Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 43 (Part A)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]
Hijrah to al-Madeenah
Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:
وبعدها أمر بالهجرة إلى المدينة
After that, he was commanded to perform hijrah to al-Madeenah.
 Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :
His saying (rahimahullaah): «After that, he was commanded to perform hijrah to al-Madeenah»: When the harm from the Quraysh became severe and their evil increased on account of their blocking (people) from Allaah’s path, persecuting the Muslims and torturing those who had no group of people to defend them from the Muslims, who were in a state of weakness – then Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, gave permission for the Muslims to make hijrah to Abyssinia – the first hijrah, because there was a king with whom no one would be oppressed. He was a Christian, however he was just, so a large group of them migrated.
When the Quraysh came to know of their migration to Abyssinia, they sent two representatives from the wise men of Quraysh to seek (that they be brought back). One of them was `Amr ibn al-`Aas. They had with them gifts for an-Najaashee (the ruler of Abyssinia). They said: “These people have run away from us and they are relatives of ours. We want them to return to us – and they are evil doers – so that they do not cause corruption in your land,” to the end (of what they said). They gave him the gifts that they had with them in order to change his mind, however, he (rahimahullaah) called the muhaajireen and listened to what they had to say and he gave them a choice, so they chose to remain in Abyssinia. Therefore, the two representatives went back frustrated. And the muhaajiroon in Abyssinia remained there.
Then, Allaah favoured an-Najaashee and he accepted Islaam and made his Islaam good. When he died, the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and his Companions prayed the funeral prayer for him with the prayer of one whose body is absent. So in migrating to him there was good for him as well; by means of them, Allaah guided him, so he entered into Islaam.
Then the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam met a group from the Ansaar (the Muslims from al-Madeenah) in Minaa during the Hajj; and the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi was allam used to present himself to the tribes during the Hajj. He would go to the different camping places of the Arabs in Minaa and call them to Allaah. And it happened that he met some men from the Ansaar, so he called them to Allaah and he explained his call to them. They accepted the call from the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and gave him a pledge upon Islaam. They went back to their people from the Hajj and called them to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Then in the next pilgrimage, a larger number came than those who were in the first. Some men from the Ansaar came and gave the pledge to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi was allam, the second pledge of al-`Aqabah, meaning: at the stoning place of al-`Aqabah. They gave a pledge upon the basis of Islaam and upon the basis of aiding him if he made the migration to them and that they would defend him just as they defended themselves and their (own) children.
So then, after this – meaning, after this blessed pledge – the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam commanded those Muslims who were in Makkah to perform hijrah (migration) to al-Madeenah; and whoever migrated, migrated to al-Madeenah. And the Messenger and some of his Companions remained. Then Allaah permitted His Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam to migrate.
When the Quraysh became aware of the migration of his Companions to al-Madeenah and they knew of the pledge that had occurred between him and the Ansaar, they feared that Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam would join up with his Companions in al-Madeenah and would therefore, attain power and gain strength.
On this night, when the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam wanted to depart to make hijrah, they came and surrounded his house. They stood outside the door with their weapons, intending to attack Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. So, Allaah informed His Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam (and) the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam commanded `Alee to sleep upon his bed so that the people of shirk could see him and think that he was the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. So `Alee radiyallaahu `anhu slept upon the bed of Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and covered himself with the blanket of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.
So, the mushriks were waiting for him to come out, thinking that he was the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam when in actuality, the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam had already come out between them and they were unaware. Allaah blinded their sight from him, and he took some dust and scattered it upon their heads, and departed from amongst them.
He went to Aboo Bakr radiyallaahu `anhu and the two of them departed and went to the Cave of Thawr and hid there for three days. The Quraysh were asking the people to catch him by whatever means; alive or dead. So, when they despaired of finding him after looking and searching, they offered rewards for whoever could bring him sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam alive or dead. When they had totally despaired, Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and his Companion left the cave and rode their riding camels and went to al-Madeenah.
Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:
والهجرة : الانتقال من بلد الشرك إلى بلد الإسلام
Hijrah is to move from the land of shirk to the land of Islaam.
 :Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :
al-Hijrah in the (Arabic) language means “to abandon something.” As for hijrah in the legislation, then it is just as the Shaykh defined it: “to depart from the land of kufr and go to the land of Islaam.” This is hijrah in the legislation.
And hijrah is a tremendous deed; Allaah has joined it along with jihaad in many aayaat.
After the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam made the hijrah to al-Madeenah, the Muhaajiroon, who had been in Abyssinia, then came to al-Madeenah and the Muslims gathered in al-Madeenah – and all praise is for Allaah. A state was formed for the Muslims in al-Madeenah, comprising the muhaajiroon and the Ansaar; and whoever had accepted Islaam would come to them.
Then, Allaah legislated the remaining duties of the religion, so He made the fasting obligatory upon His Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, and the Zakaat in the second year after the hijrah and He made obligatory upon him the Hajj in the ninth year after the Hijrah according the correct saying. With that, the pillars of Islaam were completed, the first of them being the two testimonies and the last of them being the Hajj to Allaah’s Sacred House.
So in summary, we know from this that tawheed is the first requirement in calling to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and that the caller begins with it before he begins with the prayer, the fasting, the zakaat or the Hajj, because the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam remained for ten years calling to tawheed and forbidding shirk. He was not commanded with prayer and he was not commanded with zakaat nor pilgrimage nor fasting. Rather these obligatory duties were made obligatory after tawheed was established.
So when he would send out callers, the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam would command them to call the people with the first thing they would call to being tawheed, just as occurs in the hadeeth of Mu`aadh:
» إنك تأتي قوما من أهل الكتاب ، فليكن أول ما تدعوهم إليه شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله ، فإن هم أجابوا لذلك فأعلمهم أن الله افترض عليهم خمس صلوات «
«You are going to a people from the People of the Book. So let the first thing that you call them to be the testimony that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. If they accept that from you, then inform them that Allaah has made five prayers obligatory upon them…» to the end of the hadeeth.
[Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 1395 and Muslim no. 19 from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Abbaas, radiyallaahu `anhumaa.]
So, this proves that a person is not commanded with the prayer nor with the zakaat nor with fasting until tawheed is established and tawheed is present – and that whoever begins with other than tawheed, then his call will fail and his methodology is contrary to the methodology of the Messengers, all of them `alaihumassalaam.
All of the Messengers began by calling to tawheed and to the correction of `aqeedah. It is important for those who proceed to be aware of this methodology, for there are many people today, who confuse this methodology and change this methodology and choose a different methodology for themselves from their own ideas or from other people who are ignorant. There must be a return to the methodology of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. This is the benefit of having awareness of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and his seerah and of making this one of the three fundamental principles. You know how he called the people and what was his sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam methodology in calling them, so you can proceed upon it because he `alaihissalaatu wasalaam is the example to be followed.
Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah
Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah
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Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank