is a type from the types of worship. It is not permissible for you to seek refuge in other than Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. So whoever seeks refuge with a grave or with an idol, or with anything besides Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, then he will be a mushrik, who has committed major shirk.

And He the Most High said:

وَأَنَّهُ كَانَ رِجَالٌ مِّنَ الْإِنسِ يَعُوذُونَ بِرِجَالٍ مِّنَ الْجِنِّ فَزَادُوهُمْ رَهَقًا

And there used to be men from mankind who would seek refuge in men from the jinn, and they only increased them in transgression. [72:6]

The Arabs in the days of ignorance, when they stopped off at a place on the earth, one of them used to say, “I seek refuge in the chief of this valley”: meaning the chief one from the jinn; he would seek refuge from the evil of the foolish ones of his people.

So the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said refuting that and making clear what is legislated in place of it:

“Whoever stops off at a place and he says, “I seek refuge in the perfect words of Allaah from the evil of whatever He has created”, then nothing will harm him until he travels on from that stopping place of his.”[1]

This is the correct replacement, seeking refuge in the perfect words of Allaah instead of seeking refuge in the jinn.

He the Most High said:

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ

Say, “I seek refuge in the Lord of the Dawn” [113:1]

Al-Falaq”, is the dawn, and the Lord of the dawn, He is Allaah the Perfect and Most High, just as He the Most High said:

فَالِقُ الْإِصْبَاحِ

Allaah is the One Who causes the dawns to break [6:96]

Meaning: the One Who brings out the light of the day into the darkness of the night. Who is able to do that except Allaah the Perfect and Most High?

أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ

I seek refuge in the Lord of the Daybreak [113:1]

Meaning the Lord of dawn when it breaks, the Sovereign Owner, the One who controls it, the One having full ability over it.

مِن شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ

From the evil of that which He created [113:2]

This covers the evil of all of the created beings, he seeks refuge in Allaah from the evil of all of the created beings. This will suffice you for every seeking refuge and every seeking protection which the people do.

وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ

And from the evil of the Ghaasiq (darkening night) as it comes with its darkness (or the moon as it sets or goes away) [113:3] 

Al-Ghaasiq”, is the darkness of the night; since in the darkness wild animals and wild beasts come out so then you are in danger, so you seek refuge in Allaah from the evil of this darkness and whatever is beneath it from these harmful things.

وَمِن شَرِّ النَّفَّاثَاتِ فِي الْعُقَدِ

And from the evil of those who blow upon knots [113:4]

And they are the sorcerers, you seek refuge in Allaah from sorcery / magic and its people, because sorcery / magic is tremendous evil.

وَمِن شَرِّ حَاسِدٍ إِذَا حَسَدَ

And from the evil of the envier when he envies [113:5]

Al-Haasid, the envier, he is the one who hopes and wishes for favours to pass away from other people; when he sees someone having a favour then he becomes furious, and he wishes for this blessing to pass away out of envy and out of transgression and Allaah’s refuge is sought. And it is one of the worst of blameworthy qualities, because it involves raising objections against Allaah, and it involves evil towards the creation.

And entering into it is the person who gives the evil eye, the one who causes harm with his look, because striking with the evil eye is a type of envy, so you should seek refuge in Allaah from these evils.

So this indicates that al-Isti‘aadhah (seeking refuge) is worship, it is not permissible to be directed to other than Allaah, so you do not seek refuge in a created being, and whoever seeks refuge in a created being then he has committed shirk with Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

And the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said to ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Abbaas radiy Allaahu ‘anhumaa:

“And if you seek aid then seek the aid of Allaah”[2]


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And His saying, He the Most High:

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ

Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of Mankind. [114:1] 23


[23]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

And in His saying, He the Most High:

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ
مَلِكِ النَّاسِ
إِلَٰهِ النَّاسِ
مِن شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ
الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ

Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of Mankind. The King of mankind. The One Who is rightfully worshipped by mankind. From the evil of the whisperer, who whispers and then withdraws. The one who whispers into the hearts of mankind. From jinn and from men. [114:1-6]

Allaah the Mighty and Majestic commands seeking refuge in the Lord of mankind, the King of mankind, the One Who is rightfully worshipped by mankind – these are all Names and Attributes of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and it contains the three types of tawheed: Tawheed-ur-Ruboobiyyah (Tawheed of Lordship), Tawheed-ul-Uloohiyyah (Tawheed of worship) and Tawheed-ul-Asmaa wasSifaat (Tawheed of Allaah’s Names and Attributes).

Seek refuge in Allaah and in these Names and Attributes, seek refuge in Allaah from the evil of al-Waswaas (the whisperer) – and he is Satan. As for Wiswaas (a whispering) then that is a verbal noun from the verb waswasa yuwaswisu. As for al-Waswaas then it is a name from the names of Satan, because he whispers to mankind and gives him false ideas, and he pre-occupies him in order to cast terror into his heart and uncertainty and confusion in his affairs, particularly with regard to the affair of worship, because Satan whispers to man in acts of worship until he confuses him regarding his prayer or his act of worship, and then finally the person comes out from his prayer believing that it was null and void. Or he prays and then he believes that he was not upon wudhoo’, or that he did not stand up for such and such, or that he did not perform such and such, the person comes to suffer from whispers and he is not calm in his worship.

So Allaah the Majestic and Most High has given us the remedy for this dangerous matter, and that is that you seek refuge in Allaah from the evil of this whisperer who is al-Khannaas. 

al-Khannaas: meaning the one who departs and moves away, so he whispers when you are negligent of the remembrance of Allaah, and he withdraws – meaning he falls back when you remember Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. So he whispers when the person is inattentive, and he is one who withdraws and moves away when one remembers Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

مِن شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ
الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ

The one who whispers into the hearts of mankind. From jinn and from mankind [114:5-6]

It is as if the meaning – and Allaah knows best – that there are those who whisper from the jinn and from mankind as well – those who whisper things to the people; they come to the people and they cause them to have doubts, so just as there are devils from the jinn who whisper evil, then likewise there are devils from mankind who whisper also, so you should seek refuge in Allaah from the evil of the two tribes.

And therefore the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

“No-one seeking refuge has sought refuge by means of the like of these two” [3]

Meaning: these two soorahs (Soorat-ul-Falaq and Soorat-un-Naas). So it is befitting for the Muslim that he should read these two after the prayers and that he should repeat them again and again, and that he should recite these two when he goes to sleep along with Aayat-ul-Kursee and Soorat-ul-Ikhlaas.

He should recite Aayat-ul-Kursee and Soorat-ul-Ikhlaas and the two soorahs for seeking refuge, he should recite them after every prayer, and repeat them three times after maghrib and after fajr, and likewise recite these two when you go to sleep in order that Satan should move away from him and not disturb his sleep for him and not trouble him with nightmares.

The witness from these two soorahs is that Allaah has commanded seeking refuge in Him alone, so this proves that seeking refuge in other than him, whether it be jinn or mankind or any created thing, that that is not permissible because it is a type from the types of worship.

[1] Reported by Muslim (2708) from a hadeeth of Khawlah bint Hakeem as-Sulamiyyah radiy Aallaahu ‘anhaa

[2] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (2516)

[3] Reported by Aboo Daawood, An-Nasaa’ee and Ahmad from a hadeeth of ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir radiy Allaah ‘anhu [Saheeh – Sh Al-Albaanee]

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Al-Isti‘aanah (Appealing for Aid and Assistance) and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 24 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Al-Isti‘aanah (Appealing for Aid and Assistance) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the proof for Al-Isti‘aanah (appealing for aid and assistance) is His saying, He the Most High:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You alone do we worship and to You alone do we appeal for aid [1:5]

And there occurs in the hadeeth:

“If you seek aid, then seek the aid of Allaah”[1], 12


[12]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Isti‘aanah: means seeking aid and assistance, and it is of two types:

The first type (which is worship): is seeking assistance upon something which no-one but Allaah is able to do; then directing this to other than Allaah is shirk, whoever seeks aid and assistance of other than Allaah with regard to something which only Allaah can carry out, then he has committed shirk, because he has directed a type from the types of worship to other than Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

The second type (which is not worship): seeking aid upon something which someone from the creation is able to carry our, so you may seek someone’s help to build a wall along with you or to carry some luggage along with you or to help you to do something which is permissible which you wish to do, just as He the Most High said:

 وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَىٰ ۖ وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ

And help one another upon righteousness and dutifulness towards Allaah, and do not help one another upon sin and transgression [5:2]

So al-Isti‘aanah (seeking aid and assistance) with regard to everyday matters which the people are able to do, there is no harm in this, because it is co-operation upon righteousness and dutifulness to Allaah. And He sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

“And Allaah continues to aid the servant for as long as the servant is aiding his brother”

[Reported by Muslim (2699) from a hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah radiy Allaahu ‘anhu]

As for seeking aid and assistance from someone from the creation with regard to something which no-one can carry out except Allaah, for example bringing about provision and repelling harm, then this cannot be except for Allaah; such as seeking the aid of the dead and seeking the aid of the jinn and the devils, and seeking the aid of people who are absent and they cannot hear your calling out their names – this is major shirk, because you are seeking aid from those who are not able to aid you.

So His saying, He the Most High:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You Alone do we worship and Your aid Alone do we seek [1:5] 

Iyyaka na‘budu”, (You Alone do we worship): this is a case of putting the governed word before the operative word. The governed word, “You”, is in the accusative case and, “We worship” is the governing word which caused, “Iyyaka” to be in the accusative case. And putting the governed word before the operative word indicates restriction. So the meaning of, “Iyyaka Na‘budu”, is – we do not worship anyone else besides You. So worship is restricted (to only be) for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

Wa Iyaaka nasta‘een”, (and Your aid Alone do we seek): this is a restriction of seeking aid (to only be) from Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and that is with regard to those affairs which no-one is able to carry out except Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

And in His saying, “Iyaaka nasta‘een”, (Your aid Alone do we seek): it shows freeing onself from, “Hawl” and “Quwwah” – from any claim to having the ability to change things and from having power, and that a person has no power except with Allaah’s aid, and that no-one is able to do anything except with the aid of Allaah the Mighty and Majetic, and this is the utmost worship and servitude to Allaah, when a person frees himself from shirk, and he frees himself from, Hawl – from any claim to being able to bring about change, and from having Quwwah – from himself having power. So this is the utmost worship and servitude to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

[1] Reported by At-Tirmidhee as a hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas radiy Allaahu ‘anhumaa (part of hadeeth 19 in An-Nawawee’s 40 hadeeth)

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Al-Inaabah (Turning Repentantly and Obediently) and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 23 Part D
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Al-Inaabah (Turning Repentantly and Obediently) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

And the proof for al-Inaabah (turning repentantly and obediently) is His saying, He the Most High:

وَأَنِيبُوا إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ وَأَسْلِمُوا لَهُ 

So turn in repentance and obedience to your Lord and submit to Him [39:54] 20


[20]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Inaabah: it means returning and it has the meaning of at-Tawbah (repenting), and repenting and al-Inaabah have one and the same meaning. However some of the scholars have said al-Inaabah is more specific than at-Tawbah (repenting), meaning it is more emphasized because it, Inaabah is Tawbah (repenting) but along with turning to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, meaning it is a specific repentance, and a person may repent and leave the sin and not return to it, and he may regret it, however his turning to Allaah may be a weak turning. Whereas al-Inaabah then indeed it means turning towards to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And therefore He said:

.. وَأَنِيبُوا إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ وَأَسْلِمُوا لَهُ

So turn in repentance and obedience to your Lord and submit to Him …

Meaning turn back to Him and turn fully to Him, He the Perfect and Most High.

مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْعَذَابُ ثُمَّ لَا تُنصَرُونَ ..

… before the punishment comes to you and then you will not be helped [39:54]

When the punishment which destroys and annihilates comes, then repentance will not be accepted from those who repent at that time.

فَلَوْلَا كَانَتْ قَرْيَةٌ آمَنَتْ فَنَفَعَهَا إِيمَانُهَا إِلَّا قَوْمَ يُونُسَ لَمَّا آمَنُوا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُمْ عَذَابَ الْخِزْيِ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا

Except for the people of Yunus when they believed, then we took away from them the humiliating punishment [10:98]

This was an exception, otherwise when the punishment which destroys descends, then repentance is not accepted, and therefore He said:

مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْعَذَابُ ثُمَّ لَا تُنصَرُونَ ..

.. before the punishment comes to you and then you will not be helped [39:54] 

So at-Tawbah (repenting) and al-Inaabah (turning repentantly and obediently), they have an appointed time and they have a limit, so repentance will not be accepted from the person who is experiencing the death rattle, or someone to whom death comes, and the repentance will not be accepted from one whom the punishment which destroys and annihilates descends upon. And repentance will not be accepted when the sun comes out from its place of setting before the establishment of the Hour. Repentance will not be accepted then. So therefore Allaah encourages the servant upon at-Tawbah (repenting) and al-Inaabah (turning repentantly and obediently) before the time limit comes to its end.

مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْعَذَابُ ثُمَّ لَا تُنصَرُونَ

Before the punishment comes to you and then you will not be helped [39:54]

So the witness is His saying:

وَأَنِيبُوا إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ وَأَسْلِمُوا لَهُ

Turn to your Lord repentantly and obediently [39:54]

This indicates that al-Inaabah (turning repentantly and obediently) is a type from the types of worship because He said, “to your Lord”. So this shows that it is a type from the types of worship.

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Al-Khashyah (Fear and Awe) and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 23 Part C
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Al-Khashyah (Fear and Awe) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

The proof for al-Khashyah (awe) is His saying, He the Most High:

 فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ 

So do not have Khashyah (awe) of them [2:150] 19


[19]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Khashyah (awe) is a type of Khawf (fear), and it is more specific than just fear. And it is said al-Khashyah (awe) is fear which is mixed with veneration. He the Most High said:

 فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ 

So do not have Khashyah (awe) of them [2:150]

Allaah the Perfect and Most High commanded having Khashyah (awe) of Him alone.

He the Most High said in the aayah:

فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِي وَلِأُتِمَّ نِعْمَتِي عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

So do not have Khashyah (awe) of them, but rather have Khashyah (awe) of Me, and so that I may complete My favour upon you and so that you may be guided. [2:150]

So He commanded having Khashyah (awe) of Him, He the Perfect and Most High, and He said in description of those who pray salaah:

وَالَّذِينَ هُم مِّنْ عَذَابِ رَبِّهِم مُّشْفِقُونَ

And those who have fear of the punishment of their Lord [70:27]

Meaning they have fear, they are the elite ones from the creation, they have fear of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And He said about the Angels:

يَخَافُونَ رَبَّهُم مِّن فَوْقِهِمْ وَيَفْعَلُونَ مَا يُؤْمَرُونَ

They have fear of their Lord from above them, and they do whatever they are commanded [16:50]

The elite of the creation from the Angels and the Messengers and the beloved and the obedient servants and the righteous ones, they have the utmost Khashyah (awe) of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and Khawf (fear) of Him, He the Perfect and Most High and Rahbah (dread) of Him.

So ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khawf (fear) and al-Khashyah (awe), all of them have a single meaning, even though some of them are more specific than others. However they all share in being Khawf (fear) of Allaah the Perfect and Most High. And these are from the characteristics of the Prophets and the righteous servants of Allaah, and they are tremendous types of worship and they are from the actions of the hearts which are not known except to Allaah the Perfect and Most High.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Ar-Raghbah, Ar-Rahbah and al-Khushoo – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 23 Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Ar-Raghbah (fervent desire) and Ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khushoo‘ (reverence and humility), and the Proof for Each

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:    

And the proof for Ar-Raghbah (fervent desire) and Ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khushoo‘ (reverence and humility), is His saying, He the Most High: 

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ وَيَدْعُونَنَا رَغَبًا وَرَهَبًا ۖ وَكَانُوا لَنَا خَاشِعِينَ

They used to hasten to perform acts of devotion to Allaah, and they used to worship Us raghaban (upon love and desire), and rahaban (upon fear), and they were were reverent and humble before Allaah [21:90] 18


[18]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Ar-Raghbah (fervent desire): it means seeking something which is praiseworthy.

Ar-Rahbah (dread): is fear of something which is dreaded.

He the Most High said:

 وَإِيَّايَ فَارْهَبُونِ

And have dread of Me [2:40]

And it is a type of Khawf (fear);

ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khawf (fear) have one and the same meaning.

al-Khushoo‘ (reverence and humility): it is a type of humbling oneself to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And humbly submitting and humbling onself before Him, He the Perfect and Most High – it is from the greatest of levels of worship.

His saying, He the Most High, “Innahum”, (they): this pronoun refers back to the Prophets, since in Soorat-ul-Anbiyaa Allaah has mentioned the stories of the Prophets, and then He said:

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ وَيَدْعُونَنَا رَغَبًا وَرَهَبًا ۖ وَكَانُوا لَنَا خَاشِعِينَ

They used to hasten to perform acts of devotion to Allaah, and they used to worship Us raghaban (upon love and desire), and rahaban (upon fear), and they were were reverent and humble before Allaah [21:90]

So His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ

They used to hasten upon doing acts of good [21:90]

Meaning: they would race to them, and they would hasten to them. This is the characteristic of the Prophets ‘alaihimussaalatu wassalaam, they would not be lazy and they would not behave as if they were powerless, rather they hastened to doing good deeds, and they raced towards them.

His saying, He the Most High:

وَيَدْعُونَنَا رَغَبًا

And they invoked and worshipped us with Raghbah [21:90]

Meaning: desiring what lies with Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, desiring attainment of what they wished for.

وَرَهَبًا

And His saying, He the Most High, wa rahaban”, (with dread): meaning with fear of Us, so they called upon Allaah to have mercy upon them, and they called upon Him not to punish them, and not to bring them to account and not to seize them with punishment. So they had hope for the mercy of Allaah, and they feared His punishment, just as He the Most High said:

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ يَبْتَغُونَ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمُ الْوَسِيلَةَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ وَيَرْجُونَ رَحْمَتَهُ وَيَخَافُونَ عَذَابَهُ ۚ إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ كَانَ مَحْذُورًا

Those whom they call upon, themselves seek a means of nearness to draw themselves closer to their Lord, to see which of them can draw closest to Him. They hope for His mercy and they fear His punishment [17:57]

So they call upon Allaah having fear of Him, and they worship and call upon Him desiring what lies with Him (from reward), they call upon Allaah so that He should ordain good for them and repel evil from them.

وَكَانُوا لَنَا خَاشِعِينَ

And they were reverent and humble towards Us [21:90]

Meaning: they were reverential, humbly submitting, humble before Allaah, the Mighty ad Majestic. So they gathered between three characteristics: Ar-Raghbah (fervent desire) and Ar-Rahbah (dread) and al-Khushoo‘ (reverence and humility). These are the characteristics of the Prophets sallallaahu ‘alaihim was allam and these three types are from the types of worship of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

And it contains a refutation of Soofees, those who say, “We do not worship Allaah out of desire for His reward, nor out of fear of His punishment, we only worship Him out of love of Him alone”. This is false and futile speech, because the Prophets called upon and worshipped Allaah, raghaban wa rahaban (with fear and with hope) and they were the most complete of the creation.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

At-Tawakkul (Trust and Reliance) and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 23 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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at-Tawakkul (Trust and Reliance) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:  

And the proof for at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) is His saying, He the Most High:

وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَتَوَكَّلُوا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

And place your reliance and trust in Allaah if you are true believers [5:23]

And His saying:

وَمَن يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَهُوَ حَسْبُهُ

And whoever places his trust and reliance in Allaah, then He will suffice him [65:3] 17


[17]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

at-Tawakkul is to entrust your affairs and to place reliance in Allaah the Perfect and Most High, and to entrust affairs to Him, He the Perfect and Most High – this is at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance). And it is from the greatest of the types of worship, and therefore He said:

وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَتَوَكَّلُوا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

And place your reliance and trust in Allaah if you are true believers [5:23]

The preposition and the word with it are put before the governing word, to indicate restriction.

.. وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَتَوَكَّلُوا

And upon Allaah place your reliance and trust … 

Meaning upon Him and not upon anyone else besides Him, then He said:

إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ ..

… if you are people of eemaan [5:23]

So He made it a condition of eemaan to have trust and reliance upon Allaah the Perfect and Most High. And this shows that whoever does not place his trust and reliance upon Allaah, then he is not a believer. So therefore at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) is a tremendous act of worship. So therefore the believer always places his trust and reliance upon Allaah and depends upon Allaah the Mighty and Majestic.

And Allaah, from His Names is Al-Wakeel (the Trustworthy Disposer of Affairs) meaning: the One to Whom the affairs of His servants are entrusted, He the Perfect and Most High. So at-Tawakkul (placing trust and reliance) cannot be except upon Allaah, and it is not permissible to say, “I place my reliance in so-and-so”, because at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) is worship, and worship cannot be except for Allaah.

As for when you delegate someone from the creation to carry something out for you, then this is not called tawakkul (trusting in them), it is called tawkeel (entrusting), and al-wikaalah (authorising or entrusting), this is something well-known, that you entrust and authorise someone to carry out some need for you. And the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, he delegated some people to deputise for him in carrying out certain duties. So at-tawkeel (entrusting or delegating) is something other than at-Tawakkul (having trust and reliance). So at-Tawakkul is worship, and it cannot be except for Allaah, and it is not permissible for you to say, “I placed my trust and reliance in so-and-so”. Rather you should say, “I have entrusted someone with something”. And along with this, you entrust and authorize someone, but you do not place your trust and reliance in him, rather you place your trust and reliance in Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. So notice the difference between the two matters and at-Tawakkul and at-tawkeel.

And from the characteristics of the believers is that which Allaah the Most High mentioned with His saying:

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِذَا تُلِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُهُ زَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَانًا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ

That the believers are only those who when Allaah is mentioned, their hearts tremble and when His Signs are recited to them it increases them in eemaan, and they place their trust and reliance upon their Lord. [8:2]

These are from the attributes of the believers, so therefore trust and reliance is a tremendous act of worship, it cannot be except for Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, because He is al-Qaadir (the One Fully Able to do everything), and He is al-Maalik (the Owner) of everything, and He is fully able to bring about for you whatever you desire. As for the created being, then he might not be able to bring about something for you that you desire, so you may entrust him with carrying something out. However trust and reliance is to be upon Allaah with regard to attainment of that thing.

Then you should know that at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) does not negate and contradict using the means to an end. So the Muslim gathers between having reliance and trust in Allaah and utilizing the means, and there is no contradiction between them. So you carry out the means which you have been commanded to do. However you do not place your trust and reliance upon the means, rather you place your trust and reliance upon Allaah. You, you plant the seeds for crops in the earth – this is a means. However, you do nor place reliance upon the planting and your own action, rather you have reliance upon Allaah with regard to the growth of this plant, and with regard to its producing fruit and with regard to its being kept safe, and with regard to its being good and suitable, and therefore He says:

أَفَرَأَيْتُم مَّا تَحْرُثُونَ

أَأَنتُمْ تَزْرَعُونَهُ أَمْ نَحْنُ الزَّارِعُونَ

Do you see the seed which you sow? Do you make it grow or are We the One Who causes it to grow? [56:63-64]

So the One Who causes it to grow in reality, He is Allaah, but as for you, then you have just carried out the means only. It may produce this plant and grow or it may not produce it. And if it grows, it may be good and fitting, and it may not be good. It may be struck by some calamity, and will pass away.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Ar-Rajaa’ (Hope) will not be correct except along with Righteous Action – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 22 Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Ar-Rajaa’ (hope and longing) and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And the proof for ar-Rajaa’ (hope and longing) is His saying, He the Most High:

فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا

So whoever has hope in the meeting with his Lord and in His reward then let him perform righteous actions and not associate anyone in worship with his Lord [18:110] 16


[16]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

His saying, He the Most High, “man kaana yarjoo”: meaning he has hope for the reward of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and in seeing Him openly on the Day of Resurrection, whoever has hope in seeing Allaah openly with his eyes on the day of resurrection, then let him perform righteous deeds, he should carry out the means which will enable him to attain this goal, which is the reward of entry into Paradise and of being saved from the Fire and of looking upon the Face of Allaah – this necessarily follows on, because whoever enters Paradise, then he will see Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا

So whoever has hope in the meeting with his Lord and in His reward then let him perform righteous actions [18:110]

This shows that hope alone is not sufficient, rather there must be action, as for your just having hope in Allaah, but you do not act, then this is to abandon the use of the means. So praiseworthy hope is that which occurs along with righteous action. As for hoping which is not praiseworthy, then it hope which does not have righteous action along with it.

And righteous action is that which fulfills two conditions:

  1. The first: is that it is done purely and sincerely for Him, the Mighty and Majestic.
  2. The second: is that it is done following the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.

So an action will not be righteous unless it fulfills these two conditions: that it is done purely and sincerely seeking the Face of Allaah, it does not contain any shirk, and that it should be a correct action, done upon the Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, not containing innovation. So if the two conditions are met then it will be a righteous action, and if any condition is missing, then it will be a corrupt action, it will not benefit the person who does it.

So action which contains shirk will be rejected for the person, and likewise action which contains innovation, it will be rejected for the person. He sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

Whoever does an action which is not in accordance with our affair, then it will be rejected” [1]

So this aayah contains ar-Rajaa’ (hope and longing), and that it is an act of worship to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. And it shows that hope will not be correct except along with righteous action.

[1] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in disconnected form straight after hadeeth 7350, and reported by Muslim as hadeeth 1718/17 from a hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah radiy Allaahu ‘anhaa. And also reported by al-Bukhaaree in connected form as hadeeth 2697 and Muslim as hadeeth 1718/17 from ‘Aa’ishah radiy Allaahu ‘anhaa, that she said, Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu’ alaihi wa sallam said, “Whoever introduces into this affair of ours that which is not from it will have it rejected”.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

Al-Khawf (fear), its Types and its Proof – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 22 Part A
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Al-Khawf (fear), its Types and its Proof

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And the proof for Al-Khawf (fear) is His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّمَا ذَٰلِكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوْلِيَاءَهُ فَلَا تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

That is just Satan, he incites you to fear his allies. So do not fear them, but rather fear Me if you are truly believers [3:175] 15


[15]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation:

Al-Khawf (fear) is a type from the types of worship, and it is an act of worship of the heart, just the same as is the case with al-Khawf (fear) and al-Khashyah (awe) and ar-Raghbah (fervent desire) and ar-Rahbah (dread) and ar-Rajaa’ (hope and longing) and at-Tawakkul (trust and reliance) – all of these are acts of worship of the heart.

Al-Khawf (fear) is apprehension of something unpleasant, and it is of two types:

  1. Al-Khawf-ul-‘Ibaadah (fear which is worship)
  2. Al-Khawf-utTabee‘ee (natural fear).

The first type: Khawf-ul-‘Ibaadah (fear which is worship), directing this to other than Allaah is shirk, and that is that a person fears someone other than Allaah with regard to something which no-one besides Allaah is able to do, such as his fearing someone being able to cause him to become ill, or being able to take his soul, or to cause his child to die, as is done by many of the ignorant people. They fear regarding their wives’ pregnancies and for their children, from the jinn, they fear sorcerers, they fear the dead, and so therefore they do actions involving shirk to free themselves from this fear. So this is something which no-one is able to do but Allaah, illnesses and death and bringing provision and cutting off life-span, these matters, no-one is able to do them except Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, and likewise sending down blessings or other than that. These matters cannot come about except from Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, so if he fears anyone with regards to anything which only Allaah can carry out, then this is major shirk, because it is diverting a type of worship to other than Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. Like those who fear the graves and of the tombs and of the jinn and of the devils that they can strike them with evil or cause some harm to descend upon them, and so therefore they go and perform actions of nearness to these things to repel their harm, or out of fear of them – this is major shirk. He says, “I fear, if I don’t make a sacrifice for him, that he will afflict me with something, or afflict my children or my wealth, or the like of that, just as was said by the people of Hood:

إِن نَّقُولُ إِلَّا اعْتَرَاكَ بَعْضُ آلِهَتِنَا بِسُوءٍ

All that we say is that some of our gods have struck you with evil [11:54]

They threatened him with their gods and they tried to make him fear their objects of worship.

قَالَ إِنِّي أُشْهِدُ اللَّهَ وَاشْهَدُوا أَنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ

مِن دُونِهِ ۖ فَكِيدُونِي جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ لَا تُنظِرُونِ

إِنِّي تَوَكَّلْتُ عَلَى اللَّهِ رَبِّي وَرَبِّكُم

He said, “I call Allaah to witness, and you should bear witness, that I am free of whatever you associate in worship along with Him. So plot all of you against me and don’t give me any respite. I have placed my reliance upon Allaah, my Lord and your Lord.” [11:54-56]

This is tawheed, he challenges them, all of them, them and their idols.

So then all of you plot against me, and then don’t give me any respite [11:55]

Don’t give me some time, rather plot against me from this moment, and they were not able to do anything against him, rather Allaah aided him against them.

So the person who fears other than Allaah with regard to things that only Allaah can do, then he has committed major shirk, and this is called the fear which is worship, and the fear which is shirk. Many people have fear of the graves, or of the awliyaa’ (the beloved and obedient servants of Allaah), they fear Satan, they fear the jinn, and therefore they do acts of devotion, putting forward offerings to them, putting forward sacrifices for them, and making vows and giving foods, and other than that, such as throwing money upon their tombs in order to be saved from their evil, or to attain something of their good. Then this is khawf-ul-‘ibaadah (fear which is worship).

The second type: al-Khawf-utTabee‘ee (natural fear): and it is that you fear something which is clear and apparent which is able to do that which you fear from it, such as your fearing a snake or a scorpion or an enemy, these are matters which are clear and visible and are well-known matters, so fearing them is not called shirk, this is natural fear of something which is apparent and known, because you are fearing a means which is clear and apparent, and something which it is desirable for you to protect yourself from and take precaution against, so therefore you take up weapons, you take up a stick to kill a snake or a scorpion, and to kill a wild animal, because these are matters which are felt by the senses, and they contain well-known harm. So if you fear them, then this is not called shirk, rather it is called natural fear.

And therefore Allaah said with regard to Moosaa ‘alaihissalaam:

فَخَرَجَ مِنْهَا خَائِفًا يَتَرَقَّبُ

So he departed from it in a state of fear [28:21]

Meaning from the city

Fearful, looking about [28:21]

Having fear of his enemies, because he had killed one of them.

And he ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam fled to Madyan, and he was on the lookout, and he was fearing that they would catch him, so this is natural fear. However, a person needs to learn to seek shelter and protection in Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and to take hold of the means through which he can repel harm, and he relies upon Allaah the Mighty and Majestic and has reliance upon Allaah. He the most High said:

فَلَا تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

So do not fear them (the allies of Satan) but rather fear Me if you are truly believers [3:175]

This aayah is in the soorah Aal-i-‘Imraan in the story of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam along with the people of shirk on the day of Uhud, when the people of shirk threatened them and said, “We will return to them and wipe then out.” So therefore Allaah the Majestic and Most High says:

إِنَّمَا ذَٰلِكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوْلِيَاءَهُ فَلَا تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

That is just Satan, he incites you to fear his allies. So do not fear them, but rather fear Me if you are truly believers [3:175]

This warning and this threat was just from Satan, meaning he tries to cause you to fear his allies, or to cause whoever will submit to him to fear, from the people and to fear him. Then he will gain ascendancy over them.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links: