No-one is to be compelled to enter the Religion, true guidance has been made clear – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 50 (Part A)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

The proof is His saying, He the Most High:

لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ ۖ قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ ۚ فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ لَا انفِصَامَ لَهَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

No-one is to be compelled to enter the Religion, true guidance has been made clear and distinct from falsehood.  So whoever rejects at Taaghoot and truly believes in Allaah, then he has grasped the firmest handhold that will never break. And Allaah is All Hearing, All Knowing. [2:256]83


[83]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He, the Perfect and Most High, said:

لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ ۖ قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ ۚ فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ لَا انفِصَامَ لَهَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

No one is to be compelled to enter the Religion, true guidance has been made clear and distinct from falsehood.  So whoever rejects at Taaghoot and truly believes in Allaah, then he has grasped the firmest handhold that will never break. And Allaah is All Hearing, All Seeing.[2:256]

No one is to be compelled to enter the Religion… : Meaning – no one is to be forced to enter into Islaam against his will, because entering into Islaam must occur as a result of being convinced and from believing in the heart. And no one is to be forced into it against his will – this is not possible because no one can act with regards to the hearts except Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. No one may force anyone to enter Islaam because we do not possess and own the hearts. Rather it is just Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, He is the One who owns them and acts with regards to them. However we should call to Islaam and encourage people upon it.

We strive and fight in Allaah’s Cause against whoever disbelieves, for the spread of Islaam and to provide an opportunity to whoever wants to accept Islaam, and in order to subdue the enemies of Allaah. But as for guidance, then it is in the Hand of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. No one is to be forced upon eemaan and Islaam. Rather this is something which relates back to the person himself.

Then, He, the Most High, said:

… قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ …

…true guidance has been made clear and distinct from falsehood…

So Islaam, and all praise is for Allaah, does not contain anything which people have to be forced upon against their will. Rather all of it is beloved and desirable. Whereas kufr and shirk, all of it is evil and all of it is something detestable. So this has become clear from that. As rushd (guidance) – and it is the Truth – has become distinguished from al-ghayy – and it is falsehood. And a person has intellect and has the ability to think so that he can weigh and compare truth against falsehood. And his thinking, if it is sound and if it is free from desires and ulterior motives, then his sound thinking will guide him to acceptance of the truth without having to be forced. This is one saying with regards to the aayah.

And the second saying is that this aayah came down with regard to the People of the Book; and that the People of the Book are not to be compelled to enter into Islaam. Rather if they want to remain upon their religion then they are to be left to do so with the condition that they hand over the jizyah to the Muslims and they (the People of the Book) are in a state of being humbled. And as for other than them from the disbelievers, then nothing will be accepted from them except Islaam or being killed because they have no religion; and idol worship is a false and futile religion.

And the third saying is that this aayah was abrogated by the aayah commanding jihaad. So this was the case initially before jihaad was legislated, then jihaad was legislated and the aayah was abrogated.

However the first (of the three sayings) is what is correct – that the aayah is not abrogated and that the religion cannot be entered into the hearts by force. Rather it can only enter through choice. However whoever does not accept the Religion, he will be dealt with in a manner that befits him, whether it be being killed or having the jizyah tax taken from him if he be from those regarding whom Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, has legislated that it be taken from.

… فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ

So whoever rejects at-Taaghoot and truly believes in Allaah… 

At-Taaghoot – what is meant is all of the Taaghoots in worship, in following or in obedience because the word “at-Taaghoot” here is left general.

Rejecting the Taaghoot was put before having eemaan in Allaah (in the aayah) because having eemaan in Allaah will not benefit except after rejection of the Taaghoot. So whoever believes in Allaah but does not reject the Taaghoot, then his eemaan will not benefit him. So the person who says that he is a believer and he prays and he fasts and gives the Zakaat and performs the Hajj and he performs the acts of obedience but he does not dissociate himself from shirk nor from the people of shirk and says, “They are not my business” – this person will not be counted as a Muslim because he has not rejected the Taaghoot. So there must be rejection of the Taaghoot and it is to reject the Taaghoot and to believe as creed in its (the Taaghoot’s) falsehood and to distance oneself from it and from its people – this is essential. So his eemaan will not be correct except after rejecting the Taaghoot.

And there occurs in the other aayah:

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

And We sent a messenger to every nation commanding, “Worship Allaah alone and avoid the Taaghoot!” [16:36]

So the worship of Allaah will not be correct except through avoiding the Taaghoot. Two opposites cannot come together; eemaan and kufr cannot come together in the heart. Eemaan and major kufr cannot come together in the heart. As for the lesser kufr then it can come together (with eemaan).

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

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Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/Tawheed

How Abdullaah ibn Salaam (رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ) became Muslim – Compiled and Translated by Dawud Burbank

[From “Saheehus-Seeratin-Nabawiyyah’ (pp.80-81), Shaikh al-Albaanee – rahimahullaah’s- verified edition of al-Haafiz Ibn Katheer -rahimahullaah’s- “as-Seeratun-Nabawiyyah’.]

From `Awf ibn Maalik al-Ashja`ee, who said:

“The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) went off one day, and I was with him, until we entered a synagogue of the Jews (in al-Madeenah, on a festival day of theirs, and they disliked our entering upon them), and he said (to them):

<< O assembly of Jews! Show me twelve men who will bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and Allaah will remove from every Jew beneath the sky the Anger which He has upon them.>> He said: So they remained silent; no one responded to him. Then he repeated it, but no one responded to him. So he said:

<< You have refused, but, by Allaah ! I am indeed ‘al-Haashir’ (the Prophet after whom the people will be gathered), and I am ‘al-`Aaqib’ (the final Prophet), and I am ‘an-Nabiyyul-Mustafaa’ (the chosen Prophet): whether you believe or reject the truth.>>

Then he departed, and I was with him, until (when) we had almost left, a man behind us said: “Stay as you are, O Muhammad!’ Then that man said: ” What sort of man do you people know me to be amongst you, O company of Jews?’ They said: “By Allaah! We do not know there to be any man amongst us who knows Allaah’s Scripture better than you; nor who has better understanding of the religion than you; nor than your father before you; nor than your grandfather before your father.’ He said: “Then I testify for him, by Allaah, that he is indeed the Prophet of Allaah, whom you find in the Tawraat [Torah].” They said: “You have lied!’ Then they rebutted his saying, and they said evil things about him, so Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said:

<< You people have lied. Your saying will never be accepted. Just now you were praising him with the good that you were praising him with; but when he believed you called him a liar, and said what you have said. Your saying will never be accepted. >>

He said: So we departed, and we were three: Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم), myself, and `Abdullaah ibn Salaam; and Allaah -the Most High- sent down regarding him:

“Say: Do you see: if this Qur·aan is from Allaah, and you reject it, and a witness from the children of Israa’eel testifies to its like, and believes in it; and you haughtily reject it; then Allaah does not guide the wrongdoing Disbelievers”  [ Sooratul-Ahqaaf (46): 10] [1]

[1] Shaikh al-Albaanee said: “Reported by Ahmad (6/25), and the additions are his; and by al-Haakim (3/415-416), and he said: “Saheeh to the standard of the two Shaikhs’! And adhDhahabee agreed with him! But it is only to the standard of Muslim, since al-Bukhaaree did not report the narrations of Safwaan ibn `Amr except in his “al-Adabul-Mufrad’.”

IMAAM AL-BUKHAAREE’S -rahimahullaah- NARRATION:

Imaam al-Bukhaaree narrated (no.3329): from Anas -radiyallaahu `anhu:

“Abdullaah ibn Salaam heard of the arrival of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) at AlMadeenah, so he came to him and said: “I am going to ask you about three things which nobody but a Prophet will know.’

He said: “What is the first of the signs of the Hour? And what will be the first food, which the people of Paradise will eat? And on account of what does a child resemble its father; and on account of what does a child resemble its maternal uncles?’

So Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: «Jibreel has just informed me of them.» He said: `Abdullaah said: “He is the enemy to the Jews from amongst the Angels.’ Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said:

«As for the first of the signs of the Hour, then it will be a fire, which gathers the people from the east to the west. As for the first food which the people of Paradise will eat, then it will be the extra lobe of the liver of the fish. As for the resemblance of the child, then when the man has intercourse with the woman and his semen outstrips the fluid of the woman, then the child will resemble him; and if her fluid outstrips, then the resemblance will be towards her.»

He said: “I testify that you are the Messenger of Allaah.’ Then he said: “O Messenger of Allaah! The Jews are a people who are great liars: if they know about my Islaam before you ask them, then they will lie about me to you.’ So the Jews came, and `Abdullaah ibn Salaam entered the house.

So Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: «What sort of a man is `Abdullaah ibn Salaam amongst you?» They said: “He is the most knowledgeable one of us, and the son of the most knowledgeable one from amongst us; and he is the best one of us, and the son of the best one of us.’ So Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: «What would you think if `Abdullaah were to accept Islaam?» They said: “May Allaah preserve him from that.’ So `Abdullaah came out to them and said: “I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah.’ So they said: “He is the most evil one of us, and the son of the most evil one of us’, and they spoke against him’.”

A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF `ABDULLAAH IBN SALAAM -radiyallaahu `anhu:

`Abdullaah ibn Salaam ibn al-Haarith, al-Israa·eelee, Aboo Yoosuf. He was previously a confederate of Banoo `Awf ibn al-Khazraj. He accepted Islaam when Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) came to al-Madeenah. He was present at the battle of the Trench (al-Khandaq), and the battles after it. He was present with `Umar at the conquest of Jerusalem, and at alJaabiyah. He died in al-Madeenah in 43 H. [[ ref. “Tahdheebut-Tahdheeb’ of al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr]] Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) bore witness that he will be a person of Paradise, as reported by al-Bukhaaree (no. 3812) and Muslim (no. 2483) from Sa`d ibn Abee Waqqaas -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “I never heard Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) say about anyone who still walked upon the earth that he was a person of Paradise, except `Abdullaah ibn Salaam. He said: And this Aayah came down concerning him:

“And a witness from the children of Israa·eel testifies to its like” [Sooratul-Ahqaaf (46): 10]

And at-Tirmidhee reported (no. 3804) from Mu`aadh ibn Jabal -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: I heard Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) say: << He will be the tenth of ten in Paradise.>> [ Declared “Saheeh’ by Shaikh al-Albaanee.]

[Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank]

[Download the original PDF]

Posted from: https://alitisaambissunnah.wordpress.com

The Call for the Unity of Religions (Wahdatul Adyaan): A False and Dangerous Call – Dr Saleh as Saleh

In the Name of Allaah, the Beneficent, the Most Merciful

…I begin to write:

All Praise is due to Allaah. We praise Him, and seek His help and forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allaah, Most High, from the evils of our own selves and from our wicked deeds. Whomever Allaah guides cannot be misguided, and whomever He leads astray cannot be guided. I testify that there is no true God worthy of being worshipped except Allaah, alone, without partner or associate. I further testify that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم).1 May Allaah’s salaah and salaam also be granted to the Prophet’s pure family and to all of his noble companions.

“O you who believe! Fear Allaah [by doing all that He ordered and abstaining from all that He forbade] as He should be feared [obey Him, be thankful to Him, and remember Him always] and die not except in a state of Islaam” [Qur’aan, Soorat Aal-’Imraan (3:102)].

O mankind! Be dutiful to your Rabb [2] [Allaah], Who created you from a single person [Adam] and from him [Adam] He created his wife [Eve], and from them both He created many men and women. And fear Allaah through Whom you demand your mutual [rights] and [do not cut the relations of] the wombs [kinship]. Surely, Allaah is ever an All-Watcher over you. [Qur’aan, Soorat An-Nisaa’ (4:1)].

O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him, and speak [always] the truth. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allaah and His Messenger has indeed achieved a great success. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Ahzaab (33:70-71)].

To proceed:

The most truthful speech is that of Allaah’s Book [the Qur’aan] and that the best of guidance is that of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم). The worst of evils are the muhdathaat (newly-invented matters [in the deen] [3], and every innovated matter (in the deen) is a bid’ah; every bid’ah is a dalaalah (misguidance), and every dalaalah is in the Fire of Hell.

We hear nowadays a strange call by organized groups involving some Christians, Jews, and “Muslim” intellectuals calling for wahdatul adyaan. They claim that these three religions stand for the same belief that there is One God and should unite in their call for the implementation of great moral values. Some of those involved call for the establishment of centers containing churches, synagogues, and massaajid side by side, printing the Qur’aan, the Bible, and the Torah in one binding, etc. In the name of defending Islaam against political and media distortions in the West, some organizations are compromising the basics of the Isamic creed through what is called “Bridging the Faiths.”[4] This is a very dangerous call because it mixes the truth with falsehood and thus practically implies the elimination of the truth perfected in the deen of Islaam. The Christians and Jews want the Muslims to be like them. That is why they support this deceptive call for “unity”. Allaah (Azza wa Jal) spoke of their attempts and called the Muslims to be aware of them:

They wish that you reject Faith, as they have rejected (Faith), and thus that you all become equal (like one another). [Qur’aan, Soorat An-Nisaa’ (4:89)].

One of the fundamental beliefs in Islaam is the kufr (unbelief) of the Christians and Jews because they reject the Qur’aan and the message of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) to them. They have also altered their books in such a way that it permits or even enjoins worship of other than Allaah and (or) the association of partners with Him in worship. Any Muslim who doubts their kufr is a kaafir himself.

Some Mulsims who do not understand certain texts from the Qur’aan and (or) authentic sunnah and may be easily deceived by the call for “unity of religions”. It is important to know that if certain texts are not clear to some they are clear to others from those who are firm in the knowledge of the deen.[5] Consequently, nothing stays unclear for those who are seeking the truth and not just following vain desires. For example, some may understand that the following text is evidence that the Jews and Christians are not kufaar:

Verily! Those who believe and those Jews and Christians, and Sabians,[6] whoever believes in Allaah and the Last Day, and work righteousness shall have their reward with their Rabb [Allaah], on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Baqarah (2:62)].

Shaykh-ul-Islaam bin Taymeeyah said: “The aayah (above) tells about the followers of these four unaltered milal (Paths) before abrogation [by the advent of Prophet Muhammad’s complete message.].” [7] It, therefore, addresses those who believed in tawheed and followed the Path of Allaah as was known to them. Those who continued on this belief and did not alter the Scriptures must follow the Qur’aan and the Message of Islaam as explained by Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم). Furthermore, the order of the explained, رضي الله عنهما above aayah, as ibn ‘Abbaas was canceled by aayah 3:85, which states:

And whoever seeks a religion other than Islaam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers. [Qur’aan, Soorat Aal-’Imraan (3: 85)].

Following the alterations in their religion, most of the People of the Book turned kufaar and few remained on the original teachings of the Torah and the Gospel. This is clear in the Qur’anic texts where Allaah, the Most High, says:

And had the People of the Scriptures believed,[8] it would have been better for them; among them are some who have faith,[9] but most of them are al-Faasiqoon [Disobedient to Allaah and His Messenger, and rebellious against Allaah’s Command]. [Qur’aan, Soorat Aal-’Imraan (3:110)].

Following the above description, Allaah (Azza wa Jal) said:

Not all of them are alike; a party of the People of the Scripture stand for the right, they recite the aayaat of Allaah during the hours of the night, prostrating themselves in prayer. They believe in Allaah and the Last Day; they enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong, and they hasten in good works; and they are among the righteous. [Qur’aan, Soorat Aal-’Imraan (3:112-114)].

This party includes those who held to the original Scriptures before they were abrogated by Qur’aan and sunnah. They were on the right religion enjoining tawheed and forbidding shirk, just as Allaah described the believing followers of Mûsa (alaihis salam):

And of the people of Mûsa there is a community who lead [the men] with truth and establish justice [i.e. judge men with truth and justice]. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-A’raaf (7:159)].

Whoever held to these qualities amongst them (i.e. to the true revelations), prior to the advent of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم), was a believer. The believers from the People of the Book who accepted the Prophet’s Message of Islaam will receive a double reward:

And who believe in that which has been sent down [revealed] to you [Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم]10 and in that which was sent down before you [the Torah and the Gospel, etc.] and they believe with certainty in the Hereafter. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Baqarah (2:4)].

And there are, certainly, among the People of the Scripture, those who believe in Allaah and in that which has been revealed to you, and that which has been revealed to them, humbling themselves before Allaah. They do not sell the aayaat of Allaah for a little price, for them is a reward with their Rabb [Allaah]. Surely, Allaah is Swift in account.[11] [Qur’aan, Soorat Aal-’Imraan (3:199)].

Those to whom We gave the Scripture [i.e. the Torah and the Injeel etc.] before it,—they believe in it [the Qur’aan]. And when it is recited to them, they say: “We believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our Rabb. Indeed even before it we have been from those who submit themselves to Allaah in Islaam as Muslims [like ‘Abdullaah bin Saalam and Salmaan Al-Faarisee, etc.].”These will be given their reward twice over, because they are patient, and repel evil with good, and spend [in charity] out of what we have provided for them. [Qur’aan¸ Soorat Al-Qasas (28:52-54)].

It has been confirmed that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said:

“Three persons will get their reward twice [i.e. a double reward]. [One is] a person who has a slave girl and he educates her properly and teaches her good manners properly [without violence] and then manumits and marries her. Such a person will get a double reward. [Another is] a believer from the People of the Scriptures who has been a true believer [in his Prophet],* and then he believes in the Prophet [Muhammad-صلى الله عليه و سلم]. Such a person will receive a double reward. [The third is] a slave man who observes Allaah’s rights and is sincere to his master [and observes the rights of his master]*.” [12]

The Qur’aan also mentions the case of believing monks and priests who followed the true teachings of ‘Eessa (alaihis salam) and who believe in the revelation to Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and would love to be from the ummah of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم):

Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers [Muslims] the Jews and pagans; and you will find the nearest amongst them in love to the believers those who say: “We are Nassara (Christians).” [13] That is because amongst them there are priests and monks, and they are not proud. And when they [who call themselves Christians] listen to what has been sent down to the Messenger [(صلى الله عليه و سلم)], you see their eyes overflowing with tears because of the truth they have recognized. They say: “Our Rabb! We believe, so write us down among the witnesses [Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and his nation]. And why should we not believe in Allaah and in that which has come to us of the Truth [tawheed]? And we wish that our Rabb will admit us [in al-Jannah on the Day of Resurrection] along with the righteous people [Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and his So, Allaah rewarded them .[رضي الله عنهم companions with Gardens under which rivers flow [in al-Jannah], they will abide therein forever, because of what they said. Such is the reward of good-doers. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Maa’idah (5: 82)].

The aayaat cited above are some of the qualities of the believing Christians, who believed in the true Message of Jesus (a’leihis-salaam). In our times, any “Christian” who holds to similar beliefs and hears of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) must accept him and accept that which he is entrusted with (i.e. Islaam). Then he is a believer. If they know about Islaam, they must declare their acceptance of it unless it will result in their death. They are called then to migrate to daarul-Islaam if they are able to.Otherwise they are called to exert that which they are able to, and Allaah knows best. [14]

And in case he never heard of the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم), then his case rests with Allaah15 in light of Allaah’s saying: “And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger.” [Qur’aan, soorat al-Israa’, 17: 15].

Question: Some Muslims say: “But Allaah (Azza wa Jal) had mentioned in the Qur’aan that there are churches, synagogues, and monasteries where the Name of Allaah is mentioned. So, how can we understand this in light of the above explanations about the People of the Book?”

All praise is due to Allaah. The aayah in the Qur’aan where the above places are mentioned is:

Had it not been that Allaah checks one set of people by means of another, monasteries, churches, synagogues, and masaajid, wherein the Name of Allaah is mentioned much would assuredly have been pulled down. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Hajj (22:40)].

The masaajid are the places where the Name of Allaah was and still being mentioned. When they were on their original faith, the People of the Book mentioned the Name of Allaah in their places of worship. However, because of the alterations in their religions, shirk in worship was introduced, even though some of them may mention the Name of Allaah. Hence, their places of worship cannot be considered as boyoutullaah (Houses of Allaah), because they committed kufr and their places contain a wide range of blasphemous symbols (pictures, crosses, etc.).

Imaam ibnul Qayyim said: [16] “Had it not been for Allaah’s checking of one set of people by means of another, these places (mentioned in the aayah) which were beloved to Allaah before Islaam (i.e. in its final and comprehensive form), would have been pulled down. After Islaam, these places are known to Allaah, but hated. Allaah, for example commanded special treatment to the People of the Book under the Islamic Rule, including their protection, yet He (Azza wa Jal) hates them. He commanded the defending of their places of worship, yet He hates them because other than He is being worshipped in such places…” [17]

Ibn ‘Atiyyah said: “He (صلى الله عليه و سلم) checked them when they were on the Truth before the alterations and abrogation [i.e. of their religions].” [18]

In Light of the Above, all the present nations of Jews, Christians, Sabians (if any are left), and those who worshipped Allaah based upon their fitrah,[19] must come to the Final Message from Allaah, and submit to Him alone in Islaam.

The People of the Book as they exist now accepted other than Allaah as deities. No doubt that they are kufaar as Allaah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) refers to them. When they according to ,عليهما السلام followed Mûsa and ‘Eessa the unaltered Torah and the original Gospel, respectively, they were Muslims then. Does a knowledgeable Muslim believe that those who think of ‘Eessa as Savior, a son of God, Three in One, etc. are believers?

Surely, in disbelief are they who say that Allaah is the Messiah, son of Mary! [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Maa’idah (5:17)].

Are those who believe in Trinity believers in tawheed? Allaah says about them:

Surely, disbelievers are those who said: “Allaah is the third of the three [in a Trinity].” But there is no True God but One God [Allaah]. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Maa’idah (5:73)].

They remain as people of the Book since a Book was revealed to their respective Prophets. Whoever says he is a believer in their Books, even in their altered forms, is from the People of the Book. Any Christian or Jew, who dissociates himself from his respective Book and denies it, cannot be considered as being from the People of the Book.

On the other hand, Allaah, the All-Wise and All-Just, legislated certain guidelines that define certain relationships between the Muslims and the People of the Book. Amongst such relations, is marriage to the ‘afeefah (chaste) women of them,[20] eating their lawfully slaughtered meat, etc. Such distinctions do not make them true believers in Allaah.

Shaykh-ul-Islaam ibn Taymeeyah commented on the following aayaat:

Those who disbelieve from among the People of the Scripture [Jews and Christians] and al-Mushrikeen,[21] were not to leave [their disbelief] until there came to them clear evidence. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Bayyinah (98:1)].

And say to those who were given the Scriptures [Jews and Christians] and to those who are illiterates [Arab pagans]: “Do you [also] submit yourselves [to Allaah in Islaam]?” If they do, they are rightly guided, [Qur’aan, Soorat Aal-’Imraan (3:20)],

He said: “And other aayaat like those above address those who exist [i.e. from the Jews, Christians, and mushrikeen]. The Scripture that is referred to is the Book in their hands in which alterations and abrogation were carried out, and does not refer to those who held to the Scriptures before they were altered and abrogated, because they were not kufaar then. Also, they were not [the ones being addressed] by the Qur’aan as “you People of the Book,” because they died before the Qur’aan was revealed. So, all those who believe in the existing Books [altered and abrogated], are from the “People of the Book,” and they are kufaar because they hold to altered and abrogated Books, and they are, like all other kufaar, in Hell forever,[22] although Allaah, the Exalted, commanded that they pay jizyah [23] and made it permissible to eat their food and marry their women.” [24]

In Conclusion:

1. The only deen accepted to Allaah is Islaam.
2. Islaam is the last and final message to all mankind (Christians, Jews, Buddhists, Hindus, etc.)
3. Islaam abrogated all religions.
4. The Qur’aan is the true Word of Allaah and it abrogated all of the previously-revealed Scriptures.
5. The Torah and al-Injeel as they exist in the hands of the “People of the Book” are altered. Even if their original forms are to be found at any time, then they are still abrogated by the Qur’aan.
6. Had their Prophets been alive they would all follow and abide by the teachings of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم). This is the Covenant which Allaah took upon all the Prophets. [25]
7. Every believer should firmly believe that the Jews and Christians are kufaar and enemies of Allaah, His deen, the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم), and the Believers.
8. The kufaar who die on kufr will dwell forever in the Hell of Fire. However we don’t judge that a particular kaafir is in Hell except when their is a specification from the Qur’aan and (or) authentic sunnah.[26]
9. The call for “Unity of Religions,” sometimes misleadingly called a “Comity of Religions,” aims at eliminating everything which distinguishes Islaam from kufr.
10. Calling and supporting the concepts of the “Unity of Religion” is considered riddah (apostasy).[27]
11. The above does not mean that the Muslim abandons calling the kufaar to Islaam.
We are ordered to call them to the way of Allaah, and this is in the best of their interest and thus da’wah to Allaah is the best advice given to them.

One of the great ways of da’wah is to deal with them justly and to call them to Allaah in the best way which is based upon good knowledge.[28] This does not mean that the Muslim compromise the basics of his deen. It also does not mean that Muslims should indulge with the kufaar in an aimless dialogue such as: “Tell us how you pray and we will tell you how we pray,” as done by some people who engage in such dialogue. The most important thing is: Who deserves to be worshipped alone? [29] They worship idols, images, men, etc. We worship the true God of all creation. So we call them with the right knowledge to abandon shirk and to submit to Allaah in tawheed.

The best methodology (manhaj) of da’wah is that exemplified by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) when he sent Mu’aath ibn Jabal (radhi Allaahu anhu) to the “People of the Book” in Yemen. The first thing he (صلى الله عليه و سلم) commanded him to do is to call them to tawheed and belief in Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) as His Messenger.[30] Then he told him: “If they obey you to do so, then inform them that Allaah has enjoined upon them five salawaat [prayers] in every day and night [in twenty-four hours], and if they obey you and do so, then inform them that Allaah has made it obligatory for them to pay sadaqa [zakaat] from their properties and it is to be taken from the wealthy among them and given to poor among them.” [31]

I wrote about this matter several years ago when some Muslim brothers started to engage in “dialogue” with the People of the Book. I cautioned our brothers to establish that the “dialogue” should transform into a way for da’wah and not “negotiations” because we cannot negotiate on shirk. Now with the call for “Unity of Religion,” I urge all the Muslims to advise each other about the dangers of this concept and to direct their respective communities to disassociate from this Path of kufr. May Allaah Who is the Most High, above everything, guide the misguided and preserve and protect our ummah from all afflictions and innovations in deen. Aameen.

12. The Muslim disassociates himself from all forms of kufr and shirk.

13. The believer distinguishes between the natural love he has for his father, mother, wife, husband, son, daughter, etc. from the unbelievers and enmity towards them because of their kufr. The natural love is something recognized by Islaam, otherwise Allaah would not have permitted marriage from chaste women of the People of the Book. This natural love of the kinsfolk and the just and good treatment of the thimmi,[32] non-harbi,[33] mu’aahad,[34] and the musta’min,[35] does not necessitate that we love them the love which obliges friendship and alliance. This kind of love is forbidden by Allaah because they oppose Allaah and His deen. The believer stands in a state of walaa’ (alliance and loyalty) and baraa’ (disassociation): alliance with the Believers who are obedient to Allaah and His Messenger, and enmity and disassociation from the unbelievers and those opposing Allaah and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم). Allaah (Azza wa Jal) says:

You will not find a people who believe in Allaah and the Last Day, loving [by having friendship and alliance] with those who oppose Allaah and His Messenger [Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم], even though they were their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their kinsfolk. For such He has decreed true Faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with Rooh [proofs, light and true guidance] from Himself. And We will admit them into the gardens of [al-jannah] beneath whose trees rivers flow and they will dwell therein forever. Allaah is pleased with them and they with him. They are the party of Allaah. Indeed the party of Allaah are the successful. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Mujaadalah (58:22)].

This strengthening mentioned in the aayah applies to everyone who does not love the enemies of the Messengers, even though they may be one’s close relatives. This love is not the same as the natural (jibilli) love, but it is the love of nusrah which entails giving allegiance to them.

Dealing justly with the non-combatant from the unbelievers is commanded by Allaah. Hence:

(a) The natural love is created by Allaah. He permitted it to occur.
(b) The enmity towards the unbelievers because of their disbelief and rejection of Allaah is legislated by Allaah.
(c) Dealing justly with the non-combatants from the unbelievers is commanded by Allaah. It is forbidden to harm them, especially if they are under the protection of a Muslims or in a Muslim land permitted by the Muslim ruler as the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said:

“Whoever killed a mu’aahad shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise though its fragrance can be smelt at a distance of fourty years (of traveling). [Al-Bukhaari, v. 9, no. 49].

So, this matter is not a “political” affair, rather it is from the Deen of Allaah. And the “evil of these actions, is that it causes the distortion of Islaam, since the enemies of Islam will capitalize on such occurrence in order to distort the reputation of Islam and to turn people away from it, although Islaam is innocent of such acts…” [36]

That is why all believers in Allaah who love Islaam should disassociate themselves from these deviant paths even if they raise “attractive” banners, remembering that the early dissidents (al-Khawaarij) were foremost in worship of Allaah, yet they deviated from the true Path. Since the three matters are all from Allaah and since He (Azza wa Jal) says:

Allaah burdens not a person beyond his scope, [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Baqarah (2:286)]

So, the three matters outlined above are within the scope of the believer and they are just and not contradictory:

Had it been from other than Allaah, they would surely have found therein much contradiction. [Qur’aan, Soorat An-Nisaa’ (4:82)].

This is the Path of the prophets. Contemplate about Prophet Nooh (alaihis salam) and His son when the just decree of Allaah (the Deluge) [37] came upon the kufaar from the people of Nooh:

And Nooh [Noah] called out to his son, who had separated himself [apart], ‘O my son! Embark with us and be not with the unbelievers.’ [Qur’aan, Soorat Hood (11:42)].

His son chose the way of the unbelievers and thought that he will be saved from the water if he takes himself to a mountain. Nooh (alaihis salam) invoked Allaah:

And Nooh [Noah] called upon his Rabb [Allaah] and said, ‘O my Rabb! Verily my son is of my family! And certainly, Your Promise is true, and You are the Most Just of judges.’ [Qur’aan, Soorat Hood (11:45)].

“Verily my son is of my family!” This is the natural relationship, the jibilli one. Allaah, Most High, reminded Nooh (alaihis salam) of His command of Legal disassociation (al-baraa’ ash-shar’i) from the kufaar:

Allaah said: “O Nooh! Surely, he is not of your family [not from the believers of your family]; verily, his work is unrighteous, so ask not of Me that of which you have no knowledge! I admonish you, lest you be one of the ignorant.” [Qur’aan, Soorat Hood (11:46)].

The immediate submission of Nooh was clear in his saying:

Nooh said: “O my Rabb! I seek refuge with You from asking You that which I have no knowledge. And unless You forgive me and have Mercy on me, I would indeed be one of the losers.” [Qur’aan, Soorat Hood (11:47)].

There was a clear distinction between the jibilli and shar’i perspectives in the relationship between Nooh and his son. Contemplate also the relationship with parents:

And We have enjoined on man [to be dutiful and good] to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness and hardship, and his weaning is in two years—give thanks to Me and to your parents—unto Me is the final destination. But if they [both] strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not, yet deal with them justly and kindly in this life. [Qur’aan, Sooart Luqmaan (31:14 & 15)].

Friendship and alliance and pleasing those who oppose Allaah are an indication of either lack of faith or its weakness in the heart of the believer. It is against reason that a person can have walaa’ for someone who is an enemy of the one he truly loves. You find those who have walaa’ for the unbelievers doing things which will earn the love and friendship of the unbelievers by any means. Those who know the truth regarding this matter must remind them of the command of Allaah that:

O you who believe do not take as friends and protectors your fathers and your brothers if they choose unbelief to belief and whoever of you takes them as friends and protectors is one of the transgressors. [Qur’aan, Sooart At-Tawbah (9:23)].

He, the Mighty and Majestic, set for us the example of Prophet Ibraaheem (alaihis salam) by saying:

There has been for you an example for you to follow in Ibraaheem and those with him, when they said to their unbelieving people: ‘We are free of you and whatever idols you worship besides Allaah, and we deny what you are upon and we reject you; and because of your disbelief in Allaah and your worship of others besides Him, enmity and hatred has arisen between us for ever, unless you believe truly in Allaah, and single Him out, and worship Him alone.’ [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Mumtahinah (60:4)].

The efforts to gain the friendship of the Jews and Christians are useless, as they will never be pleased with the Muslims until the Muslims follow their religion. Addressing Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم), the Imaam of the Muslims, Allaah, the Exalted, warned him that:

Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you [O Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)] till you follow their religion. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Baqarah (2:120)].

Hence, the command to abstain from following the paths of the Jews and Christians applies to the entire Ummah of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم):

Verily, therein is indeed a reminder for him who has a heart or gives ear while he is heedful. [Qur’aan, Sooart Qaaf (50:37)].

All Praise is due to Allaah, and may the salaah and salaam of Allaah be upon Muhammad, his family, his companions, and those who follow on their path in righteousness until the Day of Resurrection.

Seeking forgiveness from Allaah,
Saleh As-Saleh.
Revised on the 21st of Rajab 1425,
September 5, 2004.

References:

[1] (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam): The salaah and sa-laam of Allaah be upon His Prophet Muhammad. The salaah of Allaah upon Prophet Muhammad is His Praise of the Prophet before the angels who are close to (but below) Allaah, the Most High, who istawaa (ascended) His ‘arsh (Throne), which is above the seven heavens, in a manner that suits His Majesty. The angels also praise the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم). The salaam is Allaah’s safeguarding of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) from deficiencies and any kind of evil, and the protection of the Message with which he was entrusted. When the Muslim says صلى الله عليه و سلم (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), he invokes Allaah to grant His Praise and Security to Prophet Muhammad and the protection of the Message of Islaam which was revealed to him (صلى الله عليه و سلم). [See Ibnul Qayyim’s Jalaa’ul Afhaam fee Fadlis-Salaati-wa-Salaam ‘alaa Muhammadin Khairil Anaam, [Damascus, Syria: Daar ibn Katheer, and Al-Madeenah, KSA: Daarut-Turaath, 1408/1988], p.128.

[2] Rabb: Allaah is Ar-Rabb. He is the One Who gave all things the power to grow, to move and to change, to Whom belongs the Creation and Commandment; the Master Who has no equal in His Sovereignty, Predominance, and Highness, The One Who Provides for and Sustains all that exists.

[3] Deen: The practical and doctrinal aspects of deen are more comprehensive than the Western concept of religion. The deen of Islaam is the way of life prescribed by Allaah.

[4] So often one hear the following: “We are cousins of Jews and Christians. We worship the same God, follow the teachings of the same Prophets, and believe in the same books. We are all followers of Abraham.” This concept is in direct opposition to the teachings of the Qur’aan and authentic Sunnah. Those who associate partners with Allaah in worship and (or) worship Prophets are not believers in Allaah. The books of the Jews and Christians contain alterations and are completely abrogated by the Qur’aan. The Jews and Christians are not followers of the faith of tawheed of Ibraaheem (Abraham) for Ibraaheem was neither a Christian nor a Jew, he was a pure Muslim, as Allaah (Azza wa Jal) says:

Ibraaheem was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Haneefan (who worshipped none but Allaah Alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikeen. [Qur’aan, Soorat Aal-’Imraan (3:67)].

Had they been true followers of their Prophets, the Jews and Christians would believe in the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and his message of Islaam. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said:

“By Him (Allaah) in Whose Hand Muhammad’s soul is, there is none from amongst the Jews and the Christians (of these present nations) who hears about me and then dies without believing in the Message with which I have been sent (i.e. tawheed), but he will be from the dwellers of the (Hell) Fire.” [Reported by Muslim in his Saheeh (English Translation), vol. 1, no. 284].

The belief in the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) is the attestation with full acceptance and submission, not just mere attestation, that what he brought forth is the truth. That is why Abu Taalib (the uncle of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم) did not become a believer in the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم), despite his attestation to what the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) brought forth and his witness that it is the best of religions.The brother who uttered the aforementioned statement should repent to correct it, and declare the truth in the best ,تعالى Allaah possible way.

[5] Allaah (Azza wa Jal) says:

If only they had referred it to the Messenger or to ulil-amr [learned scholars and those charged with authority] among them, the proper investigators would have understood it from them [directly]. [Qur’aan, Soorat An-Nisaa’ (4:83)].

It was the norm for the sahaabah to ask the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) in his life of what they did not know. Then after his death they asked the learned amongst them, and so did those who followed their path in righteousness. Asking the learned scholars, therefore, was the way of the salaf especially if something doubtful arose.

[6] A past nation who used to live in al-Mawsil (‘Iraq) and said, “La Ilaaha Illal-laah.” They were neither Jews nor Christians.

[7] Ibn Taymeeyah in Al-Jawaabus-Saheeh Liman Baddala Deenal-Maseeh (The Correct Response for those who Altered the Religion of ‘Eessa) [Riyaadh, KSA: Daarul ‘Aasimah, 1414/1993] vol. 2, pp. 212-213. As to whether Jews and Christians of our times are from the People of the Book or not, one first should understand what the term “People of the Book” means. It means that original Books were revealed to their prophets, Mûsa and ‘Eessa, respectively. When they held to the beliefs of ‘Eessa and Mûsa, they were not kufaar. However, when they continued to believe in the altered and abrogated forms of these Books and commit shirk, they became kufaar, even though they are still referred to as “People of the Book.” Allaah knew they would alter the Books and warned them against that. He (Azza wa Jal) still refers to them in the Qur’aan as “People of The Book,” and clearly states that they have committed kufr and deviated from the path of tawheed which their prophets called them to adhere to.

[8] Like the belief of Muslims who accepted the Message of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم).

[9] Includes those amongst them who had faith before Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) was sent to mankind. The believers whom Allaah described:

And We ordained in the hearts of those who followed him [‘Eessa] compassion and Mercy…So, We gave those among them who believed their [due] reward, but many of them are Fassiqoon [rebellious, disobedient to Allaah]. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Hadeed (57:27)].

[10]The revelation includes the Qur’aan and the authentic sunnah.

[11] Ibn Taymeeyah explained that some of the sahaabah (e.g. Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullaah, ibn ‘Abbaas, and Anas ibn Maalik as well as most of the scholars mentioned that رضي الله عنهم the aayah (Qur’aan 3:199), was revealed concerning the faith of an-Najaashi, the king of Abasseenyah known as “as-hamah” (‘Atiyyah, in Arabic), who knew that the Message of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) was the truth confirming that of ‘Eessa before him. He accepted Islaam but was unable to migrate to daarul-Islaam (where Islaam is the apparent and practiced deen), nor he was able to declare it amongst his Christian nation. After the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) knew of his death, he called upon the sahaabah and performed the funeral prayers in absentia on an-Najaashi, thus confirming his belief in Islaam. The aayah, therefore, may apply to anyone from the People of the Book or the mushrikeen who lives in daarul-harb (a land in which the kufaar are prevailing, or land of the kufaar between whom and the Muslims there is no peace) and who believes in Allaah and in Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) as Allaah’s Final Messenger, yet unable to declare his faith openly or unable to migrate to any Muslim country. He does what he is able to do from the acts of worship and as he knows them. [See ibn Taymeeyah’s Al-Jawaabus-Saheeh], pp. 202-210.

[12] Collected by al-Bukhaari and Muslim. The text is as reported by al-Bukhaari in his saheeh, vol. 4, no. 255, p.158. The (*) refers to some parts of the text as reported by Muslim.

[13] Those who claim to be followers of ‘Eessa (alaihis salam) and the true Injeel (Gospel) should have a general love for Islaam and its people, because the teachings of ‘Eessa (alaihis salam) were based upon mercy and kindness:

And We ordained in the hearts of those who followed him compassion and Mercy. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Hadeed (57:27)]. In fact they must submit to Allaah and His deen because the in ,عليهما الصلاة والسلام messages of ‘Eessa and Muhammad calling the people to the tawheed, are the same.

[14] See Shaykh-ul-Islaam’s Al-Jawaabus-Saheeh, vol. 2, pp. 201-213.

[15] This is correction of the original statement “in shaa’ Allaah, believers,” and which came in the first print as well as in the first print of “The Message and the Messengers.” And Allaah’s forgiveness is sought in case of any error.

[16] In Badaai’ At-Tafseer (The Unprecedented of Tafseer), which is a collection of explanations of certain aayaat of the Qur’aan, collected by Yusri as-Sayed Ahmad [Dammaam, Saudi Arabia: Daar ibnul Jawzi, 1414/1993], vol. 3, p. 214.

[17] Allaah willed them to exist, yet He hates the shirk practiced by them. He willed and created Iblees (the Devil) and He hates him. This is His Universal Will: al-iraadah al-kawniyyah. Allaah’s Judicial Will: al-iraadah ash-shar’iyyah is to protect their places of worship as long as they do not openly carry out their worship outside such places, and they conform to all of the rules regarding their interactions with Isamic Law.

[18] Quoted in Fathul-Bayaan fee Maqassidil-Qur’aan (The Eloquent Clarification to the Objectives of the Qur’aan), by Sidique Hassan al-Khanouji al-Bukhaari [Sidon, Beirut, Lebanon: ad-Daar al-’Assriyyah, 1412/1992], vol. 9, p. 57.

[19] Fitrah: natural inclination to worship Allaah alone. Every human is born on this state. That is why if someone reverts to Islam, then he/she returns to his initial state of submission to the only true God, Allaah.

[20] Certainly it is advised to marry the Muslim woman even if a chaste woman of the people of the Book offers herself for marriage to a Muslim. There are so many problems associated with marriage to women from the People of the Book in our times. The Muslim must be very careful about such a decision if it deems necessary.

[21]Mushrikeen: Those who commit shirk including pagans, polytheists, idolaters, and unbelievers in the Oneness of Allaah and in His Messenger Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم).

[22] If they die on their beliefs.

[23] Head-tax imposed by Islaam on the People of the Book and other people who have a revealed book when they live under Muslim rule, wherein they and their properties and wealth are protected.

[24] Quoted in Majmoo’ Al-Fataawaa, vol. 35, pp. 227-228.

[25] Allaah says (what means): And [remember] when Allaah took the Covenant of the Prophets, saying: ‘Take whatever I gave you from the Book and Hikmah [understanding of the Laws of Allaah], and afterwards there will come to you a Messenger [Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم] confirming what is with you; you must, then, believe in him and help him.’ Allaah said: ‘Do you agree [to it] and will you make up My Covenant [which I conclude with you]?’ They said: ‘We agree.’ He said: ‘Then bear witness, and I am with you among the witnesses [for this].’ [Qur’aan, Soorat Aal-’Imraan (3:81)]. Furthermore, in the hadeeth reported by Imaam Ahmad and others, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said (what means), “If Mûsa were alive and present among you, it would not be permissible for him to do anything but to follow me.” [Ash-Shaykh Al-Albaani stated that it is reported by Ahmad, Al-Bayhaqi, and Ad-Daarimee, Al-Laalkaa’ee, Al-Harawee and others, and that its degree of authenticity is hasan. See Mishkaatul-Masaabeeh, vol. 1, no. 177].

[26] Example Abu Taalib is in Hell, and Fir’awn is in Hell, as well as others specified in authentic texts.

[27] This ruling has been published as a religious verdict (fatwa) by the Permanent Committee for Islamic and Educational Research in Saudi Arabia on the 25th of Muharram, 1418 (corresponding to 31-5-1997), no. 19402.

[28] The aayah in Soorat Al-’Ankaboot (29:46):

(which means), “And do not argue with the People of the Scriptures (Jews and Christians), unless it be in [a way] that is better, except with such of them as do wrong, and say [to them]: “We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you; our Ilaah [God] and your Ilaah [God] is One [i.e. Allaah], and it is to Him we submit [in Islaam],” calls the believers to argue with the People of the Book in a way that is better, i.e.inviting them to Allaah with His aayaat (verses, proofs, evidences, etc.) using the clearest indicative words which proves the objective and to avoid being harsh save with such of them as do wrong. [See Tafseer ibn Jareer At-Tabaree for this aayah as well ibnul Qayyim’s Madaarijus-Saalikeen (Beirut, Lebanon: Daarul-Fikr, checked by Muhammad Haamid Al-Fiqee, n.d.], vol. 1, pp. 445-446. It is not a call for interfaith dialogue. It is a call for a common word between them and us. This word has been defined by Allaah, Most High, in the following Aayah:

[which means]: O People of the Scripture [Jews and Christians]: Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allah. Then if they turn away, say: “Bear witness that we are Muslims.” [Qur’aan, Soorat Aal-‘Imraan (3:64)]. Certainly it is not a call for “comity” or “unity of religions.”

[29] In the year 1415 (1995), I wrote a book as well as a short article entitled, “Who Deserves to be Worshipped Alone?” In shaa’ Allaah (Allaah Willing) it is helpful to address people from all religions. The article is available on the site: understand-islam.net.

[30] Not just the so-called “recognition” given by some theologians from the People of the Book in our times!

[31]The text is in Saheeh Al-Bukhaari (Arabic/English), vol. 2, no. 478. It is also reported by Muslim.
[32] Thimmi: A non-Muslim living in a Muslim country and upon whom the jizyah applies. Those non-Muslims are under the protection of the Muslims.
[33] The non-combatants from the unbelievers.
[34] An unbeliever between whom and the Muslims a term of peace has been made for a definite time.
[35] The unbeliever who is permitted into the Muslim land by the approval of the Muslim governor, e.g. visiting, business, etc.
[36] From the fatwa of or Shayekh, Muhammad bin Salih al-‘Uthaimeen (may Allaah’s Mercy be upon him), concerning the bombings that took place in al-Khubar (Saudi Araia) in the year 1419. See al-Fataawaa ash-Shar’iyyah fil Qadaayaa al-Mua’aasirah (Legal Verdicts Regarding Current Issues), pp. 80-87, collected by Muhammad bin Fahd al-Husayyin, with an introductory by Shayekh Salih al-Fawzaan (may Allaah preserve him). Shayekh bin ‘Uthaimeen enumerated many other evil consequences of such actions, including spreading ciaos in the land, destruction of humans and their wealths, and more.
[37] The great flood in the time of Nooh (alaihis salam).

[Download PDF] – which has arabic ayas of the quran

http://understand-islam.net/site/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=103

Making peace treaties with the Jews or other Kuffaar(disbelievers) does not necessitate supporting and befriending them – Ibn Baz

Q 1: Some people understood from your answer to the first question in the interview about concluding treaties with the Jews that signing a peace treaty or truce with the Jews who captured the lands and committed transgressions is unconditionally permissible. They also understood that they have to support and befriend the Jews. Making peace with them requires the Muslims not to stir hatred and disavowal of the Jews in the educational curriculum or mass media in the Muslim countries. The world is now witnessing a phase of international reconciliation and peaceful coexistence. It is not allowed to arouse feelings of religious hatred among people. Would you please explain this issue.

A 1: Making peace with the Jews or other disbelievers does not necessitate support and friendship. It ensures that both sides enjoy safety and peace and may engage in other dealings such as sale, purchase, and exchange of ambassadors. These actions do not require the Muslims to support or befriend the disbelievers.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) concluded peace treaties with the people of Makkah. This act did not force the Muslims to befriend or support the pagans, but the feelings of hatred remain until the Opening of Makkah and people entered into the religion of Allah (Exalted be He) in multitudes.

Similarly, he (peace be upon him) made peace with the Jews of Al-Madinah for an unlimited period when he emigrated to Al-Madinah. He (peace be upon him) used to buy things from them, talk to them and call them to Islam but it was not necessary to befriend or support them. Furthermore, the Prophet (peace be upon him) died while his armor was in pawn with a Jew in return for food.

When Banu Al-Nadir, a Jewish tribe, committed high treason, they were expelled from Al-Madinah. When Qurayzhah breached the covenant and joined a besieging army of the enemy that came from Makkah to fight the Prophet (peace be upon him) on the Day of Ahzab, the Prophet (peace be upon him) fought them killing their leaders and taking their women and offspring captives. When Sa`d Ibn Mu`adh (may Allah be pleased with him) judged them, he judged that the men must be killed and the women and children taken captives. So, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said that he judged according to the judgment of Allah (Exalted be He) from above the seven heavens.

The Muslims among the Sahabh and their followers often declared a truce with the Christians and other non-Muslims without having to support or befriend them.

Allah (Glorified be He) says, Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers (Muslims) the Jews and those who are Al-Mushrikûn [Sooratul-Maa‘idah 5:82]

Allah (Glorified be He) also says: Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibrâhîm (Abraham) and those with him, when they said to their people: “Verily, we are free from you and whatever you worship besides Allâh: we have rejected you, and there has started between us and you hostility and hatred for ever until you believe in Allâh Alone” [Sooratul-Mumtahinah 60:4]

He (Glorified be He) also says, O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as Auliyâ’ (friends, protectors, helpers), they are but Auliyâ’ of each other. And if any amongst you takes them (as Auliyâ’), then surely he is one of them. Verily, Allâh guides not those people who are the Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers and unjust).[Sooratul-Maa‘idah 5:51]

Allah (Glorified be He) also says: You (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) will not find any people who believe in Allâh and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allâh and His Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), even though they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred (people).[Sooratul-Mujaadilah 58:22]

There are many Ayahs that convey the same meaning.

Here is another situation showing that making peace with the Jews or other disbelievers, when necessary, does not necessitate supporting and befriending them. When the Prophet (peace be upon him) conquered Khaybar, he made peace with the Jews and agreed that they take care of the palms and fields and the harvest was to be halved between them and the Muslims. This agreement was unlimited and they stayed in Khaybar under this agreement as the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, We will let you stay on this (condition), as long as we will.[1] According to another narration, “We will let you stay, as long as Allah will let you stay.” [2] They stayed there until `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) evacuated them. It is narrated that when `Abdullah ibn Rawahah (may Allah be pleased with him) estimated the value due on the fruits of the palm trees one year, they alleged that the value was unjust. He (may Allah be pleased with them) told them, “By Allah! My hatred for you and my love for the Muslims will never make me treat you unjustly. If you will, accept my bulk assessment of the outcome that I made for you; otherwise we accept it all.”

Hence, these situations indicate that making peace treaties and truce with the enemies of Allah does not require us to support or befriend them, as some of those who are not aware of the rulings of the purified Shari`ah believe.

It should be clear that making peace treaties with the Jews or other disbelievers does not require us to change the educational curriculum or other dealings based on support and befriending. May Allah grant us success.

Footnotes:

[1] Narrated by Al-Bukhari, Book on sharecropping, Chapter on when the Owner of the land says, “I will let you remain as long as Allah lets you remain”…, no. 2338; and Muslim, Book on sharecropping, Chapter on sharecropping in return for part of the fruits and plants, no. 1551.

[2] Narrated by Al-Bukhari, Book on conditions, Chapter on when a precondition is made in the sharecropping: “If I wish, I can expel you.”, no. 2730.’

Source: alifta.com – Fatwas of Ibn Baz rahimahullaah

Two Episodes of Jewish Mischief : Imam Ibn Kathir

Two Episodes of Jewish Mischief [From Tafsir Soorah al-`Isra]
Imam Ibn Kathir
Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged), Volume 5
© Darussalam 2000

Surah 17. Al-Isra’ (4-8)

4. And We decreed for the Children of Israel in the Scripture:

“Indeed you would do mischief in the land twice and you will become tyrants and extremely arrogant!”

5. So, when the promise came for the first of the two, We sent against you servants of Ours given to terrible warfare. They entered the very innermost parts of your homes. And it was a promise (completely) fulfilled. 6. Then We gave you a return of victory over them. And We helped you with wealth and children and made you more numerous in manpower.

7. (And We said): “If you do good, you do good for your own selves, and if you do evil (you do it) against yourselves.” Then, when the second promise came to pass, (We permitted your enemies) to disgrace your faces and to enter the Masjid as they had entered it before, and to destroy with utter destruction all that fell in their hands.

8. It may be that your Lord may show mercy unto you, but if you return (to sins). We shall return (to Our punishment). And We have made Hell a prison for the disbelievers.

It was mentioned in the Tawrah that the Jews would spread Mischief twice

Allah tells us that He made a declaration to the Children of Israel in the Scripture, meaning that He had already told them in the Book which He revealed to them, that they would cause mischief on the earth twice, and would become tyrants and extremely arrogant, meaning they would become shameless oppressors of people, Allah says:

And We made known this decree to him, that the root of those (sinners) was to be cut off in the early morning. (15:66),

meaning, We already told him about that and informed him of it.

The First Episode of Mischief caused by the Jews, and their Punishment for it

So, when the promise came for the first of the two, meaning the first of the two episodes of mischief.

We sent against you servants of Ours given to terrible warfare.

means, ‘We unleashed soldiers against you from among Our creatures who were given to terrible warfare,’ i.e., they had great strength and weapons and power. They entered the very innermost parts of your homes, meaning they took possession of your land and invaded the very innermost parts of your homes, going between and through your houses, coming and going freely with no fear of anyone. This was the promise (completely) fulfilled.

The earlier and later commentators differed over the identity of these invaders. Many Isra`iliyyat (reports from Jewish sources) were narrated about this, but I did not want to make this book too long by mentioning them, because some of them are fabricated, concocted by their heretics, and others may be true, but we have no need of them, praise be to Allah. What Allah has told us in His Book (the Qur’an) is sufficient and we have no need of what is in the other books that came before. Neither Allah nor His Messenger required us to refer to them. Allah told His Messenger sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam that when (the Jews) committed transgression and aggression, Allah gave their enemies power over them to destroy their country and enter the innermost parts of their homes. Their humiliation and subjugation was a befitting punishment, and your Lord is never unfair or unjust to His servants. They had rebelled and killed many of the Prophets and scholars. Ibn Jarir recorded that Yahya bin Satd said: “I heard Sa’id bin Al-Musayyib saying: ‘Nebuchadnezzar conquered Ash-Sham (Greater Syria, including Palestine), destroying Jerusalem and killing them, then he came to Damascus and found blood boiling in a censer. He asked them:

What is this blood? They said: We found our forefathers doing this. Because of that blood, he killed seventy thousand of the believers and others, then the blood stoppedboiling.”[At-Tabari 17:369.]

This report is Sahih from Said bin Al-Musayyib, and this event is well-known, as he (Nebuchadnezzar) killed their nobles and scholars, and did not leave alive anyone who knew the Tawrah by heart. He took many prisoners from the sons of the Prophets and others, and did many other things that would take too long to mention here. If we had found anything that was correct or close enough, we could have written it and reported it here. And Allah knows best.

Then Allah says:

(And We said): “If you do good, you do good for your own selves, and if you do evil (you do it) against yourselves.”

As Allah says elsewhere:

Whosoever does a righteous good deed, it is for (the benefit of) himself; and whosoever does evil, it is against himself. [45:15]

The Second Episode of Mischief

Then Allah says:

Then, when the second promise came to pass, meaning, the second episode of mischief, when your enemies came again,

(We permitted your enemies) to disgrace your faces, meaning, to humiliate you and subdue you,

and to enter the Masjid, meaning, Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem).

as they had entered it before, when they entered the very innermost parts of your homes.

and to destroy wrecking and inflicting ruin upon it.

all that fell in their hands, everything they could get their hands on.

with utter destruction. It may be that your Lord may show mercy unto you , meaning that He may rid you of them.

but if you return (to sins). We shall return (to Our punishment),  meaning, if you return to causing mischief,

We shall return means We will once again punish you in this world, along with the punishment and torment We save for you in the Hereafter.’

And We have made Hell a prison [Hasir] for the disbelievers, meaning, a place of permanent detention, a prison which cannot be avoided or escaped. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Hasiir here means a jail.” [At-Tabari 17:390] Mujahid said, “They will be detained in it.” [At-Tabari 17:390] Others said likewise. Al-Hasan said, “Hasir means a bed of Fire.” [At-Tabari 17:390] Qatadah said: “The Children of Israel returned to aggression, so Allah sent this group against them, Muhammad sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam and his companions, who made them pay the Jizyah, [a tax levied from People of the Book (Jews and Christians) who are under the protection of a Muslim government] with willing submission, and feeling themselves subdued.” [At-Tabari 17:389]

The Story of the Jews Who sought a King to be appointed over Them : Tafseer Ibn Katheer

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer

(2.246. Have you not thought about the group of the Children of Israel after (the time of) Musa When they said to a Prophet of theirs, “Appoint for us a king and we will fight in Allah’s way.” He said, “Would you then refrain from fighting, if fighting was prescribed for you” They said, “Why should we not fight in Allah’s way while we have been driven out of our homes and our children (families have been taken as captives)” But when fighting was ordered for them, they turned away, all except a few of them. And Allah is All-Aware of the wrongdoers.)

Mujahid said that the Prophet (mentioned in the Ayah 2:246 above) is Shamwil (Samuel). Wahb bin Munabbih said: The Children of Israel remained on the straight path for a period of time after Moses. They then innovated in the religion and some of them even worshipped the idols. Yet, there were always Prophets sent among them who would command them to work righteous deeds, refrain from doing evil and who would rule them according to the commands of the Torah. When they (Israelites) committed the evil that they committed, Allah caused their enemies to overwhelm them, and many fatalities fell among them as a consequence. Their enemies also captured a great number of them, and took over large areas of their land. Earlier, anyone who would fight the Israelites would lose, because they had the Torah and the Tabut, which they inherited generation after generation ever since the time of Moses, who spoke to Allah directly. Yet, the Israelites kept indulging in misguidance until some king took the Tabut from them during a battle. That king also took possession of the Torah, and only a few of the Israelites who memorized it remained. The prophethood halted among their various tribes and only a pregnant woman remained of the offspring of Lavi (Levi), in whom the prophethood still appeared. Her husband had been killed, so the Israelites kept her in a house so that Allah may give her a boy, who would be their Prophet. The woman also kept invoking Allah to grant her a boy. Allah heard her pleas and gave her a boy whom she called `Shamwil’ meaning `Allah has heard my pleas.’ Some people said that the boy’s name was Sham`un (Simeon), which also has a similar meaning.

As that boy grew, Allah raised him to be a righteous person. When he reached the age of prophethood, Allah revealed to him and commanded him to call (his people) to Him and to His Tawhid (Oneness). Shamwil called the Children of Israel (to Allah) and they asked him to appoint a king over them so that they could fight their enemies under his command. The kingship had also ended among them. Their Prophet said to them, “What if Allah appoints a king over you, would you fulfill your vow to fight under his command”

(They said, “Why should we not fight in Allah’s way while we have been driven out of our homes and our children”) meaning, `After our land had been confiscated and our children had been taken from us’ Allah said:

(But when fighting was ordered for them, they turned away, all except a few of them. And Allah is All-Aware of the wrongdoers) meaning, only a few of them kept their promise, but the majority abandoned Jihad and Allah has full knowledge of them.

(247. And their Prophet said to them, “Indeed Allah has appointed Talut (Saul) as a king over you.” They said, “How can he be a king over us when we are fitter than him for the kingdom, and he has not been given enough wealth.” He said: “Verily, Allah has chosen him above you and has increased him abundantly in knowledge and stature. And Allah grants His kingdom to whom He wills. And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Knower.”)

When the Israelites asked their Prophet to appoint a king over them, he appointed Talut (Saul), who was then a soldier. But, Talut was not a descendant of the house of kings among them, which was exclusively in the offspring of Yahudha (Judah). This is why they said:

(How can he be a king over us) meaning, how can he be the king for us,

(when we are fitter than him for the kingdom, and he has not been given enough wealth) They said that Talut was also poor and did not have the wealth that justifies him being king. Some people stated that Talut used to bring water to the people, while others stated that his profession was dyeing skins. The Jews, thus, disputed with their Prophet while they were supposed to obey him and to say good words to him.

Their Prophet answered them:

(Verily, Allah has chosen him above you) meaning, `Allah chose Talut from amongst you while having better knowledge about him.’ Their Prophet stated, “I did not choose Talut to be your king on my own. Rather, Allah has commanded that upon your request.” Further:

(…and has increased him abundantly in knowledge and stature.) meaning, `Talut is more knowledgeable and honorable than you, and stronger and more patient during combat, and has more knowledge of warfare. In short, he has more knowledge and is stronger than you are. The king should have sufficient knowledge, be fair looking and should have a strong soul and body.’ He then said:

(And Allah grants His kingdom to whom He wills.) meaning, Allah Alone is the Supreme Authority Who does what He wills and no one can ask Him about His actions, while they will be asked (about their actions by Him). This is because Allah has perfect knowledge, wisdom and kindness with His creation. Allah said:

(And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Knower.) meaning, His favor is encompassing and He grants His mercy to whom He wills. He also knows those who deserve to be kings and those who do not deserve it.

(248. And their Prophet said to them: “Verily! The sign of His kingdom is that there shall come to you At-Tabut, wherein is Sakinah (peace and reassurance) from your Lord and a remnant of that which Musa (Moses) and Harun (Aaron) left behind, carried by the angels. Verily, in this is a sign for you if you are indeed believers.)

Their Prophet then proclaimed, “The sign of the blessings of Talut’s kingship over you is that Allah will give you back the Tabut (wooden box) that has been taken from you.” Allah said:

(wherein is Sakinah from your Lord) meaning, peace (or grace) and reassurance. `Abdur-Razzaq stated that Qatadah said:

(wherein is Sakinah) means grace. In addition, Ar-Rabi` said that Sakinah means mercy. This is also the meaning given by Ibn `Abbas, as Al-`Awfi narrated.

Allah then said:

(…and a remnant of that which Musa (Moses) and Harun (Aaron) left behind,)

Ibn Jarir related that Ibn `Abbas said about this Ayah:

(…and a remnant of that which Musa (Moses) and Harun (Aaron) left behind, ) Meaning, Moses’ staff and the remnants of the Tablets. This is the same Tafsir of Qatadah, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and `Ikrimah, who added, “And also the Torah.” `Abdur-Razzaq said that he asked Ath-Thawri about the meaning of,

(…and a remnant of that which Musa (Moses) and Harun (Aaron) left behind,)

Ath-Thawri said, “Some said that it contained a pot of manna and the remnants of the Tablets, while some others said that it contained (Moses’) staff and two shoes (and refer to 20:12).”

Allah then said:

(…carried by the angels.)

Ibn Jurayj stated that Ibn `Abbas said, “The angels came down while carrying the Tabut between the sky and the earth, until they placed it before Talut while the people were watching.” As-Suddi said, “The Tabut was brought to Talut’s house, so the people believed in the prophethood of Sham`un (Simeon) and obeyed Talut”

The Prophet then said:

(Verily, in this is a sign for you) testifying to my truth in what I was sent with, my prophethood, and my command to you to obey Talut,

(if you are indeed believers. ) in Allah and the Hereafter.”

(249. Then when Talut set out with the army, he said: “Verily, Allah will try you by a river. So whoever drinks thereof, he is not of me; and whoever tastes it not, he is of me, except him who takes (thereof) in the hollow of his hand.” Yet, they drank thereof, all, except a few of them. So when he had crossed it (the river), he and those who believed with him, they said: “We have no power this day against Jalut (Goliath) and his hosts.” But those who knew with certainty that they were going to meet Allah, said: “How often has a small group overcome a mighty host by Allah’s leave” And Allah is with As-Sabirin (the patient).)

Allah states that Talut, the king of the Children of Israel, marched forth with his soldiers and the Israelites who obeyed him. His army was of eighty thousand then, according to As-Suddi, but Allah knows best. Talut said:

(Verily, Allah will try you) meaning, He will test you with a river, which flowed between Jordan and Palestine, i.e. , the Shari`ah river, according to Ibn `Abbas and others. He continued,

(So whoever drinks thereof, he is not of me;) meaning, shall not accompany me today,

(and whoever tastes it not, he is of me, except him who takes (thereof) in the hollow of his hand.) meaning, there is no harm in this case. Allah then said:

(Yet, they drank thereof, all, except a few of them.)

Ibn Jurayj stated that Ibn `Abbas commented, “Whoever took some of it (the river’s water) in the hollow of his hand, quenched his thirst; as for those who drank freely from it, their thirst was not quenched.”

Ibn Jarir reported that Al-Bara’ bin `Azib said, “We used to say that the Companions of Muhammad who accompanied him on the battle of Badr were more than three hundred and ten, just as many as the soldiers who crossed the river with Talut. Only those who believed crossed the river with him.” Al-Bukhari also reported this.

This is why Allah said:

(So when he had crossed it (the river), he and those who believed with him, they said: “We have no power this day against Jalut (Goliath) and his hosts.”)

This Ayah indicates that the Israelites (who remained with Saul) thought that they were few in the face of their enemy who were many then. So, their knowledgeable scholars strengthened their resolve by stating that Allah’s promise is true and that triumph comes from Allah Alone, not from the large numbers or the adequacy of the supplies. They said to them:

(“How often has a small group overcome a mighty host by Allah’s leave” And Allah is with As-Sabirin (the patient).)

(250. And when they advanced to meet Jalut (Goliath) and his forces, they invoked: “Our Lord! Pour forth on us patience, and set firm our feet and make us victorious over the disbelieving people.”) (251. So they routed them by Allah’s leave and Dawud (David) killed Jalut (Goliath), and Allah gave him (Dawud) the kingdom ﴿after the death of Talut and Samuel﴾ and Al-Hikmah (prophethood), and taught him of that which He willed. And if Allah did not check one set of people by means of another, the earth would indeed be full of mischief. But Allah is full of bounty to the `Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all that exists).) (252. These are the verses of Allah, We recite them to you (O Muhammad ) in truth, and surely, you are one of the Messengers (of Allah.)

When the faithful party, who were few under the command of Talut, faced their enemy, who were many under the command of Jalut,

(they invoked: “Our Lord! Pour forth on us patience…”) meaning, send down patience on us from You.

(and set firm our feet) meaning, against the enemy and save us from running away and from feebleness,

(and make us victorious over the disbelieving people.)

Allah said:

(So they routed them by Allah’s leave) meaning, they defeated and overwhelmed them by Allah’s aid and support. Then,

(and Dawud killed Jalut)

Israelite accounts claimed that (Prophet) David killed Goliath with a slingshot that he had, which he launched at Goliath causing his death.

Talut promised that whoever killed Jalut, would marry his daughter and would share his kingship and authority. He kept his promise. Later, the kingship was transferred to Prophet Dawud in addition to being granted Prophethood by Allah. So, Allah said:

(…and Allah gave him (Dawud) the kingdom) that Talut had and,

(and Al-Hikmah) that comes with the prophethood, meaning, after Shamwil. ﴿Allah then said:﴾

(and taught him of that which He willed.) meaning, what He willed of the knowledge that He bestowed on (Prophet) Dawud.

Next, Allah said:

(And if Allah did not check one set of people by means of another, the earth would indeed be full of mischief.)

This Ayah indicates that if it were not for the fact that Allah checks one set of people with another, such as when Talut and the bravery of Dawud helped the Children of Israel (against Goliath), then people would have perished. Similarly, Allah said:

(For had it not been that Allah checks one set of people by means of another, monasteries, churches, synagogues, and Masjids, wherein the Name of Allah is mentioned much, would surely, have been pulled down.) (22:40)

Allah then said:

(But Allah is full of bounty to the `Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all that exists)) meaning, by His mercy and favor He fixes some of them by some others. Surely, Allah has the wisdom, the supreme authority and the clear proof against His creation in all of His actions and statements.

Allah said:

(These are the verses of Allah, We recite them to you (O Muhammad ) in truth, and surely, you are one of the Messengers (of Allah).)

This Ayah states, `These Ayat (verses) of Allah that We have narrated for you in truth conform to the exact manner that these stories have occurred and to the truth that still remain in the (Divine) Books that the scholars of the Children of Israel have and know. Allah said: O Muhammad,

(you are)

(one of the Messengers (of Allah)) emphatically stating the truth of his prophet hood

Israel is Prophet Ya`qub (Jacob) : Tafseer Ibn Katheer

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer from SuratAl BaqaraIsrael is Prophet Ya`qub, for Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded that `Abdullah Ibn `Abbas said, “A group of Jews came to the Prophet and he said to them,(Do you know that Israel is Jacob) They said, “Yes, by Allah.” He said,

(O Allah! Be witness.)”

At-Tabari recorded that `Abdullah Ibn `Abbas said that `Israel’ means, `the servant of Allah.’

The Jews Say That Allah’s Hand is Tied up! : Tafseer Ibn Katheer

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) – Al-Ma’idah surah 5© Darussalam 2000

(64. The Jews say: “Allah’s Hand is tied up.” Be their hands tied up and be they accursed for what they uttered. Nay, both His Hands are widely outstretched. He spends as He wills. Verily, the revelation that has come to you from your Lord makes many of them increase in rebellion and disbelief. We have put enmity and hatred among them till the Day of Resurrection. Every time they kindled the fire of war, Allah extinguished it; and they (ever) strive to make mischief on the earth. And Allah does not like the mischief-makers.)

(65. And if only the People of the Scripture had believed and had Taqwa, We would indeed have expiated for them their sins and admitted them to Gardens of pleasure (in Paradise).)

(66. And if only they had acted according to the Tawrah, the Injil, and what has (now) been sent down to them from their Lord (the Qur’an), they would surely have gotten provision from above them and from underneath their feet. And among them is a Muqtasid Ummah, but for most of them; evil is their work.)

Allah states that the Jews, may Allah’s continuous curses descend on them until the Day of Resurrection, describe Him as a miser. Allah is far holier than what they attribute to Him. The Jews also claim that Allah is poor, while they are rich. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah’s statement,

(The Jews say, “Allah’s Hand is tied up.”) “They do not mean that Allah’s Hand is literally tied up. Rather, they mean that He is a miser and does not spend from what He has. Allah is far holier than what they attribute to Him.” Similar was reported from Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ad-Dahhak. Allah said in another Ayah,

(And let not your hand be tied (like a miser) to your neck, nor stretch it forth to its utmost reach (like a spendthrift), so that you become blameworthy and in severe poverty.) In this Ayah, Allah prohibits stinginess and extravagance, which includes unnecessary and improper expenditures. Allah describes stinginess by saying,

(And let not your hand be tied (like a miser) to your neck. ) Therefore, this is the meaning that the Jews meant, may Allah’s curses be on them. `Ikrimah said that this Ayah was revealed about Finhas, one of the Jews, may Allah curse him. We mentioned before that Finhas said,

(“Truly, Allah is poor and we are rich!”) and that Abu Bakr smacked him. Allah has refuted what the Jews attribute to Him and cursed them in retaliation for their lies and fabrications about Him. Allah said,

(Be their hands tied up and be they accursed for what they uttered.) What Allah said occurred, for the Jews are indeed miserly, envious, cowards and tremendously humiliated. Allah said in other Ayat,

(Or have they a share in the dominion Then in that case they would not give mankind even a Naqir. Or do they envy men for what Allah has given them of His bounty Then, We had already given the family of Ibrahim the Book and the Hikmah, and conferred upon them a great kingdom.) and, n

(Indignity is put over them.)

Allah’s Hands are Widely Outstretched

Allah said next,

(Nay, both His Hands are widely outstretched. He spends (of His bounty) as He wills.) Allah’s favors are ample, His bounty unlimited, as He owns the treasures of everything. Any good that reaches His servants is from Him alone, without partners. He has created everything that we need by night or by day, while traveling or at home and in all situations and conditions. Allah said,

(And He gave you of all that you asked for, and if you count the blessings of Allah, never will you be able to count them. Verily, man is indeed an extreme wrongdoer, an extreme ingrate.) There are many other Ayat on this subject. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal said that `Abdur-Razzaq narrated to him that Ma`mar said that Hammam bin Munabbih said, “This is what Abu Hurayrah narrated to us that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Allah’s Right Hand is perfectly full, and no amount of spending can decrease what He has, even though He spends by night and by day. Do you see how much Allah has spent since He created the heavens and earth Yet surely it has not decreased what He has in His Right Hand. His Throne is over the water and in His Other Hand is the hold by which He raises and lowers.) He also said, قُولُ اللهُ تَعَالى:

(Allah said, `Spend and I will spend on you.’)” This Hadith was recorded in the Two Sahihs.

The Jews hope They will only remain in the Fire for a Few Days : Tafseer Ibn Katheer

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer from SuratAl Baqara

(2.80. And they (Jews) say, “The Fire shall not touch us but for a few numbered days.” Say (O Muhammad to them): “Have you taken a covenant from Allah, so that Allah will not break His covenant Or is it that you say of Allah what you know not”)

Allah mentioned the claim of the Jews, that the Fire will only touch them for a few days, and then they will be saved from it. Allah refuted this claim by saying,

(Say (O Muhammad to them): “Have you taken a covenant from Allah’). Hence, the Ayah proclaims, `if you had a promise from Allah for that, then Allah will never break His promise. However, such promise never existed. Rather, what you say, about Allah, you have no knowledge of and you thus utter a lie about Him.’ Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said about the Ayah,

(And they (Jews) say, “The Fire shall not touch us but for a few numbered days.”). “The Jews said, `The Fire will only touch us for forty days.”’ Others added that this was the period during which the Jews worshipped the calf.

Also, Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah reported Abu Hurayrah saying,

(When Khaybar was conquered, a roasted poisoned sheep was presented to the Prophet as a gift (by the Jews). The Messenger of Allah ordered, `Assemble before me all the Jews who were here.’ The Jews were summoned and the Prophet said (to them), `Who is your father’ They replied, `So-and-so.’ He said, `You have lied; your father is so-and-so.’ They said, `You have uttered the truth.’ He said, `Will you now tell me the truth, if I ask you about something’ They replied, `Yes, O Abul-Qasim; and if we should tell a lie, you will know our lie as you have about our fathers.’ On that he asked, `Who are the people of the (Hell) Fire’ They said, `We shall remain in the (Hell) Fire for a short period, and after that you will replace us in it.’ The Prophet said, `May you be cursed and humiliated in it! By Allah, we shall never replace you in it.’ Then he asked, `Will you tell me the truth if I ask you a question’ They said, `Yes, O Abul-Qasim.’ He asked, `Have you poisoned this sheep’ They said, `Yes.’ He asked, `What made you do so’ They said, `We wanted to know if you were a liar, in which case we would get rid of you, and if you were a Prophet then the poison would not harm you.’) Imam Ahmad, Al-Bukhari and An-Nasa’i recorded similarly.

The Questions that the Jews Asked Our Prophet and Enmity of Jews towards Jibril

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer (Dar-us-salam), Surah Ale-Imran , after the verses 93 to 95

(93. All food was lawful to the Children of Israel, except what Isra’il made unlawful for himself before the Tawrah was revealed. Say: “Bring here the Tawrah and recite it, if you are truthful. ”) (94. Then after that, whosoever shall invent a lie against Allah, then it is these that are the wrongdoers.) (95. Say:”Allah has spoken the truth; follow the religion of Ibrahim the Hanif (monotheist), and he was not of the Mushrikin (idolators).”)

The Questions that the Jews Asked Our Prophet

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “A group of Jews came to Allah’s Prophet and said, `Talk to us about some things we will ask you and which only a Prophet would know.’ He said, `Ask me about whatever you wish. However, give your pledge to Allah, similar to the pledge that Ya`qub took from his children, that if I tell you something and you recognize its truth, you will follow me in Islam.’ They said, `Agreed.’ The Prophet said, `Ask me about whatever you wish.’

They said, `Tell us about four matters:

1. What kinds of food did Isra’il prohibit for himself

2. What about the sexual discharge of the woman and the man, and what role does each play in producing male or female offspring

3. Tell us about the condition of the unlettered Prophet during sleep,

4. And who is his Wali (supporter) among the angels’

The Prophet took their covenant that they will follow him if he answers these questions, and they agreed.

He said, `I ask you by He Who sent down the Tawrah to Musa, do you not know that Isra’il once became very ill When his illness was prolonged, he vowed to Allah that if He cures His illness, he would prohibit the best types of drink and food for himself. Was not the best food to him camel meat and the best drink camel milk’ They said, `Yes, by Allah.’ The Messenger said, `O Allah, be Witness against them.’

The Prophet then said, `I ask you by Allah, other than Whom there is no deity (worthy of worship), Who sent down the Tawrah to Musa, do you not know that man’s discharge is thick and white and woman’s is yellow and thin If any of these fluids becomes dominant, the offspring will take its sex and resemblance by Allah’s leave. Hence, if the man’s is more than the woman’s, the child will be male, by Allah’s leave. If the woman’s discharge is more than the man’s, then the child will be female, by Allah’s leave.’ They said, `Yes.’ He said, `O Allah, be Witness against them.’

He then said, `I ask you by He Who sent down the Tawrah to Musa, do you not know that the eyes of this unlettered Prophet sleep, but his heart does not sleep’ They said, `Yes, by Allah!’ He said, `O Allah, be Witness.’

They said, `Tell us now about your Wali among the angels, for this is when we either follow or shun you.’ He said, `My Wali (who brings down the revelation from Allah) is Jibril, and Allah never sent a Prophet, but Jibril is his Wali.’ They said, `We then shun you. Had you a Wali other than Jibril, we would have followed you.’ On that, Allah, the Exalted revealed,

(Say: “Whoever is an enemy to Jibril…”) ﴿2:97﴾.”

Allah’s statement,

(before the Tawrah was revealed) ﴿3:93﴾, means, Isra’il forbade that for himself before the Tawrah was revealed. There are two objectives behind revealing this segment of the Ayah. First, he forbade himself the most delightful things for Allah’s sake. This practice was allowed during his period of Law, and is, thus, suitable that it is mentioned after Allah’s statement,

(By no means shall you attain Al-Birr, unless you spend of that which you love) ﴿3: 92﴾.

What we are allowed in our Law is to spend in Allah’s obedience from what we like and covet ﴿but not to prohibit what Allah has allowed﴾. Allah said in other Ayat;

(And gives his wealth, in spite of love for it,) ﴿2:177﴾, and;

(And they give food, in spite of their love for it,) ﴿76:8﴾.

The second reason is that after Allah refuted the false Christian beliefs and allegations about `Isa and his mother. Allah started refuting the Jews here, may Allah curse them, by stating that the abrogation of the Law, that they denied occurs, already occurred in their Law. For instance, Allah has stated in their Book, the Tawrah, that when Nuh departed from the ark, Allah allowed him to eat the meat of all types of animals. Afterwards, Isra’il forbade the meat and milk of camels for himself, and his children imitated this practice after him. The Tawrah later on prohibited this type of food, and added several more types of prohibitions. Allah allowed Adam to marry his daughters to his sons, and this practice was later forbidden. The Law of Ibrahim allowed the man to take female servants as companions along with his wife, as Ibrahim did when he took Hajar, while he was married to Sarah. Later on, the Tawrah prohibited this practice. It was previously allowed to take two sisters as wives at the same time, as Ya`qub married two sisters at the same time. Later on, this practice was prohibited in the Tawrah. All these examples are in the Tawrah and constitute a Naskh (abrogation) of the Law. Therefore, let the Jews consider what Allah legislated for `Isa and if such legislation falls under the category of abrogation or not. Why do they not then follow `Isa in this regard Rather, the Jews defied and rebelled against `Isa and against the correct religion that Allah sent Muhammad with.

This is why Allah said,

(All food was lawful to the Children of Israel, except what Isra’il made unlawful for himself before the Tawrah was revealed) ﴿3:93﴾ meaning, before the Tawrah was revealed, all types of foods were allowed, except what Isra’il prohibited for himself. Allah then said,

(Say: “Bring here the Tawrah and recite it, if you are truthful.”),

for the Tawrah affirms what we are stating here. Allah said next,

(Then after that, whosoever shall invent a lie against Allah, then these it is that are the wrongdoers.) ﴿3:94﴾, in reference to those who lie about Allah and claim that He made the Sabbath and the Tawrah eternal. They are those who claim that Allah did not send another Prophet calling to Allah with the proofs and evidences, although evidence indicates that abrogation, as we have described, occurred before in the Tawrah,

(then these it is that are the wrongdoers.)

Allah then said,

(Say, “Allah has spoken the truth;”) ﴿3:95﴾ meaning, O Muhammad, say that Allah has said the truth in what He conveyed and legislated in the Qur’an,

(follow the religion of Ibrahim the Hanif, and he was not of the idolators.”) ﴿3:95﴾.

Therefore, follow the religion of Ibrahim that Allah legislated in the Qur’an. Indeed, this is the truth, there is no doubt in it, and the perfect way, and no Prophet has brought a more complete, clear, plain and perfect way than he did. Allah said in other Ayat,

(Say: “Truly, my Lord has guided me to a straight path, a right religion, the religion of Ibrahim, the Hanif, and he was not of the idolators.”) ﴿6:161﴾

and,

(Then, We have sent the revelation to you (saying): “Follow the religion of Ibrahim, the Hanif, and he was not of the idolaters.) ﴿16:123﴾.

The Jews are the Enemies of Jibril

(Al Baqara 2.97). Say (O Muhammad ): “Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur’an) down to your heart by Allah’s permission, confirming what came before it (i.e. the Tawrah and the Injil) and guidance and glad tidings for the believers).

(98. “Whoever is an enemy to Allah, His Angels, His Messengers, Jibril and Mika’il, then verily, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.”)

The Jews are the Enemies of Jibril

Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir At-Tabari said, “The scholars of Tafsir agree that this Ayah (2: 97-98) was revealed in response to the Jews who claimed that Jibril (Gabriel) is an enemy of the Jews and that Mika’il (Michael) is their friend.” Al-Bukhari said, “Allah said,

(Whoever is an enemy of Jibril (let him die in his fury)). `Ikrimah said, “Jibr, Mik and Israf all mean, worshipper, while il means, Allah”. Anas bin Malik said, “When `Abdullah bin Salam heard of the arrival of the Prophet in Al-Madinah, he was working on his land. He came to the Prophet and said, `I am going to ask you about three things which nobody knows except a Prophet. What will be the first portent of the Hour What will be the first meal taken by the people of Paradise Why does a child resemble its father, and why does it resemble its maternal uncle’ Allah’s Messenger said, (Jibril has just told me the answers.) `Abdullah said, `He (i.e. Jibril), among all the angels, is the enemy of the Jews.’ Allah’s Messenger recited the Ayah,

(Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur’an) down to your heart). Allah’s Messenger then said, (The first portent of the Hour will be a fire that will bring together the people from the east to the west; the first meal of the people of Paradise will be the caudate lobe of the liver of fish. As for the child resembling his parents: If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife and his discharge is first, the child will resemble the father. If the woman has a discharge first, the child will resemble her side of the family.) On that `Abdullah bin Salam said, `I testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and you are the Messenger of Allah.’ `Abdullah bin Salam further said, `O Allah’s Messenger! The Jews are liars, and if they should come to know about my conversion to Islam before you ask them (about me), they will tell a lie about me.’ The Jews came to Allah’s Messenger , and `Abdullah went inside the house. Allah’s Messenger asked (the Jews), (`What kind of man is `Abdullah bin Salam’) They replied, `He is the best among us, the son of the best among us, our master and the son of our master.’ Allah’s Messenger said, (What do you think if he would embrace Islam) The Jews said, `May Allah save him from it.’ Then `Abdullah bin Salam came out in front of them saying, `I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.’ Thereupon they said, `He is the evilest among us, and the son of the evilest among us.’ And they continued talking badly about him. Ibn Salam said, `This is what I feared, O Messenger of Allah!.”’ Only Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith with this chain of narration. Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded this Hadith from Anas using another chain of narration.

Some people say that `il’ means worshipper while whatever word that is added to it becomes Allah’s Name, because `il’ is a constant in such conjunction. This is similar to the names `Abdullah, `Abdur-Rahman, `Abdul-Malik, `Abdul-Quddus, `Abdus-Salam, `Abdul-Kafi, `Abdul-Jalil, and so forth. Hence, `Abd’ is constant in these compound names, while the remainder differs from name to name. This is the same case with Jibril, Mika’il, `Azra’il, Israfil, and so forth. Allah knows best.

Choosing Some Angels to believe in over Others is Disbelief like choosing Some Prophets over Others

Allah said,

(Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur’an) down to your heart by Allah’s permission,) meaning, whoever becomes an enemy of Jibril, let him know that he is Ruh Al-Qudus who brought down the Glorious Dhikr (Qur’an) to your heart from Allah by His leave. Hence, he is a messenger from Allah. Whoever takes a messenger as an enemy, will have taken all the messengers as enemies. Further, whoever believes in one messenger, is required to believe in all of the messengers. Whoever rejects one messenger, he has rejected all of the messengers. Similarly, Allah said,

(Verily, those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers and wish to make distinction between Allah and His Messengers (by believing in Allah and disbelieving in His Messengers) saying, “We believe in some but reject others.”) (4:150)

Allah decreed that they are disbelievers, because they believe in some Prophets and reject others. This is the same with those who take Jibril as an enemy, because Jibril did not choose missions on his own, but by the command of his Lord,

(And we (angels) descend not except by the command of your Lord) (19: 64), and,

(And truly, this (the Qur’an) is a revelation from the Lord of all that exists. Which the trustworthy Ruh (Jibril) has brought down. Upon your heart (O Muhammad ) that you may be (one) of the warners) (26:192-194).

Al-Bukhari reported that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Allah said, `Whoever takes a friend of Mine as an enemy, will have started a war with Me.)

Therefore, Allah became angry with those who took Jibril as an enemy. Allah said,

(Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur’an) down to your heart by Allah’s permission, confirming what came before it) meaning, the previous Books,

(and guidance and glad tidings for the believers) meaning, as guidance to their hearts and bringer of the good news of Paradise, which is exclusively for the believers. Similarly, Allah said,

(Say: “It is for those who believe, a guide and a healing.”) (41:44), and,

(And We send down of the Qur’an that which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe) (17:82).

Allah then said,

(Whoever is an enemy to Allah, His Angels, His Messengers, Jibril and Mika’il (Michael), then verily, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.)

Allah stated that whoever takes Him, His angels and messengers as enemies, then…Allah’s messengers include angels and men, for Allah said,

(Allah chooses Messengers from angels and from men) (22:75). Allah said,

(Jibril (Gabriel) and Mika’il (Michael)). Allah mentioned Jibril and Mika’il specifically – although they are included among the angels who were messengers – only because this Ayah was meant to support Jibril the emissary between Allah and His Prophets. Allah also mentioned Mika’il here, because the Jews claimed that Jibril was their enemy and Mika’il was their friend. Allah informed them that whoever is an enemy of either of them, then he is also an enemy of the other as well as Allah. We should state here that Mika’il sometimes descended to some of Allah’s Prophets, although to a lesser extent than Jibril, because this was primarily Jibril’s task, and Israfil is entrusted with the job of blowing the Trumpet for the commencement of Resurrection on the Day of Judgment. It is recorded in the Sahih that whenever the Messenger of Allah would wake up at night, he would supplicate,

(O Allah, Lord of Jibril, Mika’il and Israfil, Creator of the heavens and earth and Knower of the seen and the unseen! You judge between Your servants regarding what they differ in, so direct me to the truth which they differ on, by Your leave. Verily, You guide whom You will to the straight path.)

Allah’s statement,

(then verily, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers) informed the disbelievers that whoever takes a friend of Allah as an enemy, then he has taken Allah as an enemy, and whoever treats Allah as an enemy, then he shall be Allah’s enemy. Indeed, whoever is an enemy of Allah then he will lose in this life and the Hereafter, as stated earlier;

(Whoever takes a friend of Mine as an enemy, I shall wage war on him.)

Refuting the People of the Book’s Claim that they are Allah’s Children : Tafseer Ibn Katheer

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer

Allah then refutes the Christians’ and Jews’ false claims and lies,

(And the Jews and the Christians say, “We are the children of Allah and His loved ones.”) They claim: “We are the followers of Allah’s Prophets, who are His children, whom He takes care of. He also loves us.” The People of the Book claim in their Book that Allah said to His servant Isra’il, “You are my firstborn.” But they explained this statement in an improper manner and altered its meaning. Some of the People of the Book who later became Muslims refuted this false statement saying, “This statement only indicates honor and respect, as is common in their speech at that time.” The Christians claim that `Isa said to them, “I will go back to my father and your father,” meaning, my Lord and your Lord. It is a fact that the Christians did not claim that they too are Allah’s sons as they claimed about `Isa. Rather this statement by `Isa only meant to indicate a closeness with Allah. This is why when they said that they are Allah’s children and loved ones, Allah refuted their claim,

(Say, “Why then does He punish you for your sins”) meaning, if you were truly as you claim, Allah’s children and loved ones, then why did He prepare the Fire because of your disbelief, lies and false claims

(Nay, you are but human beings, of those He has created,) Allah states: you are just like the rest of the children of Adam, and Allah is the Lord of all His creation,

(He forgives whom He wills and punishes whom He wills.) Allah does what He wills, there is none who can escape His judgement, and He is swift in reckoning.

(And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them;) Therefore, everything is Allah’s property and under His power and control,

(and to Him is the return.) In the end, the return will be to Allah and He will judge between His servants as He will, and He is the Most Just Who is never wrong in His judgment.

The Jews Alter and Change the Law, Such As Stoning the Adulterer : Tafseer ibn katheer

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer : Al-Ma’idah surah 5

(They change the words from their places:) by altering their meanings and knowingly distorting them after they comprehended them,

(they say, “If you are given this, take it, but if you are not given this, then beware!”) It was reported that this part of the Ayah was revealed about some Jews who committed murder and who said to each other, “Let us ask Muhammad to judge between us, and if he decides that we pay the Diyah, accept his judgement. If he decides on capital punishment, do not accept his judgement.” The correct opinion is that this Ayah was revealed about the two Jews who committed adultery. The Jews changed the law they had in their Book from Allah on the matter of punishment for adultery, from stoning to death, to a hundred flogs and making the offenders ride a donkey facing the back of the donkey. When this incident of adultery occurred after the Hijrah, they said to each other, “Let us go to Muhammad and seek his judgement. If he gives a ruling of flogging, then implement his decision and make it a proof for you with Allah. This way, one of Allah’s Prophets will have upheld this ruling amongst you. But if he decides that the punishment should be stoning to death, then do not accept his decision.” There are several Hadiths mentioning this story. Malik reported that Nafi` said that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, “The Jews came to Allah’s Messenger and mentioned that a man and a woman from them committed adultery. Allah’s Messenger said to them,

(What do find of the ruling about stoning in the Tawrah) They said, `We only find that they should be exposed and flogged.’ `Abdullah bin Salam said, `You lie. The Tawrah mentions stoning, so bring the Tawrah.’ They brought the Tawrah and opened it but one of them hid the verse about stoning with his hand and recited what is before and after that verse. `Abdullah bin Salam said to him, `Remove your hand,’ and he removed it, thus uncovering the verse about stoning. So they said, He (`Abdullah bin Salam) has said the truth, O Muhammad! It is the verse about stoning.’ The Messenger of Allah decided that the adulterers be stoned to death and his command was carried out. I saw that man shading the woman from the stones with his body.” Al-Bukhari and Muslim also collected this Hadith and this is the wording collected by Al-Bukhari. In another narration by Al-Bukhari, the Prophet said to the Jews,

(What would you do in this case) They said, “We would humiliate and expose them.” The Prophet recited,

(Bring here the Tawrah and recite it, if you are truthful.) So they brought a man who was blind in one eye and who was respected among them and said to him, “Read (from the Tawrah).” So he read until he reached a certain verse and then covered it with his hand. He was told, “Remove your hand,” and it was the verse about stoning. So that man said, “O Muhammad! This is the verse about stoning, and we had hid its knowledge among us.” So the Messenger ordered that the two adulterers be stoned, and they were stoned. Muslim recorded that a Jewish man and a Jewish woman were brought before Allah’s Messenger because they committed adultery. The Messenger of Allah went to the Jews and asked them,

(What is the ruling that you find in the Tawrah for adultery) hThey said, “We expose them, carry them (on donkeys) backwards and parade them in public.” The Prophet recited;

(Bring here the Tawrah and recite it, if you are truthful.) So they brought the Tawrah and read from it until the reader reached the verse about stoning. Then he placed his hand on that verse and read what was before and after it. `Abdullah bin Salam, who was with the Messenger of Allah , said, “Order him to remove his hand,” and he removed his hand and under it was the verse about stoning. So the Messenger of Allah commanded that the adulterers be stoned, and they were stoned. `Abdullah bin `Umar said, “I was among those who stoned them and I saw the man shading the woman from the stones with his body.” Abu Dawud recorded that Ibn `Umar said, “Some Jews came to the Messenger of Allah and invited him to go to the Quff area. So he went to the house of Al-Midras and they said, `O Abu Al-Qasim! A man from us committed adultery with a woman, so decide on their matter.’ They arranged a pillow for the Messenger of Allah and he sat on it and said,

(Bring the Tawrah to me.) He was brought the Tawrah and he removed the pillow from under him and placed the Tawrah on it, saying,

(I trust you and He Who revealed it to you.) He then said,

(Bring me your most knowledgeable person.) So he was brought a young man… ” and then he mentioned the rest of the story that Malik narrated from Nafi`. These Hadiths state that the Messenger of Allah issued a decision that conforms with the ruling in the Tawrah, not to honor the Jews in what they believe in, for the Jews were commanded to follow the Law of Muhammad only. Rather, the Prophet did this because Allah commanded him to do so. He asked them about the ruling of stoning in the Tawrah to make them admit to what the Tawrah contains and what they collaborated to hide, deny and exclude from implementing for all that time. They had to admit to what they did, although they did it while having knowledge of the correct ruling. What made them go to the Prophet for judgement in this matter was their lusts and desires, hoping that the Prophet would agree with their opinion, not that they believed in the correctness of his judgment. This is why they said,

(If you are given this,) referring to flogging, then take it,

(but if you are not given this, then beware!) and do not accept or implement it. Allah said next,

(And whomsoever Allah wants to put in Fitnah, you can do nothing for him against Allah. Those are the ones whose hearts Allah does not want to purify; for them there is a disgrace in this world, and in the Hereafter a great torment. They (like to) listen to falsehood, to devour Suht) `Suht’ refers to bribes, as Ibn Mas`ud and others stated. The Ayah states that if one is like this, how can Allah cleanse his heart and accept his supplication Allah said to His Prophet ,

(So if they come to you…) so that you judge between them,

(either judge between them, or turn away from them. If you turn away from them, they cannot hurt you in the least.) meaning, there is no harm if you do not judge between them. This is because when they came to you to judge between them, they did not seek to follow the truth, but only what conformed to their lusts. We should mention here that Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Zayd bin Aslam, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani, and several others said that this part of the Ayah was abrogated by Allah’s statement,

(And so judge among them by what Allah has revealed.)

(And if you judge, judge with justice between them.) and with fairness, even if the Jews were unjust and outcasts from the path of fairness,

(Verily, Allah loves those who act justly.)

Allah censures the Jews and Christians for their dispute with Muslims over Ibrahim Al-Khalil : Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Source : Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged)
Ale Imraan Verses 3.65 and 3.67 © Darussalam 2000

(65. O people of the Scripture! Why do you dispute about Ibrahim, while the Tawrah and the Injil were not revealed till after him Have you then no sense) (66. Verily, you are those who have disputed about that of which you have knowledge. Why do you then dispute concerning that of which you have no knowledge It is Allah Who knows, and you know not.) (67. Ibrahim was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifa and he was not of the Mushrikin ) (68. Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Ibrahim are those who followed him, and this Prophet and those who have believed. And Allah is the Wali (Protector and Helper) of the believers.)

Allah censures the Jews and Christians for their dispute with Muslims over Ibrahim Al-Khalil and the claim each group made that he was one of them. Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “The Christians of Najran and Jewish rabbis gathered before the Messenger of Allah and disputed in front of him. The rabbis said, `Ibrahim was certainly Jewish.’ The Christians said, `Certainly, Ibrahim was Christian.’ So Allah sent down,

(O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Why do you dispute about Ibrahim,) meaning, `How is it that you, Jews, claim that Ibrahim was Jew, although he lived before Allah sent down the Tawrah to Musa How is it that you, Christians, claim that Ibrahim was Christian, although Christianity came after his time” This is why Allah said,

(Have you then no sense)

Allah then said,

(Verily, you are those who have disputed about that of which you have knowledge. Why do you then dispute concerning that of which you have no knowledge)

This Ayah criticizes those who argue and dispute without knowledge, just as the Jews and Christians did concerning Ibrahim. Had they disputed about their religions, which they had knowledge of, and about the Law that was legislated for them until Muhammad was sent, it would have been better for them. Rather, they disputed about what they had no knowledge of, so Allah criticized them for this behavior. Allah commanded them to refer what they have no knowledge of to He Who knows the seen and unseen matters and Who knows the true reality of all things. This is why Allah said,

(It is Allah Who knows, and you know not.)

Allah said,

(Ibrahim was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifa), shunning Shirk and living in Iman,

(and he was not of the Mushrikin.)

This Ayah is similar to the Ayah in Surat Al-Baqarah,

(And they say, “Be Jews or Christians, then you will be guided…”) 2:135

Allah said next,

(Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Ibrahim are those who followed him, and this Prophet and those who have believed. And Allah is the Wali (Protector and Helper) of the believers.)

This Ayah means, “The people who have the most right to be followers of Ibrahim are those who followed his religion and this Prophet, Muhammad , and his Companions from the Muhajirin, Ansar and those who followed their lead.” Sa`id bin Mansur recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Every Prophet had a Wali (supporter, best friend) from among the Prophets. My Wali among them is my father Ibrahim, the Khalil (intimate friend) of my Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored)

The Prophet then recited,

(Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Ibrahim are those who followed him…)

Allah’s statement,

(And Allah is the Wali (Protector and Helper) of the believers.) means, Allah is the Protector of all those who believe in His Messengers.

The Evil of the Jews : Evil Secret Councils and Evil Greetings : Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer . From 58 Surah Al Mujadlah

Ibn Abi Najih reported from Mujahid,

(Have you not seen those who were forbidden to hold secret counsels, and afterwards returned to that which they had been forbidden,) He said, “The Jews.” Similar was said by Muqatil bin Hayyan, who added, “The Prophet had a peace treaty with the Jews. When one of the Prophet’s Companions would pass by a gathering of Jews, they would speak among themselves in secret, prompting the believer to think that they were plotting to kill or harm him. When the believer saw this, he feared for his safety and changed the route he was taking. The Prophet advised them to abandon their evil secret talks, but they did not listen and kept on holding the Najwa. Allah the Exalted sent down this Ayah in their case,

(Have you not seen those who were forbidden to hold secret counsels, and afterwards returned to that which they had been forbidden).” Allah’s statement,

(and conspired together for sin and wrongdoing and disobedience to the Messenger.) means, they used to talk to each other,

(for sin) which involves themselves,

(and wrongdoing) which effects others. They speak about disobedience and defying of the Messenger , with persistence and recommending each other to follow their way,

(And when they come to you, they greet you with a greeting wherewith Allah greets you not,) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `A’ishah said, “Some Jews came to the Prophet and greeted him by saying, `As-Sam `Alayka, O Abul-Qasim.’ So I said to them, `wa `Alaykum As-Sam (the same death be upon you).’ The Prophet said,

(O `A’ishah, Allah does not like rudeness and foul speech.) I said, `Didn’t you hear them say, `As-Sam Alayka’ He said,

(Didn’t you hear me answering them back by saying, `Wa `Alaykum (And the same upon you)’) Allah the Exalted then sent down this Ayah,

(And when they come to you, they greet you with a greeting wherewith Allah greets you not,)” The narration collected in the Sahih states that `A’ishah said, “And be upon you the death, disgrace and curse.” The Messenger of Allah said to her,

(Allah accepts our supplication against them, but not theirs against us.) Ibn Jarir recorded that Anas bin Malik said, “A Jew passed by Allah’s Messenger , who was sitting with his Companions, he greeted them and they greeted him back. Allah’s Messenger then said to his Companions,

(Do you know what he just said) They said, `He said: As-Salam, O Allah’s Messenger.’ The Prophet said,

(Rather he said, Sam `Alaykum.) meaning, `may you disgrace your religion.’ Allah’s Messenger then said,

(Bring him back,) and when he was brought back, the Prophet asked him,

(Did you say: Sam `Alaykum) He said, `Yes.’ The Prophet then said,

(When the people of the Book greet you, say, `Wa `Alaykum.’)” meaning, `and the same on you too.’ The basis for the Hadith of Anas is in the Sahih and similar to this Hadith of `A’ishah is in the Sahih. Allah said,

(and say within themselves:”Why should Allah punish us not for what we say”) means, the Jews say these words, changing the meaning of the Islamic greeting, into an abusive statement, and then say, `Had he been a Prophet, Allah would have punished us for what we said. Allah knows what we conceal. Therefore, if Muhammad were a Prophet, Allah would have sent His punishment on us sooner, in this life.’ Allah the Exalted replied,

(Hell will be sufficient for them;) ell should be sufficient for them in the Hereafter,

(they will enter therein. And worst indeed is that destination!) Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr said that the Jews used to say, “Sam `Alayka,” to Allah’s Messenger . They would say then within themselves, “Why does Allah not punish us for what we say” This Ayah was later revealed,

(And when they come to you, they greet you with a greeting wherewith Allah greets you not, and say within themselves: “Why should Allah punish us not for what we say” Hell will be sufficient for them; they will enter therein. And worst indeed is that destination!) Its chain of narration is Hasan, but they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not collect it.

Manners of the Najwa, (Secret Counsel)

Allah the Exalted teaches His believing servants to avoid the ways of the disbelievers and hypocrites,

(O you who believe! When you hold secret counsel, do it not for sin and wrongdoing, and disobedience to the Messenger,) meaning, do not hold evil secret counsels like the ignorant disbelieving People of the Scriptures and their allies among the hypocrites, who imitate their ways,

(but do it for Al-Birr and Taqwa; and have Taqwa of Allah unto Whom you shall be gathered.) and He will then inform you of all your deeds and statements; He has counted and recorded them and will justly hold you accountable for them. Allah the Exalted said,

(An-Najwa are only from the Shaytan, in order that he may cause grief to the believers. But he cannot harm them in the least, except as Allah permits. And in Allah let the believers put their trust.) Allah states that secret talks, where the believers feel anxious, are

(only from Shaytan, in order that he may cause grief to the believers.) meaning, that those who hold such counsels do so because of the lures of the devil,

(in order that he may cause grief to the believers.) The devil seeks to bother the believers, even though his plots will not harm the believers, except if Allah wills it. Those who are the subject of evil Najwa, should seek refuge in Allah and put his trust in Him, for none of it will harm them, Allah willing. The Sunnah also forbids the Najwa so that no Muslim is bothered by it. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(If you were three, then two of you should not hold a secret counsel in the presence of the third person, because that would cause him to be worried.) This Hadith is collected in the Two Sahihs using a chain of narration that contained Al-A`mash. `Abdur-Razzaq narrated that `Abdullah bin `Umar said that Allah’s Messenger said,

(If you were three, then two of you should not hold a secret counsel in the presence of the third person, except with his permission, because that would cause him to be worried.) Muslim collected this Hadith.

The Evil Accusation the Jews Uttered Against Maryam & Their Claim that They Killed Isa : Tafseer ibn Katheer

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) – Al-Nisa surah 4 © Darussalam 2000

Allah said,

(And because of their (Jews) disbelief and uttering against Maryam a grave false charge.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas stated that the Jews accused Maryam of fornication.This is also the saying of As-Suddi, Juwaybir, Muhammad bin Ishaq and several others. This meaning is also apparent in the Ayah, as the Jews accused Maryam and her son of grave accusations: They accused her of fornication and claimed that `Isa was an illegitimate son. Some of them even claimed that she was menstruating while fornicating. May Allah’s continued curse be upon them until the Day of Resurrection. The Jews also said,

(“We killed Al-Masih, `Isa, son of Maryam, the Messenger of Allah,”) meaning, we killed the person who claimed to be the Messenger of Allah. The Jews only uttered these words in jest and mockery, just as the polytheists said,

(O you to whom the Dhikr (the Qur’an) has been sent down! Verily, you are a mad man!) When Allah sent `Isa with proofs and guidance, the Jews, may Allah’s curses, anger, torment and punishment be upon them, envied him because of his prophethood and obvious miracles; curing the blind and leprous and bringing the dead back to life, by Allah’s leave. He also used to make the shape of a bird from clay and blow in it, and it became a bird by Allah’s leave and flew. `Isa performed other miracles that Allah honored him with, yet the Jews defied and bellied him and tried their best to harm him. Allah’s Prophet `Isa could not live in any one city for long and he had to travel often with his mother, peace be upon them. Even so, the Jews were not satisfied, and they went to the king of Damascus at that time, a Greek polytheist who worshipped the stars. They told him that there was a man in Bayt Al-Maqdis misguiding and dividing the people in Jerusalem and stirring unrest among the king’s subjects. The king became angry and wrote to his deputy in Jerusalem to arrest the rebel leader, stop him from causing unrest, crucify him and make him wear a crown of thorns. When the king’s deputy in Jerusalem received these orders, he went with some Jews to the house that `Isa was residing in, and he was then with twelve, thirteen or seventeen of his companions. That day was a Friday, in the evening. They surrounded `Isa in the house, and when he felt that they would soon enter the house or that he would sooner or later have to leave it, he said to his companions, “Who volunteers to be made to look like me, for which he will be my companion in Paradise” A young man volunteered, but `Isa thought that he was too young. He asked the question a second and third time, each time the young man volunteering, prompting `Isa to say, “Well then, you will be that man.” Allah made the young man look exactly like `Isa, while a hole opened in the roof of the house, and `Isa was made to sleep and ascended to heaven while asleep. Allah said,

(And (remember) when Allah said: “O `Isa! I will take you and raise you to Myself.”) When `Isa ascended, those who were in the house came out. When those surrounding the house saw the man who looked like `Isa, they thought that he was `Isa. So they took him at night, crucified him and placed a crown of thorns on his head. The Jews then boasted that they killed `Isa and some Christians accepted their false claim, due to their ignorance and lack of reason. As for those who were in the house with `Isa, they witnessed his ascension to heaven, while the rest thought that the Jews killed `Isa by crucifixion. They even said that Maryam sat under the corpse of the crucified man and cried, and they say that the dead man spoke to her. All this was a test from Allah for His servants out of His wisdom. Allah explained this matter in the Glorious Qur’an which He sent to His honorable Messenger, whom He supported with miracles and clear, unequivocal evidence. Allah is the Most Truthful, and He is the Lord of the worlds Who knows the secrets, what the hearts conceal, the hidden matters in heaven and earth, what has occurred, what will occur, and what would occur if it was decreed. He said,

(but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but it appeared as that to them,) referring to the person whom the Jews thought was `Isa. This is why Allah said afterwards,

(and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no (certain) knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture.) referring to the Jews who claimed to kill `Isa and the ignorant Christians who believed them. Indeed they are all in confusion, misguidance and bewilderment. This is why Allah said,

(For surely; they killed him not.) meaning they are not sure that `Isa was the one whom they killed. Rather, they are in doubt and confusion over this matter.

(But Allah raised him up unto Himself. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful,) meaning, He is the Almighty, and He is never weak, nor will those who seek refuge in Him ever be subjected to disgrace,

(All-Wise.) in all that He decides and ordains for His creatures. Indeed, Allah’s is the clearest wisdom, unequivocal proof and the most glorious authority. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Just before Allah raised `Isa to the heavens, `Isa went to his companions, who were twelve inside the house. When he arrived, his hair was dripping water and he said, `There are those among you who will disbelieve in me twelve times after he had believed in me.’ He then asked, `Who volunteers that his image appear as mine, and be killed in my place. He will be with me (in Paradise)’ One of the youngest ones among them volunteered and `Isa asked him to sit down. `Isa again asked for a volunteer, and the young man kept volunteering and `Isa asking him to sit down. Then the young man volunteered again and `Isa said, `You will be that man,’ and the resemblance of `Isa was cast over that man while `Isa ascended to heaven from a hole in the house.

When the Jews came looking for `Isa, they found that young man and crucified him. Some of `Isa’s followers disbelieved in him twelve times after they had believed in him. They then divided into three groups. One group, Al-Ya`qubiyyah (Jacobites), said, `Allah remained with us as long as He willed and then ascended to heaven.’ Another group, An-Nasturiyyah (Nestorians), said, `The son of Allah was with us as long as he willed and Allah took him to heaven.’ Another group, Muslims, said, `The servant and Messenger of Allah remained with us as long as Allah willed, and Allah then took him to Him.’ The two disbelieving groups cooperated against the Muslim group and they killed them. Ever since that happened, Islam was then veiled until Allah sent Muhammad .” This statement has an authentic chain of narration leading to Ibn `Abbas, and An-Nasa’i narrated it through Abu Kurayb who reported it from Abu Mu`awiyah. Many among the Salaf stated that `Isa asked if someone would volunteer for his appearance to be cast over him, and that he will be killed instead of `Isa, for which he would be his companion in Paradise.

Expulsion of Jewish Tribe Bani An-Nadir from Mandina : Tafseer Ibn Katheer

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer. From Surah A Hashr

The End that Bani An-Nadir suffered

Allah said,

(He it is Who drove out the disbelievers among the People of the Scripture) referring to the Jewish tribe of Bani An-Nadir, according to Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Az-Zuhri and several others. When the Messenger of Allah migrated to Al-Madinah, he made a peace treaty with the Jews stipulating that he would not fight them and they would not fight him. They soon betrayed the treaty that they made with Allah’s Messenger . Therefore, Allah sent His torment down on them; it can never be averted, and His appointed destiny touched them; it can never be resisted.

The Prophet forced them to evacuate and abandon their fortified forts that Muslims did not think they would ever control. The Jews thought that their fortifications will save them from Allah’s torment, but they did not help them against Allah in the least. Then, that which they did not expect came to them from Allah, and Allah’s Messenger forced them to leave Al-Madinah. Some of them went to Adhri`at in the area of Ash-Sham, which is the area of the grand Gathering and Resurrection, while others went to Khaybar. The Prophet allowed them to evacuate their forts and take whatever their camels could carry. They destroyed the property that they could not carry. This is why Allah the Exalted said, (they demolished their own dwellings with their own hands and the hands of the believers Then take admonition, O you with eyes.) meaning, “Contemplate the end of those who defied Allah’s command, contradicted His Messenger and denied His Book. See how Allah’s humiliating torment struck them in this life, as well as, the painful torment that Allah has reserved for them in the Hereafter.”

Abu Dawud recorded that `Abdur-Rahman bin Ka`b bin Malik said that one of the Prophet’s Companions said, “The Quraysh idolators wrote to `Abdullah bin Ubayy and those who were still worshipping idols among the tribes of Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj. The Messenger of Allah was in Al-Madinah at the time, before the battle of Badr occurred. They wrote: `You have given refuge to our citizen. We swear by Allah, you should fight him, or we will expel you or gather all our forces, until we kill your soldiers and take your women captive.’ When the news of this threat reached `Abdullah bin Ubayy and the idolators of Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj, they prepared to fight the Prophet . The news of this reached the Prophet and he went to them saying,

(The threat of the Quraysh has caused you extreme anxiety! The Quraysh cannot cause you more harm than what you will cause yourselves by your actions. Do you want to fight your children and brethren) When they heard these words from the Prophet , they dis- persed and the news of what happened reached the Quraysh idolators. After the battle of Badr, the Quraysh idolators wrote to the Jews of Al-Madinah, `You have armor and forts! You should fight our citizen or we will do such and such to you, and nothing will prevent us from acquiring your women.’The news of this letter also reached the Prophet and Bani An-Nadir intended to betray their treaty. Bani An-Nadir sent a message to the Prophet asking him to come with thirty of his Companions to meet thirty of their rabbis half way, from either side. They said that the rabbis would listen to the Prophet and if they believe in him, the rest of Bani An-Nadir would believe. They intended to kill the Messenger , and Allah informed His Messenger of this plot before they could harm him. The next day, the Prophet gathered his forces and laid siege to their area, saying to them,

(By Allah ! You will not be safe until and unless you renew your peace treaty with me.) They refused to do so, and the Prophet fought them the rest of that day. The next morning, the Prophet laid siege to the tribe of Bani Qurayzah and left Bani An-Nadir alone that day. The Prophet ordered Bani Qurayzah to sign a new treaty of peace, and they accepted. The Prophet left Bani Qurayzah and went back to Bani An-Nadir with his forces and fought them until they agreed to surrender in return for safe passage out of Al-Madinah. Bani An-Nadir evacuated Al-Madinah and took with them all whatever their camels could carry from their furniture, including even the wood and the doors to their houses. The date trees of Bani An-Nadir were granted to the Messenger by Allah when He said,

(And what Allah gave as booty to His Messenger from them — for this you made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry) that is, what you earned without a fight. The Prophet divided most of their trees between the emigrants and gave to only two men who were poor from Al-Ansar. He did not give the Ansar any of it, except for these two men. The Prophet kept a part of the war booty for himself and that part of charity of the Prophet was transferred to the administration of his daughter’s children, i.e., children of Fatimah.” However, let us summarize the battle of Bani An-Nadir here. From Allah alone we seek help.

The Reason behind the Battle of Bani An-Nadir

After the seventy Companions whom the Prophet sent to teach the Qur’an were killed at the area of Bi’r Ma`unah, excluding `Amr bin Umayyah Ad-Damri, who killed two men from the tribe of Bani `Amir on his way back to Al-Madinah. He did not know that these two men had a promise of safe passage from Allah’s Messenger . When he went back to Al-Madinah, he told the Prophet what happened and the Prophet said,

(You have killed two men, I shall pay the blood money for them.) Bani An-Nadir and Bani `Amir were allies and had treaties. The Prophet asked Bani An-Nadir to help pay the blood money for the two dead men. The area of Bani An-Nadir was in a suburb of Al-Madinah, a few miles to the east. In his book of Sirah, Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar said; “Then the Messenger of Allah went to Bani An-Nadir to ask them for financial help to pay the blood money of the two men from Bani `Amir, who were killed by `Amr bin Umayyah Ad-Damri. They had a promise of safe passage from the Prophet according to the (subnarrator) Yazid bin Ruman. Bani An-Nadir and Bani `Amir had a treaty and were allies.

When Allah’s Messenger went to Bani An-Nadir asking them for help to pay the blood money for the two men, they said, `Yes, O Abu Al-Qasim! We will help you, since you asked us for help.’ Yet, when they met each other in secret, they said, `You will not find a better chance with this man than this,’ while the Messenger of Allah was sitting next to a wall of one of their houses. They said, `Who will ascend this wall and drop a stone on this man and rid us of his trouble’ `Amr bin Jihash bin Ka`b volunteered and ascended the wall of the house to drop a stone on the Messenger .

The Messenger of Allah was sitting with several of his Companions, such as Abu Bakr, `Umar and `Ali. The news of this plot was conveyed to the Prophet from heaven, and he stood up and went back to Al-Madinah. When the Companions thought that the Messenger was absent for a long time, they went to see where he was and saw a man coming from Al-Madinah. They asked him, and he said that he saw the Prophet enter Al-Madinah. The Messenger’s Companions went to him, and he told them the news of the betraying plot that the Jews planned against him. He ordered them to prepare for war and to march forth to Bani An-Nadir.

The Prophet gathered his forces and marched to the area of Bani An-Nadir, who had taken refuge in their fortified forts. The Messenger ordered their date trees be cut down and burned. The Jews heralded at the Prophet, `O Muhammad! You used to forbid mischief in the earth and blame those who did it. Why is it that you had the date trees cut down and burned’ Meanwhile, `Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul, Wadi`ah, Malik bin Abi Qawqal, Suwayd, Da`is and several other men who all belonged to the tribe of Al-Khazraj bin Bani `Awf, sent a message to Bani An-Nadir saying, `Be firm and strong. We will never abandon you. If you are fought against, we will fight along with you and if you are forced to leave Al-Madinah, we will accompany you.’ The Jews waited for this claim of support, but the hypocrites did not deliver. Allah cast terror in the hearts of the Jews. They asked the Messenger to allow them safe passage out of Al-Madinah and to spare their lives. In return, they would only take what their camels could carry, except for weapons. The Prophet agreed.

The Jews collected all the wealth their camels could transport. One of the Jews would demolish his own house around its door, so that he could carry the door on the back of his camel. Bani An-Nadir moved to Khaybar, and some of them went to Ash-Sham. They left all that remained behind for the Messenger of Allah , who had control over how it was to be divided.

The Prophet divided it between the emigrants and none of Al-Ansar got a share, except for Sahl bin Hunayf and Abu Dujanah Simak bin Kharashah. They said that they were poor and the Messenger of Allah gave them their share. Only two men from Bani An-Nadir embraced Islam, Yamin bin Umayr bin Ka`b bin `Amr bin Jihash and Abu Sa`d bin Wahb and they saved their wealth due to their acceptance of Islam.” Ibn Ishaq continued, “Some of the offspring of Yamin narrated to me that the Messenger of Allah said to Yamin,

(Have you not heard what your cousin plotted to do against me) Yamin bin `Umayr promised someone a reward if he killed his cousin `Amr bin Jihash, and someone killed him, according to their claim” Ibn Ishaq then said, “All of Surat Al-Hashr was revealed about Bani An-Nadir. ” A similar story was recorded by Yunus bin Bukayr from Ibn Ishaq. Allah’s statement,

(He it is Who drove out the disbelievers among the People of the Scripture) refers to Bani An-Nadir,

(from their homes at the first gathering.) Allah said,

(You did not think that they would get out.) i.e., within the few days you laid siege against them. The Companions had surrounded their forts for only six days, and their forts were fortified and formidable. This is why Allah the Exalted said,

(And they thought that their fortresses would defend them from Allah! But Allah reached them from a place where they expected it not.) meaning, there came to them from Allah what they did not expect or anticipate. Allah said in another Ayah,

(Those before them indeed plotted, but Allah struck at the foundation of their building, and then the roof fell down upon them, from above them, and the torment overtook them from directions they did not perceive.)(16:26) Allah said,

(and He cast terror into their hearts) means, Allah cast fear, terror and fright in their hearts, and why would that not happen to them He who was given victory, by Allah frightening his enemies the distance of a month, laid siege to them. May Allah’s peace and blessings be on the Prophet. As in Ibn Ishaq’s explanation — which preceded;

(that they demolished their own dwellings with their own hands and the hands of the believers.) the Jews brought down what they wanted to transport from their roofs and doors, so that they could carry them on camels. Similar was said by `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam and several others. Allah’s statement,

(And had it not been that Allah had decreed exile for them, He would certainly have punished them in this world;) meaning, if it was not for the fact that Allah had already decreed that they would evacuate Al-Madinah, leaving behind their homes and wealth, He would have sent another type of punishment upon them, such as being killed and captured. This was said by Az-Zuhri. `Urwah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd said that Allah decreed that the Jews would be punished in the life of this world and face the torment of the fire of Hell He prepared for them in the Hereafter. Allah said,

(and in the Hereafter theirs shall be the torment of the Fire.) meaning, it is a matter ordained that they will surely face,

(That is because they opposed Allah and His Messenger.) means, Allah prepared this specific punishment and sent His Messenger and his Companions against them, because they defied Allah and His Messenger and denied the good news that Allah sent forth in the Books of previous Messengers regarding the coming of Muhammad . The Jews knew these facts about Muhammad just as they knew their own children. Allah said,

(And whosoever opposes Allah, then verily, Allah is Severe in punishment.)

The Prophet Cut down the Date Trees of the Jews by the Leave of Allah

Allah said,

(What you cut down of the Linah, or you left them standing on their stems, it was by leave of Allah, and in order that He might disgrace the rebellious.) Linah is an especially good type of date tree. Abu `Ubaydah said that Linah is a different kind of dates than `Ajwah and Barni. Several others said that Linah refers to every type of date fruits, except for the `Ajwah (ripen dates), while Ibn Jarir said that it refers to all kinds of date trees. Ibn Jarir quoted Mujahid saying that it also includes the Buwayrah type. When the Messenger of Allah laid siege to Bani An-Nadir, to humiliate them and bring fear and terror to their hearts, he ordered their date trees to be cut down. Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Yazid bin Ruman, Qatadah and Muqatil bin Hayyan said, “Bani An-Nadir sent a message to the Messenger , saying that he used to outlaw mischief in the earth, so why did he order that their trees be cut down Allah sent down this honorable Ayah stating that whatever Linah was felled or left intact by the Muslims, has been done by His permission, will, leave and pleasure to humiliate and disgrace the enemy and degrade them.” Mujahid said, “Some of the emigrants discouraged others from chopping down the date trees of Jews, saying that they were war spoils for Muslims. The Qur’an approved of the actions of those who discouraged and those who approved of cutting these trees, stating that those who cut them or did not, did so only by Allah’s leave.” There is also a Hadith narrated from the Prophet with this meaning. An-Nasa’i recorded that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah’s statement,

(What you cut down of the Linah, or you left them standing on their stems, it was by leave of Allah, and in order that He might disgrace the rebellious.) “They forced them to come down from their forts and were ordered to cut their trees cut down. So the Muslims hesitated, and some of them said, `We cut down some and left some. We must ask Allah’s Messenger if we will earn a reward for what we cut and if we will be burdened for what we left intact.’ Allah sent down this Ayah, t

(What you cut down of the Linah, or you left them standing on their stems, it was by leave of Allah).” Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah ordered that the date trees of Bani An-Nadir be cut down and burned. The Two Sahihs collected a similar narration. Al-Bukhari recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said,”Bani An-Nadir and Bani Qurayzah fought (against the Prophet ), and the Prophet exiled Bani An-Nadir and allowed Bani Qurayzah to remain in their area until later, when the Prophet fought against Qurayzah. Their men were executed and their women, children and wealth were confiscated and divided among Muslims. Some of them, however, were saved because they returned to the Prophet’s side, who granted them asylum, and they embraced Islam. All of the Jews of Al-Madinah, Bani Qaynuqa`, the tribe of `Abdullah bin Salam, Bani Harithah and the rest of the Jewish tribes in Al-Madinah were exiled.” The Two Sahihs also recorded from Ibn `Umar that the Messenger of Allah burned down the date trees of Bani An-Nadir and had them cut down the date palms of Al-Buwayrah. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored revealed this Ayah,

(What you cut down of the Linah, or you left them standing on their stems, it was by leave of Allah, and in order that He might disgrace the rebellious.)” Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that the battle of Bani An-Nadir occurred after the battles of Uhud and Bi’r Ma`unah.

The Jews had Knowledge that the (Muslim) Qiblah would later be changed : Tafseer Ibn Katheer

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer

Imam Al-Bukhari reported that Al-Bara’ bin `Azib narrated: “Allah’s Messenger offered his prayers facing Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem) for sixteen or seventeen months, but he wished that he could pray facing the Ka`bah (at Makkah). The first prayer which he offered (facing the Ka`bah) was the `Asr (Afternoon) prayer in the company of some people. Then one of those who had offered that prayer with him, went out and passed by some people in a mosque who were in the bowing position (in Ruku`) during their prayers (facing Jerusalem). He addressed them saying, `By Allah, I bear witness that I have offered prayer with the Prophet facing Makkah (Ka`bah).’ Hearing that, those people immediately changed their direction towards the House (Ka`bah) while still as they were (i.e., in the same bowing position). Some Muslims who offered prayer towards the previous Qiblah (Jerusalem) before it was changed towards the House (the Ka`bah in Makkah) had died or had been martyred, and we did not know what to say about them (regarding their prayers towards Jerusalem). Allah then revealed:

(And Allah would never make your faith (prayers) to be lost (i.e., the prayers of those Muslims were valid)) (2:143).”

Al-Bukhari collected this narration, while Muslim collected it using another chain of narrators. Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Al-Bara’ narrated: Allah’s Messenger used to offer prayers towards Bayt Al-Maqdis (in Jerusalem), but would keep looking at the sky awaiting Allah’s command (to change the Qiblah). Then Allah revealed:

(Verily, We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad’s) face towards the heaven. Surely, We shall turn you to a Qiblah (prayer direction) that shall please you, so turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah).) (2:144)

A man from among the Muslims then said, “We wish we could know about those among us who died before the Qiblah was changed (i.e., towards Makkah) and also about our own prayers, that we had performed towards Bayt Al-Maqdis.” Allah then revealed:

(And Allah would never make your faith (prayers) to be lost.) (2:143)

The fools among the people, meaning the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), said, “What made them change the former Qiblah that they used to face” Allah then revealed:

(The fools (idolators, hypocrites, and Jews) among the people will say…)

until the end of the Ayah.

`Ali bin Abu Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas said: When Allah’s Messenger migrated to Al-Madinah, Allah commanded him to face Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem). The Jews were delighted then. Allah’s Messenger faced Jerusalem for over ten months. However, he liked (to offer prayer in the direction of) Prophet Ibrahim’s Qiblah (the Ka`bah in Makkah) and used to supplicate to Allah and kept looking up to the sky (awaiting Allah’s command in this regard). Allah then revealed:

(turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction.) meaning, its direction. The Jews did not like this change and said, “What made them change the Qiblah that they used to face (meaning Jerusalem)” Allah revealed:

(Say (O Muhammad ): “To Allah belong both, east and the west. He guides whom He wills to the straight way.”)

There are several other Ahadith on this subject. In summary, Allah’s Messenger was commanded to face Bayt Al-Maqdis (during the prayer) and he used to offer prayer towards it in Makkah between the two corners (of Ka`bah), so that the Ka`bah would be between him and Bayt Al-Maqdis8. When the Prophet migrated to Al-Madinah, this practice was no longer possible; then Allah commanded him to offer prayer towards Bayt Al-Maqdis, as Ibn Abbas and the majority of the scholars have stated.

Al-Bukhari reported in his Sahih that the news (of the change of Qiblah) was conveyed to some of the Ansar while they were performing the `Asr (Afternoon) prayer towards Bayt Al-Maqdis, upon hearing that, they immediately changed their direction and faced the Ka`bah.

It is reported in the Sahihayn (Al-Bukhari Muslim) that Ibn `Umar narrated: While the people were in Quba’ (Mosque) performing the Fajr (Dawn) prayer, a man came and said, “A (part of the) Qur’an was revealed tonight to Allah’s Messenger and he was commanded to face the Ka`bah. Therefore, face the Ka`bah. They were facing Ash-Sham, so they turned towards the Ka`bah.

These Hadiths prove that the Nasikh (a Text that abrogates a previous Text) only applies after one acquires knowledge of it, even if the Nasikh had already been revealed and announced. This is why the Companions mentioned above were not commanded to repeat the previous `Asr, Maghrib and `Isha’ prayers (although they had prayed them towards Jerusalem after Allah had changed the Qiblah). Allah knows best.

When the change of Qiblah (to Ka`bah in Makkah) occurred, those inflicted with hypocrisy and mistrust, and the disbelieving Jews, both were led astray from the right guidance and fell into confusion. They said:

(What has turned them (Muslims) from their Qiblah to which they used to face in prayer.)

They asked, “What is the matter with these people (Muslims) who one time face this direction (Jerusalem), and then face that direction (Makkah)” Allah answered their questions when He stated:

(Say (O Muhammad ): “To Allah belong both, east and the west.) meaning, the command, the decision and the authority are for Allah Alone. Hence:

(…so wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah (and He is High above, over His Throne).) (2:115),

and:

( It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is the one who believes in Allah.) (2:177) This statement means, the best act is to adhere to Allah’s commands. Hence, wherever He commands us to face, we should face. Also, since obedience requires implementing Allah’s commands, if He commands us every day to face different places, we are His servants and under His disposal, and we face whatever He orders us to face. Certainly, Allah’s care and kindness towards His servant and Messenger, Muhammad , and certainly, his Ummah (Muslim nation) is profoundly great. Allah has guided them to the Qiblah of (Prophet) Ibrahim — Allah’s Khalil (intimate friend). He has commanded them to face the Ka`bah, the most honorable house (of worship) on the face of the earth, which was built by Ibrahim Al-Khalil in the Name of Allah, the One without a partner. This is why Allah said afterwards:

(Say (O Muhammad ): “To Allah belong both, east and the west. He guides whom He wills to the straight way.”)

Imam Ahmad reported that `A’ishah (the Prophet’s wife) said that Allah’s Messenger said about the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians):

(They do not envy us for a matter more than they envy us for Jumu`ah (Friday) to which Allah has guided us and from which they were led astray; for the (true) Qiblah to which Allah has directed us and from which they were led astray; and for our saying `Amin’ behind the Imam (leader of the prayer).)

The Jews had Knowledge that the (Muslim) Qiblah would later be changed

Allah stated that:

(Certainly, the people who were given the Scripture (i.e., Jews and the Christians) know well that, that (your turning towards the direction of the Ka`bah at Makkah in prayers) is the truth from their Lord.)

This Ayah means: The Jews, who did not like that you change your Qiblah from Bayt Al-Maqdis, already knew that Allah will command you (O Muhammad) to face the Ka`bah. The Jews read in their Books their Prophets’ description of Allah’s Messenger and his Ummah, and that Allah has endowed and honored him with the complete and honorable legislation. Yet, the People of the Book deny these facts because of their envy, disbelief and rebellion. This is why Allah threatened them when He said:

(And Allah is not unaware of what they do.)

(145. And even if you were to bring to the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) all the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), they would not follow your Qiblah (prayer direction), nor are you going to follow their Qiblah. And they will not follow each other’s Qiblah. Verily, if you follow their desires after that which you have received of knowledge (from Allah), then indeed you will be one of the wrongdoers.)

Why was changing the Qiblah mentioned thrice

This is a third command from Allah to face Al-Masjid Al-Haram (the Sacred Mosque) from every part of the world (during prayer). It was said that Allah mentioned this ruling again here because it is connected to whatever is before and whatever is after it. Hence, Allah first said:

(Verily, We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad’s) face towards the heaven. Surely, We shall turn you to a Qiblah (prayer direction) that shall please you) (2:144), until:

(Certainly, the people who were given the Scripture (i.e., Jews and the Christians) know well that, that (your turning towards the direction of the Ka`bah at Makkah in prayers) is the truth from their Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what they do.) (2:144)

Allah mentioned in these Ayat His fulfillment of the Prophet’s wish and ordered him to face the Qiblah that he liked and is pleased with. In the second command, Allah said:

(And from wheresoever you start forth (for prayers), turn your face in the direction of Al-Masid Al-Haram that is indeed the truth from your Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what you do.)

Therefore, Allah states here that changing the Qiblah is also the truth from Him, thus upgrading the subject more than in the first Ayah, in which Allah agreed to what His Prophet had wished for. Thus Allah states that this is also the truth from Him that He likes and is pleased with. In the third command, Allah refutes the Jewish assertion that the Prophet faced their Qiblah, as they knew in their Books that the Prophet will later on be commanded to face the Qiblah of Ibrahim, the Ka`bah. The Arab disbelievers had no more argument concerning the Prophet’s Qiblah after Allah commanded the Prophet to face the Qiblah of Ibrahim, which is more respected and honored, rather than the Qiblah of the Jews. The Arabs used to honor the Ka`bah and liked the fact that the Messenger was commanded to face it.

The First Abrogation in the Qur’an was about the Qiblah

`Ali bin Abu Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas narrated: The first abrogated part in the Qur’an was about the Qiblah. When Allah’s Messenger migrated to Al-Madinah, the majority of its people were Jews, and Allah commanded him to face Bayt Al-Maqdis. The Jews were delighted then. Allah’s Messenger faced it for ten and some months, but he liked to face the Qiblah of Ibrahim (Ka`bah in Makkah). He used to supplicate to Allah and look up to the sky (awaiting Allah’s command). Allah then revealed:

(Verily, We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad’s) face towards the heaven), until,

(turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction.)

The Jews did not like this ruling and said:

(“What has turned them (Muslims) from their Qiblah (prayer direction) to which they used to face in prayer.” Say (O Muhammad), “To Allah belong both, east and the west.”) (2:142)

Allah said:

(. ..so wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of Allah) (2:115),

and:

(And We made the Qiblah (prayer direction towards Jerusalem) which you used to face, only to test those who followed the Messenger (Muhammad ) from those who would turn on their heels (i.e., disobey the Messenger).) (2:143)

The Wisdom behind abrogating the Previous Qiblah

Allah said:

(…so that men may have no argument against you)

Therefore, the People of the Book knew from the description of the Muslim Ummah that they would be ordered to face the Ka`bah. If the Muslims did not fit this description, the Jews would have used this fact against the Muslims. If the Muslims had remained on the Qiblah of Bayt Al-Maqdis, which was also the Qiblah of the Jews, this fact could have been used as the basis of argument by the Jews against other people.

Allah’s Statement:

(…except those of them that are wrongdoers,) indicates the Mushrikin (polytheists) of Quraysh. The reasoning of these unjust persons was the unsound statement: “This man (Muhammad) claims that he follows the religion of Ibrahim! Hence, if his facing Bayt Al-Maqdis was a part of the religion of Ibrahim, why did he change it” The answer to this question is that Allah has chosen His Prophet to face Bayt Al-Maqdis first for certain wisdom, and he obeyed Allah regarding this command. Then, Allah changed the Qiblah to the Qiblah of Ibrahim, which is the Ka`bah, and he also obeyed Allah in this command. He, obeys Allah in all cases and never engages in the defiance of Allah even for an instant, and his Ummah imitates him in this.

Allah said:

(. ..so fear them not, but fear Me!) meaning: `Do not fear the doubts that the unjust, stubborn persons raise and fear Me Alone.’ Indeed, Allah Alone deserves to be feared.

Allah said:

(…so that I may complete My blessings on you.)

This Ayah relates to Allah’s statement:

(…so that men may have no argument against you), meaning: I will perfect My bounty on you by legislating for you to face the Ka`bah, so that the (Islamic) Shari`ah (law) is complete in every respect. Allah said:

(…that you may be guided.), meaning: `To be directed and guided to what the nations have been led astray from, We have guided you to it and preferred you with it.’ This is why this Ummah is the best and most honored nation ever.

Confirmation That Judaism And Christianity Are Forms Of Disbelief : Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen

Question: One of the preachers in one of the mosques in Europe claimed that it is not allowed to consider Jews and Christians disbelievers. You know – may Allaah preserve you – that most of the people who attend the mosques in Europe have very little knowledge. We fear that statements like this one will become widespread. Therefore, we request from you a complete and clear answer to this question.

Answer: I say: The statement that came from that man is misguidance. In fact, it can be blasphemy. This is because Allaah has declared that Jews and Christians are disbelievers (kuffaar) in His Book. Allaah has said,

“And the Jews say, ‘Ezra is the son of Allaah,’ and the Christians say, ‘The Messiah is the son of Allaah.’ This is a saying from their mouths. They imitate the saying of the disbelievers of old. Allaah’s curse be on them, how they are deluded away from the truth. They took their rabbis and their monks as lords besides Allaah and [they also took as Lord] the Messiah, son of Mary. But they were commanded only to worship none but One God. Praise and Glory be to Him, [far above is He] from having the partners they associate with Him.” [at-Taubah 9:30-31]

That shows that they are polytheists who associate partners with Allaah. In other verses, Allaah has made it clear that they are disbelievers:

“Surely in disbelief are they who say that Allaah is the Messiah, son of Mary.” [al-Maidah 5:17 and 72]

“Surely, disbelievers are those who said, ‘Allaah is the third of the three [in a Trinity].” [al-Maidah 5:73]

“Those among the Children of Israel who disbelieved were cursed by the tongue of David and Jesus, son of Mary.” [al-Maidah 5:87]

“Those who disbelieve among the People of the Book and the idolaters will abide in the Fire of Hell.” [al-Bayyinah 98:6]

Many verses and hadith express the same meaning. The one who rejects the idea that the Jews and the Christians who do not believe in Muhammad [peace be upon him] and deny him are disbelievers is, in fact, denying what Allaah has said. Denying what Allaah has said is blasphemy. If anyone has any doubt concerning them being disbelievers, then he himself is also a disbeliever.

Glory be to Allaah!

How could that man be pleased to say that it is not allowed to say that they are disbelievers when they themselves say that Allaah is one of a Trinity? Their Creator Himself has declared that they are disbelievers.

How could this man not be pleased to call them disbelievers when they actually say, “Jesus is the son of God” or “the hand of Allaah is tied,” and “Allaah is poor and we are rich”?

How could this man not be pleased to call them disbelievers and apply the word of disbelief (kufr) to them in general when they describe their Lord in such ways that are nothing but cursing and abusing Allaah?

I call upon that man to repent to Allaah and to read Allaah’s words, “They wish that you should compromise (in religion out of courtesy) with them, so that they (too) would compromise with you.” [al-Qalam (68):9]

He should make it clear to everyone that they are disbelievers and that they are the inhabitants of the Hell-fire. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said,

“By the One in whose hand my soul is, no Jew or Christian of this community hears about me – that is from the community of people from the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him) until the Day of Judgment – and then does not follow me – or he said does not believe in what I brought – except that he is from the inhabitants of the Hell-fire.” [Saheeh Muslim]

The one who made such a statement must repent to his Lord because of this great falsehood he has stated. He must make a clear announcement that they are disbelievers and that they are inhabitants of the Hell-fire. He must also announce that it is obligatory upon them to follow the unlettered Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). he is the one that the Jews and the Christians know and they know him like they know their own sons. Allaah has stated,

“Those who follow the Messenger, the illiterate Prophet whom they find written about with them in the Torah and the Gospel, he commands what is right and forbids what is evil. He allows them the good things and forbids for them disdainful things. He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the fetters that were upon them. So those who believe in him, honor him, help him, and follow the light which has been sent down with him, it is they who will be successful.” [al-Araf 7:157]

He is the one of whom Jesus, son of Mary (peace be upon him) gave glad tidings. Jesus said, as His Lord states in the Quran,

“O Israel, I am the Messenger of Allaah for you confirming the Torah (which came) before me, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name is Ahmad [one of the names of the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him]. But when he came to them with clear proofs, they said, ‘This is clear magic.’” [as-Saff 61:6]

When the one, Ahmad, who was promised came to them with clear signs, they said that it was nothing but magic. By this, we can refute those Christians who say that the one Jesus promised was named Ahmad and not Muhammad. We say to that that Allaah said, “When he came with clear proofs,” and none has come to you after Jesus except Muhammad (peace be upon him). Muhammad is Ahmad and Allaah inspired Jesus to call Muhammad Ahmad. This is because Ahmad is a name from the root meaning, “to praise,” and the name itself means, “One who praises Allaah more than others.” Therefore, [Muhammad (peace be upon him)] is the most praiseworthy of Allaah among all peoples…

I further say: If anyone claims that there is a religion on earth other than Islam that is acceptable to Allaah, then the person who made that claim is a disbeliever and there is no doubt about his disbelief. This is because Allaah has said in His Book, “Whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted from him and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers.” [ali-Imran 3:85]. Allaah has also said, “Truly, the religion in the sight of Allaah is Islam” [ali-Imran 3:19]. Another verse states, “This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion” [al-Maida 5:3]

Based on that – and I repeat it for a third time – the person who made that statement [mentioned in the question] must repent to Allaah, Most High. And he must also make it clear to all the people that those Jews and Christians are disbelievers. This is so because the proof has been established against them, they have received the message but they have refused to believe.

The Jews have been described as those who have earned Allaah’s wrath. That is because they knew the truth and chose to go against it. The Christians have been described as those who have gone astray. This is because they sought the truth but were misled from it. Now, all of them have knowledge of the truth and recognize it. However, they go against it. Therefore, they all deserve to have the wrath of Allaah upon them. I call all those Jews and Christians to believe in Allaah and all of His Messengers. I call upon them to follow the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). This is what they have been ordered to do in their own books. Allaah states in the Quran,

“My Mercy embraces all things. That (Mercy) I shall ordain for those who are God-fearing and give zakat, and those who believe in Our revelations. Those who follow the Messenger, the illiterate Prophet whom they find written about with them in the Torah and the Gospel, he commands what is right and forbids what is evil. He allows them the good things and forbids for them disdainful things. He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the fetters that were upon them. So those who believe in him, honor him, help him, and follow the light which has been sent down with him, it is they who will be successful. Say (O Muhammad): O Mankind! Verily, I am sent to all of you as the Messenger of Allaah, to whom belongs the heavens and the earth. There is no true God but He. It is He who gives life and causes death. So believe in Allaah and His Messenger, the unlettered, who believes in Allaah and His Words. And follow him so that you may be guided.” [al-Araf 7:156-158].

[By having such faith, those converts from Judaism and Christianity] shall receive their reward twice. The Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) said, “There are three people who will receive their rewards twice: A person from the People of the Book [Jews and Christians] who believed in his prophet and believed in Muhammad…” [al-Bukhari and Muslim].

I have also found in the law book al-Iqna`, in the section on apostasy, where the author has stated,

“One who does not consider as a disbeliever one who follows a religion other than Islam, such as the Christians, or who has doubt about their disbelief or who approves of their way himself is a disbeliever.”

And he quotes Ibn Taimiya as saying,

“[The following is] a disbeliever:

Whoever believes that churches are the houses of Allaah in which he He is worshipped or who thinks that what the Jews and Christians do are valid acts of worship of Allaah and obedience to Him and His Messenger, or loves or approves of what they do, or aids them in having such places and establishing their religion, and he does so thinking that is a way of getting closer to Allaah or worshipping Allaah.”

He also stated,

“If someone believes that visiting the Jews and the Christians in their places of worship is an act that brings him closer to Allaah, then he is an apostate.”

These statements support what was stated in the text of the answer. This is a matter concerning which there is no room for doubt. And help is sought only with Allaah.

This question was responded by Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen, Fatawa Islamiya, vol. 1, p. 87, Darussalam publishers

The Jews breach the Sanctity of the Sabbath : Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) – Al Baqarah surah 2 © Darussalam 2000

The Prescription of the Sabbath for the Jews

There is no doubt that for every nation, Allah prescribed one day of the week for people to gather to worship Him. For this Ummah He prescribed Friday, because it is the sixth day, on which Allah completed and perfected His creation. On this day He gathered and completed His blessings for His servants. It was said that Allah prescribed this day for the Children of Israel through His Prophet Musa, but they changed it and chose Saturday because it was the day on which the Creator did not create anything, as He had completed His creation on Friday. Allah made observance of the Sabbath obligatory for them in the laws of the Tawrah (Torah), telling them to keep the Sabbath. At the same time, He told them to follow Muhammad when he was sent, and took their promises and covenant to that effect. Hence Allah says:

(The Sabbath was only prescribed for those who differed concerning it,) Mujahid said: “They observed the Sabbath (Saturday) and ignored Friday.” Then they continued to observe Saturday until Allah sent `Isa bin Maryam. It was said that he told them to change it to Sunday, and it was also said that he did not forsake the laws of the Tawrah except for a few rulings which were abrogated, and he continued to observe the Sabbath until he was taken up (into heaven). Afterwards, the Christians at the time of Constantine were the ones who changed it to Sunday in order to be different from the Jews, and they started to pray towards the east instead of facing the Dome (i.e., Jerusalem). And Allah knows best. It was reported in the Two Sahihs that Abu Hurayrah heard the Messenger of Allah say:

(We are the last, but we will be the first on the Day of Resurrection, even though they were given the Book before us. This is the day that Allah obligated upon them, but they differed concerning it. Allah guided us to this day, and the people observe their days after us, the Jews on the following day and the Christians on the day after that.) This version was recorded by Al-Bukhari. It was reported that Abu Hurayrah and Hudhayfah said that the Messenger of Allah said:

(Allah let the people who came before us stray from Friday, so the Jews had Saturday and the Christians had Sunday. Then Allah brought us and guided us to Friday. So now there are Friday, Saturday and Sunday, thus they will follow us on the Day of Resurrection. We are the last of the people of this world, but will be the first on the Day of Resurrection, and will be the first to be judged, before all of creation.) It was reported by Muslim.

The Jews breach the Sanctity of the Sabbath

(2.65. And indeed you knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday). We said to them: “Be you monkeys, despised and rejected.”) (66. So We made this punishment an example for those in front of it and those behind it, and a lesson for Al-Muttaqin (the pious.)

Allah said,

(And indeed you knew). This Ayah means, O Jews! Remember that Allah sent His torment on the village that disobeyed Him and broke their pledge and their covenant to observe the sanctity of the Sabbath. They began using deceitful means to avoid honoring the Sabbath by placing nets, ropes and artificial pools of water for the purpose of fishing before the Sabbath. When the fish came in abundance on Saturday as usual, they were caught in the ropes and nets for the rest of Saturday. During the night, the Jews collected the fish after the Sabbath ended.

When they did that, Allah changed them from humans into monkeys, the animals having the form closest to humans. Their evil deeds and deceit appeared lawful on the surface, but they were in reality wicked. This is why their punishment was compatible with their crime. This story is explained in detail in Surat Al-A`raf, where Allah said (7:163),

(And ask them (O Muhammad ) about the town that was by the sea; when they transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday): when their fish came to them openly on the Sabbath day, and did not come to them on the day they had no Sabbath. Thus We made a trial of them, for they used to rebel (disobey Allah).)(7:163)

In his Tafsir, Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said,

(We said to them: “Be you monkeys, despised and rejected”) means, “Allah changed their bodies into those of monkeys and swines. The young people turned into monkeys while the old people turned into swine.” Shayban An-Nahwi reported that Qatadah commented on,

(We said to them: “Be you monkeys, despised and rejected”), “These people were turned into howling monkeys with tails, after being men and women.”

The Monkeys and Swine that exist now are not the Descendants of Those that were transformed

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Those who violated the sanctity of the Sabbath were turned into monkeys, then they perished without offspring.” Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, “Allah turned them into monkeys because of their sins. They only lived on the earth for three days, for no transformed person ever lives more than three days. They did not eat, drink or have offspring. Allah transformed their shapes into monkeys, and He does what He wills, with whom He wills and He changes the shape of whomever He wills. On the other hand, Allah created the monkeys, swines and the rest of the creation in the six days (of creation) that He mentioned in His Book.”

Allah’s statement,

(So We made this punishment an example) means, Allah made the people of this village, who violated the sanctity of the Sabbath,

(an example) via the way they were punished. Similarly, Allah said about Pharaoh,

(So Allah, seized him with punishing example for his last and first transgression) (79:25). nAllah’s statement,

(for those in front of it and those behind it) meaning, for the other villages. Ibn `Abbas commented, “Meaning, `We made this village an example for the villages around it by the manner in which We punished its people.”’ Similarly, Allah said,

(And indeed We have destroyed towns (populations) round about you, and We have (repeatedly) shown (them) the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in various ways that they might return (to the truth and believe in the Oneness of Allah ـ Islamic Monotheism)).(46:27)

Therefore, Allah made them an example for those who lived during their time as well as a reminder for those to come, by preserving their story. This is why Allah said,

(and a lesson for Al-Muttaqin (the pious)), meaning, a reminder. This Ayah means, “The torment and punishment that this village suffered was a result of indulging in Allah’s prohibitions and their deceit. Hence, those who have Taqwa should be aware of their evil behavior, so that what occurred to this village does not befall them as well.” Also, Imam Abu `Abdullah bin Battah reported that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Do not commit what the Jews committed, breaching what Allah has forbidden, by resorting to the lowest types of deceit.)

This Hadith has a good (Jayid) chain of narration. Allah knows best.

A Muslim is prohibited to congratulate the disbelievers, Christians, Jews or whomever, on their distinctive occasions

Fatwa no. 21079

Q: On 12/8/1420 A.H. notices were placed on the roads of Riyadh conveying congratulations from the Banque Saudi Fransi on the New Year.

Employees of the Banque Saudi Fransi wish the Saudi people a merry year. Respected shaykh, it undoubtedly hurts every Muslim to find things like this common in the land of Tawhid (belief in the Oneness of Allah/monotheism) and Al-Haramayn Al-Sharifayn (the Two Sacred Mosques, the Sacred Mosque in Makkah and the Prophet’s Mosque in Madinah).

I hope that Your Honor will clarify the ruling of Islam on this matter.

A:

A Muslim is prohibited to congratulate the disbelievers, Christians, Jews or whomever, on their distinctive occasions. This involves a sort of agreeing with them on their falsehood and being loyal to them.

Similarly, a Muslim is prohibited to congratulate his Muslim brother on the feasts and celebrations of the disbelievers. By doing so, a Muslim imitates them.

Muslims must resent disbelievers, dissociate themselves from them and hate their disbelief and disobedience to Allah, as Allah (Exalted be He) states,

 It was authentically reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) stated,

 Anyone who imitates a people becomes one of them.

the Shaykh of Islam Ibn Taymiyyah commented on this Hadith saying,

This Hadith at least implies that it is prohibited for a Muslim to imitate the disbelievers though it apparently signifies the disbelief of the imitator.

Allah (Exalted be He) states,

…and if any amongst you takes them as Auliyâ’, then surely he is one of them.

You (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) will not find any people who believe in Allâh and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allâh and His Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم)

He (Glorified be He) states,

 O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as Auliyâ’ (friends, protectors, helpers), they are but Auliyâ’ of each other. And if any amongst you takes them as Auliyâ’, then surely he is one of them. Verily, Allâh guides not those people who are the Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers and unjust).

Thus, Muslims are not permitted to express joy or congratulate disbelievers on their festive occasions, whether by word of mouth, posters, newspapers, magazines, cards or the like. The legal authorities must remove these notices.

May Allah grant us success . May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and Companions!

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’

Member Member Member Chairman
Bakr Abu Zayd Salih Al-Fawzan `Abdullah ibn Ghudayyan `Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah Al Al-Shaykh

Fatwas of the Permanent Committee>Group 2>Volume 1: `Aqidah>Acts commensurate with Kufr>Congratulating Kafirs in their feasts