Shaykh Al-Albani Pronouncing Adhan & Iqaamah

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Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/salah/adhan-call-to-prayer

Punishment of the Grave : The Hadeeth of al-Baraa bin Aazib – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah: Lesson 46 : Point [171 – Additional Benefit]
Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link]

From “Aḥkām al-Janāiz” by Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī

This article is comprised of a single ḥadīth that, when presented with the various wordings and additions, illustrate with clear descriptions the distinction between a believer and a disbeliever at the time of death. This ḥadīth, though recorded in earlier ḥadīth collections, was translated from “Aḥkām al-Janāiz wa Bidau’hā” (no. 105, pp. 198-202) by Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī with the scholar’s accompanying notes included.

Click the below link to read or download the full PDF document

The Believer and Disbeliever at the Time of Death – Shaykh al Albanee –  Translated by: Abu az-Zubayr Harrison

Hajj and Jihaad continue along with those in authority over the Muslims – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah: Lesson 44 : Point [167]
Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Based on Shaykh Fawzan & Shaykh Albani’s Explanation

167. And the Hajj and Jihaad continue along with those in authority over the Muslims: those (leaders) who are righteous and those who are sinners, until the establishment of the Hour; nothing abolishes it or cancels it.

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At-Ta`leeqaat Al-Mukhtasarah `alaa Matn Al-`Aqeedah AtTahaawiyyah. By Shaykh Saalih ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah, in 1426AH

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series of Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah:
Explanation of Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Book Study Resource : Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah – Imam at-Tahaawi

Related Links :

Praying behind every righteous or sinful Rulers from the people of the Qiblah, and upon whoever dies from them – Aqeedah Tahawiyyah [Audio|En]

Muslim Rulers :  abdurrahman.org/rulers

We do not hold rebelling against our rulers and those in authority over our affairs – Aqeedah Tahawiyyah

Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah: Lesson 39  : Points [157-158]
Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]
Explanation Based on Shaykh Fawzan & Shaykh Albani’s explanations

[157.] And we do not hold rebelling against our rulers and those in authority over our affairs. [158.] Even if they oppress.

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At-Ta`leeqaat Al-Mukhtasarah `alaa Matn Al-`Aqeedah AtTahaawiyyah. By Shaykh Saalih ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah, in 1426AH

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series of Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah:
Explanation of Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Book Study Resource : Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah – Imam at-Tahaawi

Related Link : Muslim Rulers  abdurrahman.org/rulers

The Denial of any partner for Allaah will not be complete except by negating three types of shirk – Shyakh Albani | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Aqeedah Tahawiyyah : Lesson 02

[Point 2] نقول في توحيد الله معتقدين بتوفيق الله‏:‏ إن الله واحدٌ لا شريك له‏.‏

 We say with regard to the tawheed of Allaah, holding as our creed and belief, due to the tawfeeq (guidance, correctness) granted by Allaah, that: Allaah is One, having no partner

https://soundcloud.com/abdurrahmanorg/the-denial-of-any-partner-for-allaah-will-not-be-complete-except-by-negating-3-types-of-shirk

[1] Translator’s Side Point: Shaykh Al-Albaanee rahimahullaah says regarding the last phrase “having no partner” – denial of any partner for Allaah the Most High will not be complete except by negating/denying three types of shirk.

Firstly: By denying shirk in Allaah’s Lordship; which is to believe that there is another creator along with Allaah, He the Perfect and Most High, as is the belief of the Magians – those who say that evil has a creator besides Allaah the Perfect. And this type of shirk is something very rare in this Ummah and all praise is for Allaah, even though the saying of the Mu`tazilah is very close to it – their saying that evil is the creation of the person; and this fact is indicated by the saying of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam,

القدرية مجوس هذه الأمة

The Qadariyyah are the Magians of this Ummah…” the hadeeth.

Secondly: It is shirk with regard to worship; which is, that a person worships someone along with Allaah – someone from the prophets or the righteous such as calling upon them for relief and calling upon them at times of hardship and so on. And this, regretfully, is present a great deal in this Ummah. And the major part of responsibility for it is borne by those shaykhs who support this type of shirk by giving it the name of tawassul (drawing closer to Allaah) calling it by other than its name!

Thirdly: Shirk with regard to Allaah’s Attributes; which is, that a person describes someone from the creation of Allaah the Most High, with some of the attributes which are particular to Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. Such as, claiming that people have knowledge of the hidden and unseen for example; and this type is widespread amongst many of the Soofees and those who are influenced by them.  For example, those who praise the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam with exaggerated praise like the one who said about him in a line of poetry: “From your generosity came about the whole world and whatever it contains and from your knowledge is the knowledge of the Preserved Tablet and the knowledge of everything the Pen has written.”

So from this has come the misguidance of those dajjaals – those who claim that the see the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam today whilst they are awake and that they ask him about things which are hidden – things about the secrets of the souls of people they associate with. Whereas, the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam did not know such things even when he was alive; rather, he was told to say:

If I knew the hidden and unseen then I could have increased greatly in good and harm would not have touched me. (Sooratul-A`raaf (7), aayah 188)

So how could he know that after his death and after he passed on to the highest company of angels?!

So these three types of shirk, whoever negates/denies them from Allaah in his tawheed of Him and he singles out Allaah in His Self and His worship and His Attributes, then that person is the muwahhid (the person of tawheed) who is covered by the virtues particular to the people of tawheed. And whoever commits something from that shirk then to him is directed the like of the saying of Allaah the Most High,

If you commit shirk then (all of) your deeds will be rendered null and void and you will from the losers. (Sooratuz-Zumar (39), aayah 65)

So preserve this point because it is the most important thing in `aqeedah. So, there is no surprise in the fact that the author began with it. And whoever wishes to see further details then let him refer back to the explanation of this book and the books of the Shuyookhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibnul-Qayyim and Ibn `Abdil -Wahhaab and others, and those who followed upon their way.

[Source: Shaykh Al-Albaanee’s العقيدة الطحاوية – شرح وتعليق – explanation of point 2]

At-Ta`leeqaat Al-Mukhtasarah `alaa Matn Al-`Aqeedah AtTahaawiyyah
By Shaykh Saalih ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Sideeqa Ali

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series of Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah:
Explanation of Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sunnah refers to that is authentically reported on the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم – Shaykh Al Albaani

An Important Note:

It is obvious that after all of this we must say: Indeed, the Sunnah that bears this importance in Legislation (i.e. making Islamic laws), only refers to the Sunnah that is authentically reported on the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم by way of the knowledge-based paths and authentic chains of narration, which are well known to the scholars of Hadeeth and Narrators. It does not refer to that which is contained within the various books of Tafseer and Fiqh, or the books on Targheeb and Tarheeb, or those of Raqaa’iq and Mawaa’idh, for indeed many of the weak, rejected and fabricated ahaadeeth can be found in them.

Some of these ahaadeeth, Islaam is completely free from, such as the hadeeth about Harut and Marut, and the story on the satanic verses (gharaneeq). I wrote a specific treatise refuting this narration, which has been published.[2] I have referenced a score of them in my book, the collection: Silsilat-ul-Ahaadeeth ad-Da’eefah wal-Mawdoo’ah wa Atharuhaa as-Sayy fil-Ummah.” So far the number of ahaadeeth in them has reached close to four thousand.[3] And they consist of ahaadeeth that are either weak or fabricated. Only five hundred ahaadeeth from these have been published so far! So it is an obligation upon the people of knowledge, particularly those that propagate their Fiqh and verdicts to the people, to not be overconfident in using the hadeeth as proof except after becoming sure about its authenticity. This is especially since the books of Fiqh that are commonly referenced today are filled with ahaadeeth that are weak, rejected and those that have no source to them, as is well known to the scholars.

I have commenced an important project in my opinion, which is beneficial for those who preoccupy themselves with Fiqh, which I call: “The Weak and Fabricated Ahaadeeth in the Major Fiqh Books.” By this I mean the following books:

1. Al-Hidaayah of Al-Margeenaani, regarding Hanafi Fiqh
2. Al-Mudawwanah of Ibn Al-Qaasim, regarding Maalikee Fiqh
3. Sharh-ul-Wajeez of Ar-Raafi’ee, regarding Shaafi’ee Fiqh
4. Al-Mughnee of Ibn Qudaamah, regarding Hanbalee Fiqh
5. Bidaayat-ul-Mujtahid of Ibn Rushd, on comparative Fiqh.

Unfortunately, however, I did not get the chance to complete it because the Kuwaiti magazine, Al-Wa’ee Al-Islaamee, that promised to publish it and that received it graciously after reviewing it, didn’t print it.

Since I missed that opportunity, then perhaps I will be granted the opportunity, Allaah willing, on another occasion to offer a specific knowledge-based course to my brothers that are studying Fiqh, which will assist them and which will facilitate for them the way towards knowing the grades of the Hadeeth, by returning them to the necessary sources of the books of Hadeeth. And which will explain their special and distinct characteristics, as well as what can be relied on from them. And Allaah, Most High, is the One who grants success.

Footnotes:

[2] The book is called: “Nasab-ul-Majaaneeq fee Nasf Qissat-il-Gharaaneeq.” [Printed by Al-Maktab-ul- Islaamee]

[3] Now the number has passed five thousand ahaadeeth, may Allaah facilitate them to be printed soon

Posted by AbdurRahman.Org from al-ibaanah eBook:
The Status of Sunnah in Islam – Shaik Nasiruddin Albanee

Refuting a Claim of the Qur’aaniyoon – Shaykh Al Albaani

[2] Question:

Noble Shaikh! The Qur’aaniyoon [3] say: Allaah says:

وَكُلَّ شَيْءٍ فَصَّلْنَاهُ تَفْصِيلًا

“And We have explained everything in detail with a full explanation.”
[Surah Al-Israa: 12]

And Allaah says:

مَّا فَرَّطْنَا فِي الْكِتَابِ مِن شَيْءٍ

“We have not neglected anything in the Book.”
[Surah Al-An’aam: 38]

And the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Verily this Qur’aan – part of it is in the Hand of Allaah and part of it is in your hands. So hold fast onto it, for you will never go astray nor will you ever be ruined after it.” [4]

We would like your comments on this?

[2] Answer:

As for Allaah’s saying: “We have not neglected anything in the Book”, what is meant by the word “Book” here is the Preserved Tablet and not the Noble Qur’aan.

And as for Allaah’s statement: “And We have explained everything in detail with a full explanation”, if you attach what was explained previously to the Noble Qur’aan, then it becomes certain that Allaah has indeed explained everything in detail, however with another provision. You are aware that an explanation may at times be general, such as when one places general rules under which exist many particulars the likes of which cannot be confined due to their large number. So by the Wise Legislator placing well known rules for these many particulars, the meaning of the noble ayah becomes apparent.

The explanation may also be detailed, and this is what is obvious from this ayah as the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

“I have not left behind anything that Allaah commanded me with except that I have ordered you to do it. And I have not left behind anything that Allaah forbade me from except that I have forbidden you from it.” [5]

So the explanation may at times be with rules, which many particulars (and details) fall under. And at other times it may be in such detail in terms of the vocabulary of the acts of worship and laws that it does not require being referenced to any of these rules.

Among the rules that numerous branches fall under – and which show the greatness of Islaam and the vast scope of Islaam in legislating – for example, are:

The Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلم statement: “There is no harming (of oneself) or others.” [6]

The Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلم statement: “Every intoxicant is alcohol and every alcohol is unlawful.” [7]

And his صلى الله عليه وسلم statement: “Every innovation is misguidance, and every misguidance is in the Hellfire.” [8]

These are rules and generalizations that do not exclude anything related to harming of one’s self or harming of one’s wealth, with respect to the first hadeeth, nor does it exclude anything related to that which intoxicates, with respect to the second hadeeth, whether the intoxicant is derived from grapes, which is the most popular form, or from corn or from any other substance. So long as the product is an intoxicant, it is unlawful (Haraam).

[Note: Read The Need for the Sunnah in order to Understand the Qur’aan – Shaykh al Albaani]

The same goes for the third hadeeth – it is not possible to take into account the number of innovations due to their large amount. It is not possible to account for all of them. However in spite of this, this hadeeth – even though brief in size – states with all clarity: “Every innovation is misguidance, and every misguidance is in the Hellfire.”

This is a detailed statement but with rules.

As for the laws that you are aware of, they are explained in detail by words that have been mentioned in the Sunnah in most cases and at times they are mentioned in the noble Qur’aan as is the case with the laws of inheritance, for example.

As for the hadeeth that was mentioned in the question, then it is an authentic hadeeth, and acting upon it is what we should try to adhere to as stated in the hadeeth in which the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “I have left two things amongst you by which you will never go astray so long as you hold steadfast onto them: The Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger.” [9]

So holding steadfast onto the Rope of Allaah – which is in our hands – refers to acting upon the Sunnah, which explains the noble Qur’aan.

Footnotes:

[3] Translator’s Note: This is a name given to those who claim that the Qur’aan is sufficient for deriving rules and laws in Islaam and that there is no need to turn to the Sunnah. Some even go so far as to reject the Sunnah in its entirety and rely solely on the Qur’aan.
[4] Saheeh At-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (1/93/35)
[5] Silsilat-ul-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (1803)
[6] Saheeh al-Jaami’-us-Sagheer (7517)
[7] Irwaa’-ul-Ghaleel (8/40/2373)
[8] Saheeh at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (1/92/34) and Salaat-ut-Taraaweeh (pg. 75)
[9] Mishkaat-ul-Masaabeeh (1/66/186)

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[How are we Obligated to Interpret the Qur’aan? – Shaykh al-Albanee]

It is obligatory for one to look for the ruling in the Sunnah, even if he thinks that it exists in the Qur’aan – Shaykh Al-Albaani

A Weak Hadeeth from Mu’aadh regarding Opinion, and what is Rejected from it:

Before I finish my talk, I feel that it is necessary for me to direct the attention of the brothers in attendance to a famous hadeeth, which seldom is missing from the books on the Principles of Fiqh. I will mention it because it is weak, from the perspective of its chain of narration as well as it being in contradiction with what I spoke about in this talk, which was the lack of there being any distinction between the Qur’aan and the Sunnah when it comes to deriving Laws, and the obligation of accepting these two sources together.

Indeed it is the hadeeth of Mu’aadh bin Jabal radhi Allaahu anhu who reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said to him when he sent him to Yemen:

“With what will you judge by?”

He said: “By the Book of Allaah.”

He صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “And if you don’t find (the answer in) it?”

He said: “Then by the Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger.”

He replied: “And if you don’t find (the answer in) it?”

He said: “I will strive to form my own opinion.”

So he صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “All praise be to Allaah who guided the messenger of Allaah’s Messenger to that which Allaah’s Messenger loves.”

As for the weakness of its chain, then this is not the place to discuss it now. But I clarified this exhaustively, perhaps the likes of which was not undertaken in the past, in (my book) the “Silsilah” (of weak hadeeth) I mentioned previously. [4] But suffice it to say now that the Ameer-ul-Mu’mineen in Hadeeth, Imaam Al-Bukhaaree, said about this hadeeth that it was “rejected.”

So having said this, it is now possible for me to begin explaining the contradiction it poses, which I stated earlier. So I say:

This hadeeth establishes a methodology of ruling for the judge, based on three stages. He is not permitted to seek a ruling from his opinion unless after he acknowledges he can’t find it in the Sunnah. Nor is he allowed to derive a ruling from the Sunnah until after he establishes he can’t find it in the Qur’aan. With respect to the opinion, this method (of deriving a ruling) is valid and correct according to all of the scholars, which is why they would say: “When the narration is mentioned, the opinion is nullified.”

However, with respect to the Sunnah, this method is not correct, because the Sunnah determines and explains the Book of Allaah. So it is obligatory for one to look for the ruling in the Sunnah, even if he thinks that it exists in the Qur’aan, based on what we stated previously. So the Sunnah with respect to the Qur’aan is not like the opinion with respect to the Sunnah. No, definitely not. Rather we must consider the Qur’aan and the Sunnah as one source, there being no distinction between them at all. This is as has been indicated in the sayings of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم: “Indeed, I was given the Qur’aan and something similar to it, along with it” – meaning the Sunnah – and “They will not be separated from one another until they return to the Fountain.”

So this dividing them into categories, mentioned in the hadeeth, is not correct, because it necessitates that they are separate from one another. And this is false, as I have explained previously.

Footnotes:

[4] It is found under number 885 of Silsilat-ul-Ahaadeeth ad-Da’eefah. We hope that the volume that includes it will be printed soon, in shaa Allaah.

Posted by AbdurRahman.Org from al-ibaanah eBook:
The Status of Sunnah in Islam – Shaik Nasiruddin Albanee

The Misguidance of those who are satisfied with the Qur’aan over the Sunnah – Shaykh Al-Albaani

It is unfortunate that there can be found some contemporary tafseer writers and authors that have taken the view of making permissible what has been mentioned in the last two examples [1] , such as the permissibility of eating predatory animals and wearing gold and silk, relying upon the Qur’aan (as proof) only! In fact, there can be found in this present time a group that call themselves the Qur’aaniyoon, who interpret the Qur’aan according to their desires and intellects, without seeking assistance for that in the authentic Sunnah. Rather, the Sunnah, according to them, is subordinate to their desires. So whatever part of it conforms to their desires, they affirm it, and whatever doesn’t conform to their desires, they throw behind their backs (rejecting it).

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم indicated these individuals in an authentic hadeeth, when he said:

“Do not let any one of you sit reclining on his couch, then when something that I have commanded him to do comes to him, he says: ‘I don’t know! Whatever we find in the Book of Allaah, we will follow it.’”

[Reported by At-Tirmidhee]

And in another narration, he صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

“…’whatever we find in it that’s unlawful, we will declare unlawful.’ Indeed, I was sent with the Qur’aan and something equal to it along with it.”

In another report, he صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

“Indeed, whatever the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم forbade is the same as what Allaah forbade.”

Rather, what is unfortunate is that one dignified author wrote a book on the Legislation and Creed of Islaam. He stated in his introduction that he wrote the book but he had no references in it except for the Qur’aan! So this authentic hadeeth provides clear proof that the Islamic Legislation is not based on the Qur’aan only, but rather it is based on the Qur’aan and Sunnah. So whoever takes hold of one in the absence of the other, doesn’t actually take hold of any of them. This is because each one of them commands that the other one be adhered to. This is as Allaah says:

“Whoever obeys the Messenger, has indeed obeyed Allaah.”

[Surah An-Nisaa: 80]

And He says:

“But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.”

[Surah An-Nisaa: 65]

And He says:

“It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allaah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any choice in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allaah and His Messenger, has indeed strayed in a plain error.”

[Surah Al-Ahzaab: 36]

And He says:

“And whatever the Messenger gives you then do it, and whatever he forbids you from, then abstain from it.” [Surah Al-Hashr: 7]

In connection with this ayah, I am amazed at what has been authentically reported from Ibn Mas’ood radhi Allaahu anhu, which is that a woman once came to him and said: “Are you the one who said: ‘May Allaah’s curse be on the woman that puck eyebrows and those who ask for their eyebrows to be plucked and those who tattoo…’ He said: ‘Yes.’ She said: ‘I read the Qur’aan from its front to its back and I did not find in it that which you say!’ He responded: ‘If you had (truly) read it, you would have found it. Did you not read: ‘And whatever the Messenger gives you then take it (i.e. do it), and whatever he forbids you from, then stay away from?’ She said: ‘Of course!’ He صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘Then I indeed heard The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم say: ‘May Allaah’s curse be on the woman that pluck eyebrows and those who ask for their eyebrows to be plucked…’” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

[1] Read The Need for the Sunnah in order to Understand the Qur’aan – Shaykh al Albaani

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The Status of Sunnah in Islam – Shaik Nasiruddin Albanee

The Abridgement Of The Prophet’s Prayer Described – Shaykh Al-Albaani

Author: Shaykh Al-Albaani rahimahullaah
Translated by: Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

[Download PDF]

Contents

Introduction | Facing the Ka bah
Standing (Qiyaam) | The Intention (An-Niyyah)
The Takbeer | The Recitation (Al-Qiraa’ah)
The Bowing (Rukoo) | The Prostration (Sujood)
The Second Rak’ah | The Tashahhud
The Third and Fourth Rak’ahs | The Qunoot in the Witr Prayer
The Final Tashahhud | Supplicating Before the Salutation.
The Salutation and its Types | Appendix One – Soorah al-Faatihah
Glossary of Terms

Introduction

All praise is for Allaah. We praise Him, we seek His aid, and we ask for His forgiveness. We seek Allaah’s refuge from the evils of ourselves and from our evil actions. Whomsoever Allaah guides then none can misguide him, and whomsoever Allaah misguides then none can guide him. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, having no partner, and I testify that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger. To proceed:

Then it was suggested to me that I should undertake an abridgement of my book, Sifat Salaatin-Nabiyy صلى الله عليه وسلم minat-Takbeer ilat-Tasleem Ka’annaka Taraahaa, “A Description of the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلم Prayer from the Takbeer to the Tasleem as if You Were Seeing It,” and that I should shorten it and rephrase it for it to be more accessible to the common people.

So I saw this to be a favorable suggestion, and it agreed with what I myself had felt for a long time. I had also frequently heard such advice from brothers and friends. So this encouraged me to allocate to it a small part of my time which is crowded with knowledge related work and research. So I hastened, as far as my ability and efforts allowed, to carry out the suggestion, whilst asking the Guardian Lord, the One free of all imperfections and the Most High, that He should make it an action done purely and sincerely for His Face, and that He should cause it to be of benefit to my brother Muslims.

In it I have quoted some extra points of benefit additional to what is to be found in Sifatus-Salaat. These were matters that came to my attention and I saw that it would be appropriate to mention them in the abridgement.

I also gave particular attention to explaining some phrases occurring in some of the ahaadeeth and the adhkaar (words of remembrance of Allaah). I also provided major headings for each section, and also sub-headings for further clarification. Under these I quoted the points under discussion, numbered consecutively. Alongside each issue I quoted the ruling: whether it is a pillar (rukn) or an obligation (waajib). As for those matters about which I remained silent and did not mention a ruling, then they are from the Sunan1, and some of them carry the possibility of being declared obligatory – however stating one or the other with certainty would conflict with what is befitting from scholarly research.

So the pillar (rukn) is that which is essential for completion of the affair that it falls within, being such that its absence necessitates that the action depending upon it is nullified. An example is the bowing (rukoo’) in the Prayer – it is a pillar of it, and if it is absent then the Prayer is nullified.

The condition (shart) is like the pillar (rukn) except that it is something outside the action that is dependant upon it. An example is the ablution (wudoo) for the Prayer. Prayer is not correct without it.

The obligation (waajib) is that which has an established command in the Book or the Sunnah, but there is no proof that it is a pillar (rukn) or a condition (shart). One who carries it out is rewarded, and one who leaves it without valid excuse is punished. Just like it is the fard (obligation) and making a difference between the fard and the waajib is a newly invented use of terminology for which there is no proof.

The sunnah is an action of worship that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم continually performed, either always doing it or usually doing it, but which he did not command in a manner causing it to be an obligation. It is such that one who carries it out is rewarded, but one who leaves it out is not punished or blameworthy.

As for the hadeeth that some blind-followers mention and attribute to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, “Whoever leaves my sunnah will not receive my intercession,” then there is no basis for it from Allaah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم and whatever is not established as his صلى الله عليه وسلم saying, then it is not allowed to attribute it to him صلى الله عليه وسلم, for fear of falsely attributing something to him. As he صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “Whoever falsely quotes me as saying that which I have not said-then let him take his sitting place in the Hell-Fire.”

Then it goes without saying that in it, just as in the original work, I do not restrict myself to any particular madhhab from the four followed madhhabs. Rather in it I followed the way of the people of the hadeeth: those who adhere to acceptance of every hadeeth that is established from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. Because of this fact their position is stronger than the madhhabs of those besides them, and this is something witnessed to by the fair-minded people of every madhhab. Amongst those witnessing to this was Abul-Hasanaat al- Luknawee al-Hanafee who said, “How could that not be the case when they are the true inheritors of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, and are the true representatives of his Religion. May Allaah raise us up amongst them, and cause us to die whilst having love for them and whilst following their way.”

And may Allaah have mercy upon Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal who said, ‘The Religion of Muhammad is the narrations (akhbaar)’ – what a fine means for the youth are the reports (aathaar). Do not turn away desiring other then the hadeeth and its people. For opinion (ra’y) is night and the hadeeth is day. And perhaps a youth may be ignorant of where guidance lies whilst the sun has arisen and is shining brightly.’

Muhammad Naasirud-deen al-Albaanee Damascus, 26th Safar 1392AH

FACING THE KA’BAH (Istiqbaalul-Ka’bah)

(1) If you stand, O Muslim, to pray – then face the direction of the Ka’bah, wherever you are, in obligatory Prayers and optional Prayers. This is one of the pillars of the Prayer, such that the Prayer is not valid without it.

(2) The obligation to face the direction of the Ka’bah is removed from a warrior having to pray the Fear Prayer and during severe fighting. It is also removed from one who is rendered incapable of it, such as one who is (very) ill, or one who is upon a ship, car or airplane and who fears that the Prayer time will reach its end. It is also removed from one who prays optional Prayer or the Witr Prayer upon a riding beast or vehicle. It is, however, preferable for him, if he is able, to turn it towards the Qiblah for the initial takbeer. After that it does not matter in which direction it turns.

(3) It is obligatory upon everyone who can actually see the Ka’bah to face it directly. As for those who cannot actually see it then they should face its direction.

THE RULING CONCERNING PRAYING TOWARDS A DIRECTION OTHER THAN THAT OF THE KA’BAH BY MISTAKE

(4) If a person prays towards other than the Qiblah due to the sky being cloudy or for any reason other than that, after having tried to the best of his knowledge and ability to face the correct direction, then his Prayer will be correct and he will not have to repeat it.

(5) However if a person whom he holds to be reliable comes to him whilst he is praying and informs him of the correct direction, then he must immediately turn to the correct direction, and his Prayer will be correct.

STANDING (Qiyaam)

(6) It is obligatory that the person prays standing. This is a pillar (rukn) except for:

(i) The one who is praying the Fear Prayer or during severe fighting. In these circumstances it is permissible for him to pray whilst riding.

(ii) Also the one who is ill and the one who is unable to stand, he should pray sitting if he is able, or if not then whilst lying down. (iii) Also the person praying Optional (Nafl) Prayer, he may pray whilst riding or whilst sitting if he wishes, and in this case he should perform rukoo’ (bowing) and sujood (prostration) by lowering his head and likewise the sick. He should lower his head further for the prostration than for the bowing.

(7) It is not permissible for the person praying sitting to place something raised upon the ground to prostrate upon. Rather he should only make the movement for his prostration lower than that for his bowing, as we have already mentioned, this is what he does if he is unable to directly place his head upon the ground.

PRAYER ON A SHIP OR AIRPLANE

(8) It is permissible to pray the Obligatory Prayer upon a ship, and likewise in an airplane.

(9) A person may pray sitting in either of them if he fears that he will fall over.

(10) In the case of old age or bodily weakness, it is allowed for him during the standing to support himself against a pillar or with a stick.

(11) It is permissible to pray the voluntary Prayer during the night standing or even sitting without an excuse, and he can combine both of these. So he may pray and recite whilst sitting, and then shortly before the rukoo’ he may stand and recite the few aayahs that remain for him whilst standing. Then he bows and prostrates, and then he does the same in the second rak’ah.

(12) If he prays sitting, he sits with his legs crossed, or in any manner of sitting that is comfortable for him.

PRAYER WHILST WEARING SHOES

(13) It is allowed for him to stand in Prayer barefooted, just as it is allowed for him to pray whilst wearing shoes.

(14) What is better is that he sometimes prays barefooted and sometimes prays wearing shoes, doing what is easy for him. So he should not force himself to wear them for the Prayer nor force himself to remove them. Rather if he happens to be barefooted he should pray barefooted, and if he is wearing shoes he should pray whilst wearing the shoes, unless a situation requires otherwise.

(15) If he does remove his shoes then he should not place them on his right-hand side, rather he should place them to his left as long as there is nobody praying to his left. Otherwise he should place them between his feet [2]. This order is authentically reported from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم.

PRAYING WHILST STANDING UPON THE PULPIT (MINBAR)

(16) It is allowed for the Imaam to pray upon an elevated place, such as the minbar – for the purpose of teaching the people. He stands upon it and says the takbeer [3] and recites and bows upon it. Then he steps backwards in order to perform the prostrations on the ground at the foot of the pulpit. Then he can return to it and do in the second rak’ah the same as that which he did in the first.

THE OBLIGATION OF PRAYING TOWARDS A SUTRA (BARRIER) AND OF BEING CLOSE TO IT

(17) It is obligatory that he prays towards a barrier (sutrah). It makes no difference whether he is praying in a mosque or elsewhere, nor whether the mosque is large or small. This is because of the all-embracing statement of the Prophet , “Do not pray except towards a sutrah, and do not let anyone walk in front o f you. So if a person insists (on trying to pass) then fight him, because he has an evil companion along with him,” meaning a devil.

(18) It is obligatory that he is close to it, since the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم commanded that.

(19) Between his صلى الله عليه وسلم place of prostration and the wall towards which he prayed there would be a space approximately wide enough for a sheep to pass through. So if one does likewise then he has carried out the closeness that is obligatory upon him.[4]

THE REQUIRED HEIGHT OF THE SUTRAH (BARRIER)

(20) It is obligatory that the height of the sutrah above the ground be at least a span or two spans, due to his saying, “If one of you places in front of him the like of the back-part of a camel-saddle5, then let him pray and not care about what passes beyond that.”

(21) The person praying faces the sutrah directly. This is what is apparent from the command to pray towards the sutrah. As for the matter of moving slightly to the right or the left, so that he does not stand directly in line with it, then this is not authentically established.

(22) It is permissible to pray towards a staff stuck into the ground or its like, or towards a tree, or a pillar, or towards his wife who is lying upon the bed beneath the blanket, or towards his riding beast, even if it is a camel.

THE FORBIDDANCE OF PRAYING TOWARDS GRAVES

(23) It is not allowed to pray towards graves whatever the case, whether it be the graves of Prophets or anyone else besides them.

THE FORBIDDANCE OF PASSING IN FRONT OF A PERSON WHO IS PRAYING EVEN IN THE SACRED MOSQUE IN MAKKAH (AL. MASJIDUL-HARAAM)

(24) It is not allowed to pass directly in front of a person who is praying if he has a sutrah in front of him. There is no difference in this between al-Masjidul-Haraam and other mosques. The forbiddance applies equally to all of them, due to the generality of his صلى الله عليه وسلم saying, “If the one who passes directly in front of a person knew the (sin) that was upon him, then he would rather stand and wait for forty than pass in front of him.” Meaning, passing in between him and the place of his sutrah. [6]

THE OBLIGATION OF PREVENTING ANYONE TRYING TO PASS IN FRONT OF YOU, EVEN IN THE SACRED MOSQUE IN MAKAAH

(25) It is not allowed for a person praying towards a sutrah to allow anyone to pass in front of him, due to the previous hadeeth, “… and do not let anyone walk in front of him …” and his صلى الله عليه وسلم saying, “If one of you prays towards something that screens him from the people, and someone wants to pass in front of him, then let him repel him by pushing him on the chest, and let him repel him as much as he can … [and in a narration … then let him fight him, for he is a devil].”

MOVING FORWARD TO PREVENT SOMEONE PASSING

(26) And it is allowed for him to take a step or more forwards in order to prevent an animal or a child from passing in front of him, so that they pass behind him.

THAT WHICH BREAKS / DISRUPTS THE PRAYER

(27) From the importance of the sutrah in Prayer is that it prevents the person’s Prayer being nullified by the passing of that which will disrupt it. Contrary to the one who prays without a sutrah, since his Prayer will be nullified if an adult woman, or likewise a donkey, or a black dog passes in front of him.

THE INTENTION (an-Niyyah)

(28) The person who is going to pray must have in his heart the intention to pray that particular Prayer, be it the Obligatory Zuhr or ‘Asr Prayer, or the sunnah Prayer’s for them, for example. This is a condition (shart) or a pillar (rukn). As for expressing that upon the tongue, then it is an innovation (bid’ah), contrary to the sunnah. This was not upheld by any of the Imaams followed by the blindfollowers. THE TAKBEER (Saying: `Allaahu Akbar’)

(29) He begins the Prayer by saying:

Allaahu Akbar Allaah is Greater.

This is a pillar (rukn), due to his saying, “The key to the Prayer is Purification. That which makes outside actions forbidden is the takbeer, and that which causes outside actions to become permissible is the tasleem [7].”

(30) He should not raise his voice in saying the takbeer in any of the Prayers, unless he is an Imaam (leading others in prayer).

(31) It is allowed for the mu’adhdhin to repeat the takbeer of the Imaam in a louder voice in order for the people to hear it, as long as there is a need for that, such as the Imaam’s being ill, having a weak voice, or there being a very large number of people praying behind him.

(32) The person following an Imaam in Prayer should not say the takbeer until the Imaam has finished saying it.

RAISING THE HANDS AND HOW IT IS TO BE DONE

(33) He should raise his hands whilst saying the takbeer or before it, or after it. All of these are established in the sunnah.

(34) He should raise his hands with the fingers extended.

(35) He should raise his palms up to the level of his shoulders, and sometimes he should raise them even further, up to the level of his car lobes. [8]

PLACING THE HANDS AND HOW IT IS TO BE DONE

(36) Then after the takbeer he should place his right hand upon his left hand, and this is from the practice (sunnah) of the Prophets, ‘alaihimus-salaatu was-salaam, and Allaah’s Messenger commanded his Companions with it. It is therefore not permissible to leave the hands hanging by one’s sides.

(37) He should place his right hand upon his left hand, wrist and forearm.

(38) Sometimes he should grasp the left hand with the right hand. [9]

WHERE THE HANDS ARE TO BE PLACED

(39) He should only place his hands upon his chest. This applies equally to men and women. [10]

(40) It is not allowed to place the right-hand on the waist.

HUMILITY AND ATTENTIVENESS (al-Khushoo’) AND LOOKING AT THE PLACE OF PROSTRATION

(41) He must have humility and attentiveness in his Prayer, and should avoid everything that may divert his attention, whether it be designs or decoration. Nor should he pray when food that he desires has been served, nor whilst he is having to withhold urine or faeces.

(42) Whilst standing he should look towards the place of his prostration.

(43) He should not turn to the right or the left, since his turning aside will be something that Satan snatches away and steals from the person’s Prayer.

(44) It is not allowed for him to raise his sight to the sky.

THE OPENING SUPPLICATION (Du’aa al-Istiftaah)

(45) Then he should begin by reciting one of the supplications established from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, and they are many. The most wellknown is:

Subhaanak-Allaahumma, wa biham-dika, wa tabaarakasmuka, wa ta’aalaa jadduka, wa laa ilaaha ghayruka

I declare You free and far removed from all imperfections, O Allaah, and all praise is for You. Blessed is Your Name. Great and Exalted is Your Kingdom. None has the right to be worshipped besides You.

The command for this is established, so one should be careful to do it. [11]

THE RECITATION (al-Qiraa’ah)

(46) Then he must seek refuge with Allaah, the Most High, and it is an obligation, he will be sinful if he leaves it.

(47) The Sunnah is that he should sometimes say:

A’oodhu billaahi min ash-Shaytaan-ir-Rajeem [min hamzihi, wa nafkhihi, wa nafthihi]

I seek refuge with Allaah from Satan, the Rejected One [from the insanity he brings about, from his arrogance and from his evil poetry].

(48) Or that he says:

A’oodhu billaah-is-Samee’-il-‘Aleem min ash-Shaytaan-ir-Rajeem min hamzihi, wa nafkhihi, wa nafthihi

I seek refuge with Allaah, the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing, from Satan, the Rejected One, from the insanity he brings about, from his arrogance and from his evil poetry.

(49) Then he should say quietly, in both loud and silent Prayers:

Bismillaahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem

In the Name of Allaah, the Most Merciful, the Bestower o f Mercy.

RECITING SOORAH AL-FAATIHAH

(50) Then he recites the whole of Soorah al-Faatihah, and (Bismillaah …) is an aayah from it. This is a pillar (rukn), and the Prayer will not be correct without it. So it is obligatory upon even those who do not know Arabic that they memorize it.

(51) But one who is still unable to recite it, then it is sufficient for him to say:

Subhaan-Allaah, wal-hamdulillaah, wa laa ilaaha illallaah, wallaahu Akbar, wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billaah

I declare Allaah free and far removed from all imperfections, and all praise is for Allaah, and Allaah is greater and no power except by the Will of Allah

(52) The Sunnah, when reciting it, is to read it aayah by aayah. One should pause after each aayah. So he says:

Bismillaahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem
In the Name of Allaah, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy.

Then he pauses … then he says:

Al-Hamdu lillaahi Rabbil-‘Aalameen
All praise is for Allaah, the Lord of all the creation.

Then he pauses … then he says:
Ar-Rahmaan-ir-Raheem
The Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy.

Then he pauses … then he says:
Maaliki Yawmid-Deen
Owner o f the Day of Recompense.

Then he pauses, he does likewise until he completes it. [12]

The whole of the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلم recitation would be like this. He would stop at the end of each aayah, and not join it together with the aayah after it, even if they were connected in meaning.

(53) It is permissible to recite either “Maaliki” … Owner of the Day of Recompense, or “Maliki” … King of the Day of Recompense.

THE RECITATION OF SOORAH AL-FAATIHAH BY ONE WHO IS PRAYING ALONG WITH AN IMAAM

(54) It is obligatory that the one praying behind an imaam also recites it in quiet Prayers. He should also recite it in loud Prayers if he cannot hear an imaam reciting, or if it happens that the imaam remains silent after his own recitation in order to enable the follower to recite it. However, it is our view that this period of silence is not established from the Sunnah. [13]

THE RECITATION AFTER SOORAH AL-FAATIHAH

(55) It is from the Sunnah that after reciting al-Faatihah, he recites another Soorah – even in the Funeral Prayer, or that he recites some aayahs, in the first two rak’ahs.

(56) He may sometimes lengthen the recitation after it and shorten it at other times, due to the needs of travel, having a cough and cold, being ill or due to the crying of a child.

(57) The length of recitation will vary according to the different Prayers. So generally, the recitation in the Dawn (Fajr) Prayer is longer than the recitation in any of the other Prayers. Next comes the Zuhr, then the ‘Asr and the Maghrib, then the ‘Ishaa.

(58) The recitation in the (optional) Night Prayer (Salaatul-Layl) is longer than any of those.

(59) The Sunnah is also to make the recitation in the first rak’ah longer than the recitation in the second rak’ah.

(60) Also that he makes the recitation in the last two rak’ahs shorter than that in the first two, by about a half. [14]

RECITING SOORAH AL-FAATIHAH IN EVERY RAK’AH

(61) It is obligatory that he recites al-Faatihah in every rak’ah.

(62) It is from the Sunnah that he sometimes recites something in addition to it in the last two rak’ahs also.

(63) It is not allowed for the imaam to prolong the recitation more than what occurs in the Sunnah. By doing so he would cause difficulty to some of those who may be praying behind him, such as old people, sick people, nursing mothers and those who have needs to attend to.

LOUD AND QUIET RECITATION

(64) He should recite aloud in the Dawm (Fujr) Prayer, the Jumu’ah Prayer, the two ‘Eid Prayers, the Prayer for seeking rain, the Eclipse Prayer and in the first two rak’ahs of the Maghrib and ‘Ishaa Prayers. He should recite quietly in the Zuhr and ‘Asr Prayers, in the third rak’ah of the Maghrib Prayer and the last two rak’ahs of the ‘Ishaa Prayer.

(65) It is permissible for the Imaam sometimes to recite an aayah loud enough to be heard by the people in the quiet Prayers.

(66) As for the Witr Prayer and the Prayer during the night (Salaatul-Layl), then he should sometimes recite quietly in it, and recite loudly at other times. However, his voice should only be raised moderately.

RECITING THE QUR’AAN SLOWLY (AND BEAUTFIULLY)

(67) The Sunnah is that he recites the Qur’aan slowly. He should not recite it quickly or hurriedly. Rather, his recitation should be clear and each letter distinguishable. He should also beatify the Qur’aan with his voice, and recite it in a beautiful and good manner, whilst abiding by the rulings that are well-known to scholars of recitation. He may not recite it in newly innovated tones, nor in the manner of singing.

CORRECTING THE IMAAM

(68) It is prescribed for the one praying behind an imaam that he corrects him if he becomes mixed up in his recitation.

THE BOWING (RUKOO’)

(69) When he has finished reciting he remains silent for a moment, long enough to return his breathing to normal.

(70) Then he raises his hands, in the manner described previously with regard to the initial takbeer (point nos. 33, 34 and 35).

(71) He also says the takbeer (i.e., Allaahu Akbar), and this is obligatory.

(72) Then he performs the rukoo’ (i.e., bows) in such a manner that all his joints are settled, and each part of the body is at rest. This is a pillar (rukn).

HOW THE BOWING (RUKOO’) IS PERFORMED

(73) He should place his hands firmly upon his knees. He should spread his fingers, as if he were grasping his knees. All of this is obligatory.

(74) He should stretch out his back and make it level, such that if water were to be poured upon it, then it would settle upon it. This is an obligation.

(75) He should neither cause his head to droop lower than his back, nor should he raise it above it. Rather he should make it level with his back.

(76) He should keep his elbows (straight and) apart from his sides.

(77) He should say in his rukoo’:

Subhaana Rabbee al-‘Azeem
I declare my Lord, the Supreme, free and far removed from all imperfections. [15]

Saying it three times, or more.

(78) From the Sunnah is that he makes the pillars of equal length. So he should make his rukoo’, his sujood (prostration), and his sitting between the two prostrations of similar length.

(79) It is not allowed for him to recite the Qur’aan in the rukoo’ (bowing), nor in the sujood (prostration).

STRAIGHTENING UP FROM THE RUKOO’

(80) Then he must raise up and straighten his back from the rukoo’. This is a pillar.

(81) He must say, while raising his back:

Sami’ Allaahu liman hamidah
Allaah listens and responds to the one who praises Him. This is an obligation.

(82) He should raise his hands when he rises up, in the manner that has preceded (point nos. 33, 34 and 35).

(83) Then he should stand straight up and remain still, such that every bone returns to its place. This is a pillar.

(84) He should say while standing:

Rabbanaa wa lakal-hamd
O our Lord! And all praise is for You.[16]

This is obligatory upon everyone praying, even if he is praying behind an imaam [17], since it is the saying prescribed for this standing position. As for the saying, then it is the saying prescribed to be said whilst rising.

(85) He should make this standing about as long as the rukoo’ (bowing), as has preceded.

THE SUJOOD (PROSTRATION)

(86) Then he says:

Allaahu Akbar
Allaah is Greater.

and this is an obligation.

(87) And he should raise his hands, sometimes.

PLACING THE HANDS FIRST WHEN PROSTRATING

(88) Then he prostrates, placing his hands upon the ground before his knees. This is what Allaah’s Messenger commanded, and it is what is established from his practice. He also forbade the people from kneeling down in the manner that the camel kneels, and the camel places its knees -which are its fore-legs – first.

(89) So when he prostrates, and it is a pillar, he should rest upon his palms, and extend together.

(90) He should keep his fingers them.

(91) And point them towards the qiblah (direction of Prayer).

(92) And he should place his palms level with his shoulders.

(93) And sometimes he places them level with his ears.

(94) And he must lift his elbows away from the ground. This is obligatory. He is not allowed to spread them on the ground in the manner of the dog.

(95) He must place his nose and his forehead firmly upon the ground, this is a pillar.

(96) He must also place his knees firmly on the ground.

(97) And likewise his toes.

(98) His feet should be placed upright on the ground. All of these are obligatory.

(99) The tips of his toes should be pointed towards the qiblah (direction of Prayer).

(100) And his heels should be joined together.

BEING SETTLED IN THE PROSTRATION

(101) It is obligatory that he is settled in his prostration. This comes about by his resting equally on each of the parts of the body that touch the ground when prostrating. These are: the forehead and the nose – together, the two palms, the two knees and the toes of each foot.

(102) So whoever settles in his prostration in this manner, then he has certainly attained the stillness necessary. This stillness (itmi’naan) in the prostration is a pillar also.

(103) He should say in it:

Subhaana Rabbee al-A’ laa
I declare my Lord, the Most High, free and far removed from all imperfections.

three times or more.[18]

(104) It is recommended to supplicate to Allaah as much as possible while in prostration, since it is a time most suitable for the acceptance of supplications.

(105) He should make his prostration about as long as his bowing, as has preceded.

(106) It is allowed to prostrate upon the earth, or upon something placed upon the ground such as a garment, a carpet, a mat and the like.

(107) It is not allowed to recite the Qur’aan in prostration.

SITTING UPON THE LEFT FOOT LAID FLAT (AL-IFTIRAASH) AND SITTING UPON THE RAISED HEELS (AL-IQ’AA`) IN BETWEEN THE TWO PROSTRATIONS

(108) Then he raises up his head, saying the takbeer (i.e., Allaahu Akbar). This is an obligation.

(109) He raises his hands at this point, sometimes.

(110) Then he sits with calmness, such that every bone settles in its place. This is a pillar.

(111) He should lay his left foot flat beneath him and sit upon it. This is an obligation.

(112) He sets his right foot upright upon the ground.

(113) He should make the toes of his right foot point towards the qiblah (direction of Prayer).

(114) It is also permissible to sit upon the heels (al-Iq’aa`) sometimes. He does this by sitting upon his heels with both feet upright.

(115) He says in his sitting:

Allaahumma-ghfirlee, warhamnee, wajburnee, warfa’nee, wa’aafinee, warzuqnee

O Allaah forgive me, and have mercy upon me, and suffice me, and raise my rank, and grant me safety and well-being, and grant me provision.

(116) And if he wishes he may (instead) say:

Rabbi-ghfirlee, Rabbi-ghfirlee
O my Lord, forgive me! O my Lord, forgive me!

(117) And he should prolong this sitting until it becomes of similar length to his prostration.

THE SECOND PROSTRATION

(118) Then he says:

Allaahu Akbar
Allaah is Greater.

and this is an obligation.

(119) And he raises his hands with this takbeer, sometimes.

(120) And he performs the second prostration, and this is a pillar also.

(121) He does in the second prostration that which he did in the first.

SITTING AT REST (JILSATUL-ISTIRAAHAH)

(122) So when he raises his head up from the second prostration, and he intends to get up to perform the second rak’ah, then he says:

Allaahu Akbar
Allaah is Greater.

and this is an obligation.

(123) And he raises his hands, sometimes.

(124) And he (briefly) sits upright, sitting upon his left foot, such that every bone returns to its place, before standing.

THE SECOND UNIT OF PRAYER (RAK’AH)

(125) Then he gets up, supporting himself upon the ground with his fists clenched, like one who clenches his fists when kneading dough. So he stands up for the second rak’ah, and this is a pillar.

(126) He does in the second rak’ah the same as he did in the first.

(127) Except that he does not recite, “The Opening Supplication,” (i.e., Du’aa al-Istiftaah) in it.

(128) He should make the second rak’ah shorter than the first rak’ah.

SITTING FOR THE DECLARATION OF FAITH (TASHAHHUD)

(129) So when he finishes the second rak’ah he sits to perform the tashahhud. This is obligatory.

(130) And he sits upon the left foot laid flat, as preceded with regard to the sitting between the two prostrations.

(131) However it is not allowed to sit upon the two heels for this sitting.

(134) It it is not allowed for him to sit whilst resting upon his hand, especially the left hand.

AGITATING THE FOREFINGER AND FIXING ONES SIGHT UPON IT

(135) He should clench all the fingers of his right hand, placing his thumb onto his middle finger sometimes.

(136) At other times he may make a circle with his thumb and middle finger together.

(137) He should point his forefinger towards the qiblah (Direction of Prayer).

(138) He should fix his gaze upon his forefinger.

(139) And he should agitate it, making supplication with it, from the start to the end of the tashahhud.

(140) He should not point with his left forefinger.

(141) He does all of this in every tashahhud.

THE WORDING FOR THE TASHAHHUD AND THE SUPPLICATION AFTER IT

(142) The tashahhud is obligatory. If he forgets it, then he should perform two extra prostrations for forgetfulness (Sajdatus-Sahw) at the end of the Prayer.

(143) Its wording is:

At-Tahiyyaatu lillaahi, was-Salwaatu, wat-Tayyibaatu. As-Salaamu ‘alan-Nabee’, wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh. As-Salaamu ‘alaynaa wa ‘alaa ‘ibaad-illaah-is-Saaliheen. Ashhadu an laa ilaaha illAllaah, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan ‘ abduhu wa rasooluh

Words of Praise and glorification are for Allaah alone, and Prayers and acts of worship, and pure words and attributes. May Allaah send peace and security upon the Prophet19, and may Allaah’s Mercy and Blessings be upon him. May Allaah send peace and security upon us, and upon all of Allaah’s righteous servants. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Slave and Messenger.[20]

(144) After this he should supplicate for blessings upon the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم saying:

Allaahumma Salli ‘alaa Muhammad, wa ‘alaa Aali Muhammad, kamaa sallayta ‘alaa Ibraaheem, wa ‘alaa Aali Ibraaheem, innaka Hameedun Majeed. Allaahumma baarik ‘alaa Muhammad, wa ‘alaa Aali Muhammad, kamaa baarakta ‘alaa Ibraaheem, wa ‘alaa Aali Ibraaheem, innaka Hameedun Majeed.

O Allaah! Extol and honor Muhammad and the true followers of Muhammad, just as You extolled and honored Ibraaheem and the righteous offspring of Ibraaheem. Indeed, You are deserving of all praise, Perfect in Glory and Honor. 0 Allaah! Send continual blessings upon Muhammad and upon the true followers of Muhammad, just as You sent blessings upon Ibraaheem and upon the righteous offspring of Ibraaheem. Indeed, You are deserving of all praise, Perfect in Glory and Honor.

(145) And if you wish to say it in shorter form, then say:

Allaahumma Salli ‘alaa Muhammad, wa ‘alaa Aali Muhammed, wa baarik ‘alaa Muhammad, wa ‘alaa Aal Muhammad, kamaa sallayta wa baarakta ‘ alaa Ibraaheem wa ‘alaa Aali lbraaheem, innaka Hameedun Majeed.

O Allaah! Extol and honor Muhammad and the true followers of Muhammad, and send continual blessings upon Muhammad and upon the true followers of Muhammad, just as You extolled and honored and sent blessings upon Ibraaheem and upon the righteous offspring of Ibraaheem. Indeed, You are deserving of all praise, Perfect in Glory and Honor.

(146) Then he may choose, in this tashahhud, any of the reported supplications that please him, sand supplicate to Allaah with that.

THE THIRD AND FOURTH RAK’AHS

(147) Then he says:

Allaahu Akbar
Allaah is Greater.

and this is an obligation. The Sunnah is that he says it whilst he is sitting.

(148) And he raises his hands, sometimes.

(149) Then he gets up to pray the third rak’ah, and it, like the rak’ah coming after it, is a pillar.

(150) He does the same when he wants to get up for the fourth rak’ah.

(151) However before getting up, he should sit up straight, sitting upon his left foot, such that every bone returns to its place.

(152) Then he stands by supporting himself upon his hands, just as he did in getting up for the second rak’ah.

(153) In each of the third and fourth rak’ahs he recites Soorah al- Faatihah, and this is obligatory.

(154) Sometimes he may also recite an aayah or more in addition to it.

AL-QUNOOT (SPECIAL INVOCATION) FOR A CALAMITY AND WHEN IT IS TO BE SAID

(155) It is from the Sunnah that he performs a special invocation, and supplicates for the Muslims when some calamity strikes them.

(156) It is to be said after the bowing (rukoo’), after he has said:

Rabbanaa wa lakal-hamd
O our Lord! And all praise is for You.

(157) There is no set supplication for this; rather he makes whatever supplication is suited to the specific calamity.

(158) He should raise his hands whilst making this supplication.

(159) If he is an imaam leading the people in Prayer, he should raise his voice with his supplication.

(160) Those who are praying behind him should say `Aameen,’ meaning, `O Allaah, respond to it!’

(161) So when he finishes it he should say the takbeer:

Allaahu Akbar
Allaah is Greater.

and perform the prostration.

THE QUNOOT (INVOCATION) IN THE WITR PRAYER21 ITS PLACE AND WORDING

(162) As for the invocation (qunoot) for the Witr Prayer, then it is prescribed to say it occasionally.

(163) It should be said before the rukoo’, contrary to the invocation at the time of a calamity.

(164) He should make the following supplication:

Allaahum-mahdinee feeman hadayta, wa ‘ aafinee feeman ‘ aafayta, wa tawallanee feeman tawallayta, wa baarik lee feemaa a’tayta, wa qinee sharra maa qadayta, fa innaka taqdee wa laa yuqdaa ‘alayka. Wa innahu laa yadhillu man waalayta, wa laa ya’izzu man ‘ aadayta. Tabaaraakta rabbanaa wa ta’aalayta. Laa manjaa minka illaa ilayka

O Allaah! Continually guide me and make me amongst those whom You have guided, and make me one of those whom You save and secure from all evils. And make me one of those whom You love, and whose affairs You take care of. And grant me blessing in all that You have given me, and save me from the evil of what You have decreed, for You alone decree, and none can contradict Your Decree. None can humiliate those whom You have befriended, nor will those who are enemies of You ever have dignity and honor. Blessed are You, O our Lord, and Exalted. There is no way to flee for safety from You except by fleeing towards You.

(165) Then he should perform the bowing (rukoo’) and the two prostrations (sujood), as has proceeded.

THE FINAL TASHAHHUD AND SITTING WITH ONE’S LEFT HIP RESTING UPON THE GROUND (AT-TAWARRUK)

(166) Then he should sit for the final tashahhud, and both are obligatory.

(167) He should do in it what he did in the first tashahhud.

(168) Except that in it he sits with his left hip resting upon the ground, and with both his feet on his right-side. He places his left foot beneath his right shin.

(169) His right foot should be placed upright upon the ground.

(170) And it is allowed to lay it down flat, sometimes.

(171) He should lean heavily upon his left knee with his palm,
supporting himself in that manner.

THE OBLIGATION OF SUPPLICATING FOR BLESSINGS UPON THE PROPHET (AS-SALAATU ‘ALAN-NABEE AND OF SEEKING ALLAAH’S REFUGE FROM FOUR THINGS

(172) It is obligatory that he supplicates for blessings upon the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم in this tashahhud, and we have mentioned some wordings for this in the section on the first tashahhud (point nos. 145 and 146).

(173) He must seek Allaah’s refuge from four things, saying:

Allaahumma innee a’oodhu bika min ‘ adhaabi jahannam, wa min ‘ adhaabil-qabr, wa min fitnatil-mahyaa wal-mamaat, wa min sharri fitnatil-maseehid-Dajjaal

O Allaah! I seek refuge with You from the punishment of Hell-Fire, and from the Punishment of the Grave, and from the Trials of Living and Dying, and from the Evil Trials of the False Messiah (Dajjaal). [22]

SUPPLICATING (DU’AA) BEFORE THE SALUTATION (SALAAM)

(174) Then he may supplicate for himself with whatever supplication he wishes from the supplications established in the Book and the Sunnah. There are very many, so if he has not memorised anything from them, then he may supplicate with whatever du’aa is easy for him, from that which will benefit him in his Religion or his worldly life.

THE SALUTATION (AT-TASLEEM) AND ITS TYPES

(175) Then he should give salutations to his right side, and this is a pillar, turning his face such that the whiteness of his right cheek can be seen.

(176) He then gives salutations to his left side, turning his face such that the whiteness of his left cheek can be seen, even if it is the Funeral Prayer.

(177) The imaam leading others in Prayer, should raise his voice with the salutation except when performing the Funeral Prayer.

(178) There are a number of ways of giving the salutations.

(a) To say:

As-Salaamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh
May Allaah grant you peace and security, and may His Mercy and
Blessings be upon You.

to his right, and:

As-Salaamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullaah
May Allaah grant you peace and security, and may His Mercy be upon you.

to his left.

(b) To say:

As-Salaamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullaah
May Allaah grant you peace and security, and may His Mercy be upon you.

to his right and left.

(c) To say:

As-Salaamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullaah
May Allaah grant you peace and security, and may His Mercy be upon you.
to his right and:

As-Salaamu ‘alaykum
May Allaah grant you peace and security.
to his left.

(d) To give a single salutation facing forwards, and turning slightly to the right, saying:

As-Salaamu ‘alaykum
May Allaah grant you peace and security.

O brother Muslim! This is what I have been able to do with regard to “The Abridgement of the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلم Prayer Described.” I have striven to make it easily understandable, so that it should be clear to you and so that you may picture it as if you were seeing it with your (own) eyes. So if you perform the Prayer in the manner that I have described to you, from the Prayer of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, then I hope that Allaah, the Most High, will accept it from you, because in that case you will be putting into practice the saying of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, “Pray as you have seen me praying.”

Then along with this it is upon you that you do not forget the importance to be given to praying with an attentive heart, and to praying with humility and submissiveness (khushoo’), since this is the major goal of the servant’s standing before Allaah, the Most High, in Prayer.

So in accordance with the level of your fulfillment of what I have described to you, concerning humility, attentiveness and adherence to the manner in which the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم prayed, will be your attainment of the desired fruit indicated by our Lord, the Blessed and Most High, in His Saying:

“Indeed, the Prayer prevents immorality and sin” [23]

So in conclusion I ask Allaah, the Most High, that He accepts our prayers, and the rest of our actions, and that He saves the reward of them for us on that Day when we shall meet Him …

“The Day when neither wealth nor sons will avail – except one who meets Allaah with a heart free of associating anything in worship with Him.” [24]

And all praise is for Allaah, the Lord and Sustainer of all creation.

Appendix One

Soorah al-Faatihah
Bismillaahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem
In the Name of Allaah, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy.
Al-Hamdu lillaahi Rabbil-‘Aalameen
All praise is for Allaah, the Lord of all the creation.
Ar-Rahmaan-ir-Raheem
The Most Merciful, the Bestower o f Mercy
Maaliki Yawmid-Deen
Owner o f the Day of Recompense
Iyyaaka na’budu wa iyyaaka Nasta’een
You alone do we worship, and You alone do we ask for help
Ihdinas-Siraatal-Mustaqeem
Guide us to the Straight Way
Siraat-al-Ladheena an’amta ‘alaihim ghayril-maghdoobi ‘alaihim wa lad-Daalleen.
The Way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, not (the way) of those who earned Your Anger (such as the Jews) nor of those who went astray (such as the Christians).

Glossary of Terms

Aayah (pl. Aayaat): An aayah of the Qur’aan composed of a number of words that occur together.

Ahlul-Bid’ah: The People of Innovation, those people who introduce matters – whether beliefs, actions or principles – into the religion which do not belong in it and which the Messenger and his Companions were not upon.

Ahlul-Kalaam: The People of Theological Rhetoric, those who resort to philosophical reasoning and rationale in understanding the texts of the Book and the Sunnah, and therefore went astray.

Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah: Those who hold fast to that which the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and his Companions were upon with regards to ‘aqeedah (belief), manhaj (methodology) and all other matters of religion and who hold onto to this way, not abandoning it for the way of the innovated and misguided sects such as the Khawaarij, the Mu’tazilah, the Ash’ariyyah, the Soofiyyah and their likes.

‘Allaamah: A title given to someone who is distinguished in his learning and knowledge of the religion.

‘Aqeedah: The principles and specific details of belief that one holds in his heart.

Ashaabul-Hadeeth: The People of Hadeeth, this is a description of whoever submits to the Prophetic Narrations in accepting and deriving his belief. As opposed to Ahlul-Kalaam and Ahlul-Bid’ah who rely upon other than this.

Athar (pl. Aathaar): Literally, a remnant or trace. It means a narration from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم or from the Companions, the Taabi’een or those after them.

Bid’ah: An innovation, something having no precedence from the Prophetic Sunnah.

Dalaalah: Misguidance

Dhaahir: Apparent, manifest

Eemaan: The correct Islamic belief, which comprises firm belief in the heart, profession by the tongue and the actions of the limbs. It can increase and decrease.

Faqeeh: Someone who has good understanding of the religion, of the texts of the Book and the Sunnah and who can derive rulings from them.

Fiqh: The understanding and application of the Sharee’ah as derived from the Qur’aan and the Sunnah.

Haafidh: A preserver of the Qur’aan and Hadeeth.

Hadeeth (pl. Ahaadeeth): A narration containing the sayings of the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم, his actions, his silent approvals or any descriptions of him.

Hasan: In the Science of Hadeeth, a good and acceptable hadeeth.

Haqeeqah: Real, in reality (as opposed to metaphorically).

‘Ilmul-Hadeeth: The Science of Hadeeth, which is involved with separating the correct and true ahaadeeth from the weak and fabricated ones.

Ijmaa’: Consensus, the agreement of the Companions of the Messenger upon an issue, and the agreement of the Scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah upon an issue.

Imaam: One who leads in prayer, in terms of knowledge or fiqh. Also a leader of a state.

Jamaa’ah: The body of Muslims, which is united upon adherence to the truth, which is what the Companions were upon and those following them upon that.

Kaafir: A disbeliever.

Khaleefah (pl. Khulafaa): The leader of the Muslim Ummah.

Khilaafah: The Muslim State, which is based upon the beliefs, actions and methodology of the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم and His Companions.

Khutbah: A sermon (i.e., the khutbah of Jumu’ah)

Kufr: Disbelief.

Madhhab (pl. Madhaahib): A way or a school of thought.

Manhaj: Methodology, the methodology of a Muslim in the derivation, understanding and application of his Religion.

Mu’min: A Believer

Muhaddith: Someone well versed in the Science of Hadeeth and all its branches and who is able to separate the correct from the false ahaadeeth.

Mushaf: The printed Qur`nan.

Mushrik: A pagan, one who associates partners with Allaah, in either his beliefs or his actions.

Muwahhid (pl. Muwahhidoon): One who holds the correct belief in Allaah and His Names and Attributes, who worships Him alone, with everything that the correct meaning of worship requires. Not associating partners with Him in any form or fashion and who dies upon that state.

Nifaaq: Hypocrisy

Qadaa: Allaah’s ordainment of everything in creation.

Qadar: Allaah’s Pre-decree and pre-ordainment of the creation.

Qiblah: The direction one faces during Prayer (i.e., towards the Ka’bah in Makkah)

Saheeh: Authentic, a hadeeth fulfilling all the conditions of authenticity.

Salaam: The greetings that a Muslim gives to another, `Assalaamu ‘alaikum,’ may Allaah protect you and keep you safe.

Salaf: Predecessors, the early Muslims, those of the first three generations specifically (i.e., the Companions, the Successors and their successors) and those who are upon their way in belief and methodology, generally.

Shirk: Associating partners with Allaah.

Sunnah: In the broadest sense the entire religion which the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم came with i.e., all matters of belief, rulings, manners and actions which were conveyed by the Companions. It also includes those matters, which the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم established by his sayings, actions and tacit approval.

Ta’teel: The act of denying any of Allaah’s Attributes.

Ta’weel: To give a figurative explanation of any of Allaah’s Attributes, such as to say that Allaah’s Hand means `power’ or `blessing’ or that His Anger means `to intend to punish’ or to say that His Throne really means His `sovereignty’ and other similarly false interpretations.

Taabi’ee (pl. Taabi’een): The Successors, that is the successors of the Companions, the next generation after the Companions.

Tahreef: To distort the meaning of Allaah’s Attributes or any of the texts of the Book and the Sunnah such as to say that Allaah’s Mercy means `the desire to confer a favor upon someone’ or to say that Istawaa (to ascend) really means istawlaa (to conquer, dominate).

Takyeef: To enquire into exactly how Allaah’s Attributes are such as to say `How is Allaah’s Hand-‘ or `Exactly how does Allaah ascend the Throne-‘ etc. This is an innovation.

Takbeer: Allaahu Akbar … Allaah is greater.

Taqiyah: Deception, manifesting other than ones true Religion, i.e., Hypocrisy (Nifaaq).

Tasdeeq: To affirm something is true and correct.

Tashbeeh: To claim that Allaah’s Attributes resemble the Attributes of the creation such as to say `Allaah’s Hand is like our hands’ etc. This is heresy.

Tawheed: The Unity and Uniqueness of Allaah with respect to His Lordship, His Names and Attributes and in His right to be worshipped alone.

Ummah: The Muslim Nation.

Footnotes:

[1] Sunan: pl. of sunnah, referring here to recommended actions established from the practice of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم [Trans. Note]

[2] I say: This contains a subtle indication that he should not place them in front of him. This is an etiquette that is disregarded by the majority of those who pray, since you see them praying towards their shoes!

[3] i.e., `Allaahu Akbar,’ meaning, `Allaah is greater.’ [Trans. Note]

[4] I say: We know from this that what the Muslims do in all mosques that I have seen in Syria and elsewhere with regard to praying in the middle of the mosque, far away from any wall or pillar, is nothing but negligence of the command and the practice of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم

[5] Mu’khiratur-Rahl: It is the piece of wood placed at the back of the saddle, so the hadeeth contains an indication that it is not sufficient to use a line upon the ground. The hadeeth allowing that is not authentic.

[6] As for the hadeeth that he صلى الله عليه وسلم prayed at the outer edge of the area for tawaaf without any sutrah and the people were passing in front of him, then this is not authentic. Furthermore, it does not mention that they were passing between him and his place of prostration.

[7] i.e., the saying of, `As-salaamu ‘alaikum wa rahmatullaah …’ to complete the Prayer

[8] I say: As for actually touching the earlobes with the thumb then there is no basis for this in the Sunnah. Rather in my view it is something that incites misgivings.

[9] As for the practice of combining both placing and grasping at one and the same time, as some late-comers hold to he good, then there is no basis for it.

[10] I say: The placing of the hands anywhere else but the chesr is either inauthentic (da’eef). Or has no basis

[11] Whoever wishes to see the rest of the opening supplications then let him refer to Sifatus-Salaat, pp. 14-19 of the translation

[12] The whole of Soorah al-Faatihah can be seen in Appendix One

[13] I say: I have mentioned the evidence used by those who support it, along with its rebuttal in Silsilatul-Ahaadeethid-Da’eefah, nos. 546 and 547

[14] For the details of this chapter, refer, if you wish, to Sifatus-Salaat, (pp. 25-39 of the translation).

[15] There are other sayings that can be said with this pillar (rukn). Some are long, some are medium length and some are short. Refer to Sifatus-Salaat, Eng. transl. pp. 44-46

[16] There are other sayings that can be said here. Refer to Sifatus-Salaat, (Eng. transl. pp. 47-50).

[17] It is not prescribed to place one hand upon the other during this standing, since that is not reported. If you wish you may see further discussion of this in Sifatus-Salaat (Eng. transl. pp. 50-51).

[18] There are other sayings that can be said in it, and you can refer to them in, Sifatus- Salaat, Eng. Transl., pp. 55-57

[19] This is what it is prescribed to say after the death of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and this wording is established in the tashahhud of Ibn Mas’ood, ‘Aa’ishah, Ibn az-Zubayr and Ibn ‘Abbaas. So whoever wishes may refer to my book Sifatus-Salaat, (Eng. transl. p. 68).

[20] I have mentioned other wordings of the tashahhud in my book (Eng. transl. pp. 67-70), and that which I have mentioned here is the most authentic

[21] Witr: the odd-numbered rak’ah(s) said at the end of the (optional) Night Prayer

[22] The ‘Trials of Living …’ are that which a person encounters in life with regard to being enticed by the worldly life and the desires to which it gives rise. The ‘Trials of dying …’ are the trials of the grave, and the questioning by the two Angels. And the ‘Trials of the False Messiah (Dajjaal) …’ are the supernatural occurrences that will happen at his hands; things that will lead many people to go astray, to follow him and accept his claim to divinity

[23] Soorah al-Ankaboot (29):45

[24] Soorah ash-Shu’araa (26):88-81)

“We placed veils upon their hearts so that they understand it not” – Explained by Shaykh Al Albaani

[7] Question:

Allaah says:

وَجَعَلْنَا عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ أَكِنَّةً أَن يَفْقَهُوهُ وَفِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرًا
“And We placed veils upon their hearts – so that they understand it not – and deafness in their ears.” [Surah Al-An’aam: 25]

Some people perceive this ayah to contain a sense of coercion in it (on the part of Allaah). So what is your opinion with regards to this?

[7] Answer:

This “placing” is an existential (kawnee) type of placing. In order to understand this, we must explain the meaning of Allaah’s Divine Desire (Iraadah). Divine Desire is divided into two categories.

The Shar’ee (Legislative) Desire and the Kawnee (Existential) Desire

The Legislative Desire is everything that Allaah has legislated for His servants and incited them to do, such as acts of worship and obedience, regardless of their rulings, whether obligatory or recommended. Allaah desires and loves these acts of worship and obedience.

As for the Existential Desire, it may at times be something that Allaah did not legislate but yet preordained. This type of Desire is only called “Existential Desire” since its term was derived from Allaah’s statement:

إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُ إِذَا أَرَادَ شَيْئًا أَن يَقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ

“Verily, His Command – when He desires something – is only that He says to it ‘Be’ and it is.” [Surah YaaSeen: 82]

The word “something” here is an indefinite noun which consists of everything, whether acts of obedience or acts of disobedience. Such things come into existence by Allaah’s saying to it: “Be.” Meaning: It occurs through His Will, Ordainment, and Pre- Decree. So if we come to realize this Existential Desire, which includes everything regardless if it is an act of obedience or an act of disobedience, it will definitely lead us back to the subject of Al-Qadaa wal-Qadar (Allaah’s Divine Ordainment and Pre- Decree, since Allaah’s statement: “Verily, His Command – when He desires something – is only that He says to it ‘Be’ and it is” means that the thing to which He said “Be” is something He decreed, which will definitely come into existence.

Everything, according to Allaah, is decreed – it either consists of good or it consists of evil. However, that which applies from it to us – the two species of mankind and jinn who have been ordered by Allaah and are accountable for our actions – is that we look at what we do. The things we do either occur purely from our desire and free choice or they occur in spite of what we desire. Acts of obedience or disobedience do not apply to this second category and the end result of it is not Paradise or Hellfire. It is only the first category that the religious laws revolve around. And it is based on this that a person will be rewarded with either Paradise or the Hellfire. This means that whatever a person does based on his own desire and whatever he chases after through His actions and free choice, this is what he will be held accountable for. If it is good, then he will have good and if it is bad, then he will have bad.

The fact that a person has a free choice in a large portion of his actions is a fact that cannot be argued with whether religiously or intellectually.

As for religiously, there are numerous texts from the Qur’aan and Sunnah that confirm that a person may choose to do what he is ordered to do and abandon what he is forbidden from doing. These texts are too numerous to mention.

As for intellectually, it is clear to every person that is void of whims and desires that whenever he speaks or walks or eats or drinks or does anything that involves his free will, he is choosing on his own to do that action and not being forced to do that at all. For example, if I wish to speak right now, there is naturally no one that can force me to do that. However, this speech (of mine) is pre-decreed. What is meant by my speaking these words in spite of it being pre-decreed is that it is pre-ordained along with my free choice of what I will say and talk about. However, I have the ability to remain silent to make clear – to those doubtful about what I’m saying – that I have a free choice in the matter of speaking.

So therefore, the fact that a person has a free choice and a free will is something that cannot be disputed or argued against. And as for one who does argue against such a fact, then this person is only arguing philosophically and casting doubts on self-evident intuitions. And when a person reaches this stage, he can no longer be talked to (logically).

Therefore, the actions of a human being are divided into two categories:

1. Those that are done out of his choice and free will
2. Those that are done as a result of him being forced and coerced to

We have nothing to say about the actions that are done due to coercion – not from a religious perspective or from a real-life perspective. The religion is only concerned with the matters of free choice and free will. This is the truth of the matter. If we implant this into our minds, we will be able to understand the afore-mentioned ayah: “And We placed veils upon their hearts.” This refers to the Existential Placing. We must remember that the afore-mentioned ayah: “Verily, His Command – when He desires something” refers to the Existential Desire. However, it is not done against the will and choice of this person whom Allaah has placed veils over his heart.

Here is an example of this from an actual perspective: When a human being is created, he is formed while his flesh is still soft and tender. Then as he gets older and older, his flesh becomes harder and his bones become stronger. However, not all people are the same in this regard. So lets say for example this person is devoted to (learning) some type of study or science. What part of the body will grow strong in this person? His mind will strengthen. His brain will become stronger in the field that he preoccupies it with and applies all of its abilities on. However, from a physical standpoint, his body will not strengthen nor will his muscles develop.

The opposite of this is exactly true as well, for there may be a person that completely applies himself physically. So everyday he engages in sports and physical training – as we say today. Such a person’s muscles and body will progress and become strong. And he will acquire an image just like those that we see sometimes in real-life and sometimes in pictures in which for example the bodies of these athletes have become all muscle. Was this person created this way? Or did he earn and acquire for himself this strong physique loaded with muscles? This is something that he has attained based on his own actions and free choice.

This is the same example as someone who lingers in his misguidance, rejection, disbelief and denial and as a result attains this condition of these veils being placed by Allaah over his heart, not because Allaah compelled and forced this upon him but rather due to his actions and free choice.

So this is the existential placing which these disbelieving people have acquired (for themselves). They have gotten themselves to this point, which the ignorant think they were forced into, when in reality, such a fate was not obliged upon them, but rather came about due to what their own hands earned. And Allaah does not oppress His servants.

Footnotes:
15 See Silsilat-ul-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (2468)

Source: Posted by AbdurRahman.Org from the Book PDF: How are we Obligated to Interpret the Qur’aan? Shaykh al-Albanee. [ Download complete PDF book]

The Need for the Sunnah in order to Understand the Qur’aan – Shaykh al Albaani

The Need for the Sunnah in order to Understand the Qur’aan, and Examples for that:

Allaah’s statement:

“The male and the female thief – cut off their hands” [Surah Al-Maa’idah: 38] is a good example of this, for the word “thief” mentioned in it, is absolute, as is the case with the word “hand.”

The verbal Sunnah explains the first of these two (words) and restricts it to mean just the thief that steals a quarter of a dinaar. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم: “There is no cutting off of the hand except in (cases where one steals) a quarter of a dinaar and more.”

[Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

Likewise, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم explained the second (word) with his action or with the action of his Companions and his approving of that. This is since they would cut the hand of the thief off from the wrist, as is well known from the books of Hadeeth.

The verbal Sunnah also explains the “hand” that is mentioned in the verse concerning Tayammum:

“Then wipe your faces and hands” [Surah An-Nisaa: 43, Surah Al-Maa’idah: 6] in that it can also refer to the palm.This is based on the Prophet’s saying: “Tayammum is a tap (i.e. wipe) of the face and hands.”

[Reported by Ahmad, Al-Bukhaaree, Muslim and others from the narration of ‘Ammaar bin Yaasir radhi Allaahu anhu]

Below are some other verses from the Qur’aan that cannot be understood correctly, according to what Allaah intended, unless by way of the Sunnah.

1. Allaah says:

“It is those who believe and mix not their Faith with dhulm (wrong) – for them (only) there is security and they are the guided ones.” [Surah Al-An’aam: 82]

The Companions of Allaah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم understood the phrase “with dhulm (wrong)” according to its general sense, which includes every wrong, even if it be small. This is why they had difficulty understanding the verse and so they said: “O Messenger of Allaah! Which one of us doesn’t mix their Faith with wrong?” So the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “It doesn’t mean that. It only means Shirk (here). Didn’t you hear Luqmaan say:

‘Verily Shirk is a great wrong?’ [Surah Luqmaan: 13]”

[Reported by Al-Bukhaaree, Muslim and others]

2. Allaah’s says:

“And when you travel in the land, there is no sin on you if you shorten your prayer, if you fear that the disbelievers may attack you.” [Surah An-Nisaa: 101]

The literal wording of this verse necessitates that shortening the prayer while on a journey can only be done on the condition when one is in the state of fear. This is why some of the Companions asked Allaah’s Messenger: “So then why do we shorten the prayer when we are in a state of security?” He صلى الله عليه وسلم replied: “This is a charity that Allaah has expended to you, so take His charity.” [Reported by Muslim]

3. Allaah says:

“Forbidden to you (for food) are: al-maytatah (dead animals), blood, the flesh of swine…” [Surah Al-Maa’idah: 3]

But the verbal Sunnah explains that deceased locusts and fish, as well as liver and spleen (types) of blood are lawful. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Two types of deceased animals and two types of blood have been made lawful for us: locusts and sea fish [meaning all types of fish], and the liver and the spleen.”

[Reported by Al- Bayhaqee and others in marfoo’ and mawqoof form. The chain of the mawqoof narration is authentic and it takes on the ruling of being marfoo’ since it cannot be stated based on one’s mere opinion.]

4. Allaah says:

“Say (O Muhammad): ‘I find not in that which has been inspired to me anything forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it, unless it be maytah (a dead animal) or blood poured forth (by slaughtering), or the flesh of swine (pork), for that surely is impure, or impious (unlawful) meat (of an animal) which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for other than Allaah…’” [Surah Al-An’aam: 145]

Then the Sunnah came and forbade other things that haven’t been mentioned in this ayah, such as the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلم saying: “Every predatory animal that has fangs and every bird that has claws is unlawful (for eating).” There are also other ahaadeeth on this subject that forbid other animals, such as what the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said on the Day of Khaybar: “Verily Allaah and His Messenger forbid you from (eating) domesticated donkeys, for they are impure.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

5. Allaah says:

“Say (O Muhammad): ‘Who has forbidden the adornment with clothes given by Allaah, which He has produced for his slaves, and the good (lawful) things from provision?’” [Surah Al-A’raaf: 32]

But the Sunnah explains that there are certain types of adornments that are forbidden. It is authentically reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم went out one day to meet his Companions holding silk in one hand and gold in the other, and said: “These two things are unlawful for the males of my ummah, (but) lawful for the females.” [Reported by Al-Haakim who authenticated it] The ahaadeeth bearing this same understanding are many, well known and can be found in the two Saheeh collections as well as other collections.

There are many more examples like these (above) that are known to the people who have knowledge of Hadeeth and Fiqh. So from what has been stated previously, it should become clear to us, O brothers, the importance of the Sunnah in deriving Islamic laws. For indeed if we look back again at the examples I mentioned before, not to mention those that I didn’t mention, we will have certainty that there is no way to understand the noble Qur’aan, unless we understand it along with the Sunnah.

In the first example, the Companions understood the word “dhulm” mentioned in the ayah according to its literal meaning. This was even though they, may Allaah be pleased with them, were as Ibn Mas’ood said: “The best of this ummah, possessing the most pious of hearts, profound in learning and the least of constraints.” But in spite of this, they erred with regard to understanding that. So if it were not for the Prophet refuting their error and guiding them to what was correct with regard to the meaning of “dhulm” – that it in fact meant Shirk here – we would have followed them upon their error. However, Allaah, Mighty and Majestic, saved us from that due to the grace of the Prophet’s guidance and Sunnah.

And in the second example: if it weren’t for the afore-mentioned hadeeth, we would have remained in doubt, to say the least, regarding shortening the prayer while on a journey in the state of security. That is to say if we wouldn’t have already taken the view of making being in the state of fear a condition, as is literally stated in the ayah. This is also just what the Companions themselves understood (about the ayah) until they saw the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم shorten his prayer, and they shortened their prayer along with him, while they were in a state of security.

In the third example: If it weren’t for the hadeeth, we would have been forbidden from foods that were made lawful for us, such as (dead) locusts and fish, and liver and spleen.

In the fourth example, if it weren’t for the hadeeth, which mentions some things (not mentioned in the ayah), we would have made lawful what Allaah had made forbidden through the tongue of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, such as predatory (fanged) animals and birds with claws.

The same goes for the fifth example, if it weren’t for the ahaadeeth reported in that regard, we would have made lawful that which Allaah made unlawful upon the tongue of the Prophet, such as silk and gold. This is why some of the Salaf used to say: “The Sunnah judges upon the Book (i.e. Qur’aan).”

Posted by AbdurRahman.Org from al-ibaanah eBook:
The Status of Sunnah in Islam – Shaik Nasiruddin Albanee

Why the deceased person is punished (in the grave) due to the crying of his family for him? – Shaykh al Albaani

[3] Question:

There are some who say that if a hadeeth contradicts an ayah in the Qur’aan, it should be rejected no matter what level of authenticity it has. Then they use as an example the hadeeth: “Indeed the deceased person will be punished (in the grave) due to the crying of his family for him.”[10] They use the statement of ‘Aa’ishah in which she used Allaah’s saying to refute this hadeeth:

وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَى
“And no bearer of burdens shall bear the burden of another.” [Surah Faatir: 18]

How do we respond to those who say this?

[3] Answer: Rejecting this hadeeth falls under the issues related to rejecting the Sunnah by way of the Qur’aan. So this shows the deviation of this way of thinking.

As for the response to this hadeeth – and I am referring here particularly to those who adhere to the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah, then it is as follows:

First: From a hadeeth standpoint: There is no way to reject this hadeeth from a hadeeth standpoint due to two reasons:

1. It has been reported through an authentic chain of narration from Ibn ‘Umar radhi Allaahu anhu.

2. Ibn ‘Umar radhi Allaahu anhu is not alone in reporting it, rather he was followed in that by ‘Umar bin Al- Khattaab radhi Allaahu anhu. Furthermore, he and his son are not alone in reporting it either, for they were also followed in that by Al-Mugheerah bin Shu’bah radhi Allaahu anhu. This is what comes to my mind at this time since the reports of all three of these Companions can be found in the two Saheeh Collections.

And if a person were to conduct an exclusive research on this hadeeth, he would find other paths of narration for it. These three ahaadeeth all have authentic chains of narration so they cannot be rejected just based on the claim that they “contradict” the noble Qur’aan.

Second: From a tafseer standpoint: This is since the scholars have explained this hadeeth in two ways:

1. This hadeeth only applies to a deceased person who knew during the course of his life that his family would commit oppositions to the Religion after his death and did not advise them. Nor he did direct them to not cry over him since this crying would serve as a means for his being punished in the grave.

The usage of the word “the” when referring to the “deceased person” is not allencompassing and inclusive. Meaning: The hadeeth does not mean that every deceased person will be punished due to the crying of his family members. Rather, the word “the” is for a specific designation, meaning it refers to only those who do not advise others to not commit what opposes the Religion after his death. So this is the type of person who will be punished by the crying of his family over him.

As for the one who takes charge of advising his family and directing them with religious guidelines such as to not wail over him and to not commit the offenses that are done ,particularly in this era, then such a person will not be punished. But if he does not direct and advise (his family), he will be punished.

This is the detailed breakdown that we are required to understand from the first explanation, in accordance to the interpretation of many well known and famous scholars such as An-Nawawee and others. So when we come to comprehend this detailed breakdown, it becomes clear that there is in fact no contradiction between this hadeeth and Allaah’s statement:

وَلاَ تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَى

“And no bearer of burdens shall bear the burden of another.” [Surah Al-An’aam: 164]

A contradiction only becomes apparent if the word “the” in the word “the deceased person” is understood to be all-inclusive, meaning that it encompasses everyone who dies. This is where the hadeeth becomes obscure and contradicts the noble ayah in the Qur’aan. But if we comprehend the meaning of the hadeeth according to what was mentioned before, there would be no more contradictions or obscurities since we would understand that the one who is being punished (in the grave) is only like that because he failed to advise and direct his family members (before his death). This is the first manner in which this hadeeth has been interpreted in order to repel this so-called “contradiction.”

2. A second interpretation has been mentioned by Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah, may Allaah have mercy on him, in some of his writings. And it is that the punishment here does not refer to the punishment in the grave or the punishment in the Hereafter but rather, that it only refers to pain and sorrow. Meaning: When a deceased person hears the crying of his family for him, he will feel bad and sorrowful for their grief over him. This is what Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah said. If it is correct, it would eradicate the root of the misconception.

However, I say: Such an explanation goes against two facts, which is why we can only rely on the first explanation of this hadeeth:

The First Fact: The report from Al-Mugheerah bin Shu’abah radhi Allaahu anhu that I indicated previously has an addition to it that clarifies that the punishment here does not refer to just pain and sorrow, but rather that it refers to actual punishment, i.e. punishment in the Hellfire, unless Allaah forgives him. This is clearly stated in Allaah’s saying:

إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاء

“Verily, Allaah does not forgive that partners be associated with Him (in worship), but He forgives what is less than that to whom He wills.” [Surah An-Nisaa: 48]

In the narration of Al-Mugheerah radhi Allaahu anhu it states: “Indeed, the deceased person will be punished due to the crying of his family over him on the Day of Judgement.” So this clearly states that the deceased will be punished due to his family crying over him on the Day of Judgement and not in his grave, which is what Ibn Taimiyyah explained as meaning pain and sorrow.

The Second Fact: When a person dies, he does not feel anything that goes on around him whether good or bad, as indicated by evidences in the Qur’aan and Sunnah, except in certain cases, which have been mentioned in some ahaadeeth either as a rule for every deceased person or for some only whom Allaah enables to hear some things that will cause them pain.

So firstly there is the hadeeth reported by Al-Bukhaaree in his Saheeh from Anas bin Maalik radhi Allaahu anhu in which he narrated that the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

“Verily, when a servant (of Allaah) is placed in his grave, and his companions depart from him – at the point where he can still hear their footsteps – two angels come to him.” [11]

This authentic hadeeth affirms a special type of hearing that a deceased person will have at the time he is buried and the people are walking away from him. Meaning: At the time that the two angels come to sit by him, his soul returns to his body and in this state of being, he is able to hear the footsteps (of his loved ones walking away).

Therefore, the hadeeth does not mean on the outset that this deceased person and all deceased people will have their souls returned to them and that they will remain with the ability to hear the footsteps of the people passing by the graves up until the day that they will be resurrected. No.

This is a specific circumstance and a special type of hearing on the part of the deceased since his soul has returned to him. So if we were to go by the interpretation of Ibn Taimiyyah at this point, we would be forced to expand the senses of the deceased person to include everything that goes on around him whether at the time he is being transferred to his grave before his burial or after he is placed in his grave – meaning that he can hear his living family members crying over him. This requires a textual proof, which is missing. This is first.

Secondly, some texts from the Qur’aan and the authentic Sunnah indicate that the deceased cannot hear. This is a huge topic and requires an in-depth discussion. However I will mention one hadeeth by which I will close the answer to this question. And it is the statement of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم in which he said:

“Verily, Allaah has angels that roam throughout earth who convey to me the greetings (of Salaam) on behalf of my ummah.” [12]

What is meant by “roam” is that they frequent gatherings. So every time a Muslim sends Salaat (praises) on the Prophet, there is an assigned angel that conveys this greeting from that Muslim to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. So if the deceased could hear, the one with the most right from those deceased to hear would be our Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم due to Allaah’s favoring him and particularizing him with special qualities and attributes over all of the prophets, messengers, and rest of mankind. So if anyone had the ability to hear, it would surely be the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم. And furthermore, if the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم were able to hear anything after his death, he would hear the Salaat (praises) of his ummah) on him.

So here we come to understand the error, or the deviation, of those who ask assistance – not from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم – but rather from those less than him, whether messengers, prophets or righteous people. This is since if they were to ask assistance from the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم, he would not hear them as is clearly stated in the Qur’aan:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللّهِ عِبَادٌ أَمْثَالُكُمْ
“And those whom you call besides Allaah are servants (of Allaah) just like you.” [Surah Al-A’raaf: 194]

And in His saying:

إِن تَدْعُوهُمْ لَا يَسْمَعُوا دُعَاءآُمْ
“If you supplicate to them, they cannot hear your supplication.” [Surah Faatir: 14]

So therefore, after they die, the deceased cannot hear unless there is some text that applies to a particular situation – as I mentioned before – such as the deceased hearing the footsteps. This concludes the answer to this question.

Footnotes:

[9] Mishkaat-ul-Masaabeeh (1/66/186)
[10] Saheeh al-Jaami’-us-Sagheer (1970)
[11] Saheeh al-Jaami’-us-Sagheer (1675)
[12] Saheeh al-Jaami’-us-Sagheer (2174)

Source: Posted by AbdurRahman.Org from the Book PDF: How are we Obligated to Interpret the Qur’aan? Shaykh al-Albanee. [ Download complete PDF book]

The Meaning of Allaah being the “Best of Plotters” – Shaykh al Albaani

From the Book: How are we Obligated to Interpret the Qur’aan? Shaykh al-Albanee.
[ Download complete PDF book]

[5] Question: Allaah informs us about Himself saying:

وَمَكَرُواْ وَمَكَرَ اللّهُ وَاللّهُ خَيْرُ الْمَاآِرِينَ
“And they plotted and Allaah too plotted. And Allaah is the best of plotters.”
[Surah Aali ‘Imraan: 54]

Perhaps the minds of some people may limit the understanding of this ayah to just its apparent meaning. And maybe we are not in need of explaining it. But how is it that Allaah is the best of plotters?

[5] Answer:

This question is easy by the Grace of Allaah. This is since we are able to understand that plotting is not always necessarily characterized with being evil nor is it always necessarily characterized with being good. So perhaps a disbeliever may plot against a Muslim however this Muslim is bright and clever and not heedless and stupid. So he is aware of the plots of his disbelieving opponent and thus deals with him in retaliation to his plot. This is such that the end result is that this Muslim through his good plotting compels the disbeliever’s evil plot to backfire on his own self. So can it be said that when this Muslim plotted against the disbeliever, he engaged in an illegal affair? No one says this.

It is easy to comprehend this fact from the statement of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم: “War is deception.” [14] What can be said about deception is exactly the same that can be said about plotting. A Muslim deceiving his Muslim brother is forbidden. However, if a Muslim deceives a disbeliever who is an enemy to Allaah and an enemy to His Messenger, this is not forbidden. On the contrary, it is obligatory. The same goes for a Muslim plotting against a disbeliever who intends to plot against him, such that this Muslim reverses the plot of this disbeliever. This is a good form of plotting. This is a human being and that is a human being. But what do we say with respect to the Lord of all that exists, the All-Able, the All-Knowing, the All-Wise?

He invalidates the plots of all the plotters. This is why Allaah says: “And Allaah is the best of plotters.” So when Allaah describes Himself with this description, our attention shuld be directed to the fact that plotting – even on the part of humans – is not always negative. This is since Allaah says: “The best of plotters.” So there is plotting that is good and plotting that is bad. So whoever plots for a good reason should not be condemned. And Allaah, Mighty and Majestic, is as He says, the “best of plotters.”

In brief, I say: Whatever suppositions may come to your mind, Allaah is contrary to that. So if a person imagines something that is not befitting to Allaah, then he should know right away that he is wrong. Hence this ayah contains praise for Allaah, so there is nothing in it that is impermissible to ascribe to Allaah.

Footnotes:

[14] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree (3030) and Saheeh Muslim (1740)

 

Knowledge of Arabic is not sufficient for understanding the Qur’aan – Shaykh al Albaani

Knowledge of Arabic is not sufficient for understanding the Qur’aan:

From what has been stated previously, it becomes clear that there is no way for anyone, even if he be a scholar of the Arabic Language and its disciplines, to understand the noble Qur’aan, without seeking assistance in that from the Prophet’s Sunnah in speech and action. This is since he will never be more knowledgeable of the language than the Companions of the Prophet, those who the Qur’aan was revealed to in their language. And (at that time) the language was not blemished with the errors of the non-Arabs and the slang of the common people, but in spite of that, they still erred in understanding these previously mentioned ayaat, when they relied on their knowledge of the language only.

So based on this, it is obvious that whenever a person is knowledgeable of the Sunnah, he will be more likely to understand the Qur’aan and extract rulings from it, than someone who is ignorant about it. So how about the one who doesn’t rely on it or reference it at all? This is why from the principles that have been agreed upon by the people of knowledge is: to interpret the Qur’aan with the Qur’aan and the Sunnah,1 and then the sayings of the Companions, etc.

From this, we become aware of the misguidance of the scholars of rhetoric, past and present, and their opposition to the Salaf, in their Creed, not to mention their rulings. And it is their remoteness from the Sunnah and their knowledge of it, and their making their intellects and desires as judges for themselves with regard to the verses concerning Allaah’s Attributes. What is better than what has been stated in Sharh Al- ‘Aqeedah At-Tahaawiyyah [of Ibn Abil-‘Izz Al-Hanafee] (pg. 212, 4th Edition):

“How can someone who didn’t learn from the Book and the Sunnah, but rather just learned it from the views of so and so, speak about the fundaments of the Religion! And if he claims that he is taking it from the Book of Allaah, then he is not taking the interpretation of the Book of Allaah from the ahaadeeth of the Messenger. He doesn’t look into it (i.e. the Sunnah), nor does he look at what the Companions or those who succeeded them in goodness said, which has been conveyed to us by way of reliable narrators chosen by the critics (i.e. hadeeth scholars). For indeed, they did not convey the arrangement of the Qur’aan only, but rather they conveyed the arrangement as well as the meanings. They would not learn the Qur’aan like the children do (today), rather they would learn it along with its meanings. And whoever does not follow their path, then he is speaking based on his opinion. And whoever speaks from his opinion, and from what he thinks Allaah’s Religion is, not getting that from the Book, he is in fact sinning (!), even if he may be correct. Whereas whoever takes from the Book and the Sunnah, he is rewarded even if he errs. However, if he is correct, his reward is multiplied.”

Then he said (pg. 217):

“So it is an obligation to completely submit to the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم, follow his orders, and meet his reports with acceptance and firm belief, without contradicting that by false notions that we consider “reasonable” or that constitute a misconception and doubt. Or that we put before it the views of men and the rubbish held in their minds. So we must single the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم out with regard to making him the judge, submitting to him, obeying him and complying with him, just as we single out the One who sent him in worship, humility, submissiveness, repentance and reliance (to Him).”

In summary: It is an obligation upon all of the Muslims to not differentiate between the Qur’aan and the Sunnah, with regard to the obligation of accepting both of them together and establishing Laws based on both of them. Indeed this is the guarantee that will prevent them from drifting to the right and the left, and from returning to deviation.

This is as the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم clearly stated:

“I have left two things for you, which you will never go astray so long as you adhere to them: The Book of Allaah and my Sunnah. These two will never separate from one another until they return to the Fountain.”

[Reported by Maalik and Al-Haakim with a sound chain of narration]

Footnotes:

[1] We do not say as is the custom amongst many of the people of knowledge: “We interpret the Qur’aan by the Qur’aan if there is no trace of it in the Sunnah, then we interpret it by the Sunnah.” This is due to what we will explain later on in the end of this treatise, when speaking about the (weak) hadeeth of Mu’aadh bin Jabal radhi Allaahu anhu.

Posted from al-ibaanah eBook:
 The Status of Sunnah in Islam – Shaik Nasiruddin Albanee

Oppression is of three types – Silsilah Ahadeeth As-Saheehah

The Ahadeeth of Tawheed from the ‘Silsilah Ahadeeth As-Saheehah’ of Shaykh Al-Albaani. Translated by Abbas Abu Yahya. Chapters of Tawheed and the Shahahdatayn – Part 6

21- The Different Types of Oppression and the Type Which Will not be Forgiven

1927- “Oppression is of three types, the oppression which Allaah will not leave, an oppression that will be forgiven, and an oppression that will not be forgiven.

As for the oppression which will not be forgiven, then Shirk will not be forgiven.

As for the oppression which will be forgiven, then that is the oppression which the slave commits between himself and his Lord.

As for the oppression which will not be left, then it is the oppression of the slaves, then Allaah will take the rights some from others.”

The Wisdom Behind Praying the Eid Prayer In The Musallaa – Shaykh al-Albaani

Furthermore, there is great and profound wisdom behind this Sunnah – i.e. the Sunnah of praying in an open area of land (i.e. the musallaa). And it is that:

The Muslims will have two days out of the year where all the people of every city can gather together – whether men, women or children – and turn towards Allaah with their hearts in unity, praying behind one Imaam, making the takbeer and the tahleel and supplicating to Allaah sincerely together, as if they were united upon the heart of one man, happy and joyous about the blessing Allaah has bestowed on them. So the ‘Eid will truly be an occasion of celebration for them.

Allaah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم ordered the women to go out to pray ‘Eid along with the people, and he did not make an exception for any of them. This is even to the point that he made no excuses for those women who did not have a garment by which they could veil themselves when coming out, as instead he commanded them to borrow garments from other women. And this is even to the point that he صلى الله عليه وسلم commanded those women who had a reason that prevented them from praying (i.e. menses) to go out to the musallaa, so that they may “witness the good and the supplication of the Muslims.”

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, and then his Khaleefahs (successors) after him, and the delegated leaders in the cities would lead the people in prayer. Then they would give them a sermon saying that which would admonish them. And they would teach them what would be of benefit to them in this world and in the Hereafter. And they would order them to give in charity in that gathering. So the rich person would show affection towards the poor person. And the poor would find joy in what Allaah has given them from His Bounty during this blessed assembly, which Allaah’s Mercy and Contentment descends upon.

So it is only proper for the Muslims to respond to following the Sunnah of their Prophet and reviving the rites of their Religion, which is the point of their resolution and success.

“O you who believe! Respond to Allaah and to the Messenger when He calls you to that which will revive you.” [Surah Al-Anfaal: 24]

Shaikh Waliyullaah Ad-Dihlawee said in Hujjatullaah-il-Baalighah under the heading “The Two ‘Eids” (2/30-32):

“The foundation with regard to them is that every nation has a day in which they beautify themselves and go out from their city with their adornment. This is a custom, which no group amongst the Arabs and non-Arabs have stopped practicing. When the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم came to Madeenah, he found that the people had two days in which they would go out and enjoy themselves, so he said: ‘Allaah has replaced these two days with something that is better than them – the Day of Adhaa and the Day of Fitr.’ [20] It was said that these two (prior) days of celebration were: An-Nayrooz and Al-Mahrajaan. These two days were only replaced because there is no ‘Eid for a group of people except that the reason for its existence is to elevate the rites of a Religion or to comply with the founders of a particular way or something that resembles that. So the Prophet feared that if he were to leave them with their custom, there would remain this elevating of the rites of Jaahiliyyah (i.e. the Days of Ignorance) or the propagating of the (false) ways of the ancestors. So he صلى الله عليه وسلم replaced them with two days in which there was found an elevating of the rites of the pure and upright Religion (of Islaam). And along with adorning oneself for the occasion, he صلى الله عليه وسلم included the remembrance of Allaah as well as various acts of obedience, so that the gathering of the Muslims won’t just be for pure play and enjoyment, and so that no gathering from them will be void of raising Allaah’s Word.

The first of these two days is ‘Eid-ul-Fitr, the day when they end their fasting and give a certain type of their Zakaat. So they experience this ‘natural joy’ that is caused by their withdrawing from conditions that were difficult upon them (i.e. the fast). And the poor person experiences joy at taking his charity.

The ‘intellectual joy’ they experience is due to the delight of knowing that Allaah has blessed them with the ability to complete what He made obligatory upon them (i.e. the fast)…

The second is the day when Ibraaheem (intended to) sacrifice his son Ismaa’eel, may Allaah be pleased with both of them. But Allaah blessed them both by replacing him with the great sacrifice (i.e. a ram). This is since on this day, one can be reminded and take heed of the condition of the ancestors of this noble and upright religion, by sacrificing one’s soul and wealth in obeying Allaah, and having firm patience. In this, there is a similarity to those performing Hajj, where one tries to emulate them and longs to be in the state they are in. This is why it is legislated to make the Takbeer in it, which is found in Allaah’s saying:

‘And so that you may magnify Allaah (by making Takbeer) for having guided you and so that you may be grateful.’ [Surah Al-Baqarah: 185; Surah Al-Hajj: 37]

This means: Give thanks to Him for granting you the ability to fast. This is why performing the sacrifice and saying the takbeer out loud were legislated on the Days of Minaa. And this is why it is recommended for those who intend to offer the sacrifice to abandon shaving (the body hair). [21] And this is also why the Prayer and the Khutbah (sermon) were prescribed – so that no part of their gathering could be void of the remembrance of Allaah and the elevating of the rites of the Religion.

Another objective from the objectives of the Pure Legislation is included in this, which is that: Every nation must have some presentation, in which its people gather together during it to display their strength and to show their numbers. This is why it is recommended for everyone to go out (to the musallaa) – even the children, the women, the young girls and the menstruating women. However, they (i.e. menstruating women) must not join the musallaa (i.e. the prayer) but rather witness the supplication of the Muslims.

And it is also why the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم would vary in the roads he took when going and coming from the musallaa, so that the people in each of the roads would see the strength of the Muslims. And since the origin of ‘Eid was to decorate and adorn oneself, it is recommended to wear one’s best garment, to enjoy oneself (taqlees), [22] to take different routes when going and coming and to go out to the musallaa.”

[End Quote]

Footnotes:

[20] I say: Ahmad and others reported it with an authentic chain of narration. I have referenced it in as-Saheehah (no.2021).

[21] I say: He is indicating the Prophet’s statement: “When the Hilaal (crescent) for Dhul-Hijjah is sighted and one of you wants to offer a sacrifice, then he must refrain from cutting his hair and nails.” And in one narration: “…then let him not cut any part of his hair or nails until he offers the sacrifice.” [See Mukhtasar Saheeh Muslim (no. 1251) and others] I say: It is apparent from the hadeeth that anyone who is determined to perform the sacrifice is obligated not to cut his hair and nails until he offers the sacrifice. So this type of cutting mentioned above is forbidden. Imaam Ahmad and others held this view. So let those who are tested with shaving their beards take note of this, for indeed, there are three sinful matters in their shaving of their beards for the day of ‘Eid:

First: The shaving itself, for it is a feminine trait, an imitation of the disbelievers, and an alteration of Allaah’s creation, as I have explained in my book “Adaab az-Zafaaf fis-Sunnah al-Mutahharah (Sixth Edition, pg. 118).

Second: Adorning oneself for the day of ‘Eid by disobeying Allaah.

Third: What is derived from this hadeeth of the forbiddance of cutting the hair for the one who intends to offer the sacrifice. In reality, there are very few people that are saved from committing this (sin), even some of the people of knowledge (do it)! We ask Allaah to protect us.

[22] Shaikh Ad-Dihlawee said in his footnote: “Taqlees (Enjoying oneself) means beating the duff and playing when the kings arrive, in order to welcome them.” I say: He is indicating the hadeeth that has been reported by Ibn Maajah (1/391) and others with two chains of narration. In one of them is Shareek, who is Ibn ‘Abdillaah Al-Qaadee – he had bad memory. And in the other chain is found Abu Ishaaq, who is As-Subay’ee – he would mix up his narrations. At-Tahaawee weakened it in his Mushkil-ul-Athaar (2/209-210) based on two angles, so refer to it if you wish.

Source: Al-Ibaanah EBook –Praying Eid in the Musallaa is the Sunnah- Shaykh al Albanee

The Beautiful Humble Dua of Abu Bakr -RadhiAllaahu anhu

The Beautiful Humble Dua of Abu Bakr -RadhiAllaahu anhu- the Best of Creation after the Prophets

Shaykh Albaani said after an announcer praised him:

‘I thank the brother, teacher Ibraheem for his statements and his praise, there is nothing that I can say in return except by following the first Khalifa Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq -RadhiAllaahu anhu- who was truly a Khalifa and the first of them for the Messenger of Allaah -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – but even though he was the Khalifa when he would hear a person praising him with goodness – and I believe that praise, no matter how excessive that person was in giving it, as long as it was for the Khalifa of the Messenger of Allaah, then he deserved it — but along with that -Allaah ul-Musta’aan (Allaah’s help is required) [here the Shaykh begins to shed tears] along with that Abu Bakr used to say:

 اللهم لا تؤاخذني بما يقولون، 
O Allaah do not take me to task with   what they say, 

 واجعلني خيرًا مما يظنون، 
and make me better than what they presume 

واغفر لي ما لا يعلمون،
and forgive me for what they do not know.’ 

This is what as-Siddeeq al-Akbar said, so what can we say after him?

So I say – following him:

 اللهم لا تؤاخذني بما يقولون، واجعلني خيرًا مما يظنون، واغفر لي ما لا يعلمون، 

O Allaah do not take me to task with what they say, and make me better than what they presume and forgive me for what they do not know.

[The Shaykh cries trying to utter this statement]

The truth is – and I say the truth – I am not as was described previously, by what you heard from our respected brother Ibraheem, indeed I am only a student of knowledge, nothing else. It is upon every student of knowledge to be with the statement of the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam:

 (بلغوا عني ولو آية، بلغوا عني ولو آية، وحدثوا
عن بني إسرائيل ولا حرج، ومن كذب عليّ
متعمدًا فليتبوأ مقعده من النار)

‘Convey from me, even if it is only one Ayaah, convey from me, even if it is only one Ayaah. There is no problem of narrating from Bani Israel. Whoever intentionally lies against me then he should take his seat in Hell fire.’ 

Collected by Bukhari from the Hadeeth of Abdullaah bin Amr.’

[Silsilah al-Huda wa Noor no. 640]

Translated by Abbas Abu Yahya
Miraath al-Anbiya
http://Miraathpubs.net

Exiting from the Fire for those who Worshipped Allaah Alone – Silsilah Ahadeeth As-Saheehah

20 – Exiting from the Fire for those who Worshipped Allaah Alone

225 – When the believers will have finished from the fire on the Day of Judgment and become secure. Then one of you arguing for the truth, in the Duniya for his companion will not be more intense than the debating of the believers with their Lord, regarding their brothers whom had been entered into the fire.

He said: they will say: Our Lord! These are our brothers they used to pray along with us, and fast along with us, and perform the Hajj along with us, and you have entered them into the fire.

He said: that Allaah will say: “go and take out those whom you know.”

So they will come to them, and they will know them by their faces. The fire would not have eaten their faces. From amongst them there will be, he whom the fire has reached half way up his shins, and he whom the fire has reached to his ankles, and they will take them out.

The believers will say: “We took out those whom You have commanded to take out.”

Then Allaah will say: “Take out he who has the weight of a dirham of Emaan in his heart. Then the one who has the weight of half a dirham,’ until He says: He who has an atom’s weight in his heart.

Abu Sa’eed said: whoever does not believe this, then let him read this Ayaah : << Surely! Allaah wrongs not even of the weight of an atom, but if there is any good (done), He doubles it, and gives from him a great reward. >>

He said: The Believers will say: “O our Lord! Indeed we have taken out those whom You have commanded to take out.’ Then there will not remain anyone in the fire who has good in himself.”

He said: Then Allaah will say: the Angels have interceded, and the Prophets have interceded, and the believers have interceded and The Most Merciful of those who shows mercy remains.

He said : Then Allaah will grab a handful from the fire – or He said : two handfuls – of people who never did any good for Allaah at all, indeed they will be burnt so much that they will have become charcoal.

He said: they will be brought to water, which is said to be called the water of life. It will be poured on them they will sprout out like the seed sprouts after what is left over by the torrential floods, they will come out of their bodies like pearls, and they will have a stamp on their necks, saying: those freed by Allaah.

He said: it will be said to them: Enter into Paradise, whatever you wish for or anything you see then it is for you, and I have something with Me which is better than that. He said: They will say: Our Lord! What can be better than this?

He said: Allaah will say: My being pleased with you, I will never be angry with you.”

1661- “Indeed Allaah Azza wa Jal will take out a people from the fire after nothing remains of them except for their faces and Allaah will enter them into Paradise.” The hadeeth is in saheeh al-Bukhari (4/463-464) by a different narration on the authority of Abu Sa’eed in a narration ascribed to the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam, and he mentions the whole of the hadeeth of the intercession; and in it, is stated: “Allaah Ta’aala will say:

Go to those whom you find in their hearts the equivalent to a dinar of Emaan and take them out of the fire, Allaah prohibits the fire from their faces…

1450 – “Take out of the fire whoever has in his heart the equivalent of an atom worth of Emaan.”

1451- “Some people from the people of Tawheed will be punished in the fire, until they will be like charcoal, then mercy will reach them. They will be taken out and thrown at the doors of Paradise. He said: then the people of Paradise will sprinkle water upon them, they will sprout like seeds left over, sprouts after the torrential floods, then they will enter paradise.”

Posted from: The Ahadeeth of Tawheed, Part 05, Explained By the Muhaaddith, the Allaamah, Shaykh Naasirud-Deen al-Albaanee (rahimullaah), Source: Silsilah Ahadeeth As-Saheehah of Shaykh Al-Albaani (rahimahullaah), Translated by: Abbas Abu Yahya (hafidhahullaah)

Reference: AbdurRahman.org

The Covenant that Allaah Took from His Slaves – Silsilah Ahadeeth As-Saheehah

22- The Covenant that Allaah Took from His Slaves

172- “Allaah will say to the one who has been punished the least from the people of the Hell-fire on the Day of Judgment: ‘O son of Adam! How have you found your resting place?’

He will say: ’An evil resting place!’

It will be said to him: ‘If you had the world and everything in it, would you ransom yourself with it?’

He will say: Yes.

Allaah will say: You have lied, what I wanted from you was less than that, while you were in the spine (and in another narration: in the back) of Adam, that you do not associate anything with Me, and I will not enter you into the fire, but you refused and committed Shirk. He will be ordered to be taken to the fire.’

Regarding this hadeeth:

Regarding His saying: ‘He will say: you have lied.’ An-Nawawee said:

‘It means: If We returned you to the Duniya, you would not have ransomed it, because you were asked for something easier than that but you refused. This will have the same meaning as in the saying of Allaah Ta’ala:

<< But if they were returned (to the world), they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars >>

Therefore, the meaning of this hadeeth is combined with the saying of Allaah Ta’ala:

<< If they had all that is in the earth, and as much again therewith to ransom themselves thereby >>

Regarding, His saying: ‘I wanted from you’: i.e. I would have loved from you. When the word ‘Allaah’s Will’ (al-Irada) is mentioned in the Sharia’, it is used in the absolute sense. It means what is general both from the good and the bad, guidance and misguidance.

As is mentioned in the saying of Allaah Ta’ala:

<< And whomsoever Allaah wills to guide, He opens his heart to Islaam, and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his heart closed and constricted, as if he is climbing up to the sky. >>

This Will of Allaah (al-Irada) is that which will most definitely happen. Sometimes when this Will of Allaah (al-Irada) is applied it means, that which is the synonym of love and being pleased. As is mentioned in the saying of Allaah Ta’ala:

<< Allaah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you >>

That is the meaning of the intent of the saying of Allaah Ta’ala in this hadeeth:

‘I wanted from you’ i.e. that I loved from you. The Will of Allaah (al-Irada) with this meaning might not happen, since Allaah Tabaraka wa Ta’ala does not force anyone to obey Him, even though He created them because of it.

<< Then whosoever wills, let him believe, and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve >>

So, therefore Allaah Tabarak wa Ta’ala could want from His slave that what Allaah does not love from His slave, and Allaah loves from His slave that which His slave does not want.

Ibn al-Qayyim -may Allaah have mercy upon him – called this Will of Allaah (alIrada) a will of the order of being (al-Irada), taking that from the saying of Allaah Ta’ala:

<< Verily, His Command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it, “Be!” and it is>>

He called the other Will (al-Irada) which is a synonym for ‘being pleased’: the Sharia’ Will (al-Irada).

Whoever understands this division, then he has a solution to many of the problems of understanding the issues of al-Qadaa (Allaah’s ordainment of everything in creation) and al-Qadr (Allaah’s Pre-decree for the creation). And he will succeed from the fitna (tribulations) of the stance of those who say that a person does actions under force, or who hold the beliefs of the Mu’tazilah. The explanation of this can be found in the magnificent book ‘Shifaa’ al-Aleel al-Qadaa wal-Qadr wal-Hikmaah wa Ta’aleel’ by Ibn al-Qayyim -May Allaah have mercy upon him.

Regarding His saying: ‘……. and you were in the spine of Adam.’ Qadi Iyaad said:

‘The Messenger indicates to the saying of Allaah Ta’ala << And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their loins, their seed (or from Adam’s loin his offspring)>>, in the Ayaah.

This covenant was taken from them while they were in the spine of Adam. So, whoever fulfills it after he is brought into this world then he is a believer, and whoever does not fulfill it, is a Kaffir.

Therefore, the intent of this hadeeth is: I wanted from you when I took the covenant, but you refused so I took you to the Duniya but you committed Shirk.’

This is mentioned in ‘al-Fath’

Posted from: The Ahadeeth of Tawheed, Part 06, Explained By the Muhaaddith, the Allaamah, Shaykh Naasirud-Deen al-Albaanee (rahimullaah), Source: Silsilah Ahadeeth As-Saheehah of Shaykh Al-Albaani (rahimahullaah), Translated by: Abbas Abu Yahya (hafidhahullaah)

Reference: AbdurRahman.org