Prophet Muhammad ﷺ: His Name and Lineage – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

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Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 40
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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The Third Fundamental Principle:
Knowledge About Our Prophet Muhammad –sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam
His Name, His Lineage, and His Early Life 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

الأصل الثالث : معرفة نبيكم محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم 

The third fundamental principle: Knowledge about your Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam.[56]


[56] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His saying: «The third fundamental principle» meaning: from the three fundamental principles, because the Shaykh (rahimahullaah) has mentioned at the start of the treatise that it is obligatory upon every Muslim male and female to have knowledge of these three fundamental principles, and they are: knowledge of Allaah, knowledge of the religion of Islaam, and knowledge about His Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam with the evidences.

As for the first and second fundamental principles, then a clarification of them has preceded and an explanation of their evidences. 

The third fundamental principle: It is knowledge about the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam, because of the fact that the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam is an intermediary between Allaah and His creation with regard to conveying His Religion and His Message. Therefore, it is obligatory to know about him, `alaihissalaatu wasalaam.  Otherwise, how could you follow a person whom you do not know of?

So, you must know about him with regard to his name, the land he was born and grew up in, the land to which he migrated and that you know the extent of his lifespan `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. And the phases of his life, `alaihissalaatu wasalaam and the phases of the time period which he was sent in this world. That you also know what occurred before Prophet-hood and after it and before the migration, and after it. That you know how the revelation first came to him, `alaihissalaatu wasalaam and when the revelation began, and what is the aayah which proves his Prophet-hood and the aayah which proves His Messenger-ship. That you can quote the aayahs which prove His Prophet-hood and the aayahs which prove His Messenger-ship. You must know this; that you know his lineage and which tribe he was from, because the Arabs are made of tribes and he was an Arab without any doubt. So, knowledge of these matters is essential about the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam through studying the aayahs and the ahaadeeth which are connected to these matters.

And you look into the life of the Messenger sallallaahu`alayhi wa sallam and his call, in order that you should know these matters about your Prophet whom you are commanded to follow and take as an example.


His Name, His Lineage

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

وهو محمد بن عبد الله بن عبد المطلب بن هاشم من قريش ، وقريش من العرب ،  والعرب من ذرية إسماعيل بن إبراهيم الخليل ، عليه وعلى نبينا أفضل الصلاة والسلام

He is Muhammad, the son of `Abdullaah, the son of `Abdul-Muttalib, the son of Haashim, who is from Quraysh. Quraysh are from the Arabs, and the Arabs are from the descendants of Ismaa`eel, the son of Ibraaheem, al-Khaleel(the specially beloved one). May the most excellent salaat (extolment) and salaam(peace and security) be upon him and our Prophet.[57]


[57Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

This is his name and lineage. His name is Muhammad `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. He has other names besides Muhammad. However, the most famous one of his names is Muhammad and Allaah mentioned that in the Qur.aan in a number of aayahs.

مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ

«Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah» [48:29]

And His saying:

وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ

«And Muhammad is not except a Messenger, Messengers have passed away before him.» [3:144]

And His saying:

مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ

«Muhammad is not the father of any of your men.» [33:40]

And His saying:

«And those who have eemaan (truly believe) and perform righteous deeds, and believe in that which was sent down upon Muhammad (sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam), for it is the truth from their Lord.» [40:2]

So, Allaah mentioned his name Muhammad in a number of aayaahs.

From his names is Ahmad. Allaah mentioned in His saying regarding the glad tidings given by al-Maseeh `alaihissalaam:

وَإِذْ قَالَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُم مُّصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيَّ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَمُبَشِّرًا بِرَسُولٍ يَأْتِي مِن بَعْدِي اسْمُهُ أَحْمَدُ

«And remember when `Eesaa ibn Maryam, said: “O Children of Israa.eel! I am Allaah’s Messenger to you confirming what came before me from the Tauraat, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger who will come after me, whose name will be Ahmad.» [61:6]

So, he is Muhammad and Ahmad. The meaning of that is one abundant in praise, `alaihissalaatu wa salaam, and abundant in attributes for which he is to be praised.

From his names are: the Prophet of Mercy (نبي الرحمة), the Prophet of Great War (نبي الملحمة) – meaning jihaad in Allaah’s Cause – the one after whom the people will be resurrected (الحاشر), and the final Prophet (والعاقب), `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. The one who is such that the people will be resurrected after his being sent as a Prophet, because he is the last of the Messengers, sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. So, there is nothing after him except for the establishment of the Hour. After his Messenger-ship, the Hour will be established and the people will be resurrected for recompensing and accounting.

Whoever wants to get knowledge of these matters (Names and Meanings) , let him refer back to the Book Jalaa.ul-Afhaam fee asSalaati was-Salaam `alaa Khayril-Anaam of the Imaam Ibnul-Qayyim (rahimahullaah).

As for his lineage: He is Muhammad, the son of `Abdullaah, the son of `Abdul-Muttalib, the son of Haashim, the son of `Abdul-Manaaf, the son of Qusay, the son of Kilaab.

He was from the tribe of Quraysh which is the noblest of the tribes, and Quraysh are from the descendants of Ismaa`eel `alaihissalaatu wasalaam.

The Arabs are of two categories upon the most famous saying:

  • The original Arabs: They were the descendants of Qahtaan.
  • The assimilated Arabs: They were the descendants of `Adnaan from the descendants of Ismaa`eel `alaihissalaam, the son of Ibraaheem, al-Khaleel, `alaihissalaam. They were called al-Musta`rabah (the assimilated Arabs) because they learned the Arabic language from the original Arabs.

When the tribe of Jurhum came and settled in Makkah beside Haajir, the mother of Ismaa`eel and her son Ismaa`eel whilst he was young – when they found the well of Zamzam, they settled there and made an agreement with Haajir that they should settle beside her and that she should permit them to take water from the well. Ismaa`eel `alaihissalaam was a suckling infant at that time, then he grew older and took the Arabic language from the tribe of Jurhum, and they were from the original Arabs. He married from the tribe of Jurhum and descendants came from him who learnt the Arabic language. They grew up with the Arabs and became Arabs themselves by assimilation. They are the descendants of `Adnaan. As for the original Arabs, then they are the descendants of Qahtaan whose origin was from Yemen.

Some of the scholars said: The original Arabs themselves were of two categories: Arabs who became extinct and Arabs who remained.

The Arabs who became extinct were the ones who were destroyed. They were the people of Nooh, `Aad, and Thamood, and Shu`ayb.

As for the remaining Arabs, then they are those who are divided into the original Arabs and the assimilated Arabs.

The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was from the descendants of Haashim (the tribe of Haashim), and Haashim was from the descendants of Ismaa`eel, `alaihissalaatu wa salaam. His name was Muhammad, the son of `Abdullaah, the son of `Abdul-Muttalib.

And [regarding] `Abdul-Muttalib, this was not his name, his name was Shaybah. However, he was called `Abdul-Muttalib because his paternal uncle, al-Muttalib, the son of Manaaf, brought him from al-Madeenah whilst he was little from his maternal uncles, Banoo an-Najaar. So, when the people saw him being dark from travelling, they thought he was a slave owned by al-Muttalib. So, they said: `Abdul-Muttalib (the slave of Muttalib), the son of Haashim, the son of `Abdul-Manaaf. `Abdul-Manaaf had four sons: Haashim who was the grandfather of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam, al-Muttalib, `Abd-Shams, and Nawfal.

Banoo Haashim are called the Haashimiyyoon and Banoo Muttalib are called the Muttallibiyyoon.

As for  `Abd- Shams, then from them was `Uthmaan –radiyallaahu `anh and Banoo `Umay-yah. They were all from `Abd- Shams.

As for Nawfal, he had descendents, from them: Jubayr bin Mut`im and Hakeem ibn Hizaam.

Ibraaheem `alaihissalaatu wasalaam had Ismaa`eel and he was the eldest. He is the grandfather of the Arab descendants of `Adnaan. And Ishaaq is the grandfather of the children of Israa.eel, and all of the Prophets were from the descendants of Ishaaq, except for our Prophet `alaihissalaatu wasalaam, he was from the descendants of Ismaa`eel, he was the final prophet.

As for his birth: He sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam was born in the year of the elephant. It is the year when Abrahah, the King of Yemen came towards Makkah. He was sent on a mission by the (christian) King of the Abyssinians to demolish the Ka`bah. With him, there was a very large elephant, so when he reached the place which is called al-Mughamas, nothing remained except for him to enter Makkah and demolish the Ka`bah. The people of Makkah had already separated and climbed into the mountains because they had no strength to oppose him. So, he wanted to go on to the Ka`bah, but the elephant was held back and it refused to get up from the ground. Allaah held it back. When he turned it in the direction other than the direction of Makkah, it would get up and trod. And when he pointed it in the direction of Makkah, it was prevented and unable to walk, and whilst they were in that condition, they saw two flocks of birds coming from the direction of the ocean and they had with them stones. Each bird had two stones with it, a stone in its beak and a stone between its feet. They threw these little stones down and they would strike the head of the man and it would come out from his anus and split him in two halves. So, Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, destroyed him.

Allaah sent down, with regard to that, reminding the Quraysh, Sooratul-Feel:

أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّكَ بِأَصْحَابِ الْفِيلِ – أَلَمْ يَجْعَلْ كَيْدَهُمْ فِي تَضْلِيلٍ – وَأَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ طَيْرًا أَبَابِيلَ – تَرْمِيهِم بِحِجَارَةٍ مِّن سِجِّيلٍ

«Do you not see how your Lord dealt with the Companions of the Elephant? Did He not make their plan go astray? And He sent against them birds, in flocks, striking them with stones of clay.» [105:1-4]

[The stones were] from Hell, and Allaah’s refuge is sought.

فَجَعَلَهُمْ كَعَصْفٍ مَّأْكُولٍ

«So He made them like straws of corn devoured.» [105:5]

They became like dry straw which have been eaten by animals and excreted.

This was the story of the elephant, so Allaah defended His Sacred House and destroyed this tyrant Abrahah, and in this year, Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was born. There appeared along with his birth signs; light appeared along with him which caused the castles of Shaam to shine. In the night of his birth, the idols shook. The throne room of Kisraa (the emperor of Persians) shook and some balconies from it fell down in the night the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam was born. These were signs of the descending of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam as a Prophet. The devils were thrown into commotion in that tremendous night.

He was born in the mountain-pass of `Alee, he was born in Makkah (close to the Ka’bah) . However, the precise location of the house is not confirmed.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

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Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

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