The Virtue of Two Rak’ahs of Optional Prayer – Silsilatul-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah



From ‘Silsilatul-Ahaadeethis-Saheehah’(no.1388) of Shaikh Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee -rahimahullaah:

“Ibn Saa`id reported in his additions to ‘az-Zuhd’ [of Ibn al-Mubaarak] (159/1), from ‘al-Kawaakib, 575, no.31: Indian edn.):

‘Muhammad ibn Yazeed, Aboo Hishaam ar-Rifaa`ee, narrated to us: Hafs ibn Ghiyaath narrated to us: from Aboo Maalik, and he is Sa`d ibn Taariq al-Ashja`ee: from Aboo Haazim: from Aboo Hurairah who said:

“Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) passed by a grave in which a person had been newly buried, and he said:

<< Two light rak`ahs, which you would regard as being something slight, and which you pray as something extra; if he- and he pointed to his grave- were able to add them to his deeds it would be more beloved to him than (having) everything in your world. >>’

Shaikh al-Albaanee said:

“Ibn Saa`id said: ‘It is a hadeeth with a singular chain which is hasan.’ I say: Its narrators are reliable, all of them are narrators of Muslim, except that this narrator ar-Rifaa`ee has been spoken against by some of them. al-Haafiz said: ‘He is not strong…al-Bukhaaree said: I saw them being united upon his being weak.’

I say: However he is not alone in reporting it, since Aboo Nu`aym reported it in ‘Akhbaar Asbahaan’ (2/225), and likewise at-Tabaraanee in ‘al-Awsat’ (no.907), through two other chains of narration from Hafs ibn Ghiyaath that he narrated it to us.

I say: And this is a chain of narration saheeh to the standard of Muslim, so the hadeeth is Saheeh through this chain, and all praise is for Allaah. And al-Mundhiree said in ‘at-Targheeb’ (1/146): ‘at-Tabaraanee reported it with a hasan chain’, and al-Haythamee said: ‘Its narrators are reliable’.

[Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank]

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Al-Hasan Al-Basree – Siyar A`laamin Nubalaa of Imaam adh-Dhahabee | Dawud Burbank



(Abridged from ‘Siyar A`laamin Nubalaa·’ of Imaam adh-Dhahabee)
Translated by Abu Talha Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

“al-Hasan ibn Abil-Hasan Yasaar:

The Imaam, Shaikhul-Islaam, Aboo Sa`eed al-Basree. It is said that he used to be a mawlaa (slave) belonging to Zayd ibn Thaabit, and it is said: a slave belonging to Jameel ibn Qutbah.

His mother was Khayrah, the slave-girl of Umm Salamah.

He grew up in al-Madeenah; and memorized the Qur·aan in the Khilaafah of `Uthmaan, and heard him give the Khutbah many times.

On the day of the killing of `Uthmaan he was fourteen years old.

Then he grew older and was constant upon Jihaad, and constant upon knowledge and action. He was one of the courageous folk who were mentioned for that…

In the rule of Mu`aawiyah he was a scribe for the governor of Khuraasaan – ar-Rabee` ibn Ziyaad.

He narrated from `Uthmaan, `Imraan ibn Husayn, al-Mugheerah ibn Shu`bah, `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Samurah, Samurah ibn Jundub, Jundub al- Bajalee, Ibn `Abbaas, Ibn `Umar, Aboo Bakrah, `Amr ibn Taghlib, Jaabir, and many others.

Those who narrated from him include: Qataadah, Ayyoob (as- Sakhtiyaanee), Ibn `Awn, Yoonus (ibn `Ubayd), Khaalid al-Hadhdhaa·, Hishaam ibn Hassaan, Humayd at-Taweel, Jareer ibn Haazim, Shaybaan an- Nahawee, Yazeed ibn Ibraaheem at-Tusturee, Mubaarak ibn Fadaalah, ar- Rabee` ibn Sabeeh, Abaan ibn Yazeed al-`Attars, Qurrah ibn Khaalid, and many others besides them.

Ibn Sa`d said: “He was a comprehensive scholar, lofty, reliable a proof, trustworthy, a worshipper, one who performed frequent acts of worship and sacrifice. He was abundant in knowledge; spoke eloquently, and was handsome”…, until he said: “He is not a proof in those narrations which he narrated in ‘mursal’ form, and he was a ‘mudallis’. So when he says ‘From..’ with regard to those he did not meet, then he is not taken as proof.”

He sometimes performed ‘tadlees’ from those he had met, omitting the intermediary between himself and them, and Allaah knows best.

However he was a great memorizer, a great scholar; from the oceans of knowledge; a jurist concerning the soul; of tremendous status; having no equal. His reminders were beautiful. His admonitions were eloquent and penetrating. He was a chief in the various types of good; and I have written a biography for him in a single volume which I have entitled ‘az-Zukhruful- Qasriyy’.

He died in the year 110 H at the age of 88 –rahimahullaahu ta`aalaa.” [‘Tadhkiratul-Huffaaz’: (1/71-72)].

His father Yasaar was a slave taken captive in Maysaan [North of Basrah, in Southern Iraaq]. He settled in al-Madeenah, and was set free, and married.

al-Hasan was born two years before the end of the Khilaafah of `Umar and he grew up in Waadee al-Quraa.

adh-Dhahabee said: “He was the noblest of the people of his time, in knowledge and action.”

Mu`tamir ibn Sulaymaan said: My father used to say: “al-Hasan is the Shaikh of the people of Basrah.”

He learned the recitation of the Qur·aan from Hittaan ibn `Abdillaah ar- Raqaashee.

adh-Dhahabee said: “He was a man who was of perfect build. His form was fine, and he was handsome; and he was described as being one of those who were courageous.

Aboo Burdah said: “I did not see anyone who more closely resembled the Companions of Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) than him.”

Humayd ibn Hilaal said: Aboo Qataadah said to us: “Adhere to this Shaikh, for I have not seen anyone closer in opinion to `Umar than him – meaning al-Hasan.”

Jurthoomah said: “I saw al-Hasan dyeing his beard yellow every Jumu`ah.”

Qataadah said: “I never compared the knowledge of al-Hasan to that of anyone from the scholars except that I found him having superiority over him; except that if anything was problematic for him he would write to Sa`eed ibn al-Musayyib, asking him about it; and I never sat with a jurist except that I saw the superiority of al-Hasan.”

Humayd and Yoonus said: “We did not see anyone more perfect in behavior than al-Hasan.”

Yoonus ibn `Ubayd said: “I have not seen anyone whose speech more closely matches his actions than al-Hasan.”

ar-Rabee` ibn Anas said: “I used to go to al-Hasan for ten years, or as Allaah wished, and there was not a single day except that I would hear from him something which I had not heard before.”

Hawshab narrated from al-Hasan that he said:

“O son of Aadam! By Allaah! If you recite the Qur·aan and then truly believe in it, then your grief in this world will be lengthened, your fear in this world will become severe, and your weeping in this world will be plentiful.”

[‘Siyar A`laamin-Nubalaa·’ (4/563-588)]

Zaa·idah ibn Qudaamah: from Hishaam ibn Hassaan: al-Hasan said: “When a man used to seek knowledge, then (its effect) would soon be seen upon what he looked at, upon his humility and submission, upon his tongue, upon his ties of kinship, and upon his avoidance of the unnecessary things of the world (zuhd).” He said: “And al-Hasan used to say: “Do not sit with the people of the innovated sects (Ahwaa·); do not debate with them; and do not listen to anything from them.


Posted from  the Appendix of :
Tafseer Soorat-in-Naba’- from the works of numerous mufassireen.
Compiled and translated by Abu Talhah Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Related Links:

Mujaahid ibn Jabr (مُجَاهِدْ بِنْ جَبْر) – Siyar A`laamin Nubalaa of Imaam adh-Dhahabee | Dawud Burbank



“Mujaahid ibn Jabr, the Imaam. Abul-Hajjaaj al-Makhzoomee – their mawlaa (freed-slave), al- Makkee, the reciter, the Mufassir, al-Haafiz. The slave belonging to as-Saa·ib ibn Abis-Saa·ib al-Makhzoomee. He learned from Sa`d, `Aa·ishah, Aboo Hurairah, Umm Haani·, `Abdullaah ibn `Umar, and Ibn `Abbaas and he closely accompanied him for some time, and he learnt the reading of the Qur·aan from him and Tafseer and Fiqh. He was one of the stores of knowledge.

Those who narrated from him included `Ikrimah, Taawoos, and `Ataa· – and they were his contemporaries; and `Amr ibn Deenar, Abuz-Zubayr, alHakam ibn `Utaybah, Ibn Abee Najeeh, Mansoor ibn al-Mu`tamir, Sulaymaan ibn A`mash, Ayyoob as-Sakhtiyaanee, Ibn `Awn, `Umar ibn Dharr, Ma`roof ibn Mushkaan, Qataadah ibn Di`aamah, al-Fadl ibn Maymoon, Ibraaheem ibn Muhaajir, Humayd al-A`raj, Bukayr ibn alAkhnas, al-Hasan al-Fuqaymee, Khusayf, Sulaymaan al-Ahwal, Sayf ibn Sulaymaan, `Abdul-Kareem al-Jazaree, Aboo Haseen, al-`Awwaam ibn Hawshab, Fitr ibn Khaleefah, an-Nadr ibn `Arabee, and many others.

A group learned the recitation from him, including Ibn Katheer ad-Daaree, Aboo `Amr ibn al-`Alaa·, and Ibn Muhaysin.

Mujaahid said:

“I read the entire Qur·aan to Ibn `Abbaas three times, stopping at each Aayah and asking what it was sent down concerning and how it was.”

Qataadah said:

“The most knowledgeable one remaining with regard to tafseer is Mujaahid.”

Ibn Juraij said:

“To have learned from Mujaahid would have been more beloved to me than my family and my wealth.”

Khusayf said:

“The most knowledgeable of them concerning tafseer is Mujaahid.”

Sufyaan ath-Thawree said:

“Take Tafseer from four: Mujaahid, Sa`eed ibn Jubayr, `Ikrimah, and ad-Dahhaak.”

adh-Dhahabee said: It is said that he settled in Koofah at the end of his life, and he used to frequently travel and move about.

al-A`mash said:

“When I used to see Mujaahid I would think little of him; he would be wearing worn-out clothing, as if he were a mule-driver who had lost his donkey and was concerned about it; but when he spoke, pearls [[of wisdom]] came out from his mouth.”

…A number of people said: he died in the year 103 H.

al-Waaqidee narrated from Ibn Jurayj that he said: “He reached the age of eighty three.”…”

Ya`laa ibn `Ubayd: from al-A`mash: from Mujaahid that he said:

“I do not know which of the two favours is greater: that He guided me to Islaam, or that He saved me from these innovated sects.” [adh-Dhahabee said: Such as those of the Raafidah, the Qadariyyah, and the Jahmiyyah.”]

Yahyaa ibn Sulaym said: `Abdul-Wahhaab ibn Mujaahid narrated to us, saying: I was with my father when his son Ya`qoob came and said:

‘O my father, we have companions who claim that Eemaan of the inhabitants of the heavens and the inhabitants of the earth is one (and the same.) So he said: “O my son, those people are not my companions. Allaah does not make a person who is drowned in sins just like a person who has no sin.”

Aboo Nu`aym said: Mujaahid died whilst prostrating in the year 102 H…

Ibn Hibbaan said: “He died in Makkah in the year 102 or 103 H in prostration having been born in the year 21 H in the Khilaafah of `Umar.”

Sufyaan ath-Thawree said: “If tafseer comes to you from Mujaahid then that is enough for you.” Therefore his tafseer was relied upon by ash-Shaafi`ee, al-Bukhaaree and others from the people of knowledge, and likewise by Imaam Ahmad and others who complied works of tafseer: they repeatedly bring chains of narration from Mujaahid; more often than from anyone besides him.

[‘Tahdheebut-Tahdheeb’, ‘Majmoo`ul-Fataawaa’ (13/332), ‘Siyar A`laamin-Nubalaa·’ (4/449-457), ‘Tadhkiratul-Huffaaz’ (1/92)]]

Posted from  the Appendix of :
Tafseer Soorat-in-Naba’- from the works of numerous mufassireen.
Compiled and translated by Abu Talhah Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Related Links:

The Great Importance Given to the ’Aqeedah in the Madinan Period – Shaykh Rabee | Dawud Burbank


The Great Importance Given to the ’Aqeedah in the Madinan Period

After Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  and his Companions migrated to al-Madeenah, and the Islamic state was established through the efforts of the Muhaajirs and the Ansaar, and upon the foundation of tawheed, then the greatest importance continued to be given to tawheed. The Aayaat of the Qur’aan continued to be sent down with it, and the directions and the orders of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  revolved around it.

(1) Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  did not suffice even with all this. Rather he used to take pledge of allegiance from the greater Companions, not to mention the others, upon it from time to time. Whenever the opportunity arose, he would take their pledge of allegiance upon it. Allaah, the Most High, says,

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ يُبَايِعْنَكَ عَلَىٰ أَن لَّا يُشْرِكْنَ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَسْرِقْنَ وَلَا يَزْنِينَ وَلَا يَقْتُلْنَ أَوْلَادَهُنَّ وَلَا يَأْتِينَ بِبُهْتَانٍ يَفْتَرِينَهُ بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِنَّ وَأَرْجُلِهِنَّ وَلَا يَعْصِينَكَ فِي مَعْرُوفٍ ۙ فَبَايِعْهُنَّ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُنَّ اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

When the Believing women come to give you their pledge that they will not associate anything in worship with Allaah; nor steal; nor commit fornication; nor kill their children; nor attribute to their husbands children which are not theirs; nor disobey you, O Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم), in that which is good and commanded by Allaah; (and not wail over the dead), then accept their pledge and ask Allaah to forgive them. Indeed Allaah forgives those who repent to Him and is Most Merciful to them.[1]  Soorah al-Mumtahinah (60):12

Even though this Aayah is with regard to the women’s pledge, Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  also used to take pledge from the men upon its contents.

From ’Ubaadah ibn as-Saamit, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said,

“Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) was in an assembly (of his Companions) and said, ‘Swear allegiance to me with the pledge that you will not associate anything in worship with Allaah, and that you will not steal, nor commit fornication, nor kill your children, (and upon the Aayah which was taken as a pledge from the women [60:12]). So whoever fulfills this pledge from you, then he will be rewarded by Allaah. And whoever falls into sin with any of that and is punished for it, then it is an expiation for it. And whoever falls into any of these sins and Allaah conceals his sin, then it is up to Allaah: if He wills He may forgive him, and if He wills He may punish him.’” [2]

Also Ibn Katheer quotes a large number of ahaadeeth that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  used to take pledge from the women upon that which this Aayah contains.[3] From these ahaadeeth is that of ’Aa’ishah; the hadeeth of Umayyah bint Ruqayqah;[4] the hadeeth of Umm ’Atiyyah;[5] the hadeeth of Salmaa bint Qays, one of the maternal aunts of the Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) ;[6) and the hadeeth of Raa’itah bint Sufyaan al-Khuzaa’iyyah.[7] Then he (i.e. Ibn Katheer) said, “And Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  used to take this pledge from the women repeatedly.” Then he quoted the hadeeth of Ibn ’Abbaas,[8] and other ahaadeeth.

He also used to take this pledge repeatedly from the men. This is indicated by the hadeeth of ’Ubaadah ibn as-Saamit which has preceded, and also by the hadeeth of ’Auf ibn Maalik al-Ashja’ee, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said,

“We were with Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  and numbered nine, eight or seven people, so he said, ‘Will you not give your pledge to Allaah’s Messenger?’ So we said, ‘We have already given you our pledge, O Messenger of Allaah!’ Then he said, ‘Will you not give your pledge to Allaah’s Messenger?’ So we stretched out our hands and said, ‘We will indeed give you our pledge, O Messenger of Allaah, but what will our pledge be?’ He said, ‘That you will worship Allaah and not worship anything else besides Him; the five obligatory Prayers; that you obey (and he said a word quietly); and that you do not ask the people for anything.’ So I have as a result seen some of those people, their whip would fall down from their hand (while riding) and he would not ask anyone to pick it up for him.” [9]

(2) He (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  used to send callers, teachers, judges and governors, to kings and tyrants, and to various areas, calling to tawheed. From Anas, radiyallaahu ’anhu, the servant of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) ,

“The Prophet of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  sent letters to Kisraa (Chosroes), and Caesar, and the Najaashee (Negus) and to every tyrant ruler calling them to Allaah. And this Negus was not the one whom the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  prayed Funeral Prayer for.”[10]

This point is shown very clearly by the text of his letter to the Caesar, and that his purpose was to call to tawheed. Its text is:

“In the Name of Allaah, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy.

From Muhammad, the Slave of Allaah and His Messenger, to Hiraql, the Emperor of the Byzantines.

Peace and safety are for those who follow the Guidance. To proceed. I invite you with the call of Islaam. Accept Islaam and you will be safe, and Allaah will grant you a double reward. But if you turn your back upon it, then you will carry the burdens of the sins of your subjects.”[11]

And he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  said, “Whoever calls to guidance then there is for him a reward similar to the reward of those who follow him, nothing being reduced from their reward. And whoever calls to misguidance, then there is a burden of sin upon him similar to the sin of those who follow him, nothing being reduced from their sins.”

“O People of the Book, come to a word of justice between us, that we will single Allaah out with all worship and will not worship anything besides Him and disassociate ourselves from everything that is worshipped besides Him. Nor will we take one another as lords besides Allaah by obeying one another in that which involves disobedience to Allaah. So if they turn away, then say, ‘Bear witness that we are Muslims, submitting to Allaah and making our worship purely and sincerely for Him and not worshipping anything else besides Him.’”[12]

When the letter reached the Caesar he sent for Aboo Sufyaan ibn Harb and some riders of Quraysh. They were at that time trading in the area of Palestine/Syria, and were within the time of the truce period agreed between Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  and the unbelievers of Quraysh. So they came to Caesar at Jerusalem and he asked Aboo Sufyaan a number of questions. From them was that he asked, “What does he (i.e. Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) ) command you?” Aboo Sufyaan said, “I replied, ‘He says, “Worship Allaah alone and do not worship anything else besides Him and abandon the saying of your fathers. He orders prayer, truthfulness, chastity and joining ties of relationship.”’”[13]

(3) Furthermore he used to organise armies to fight Jihaad in the path of Allaah in order to establish and raise high the word of tawheed,

“He who fights in order that Allaah’s Word is the highest then he is the one who is fighting in the Path of Allaah.”

From Buraydah ibn al-Husayyib, radiyallaahu ’anhu, who said, “When Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  appointed the chief of a raiding party or an army, he used to counsel him to have taqwaa of Allaah concerning himself and with regard to good treatment of the Muslims with him, and he said, ‘When you meet your enemy from the mushriks then call them to accept one of three things, whichever of them they agree to, then accept it and leave them alone:

(i) Invite them to accept Islaam. If they accept that then accept it from them, and leave them alone. Invite them in that case to leave their homes and to migrate to the land of the Muhaajirs…

(ii) But if they refuse (to accept Islaam), then ask them to pay the jizya tax. If they agree to that then accept that from them and leave them alone.

(iii) But if they refuse then seek the aid of Allaah and fight them. And if you besiege a fortified place and they ask you to allow them to surrender upon the judgement of Allaah, then do not allow them to surrender upon that since you do not know what Allaah’s judgement concerning them is. Rather allow them to surrender in accordance with what you judge in the matter. Then decide as you wish concerning them.’”[14]

Like the hadeeth of Buraydah is the hadeeth of an-Nu’maan ibn Muqarrin al-Muzanee, radiyallaahu ’anhu, which is indicated by Muslim, Aboo Daawood and Ibn Maajah, who all said, “’Alqamah said: I narrated it to Muqaatil ibn Hayyaan. He said: Muslim ibn Haysam narrated to me, from an-Nu’maan ibn Muqarrin from the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  with its like.

(4) Furthermore he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  sent Mu’aadh to Yemen as a Governor, a judge and a teacher. Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  said to him,

“You are a going to a people from the People of the Book, so let the first thing you call them to be the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, (and in a narration: that they should single Allaah out with all worship), and I am the Messenger of Allaah. So if they obey you in that, then inform them that Allaah has made five Prayers obligatory upon them in each day and night. So if they obey you in that, then inform them that Allaah has obligated upon them a charity which is to be taken from their rich and given to their poor. If they obey you in that, then beware of taking the best parts of their wealth, and beware of the supplication of the oppressed, because there is no screen between it and Allaah.”[15]

There is no doubt that he used to give this same advice to all the callers, governors and judges whom he sent out.

(5) Jihaad was prescribed for the establishment of tawheed and to purify the earth from the scourge of shirk.

Allaah, the Most High, says:

وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ لِلَّهِ ۖ فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا فَلَا عُدْوَانَ إِلَّا عَلَى الظَّالِمِينَ

“Fight the Mushriks until there remains no worship of anything besides Allaah, and all worship is for Allaah alone and His religion is uppermost. So if they desist from shirk and enter into Islaam then let there be no transgression except those that worship others along with Allaah” [16]  [Soorah al-Baqarah (2):193]

Ibn Jareer (at-Tabaree), rahimahullaah, said in his Tafseer (2/194-195):

“Allaah, the Most High, says to His Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم),  Meaning: “so that there is no shirk with Allaah, and no one besides Him is worshipped; and worship of the idols, false gods and those set up as rivals is extinguished. And worship and obedience is for Allaah alone to the exclusion of idols and images… Qataadah said, ‘So that there is no shirk.’ He quotes his chain of narration with this explanation from Qataadah, Mujaahid, as-Suddee and Ibn ‘Abbaas. He said, ‘What is meant by Deen (religion) which Allaah mentions in this place is: Worship and obedience to Allaah in what He orders and forbids.’ He said, ‘With this meaning there occurs the saying of al-A’shee: He caused the (tribes of) ar-Ribaab to submit and become obedient when they hated obedience – Achieving it through continual fighting and attacks.’

Then he quoted his chain of narration of ar-Rabee’ who said concerning,  Meaning: “Until none but Allaah is worshipped,” which is the meaning of laa ilaaha illallaah (none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah). That is what Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  fought for and called to.”

From Aboo Hurayrah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  said,

“I have been ordered to fight the people until they say laa ilaaha illallaah (none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah). So whoever says: laa ilaaha illallaah, then his wealth and his person is safe from me, except due to any right of it, and his reckoning is with Allaah.”[17]

Also the Chief of the Believers ‘Umar, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said to Aboo Bakr, the Khaleefah of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) , when he resolved to fight the apostates and also those with them who refused to hand over the zakaat, ’Umar, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said, “How can you fight those people when Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  said, ‘I have been ordered to fight the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, so whoever says this then his wealth and his person are safe from me except due to any right of it, and his reckoning is with Allaah.’” So Aboo Bakr, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, said, “By Allaah, I will fight those who seek to separate between the Prayer and the zakaat. Indeed the Zakaat is a right due upon wealth. By Allaah, were they to hold a single young goat from me which they used to pay to Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) , I would fight them for it.”[18]

From Jaabir ibn ’Abdillaah, radiyallaahu ’anhumaa, who said that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  said,

“I have been ordered to fight the people until they say, ‘None has the right to be worshipped except Allaah.’ So when they say that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah then their blood and their property are safe from me except due to a right pertaining to it, and their reckoning is with Allaah.”

Then he recited, 

فَذَكِّرْ إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُذَكِّرٌ  لَّسْتَ عَلَيْهِم بِمُصَيْطِرٍ

Indeed We have only sent you, O Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم), as an admonisher to them. You are not to force them to believe against their will.”  [Soorah al-Ghaashiyah (88):21-22] [19][20]

From Ibn ‘Umar, radiyallaahu ‘anhumaa, who said that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  said,

“I have been ordered to fight the people until they bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and they establish the Prayer, and pay the zakaat. So if they do that then their blood and their wealth are safe from me except due to its right, and their reckoning is with Allaah.”[21]

So it may be noticed that the ahaadeeth of ’Umar, Aboo Bakr, Aboo Hurayrah and Jaabir are restricted to mentioning the matter of tawheed and do not mention the other matters. So perhaps the reason for this is the very great concern which the Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  gave to this matter so that he would mention it to them time after time on its own, as an indication of its greatness and importance. Also because of the fact that he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  realised that they understood that all the other affairs of Islaam follow on from it, and are required by it and are from its rights, particularly the pillars of Islaam and eemaan.

I say, because of the fact that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  often used to mention only that which related to ‘aqeedah, ‘Umar used this saying as an evidence. Then the reply of Aboo Bakr to support his stance, was to make a direct analogy between the Zakaat and the Prayer, “By Allaah, I will fight anyone who makes a difference between the Prayer and the Zakaat…” So if he knew the narration as it was reported by Ibn ’Umar he would have used that as a clear and decisive proof.

Also if ’Umar knew of the narration as reported by his son he would not have raised any objection to the saying of Aboo Bakr. Then if those present at the time, included Aboo Hurayrah, knew the naration of Ibn ’Umar, then they would have mentioned it to the two Shaykhs.[22] So perhaps the reason behind this was indeed as we have said, the great importance which the Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  gave to ’aqeedah, and his propogation of it, and the frequency with which he spoke about it.

Then also because the most prominent and most important aspect of the teachings which the Prophets conveyed from their Lord was Tawheedul-Uloohiyyah (singling out Allaah with all worship), and this was the greatest reason for strife between the Prophets and their enemies.

Furthermore the most significant of the aspects of falsehood and misguidance, against which the Prophets (’alayhimus-salaatu was-salaam) fought, and which the Mushriks who denied the truth of their message furiously fought to defend, in every nation was: the worship of images and idols, and the building of tombs upon the graves of the pious and the Prophets, and veneration of them, and making offerings to them, and attachment of people’s hearts to them, both of the rulers and the ruled, an attachment of hope and fear, desiring and anticipating that they would intercede for them with Allaah, enabling the accomplishment of their wishes. This was indeed major shirk which will not be forgiven, so we must mention, along with that which we have already quoted whilst speaking about the methodology of the Prophets, particularly when we spoke concerning Ibraaheem, the Imaam of the Pious and the destroyer of the worthless idols, something about the full scale war which Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  waged against major shirk which was seen in his smashing the idols physically and by blocking up all the ways which Satan uses to lead his followers to worshipping them and taking them as rivals to Allaah, by using the terms ‘gods’ or awliyaa‘ (pious ones beloved to Allaah) or hiding beneath any of the misleading titles they use.

So from this war which is clearly seen in the Qur’aan and was waged by the Messenger of the One Who sent the Qur’aan, is the saying of Allaah, the Most High,

أَفَرَأَيْتُمُ اللَّاتَ وَالْعُزَّىٰ  وَمَنَاةَ الثَّالِثَةَ الْأُخْرَىٰ  أَلَكُمُ الذَّكَرُ وَلَهُ الْأُنثَىٰ  تِلْكَ إِذًا قِسْمَةٌ ضِيزَىٰ  إِنْ هِيَ إِلَّا أَسْمَاءٌ سَمَّيْتُمُوهَا أَنتُمْ وَآبَاؤُكُم مَّا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ بِهَا مِن سُلْطَانٍ ۚ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَمَا تَهْوَى الْأَنفُسُ ۖ وَلَقَدْ جَاءَهُم مِّن رَّبِّهِمُ الْهُدَىٰ

“Have you seen, O Mushriks, (the idols:) al-Laat, al-’Uzzaa, and the other one Manaat, the third of them.[23] You prefer and love the male offspring for yourselves and then falsely attribute daughters, which is something you hate for yourselves, to Allaah. This is indeed an unjust division. Rather these idols are mere names which you Mushriks and your forefathers have invented. Allaah has sent down no proof for that. Rather they follow only conjecture and their own deisres, even though clear guidance has come to them from their Lord proving the futility of worshipping these idols and that worship is the right of Allaah alone.”[24] [Soorah an-Najm (53):19-23]

So this is a clear statement of contempt for the idols which they worshipped, and war against them. Also, Allaah, the Most High, says,

ذَٰلِكَ وَمَن يُعَظِّمْ حُرُمَاتِ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُ عِندَ رَبِّهِ ۗ وَأُحِلَّتْ لَكُمُ الْأَنْعَامُ إِلَّا مَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ ۖ فَاجْتَنِبُوا الرِّجْسَ مِنَ الْأَوْثَانِ وَاجْتَنِبُوا قَوْلَ الزُّورِ  حُنَفَاءَ لِلَّهِ غَيْرَ مُشْرِكِينَ بِهِ ۚ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَكَأَنَّمَا خَرَّ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فَتَخْطَفُهُ الطَّيْرُ أَوْ تَهْوِي بِهِ الرِّيحُ فِي مَكَانٍ سَحِيقٍ

“So shun the filth of worshipping idols and shun false speech. Worshipping Allaah alone in tawheed making worship purely for Him, and not worshipping anything besides Him. And whoever worships anything else along with Allaah, then he is like one who fell down from the sky and was ripped to pieces by the birds, or like one cast by the wind in a far distant place.”[25] [Soorah al-Hajj (22):30-31]

Allaah, the Most High, says,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

“O you who believe, intoxicants, gambling, stone altars erected for sacrifice and divining-arrows are an abomination from the handiwork of Satan. So shun all of that so that you may be successful.” [26] [ Soorah al-Maa’idah (5):90]

And from ’Amr ibn ’Abasah, radiyallaahu ’anhu, and his hadeeth has preceded, and in it there occurs, “I said, ‘Did Allaah send you as a Messenger?’ He said, ‘Yes,’ I asked, ‘With what message did he send you?’ He replied, ‘That Allaah should be singled out and worshipped in tawheed, and that nothing should be worshipped besides Him, and to smash the idols and to join ties of relationship.’”[27]

Also in the hadeeth of Ja’far which has preceded there occurs, “…until Allaah sent a Messenger to us from amongst us. We knew his lineage and his truthfulness and his chastity. He called us to single out Allaah in tawheed and to worship Him alone, and to renounce the stones and idols and whatever we and our fathers used to worship besides Him…”[28]

In the hadeeth of Aboo Sufyaan and his conversation with Heraclius, the King of the Byzantines, there occurs, “He says, (i.e., the Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) ), ‘Worship Allaah alone and do not worship anything along with Him, and renounce what the forefathers say…’”[29]

In the hadeeth of Aboo Umaamah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, there occurs, “Indeed Allaah sent me as a mercy for the worlds, and as a guide for the worlds, and my Lord, the Mighty and Majestic, ordered me to destroy all musical instruments and flutes, and idols and the cross, and such things from the days of Ignorance…”[30]

Then the leaders of Quraysh went out of their minds in anger, unable to put up with the attack of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  against their idols, whether it was concerning the Qur’aan sent down to him, or his da’wah in secret, or his da’wah in the open. This was something about which there could be no indulgence, and it was something which had to be due to his true and sincere call.

From Ibn ’Abbaas, radiyallaahu ‘anhumaa, who said,

“When Aboo Taalib became ill a group of Quraysh entered upon him, amongst them Aboo Jahl, and they said, ‘The son of your brother abuses our gods, and does such and such, and says such and such. So if only you were to send a message forbidding him.’ So he sent a message and the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   came and entered the house… Aboo Taalib said to him, ‘O son of my brother! Why is it that your people complain about you? They claim that you abuse their idols and say such and such?!’ They spoke a great deal against him, and Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   spoke and said, ‘O Uncle! I only desire that they should say a single phrase which if they say it, then the Arabs will become obedient to them and the non-Arabs will pay the Jizyah tax to them.’ So they were very surprised at what he said and they said, ‘A single phrase? Yes, by your father, even ten.’ So they asked, ‘And what is it?’ Aboo Taalib said, ‘And which saying is it, O son of my brother?’ So he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   said, ‘None has the right to be worshipped except Allaah.’ So they stood up, shaking their clothes saying, ‘Does he declare that worship should be for a single God?! this is something bizarre.’”[31]

Also from Jaabir, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said,

“The Quraysh gathered together one day and said, ‘See who is the most knowledgeable of you with regard to sorcery, divining and poetry, then let him go to this man who splits our united body, causes schism between us and abuses our religion. So let him speak to him and see how best to reply to him.’ So they said, ‘We do not know anyone but ’Utbah ibn Rabee’ah.’ So they said, ‘Then it is to be you O Abul-Waleed.’ So ’Utbah went to him and said, ‘O Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) ! Are you better or ’Abdullaah?’[32] Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  remained silent. ‘Are you better or ’Abdul-Muttalib?’[33] Again Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  remained silent. So he said, ‘If you claim that they are better than you, then they certainly worshipped the idols which you abuse. If however you claim that you are better than them, then speak so that we may hear what you have to say. Indeed we have never seen a youngster who has boded evil for his people more so than yourself. You have split our unity and caused schism in our affair, and you have abused our religion and shamed us in front of the Arabs. It has spread amongst them that there is a sorceror within Quraysh, and a diviner within Quraysh. By Allaah we do not expect that we will have to wait for the time it takes a new-born to cry out before we will fight amongst oursleves with swords and wipe oursleves out. O man, if it is poverty that is your problem, then we will gather wealth for you until you will be the richest man of Quraysh. If it is that you have a need to marry, then choose whichever of the women of Quraysh you like and we will marry you ten of them.’ So Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  said, ‘Have you finished?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ So Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  said:

until he reached

حم  تَنزِيلٌ مِّنَ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ….  فَإِنْ أَعْرَضُوا فَقُلْ أَنذَرْتُكُمْ صَاعِقَةً مِّثْلَ صَاعِقَةِ عَادٍ وَثَمُودَ

“In the name of Allaah, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy. Haa Meem. This Qur’aan is the Revelation sent down by the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy …. So if these mushriks turn away from the proof which We have made clear to them, O Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , then say, ‘I warn you of a terrible punishment like that which befell ’Aad and Thamood.’”[34]  [Soorah Fussilat (41):1-13]

’Utbah said, ‘Enough! Enough! Do you have nothing other than this?’ He said, ‘No.’ So he returned to Quraysh and they said, ‘What has occurred?’ He said, ‘I didn’t leave anything which I thought that you would wish to say except that I said it to him.’ They said, ‘Did he respond to you?’ He said, ‘No, by the one who caused the Ka’bah to be built, I did not understand anything which he said except that he warned you of a terrible punishment like that of ’Aad and Thamood.’ They said, ‘Woe to you, the man speaks to you in Arabic and you don’t understand what he says?!’ He said, ‘No, by Allaah, I did not understand anything that he said except for his mention of the terrible punishment.’”[35]

So this war was fought with words and the soul, with biting attacks and belittlement and derision, by overcoming the falsehood and ignorance of the Mushriks. At the same time, establishing the proof against them so that whoever went to destruction did so aware of the clear proof, and those who lived did so upon the clear proof. So from the results of this war, and from the results of this clear declaration was that Allaah guided many of the Arabs from the Quraysh and from the other tribes, and from Aws and the Khazraj. Allaah granted them clear discernment and they realised the reality of tawheed and its status. They also knew the vileness of committing shirk with idols or anything else, and also, at the same time, its seriousness and evil consequences for the Mushriks in this world and the Hereafter.

So these were the great and good fruits which came as a result of the Jihaad of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  and his Companions and their steadfastness in the field of true da’wah to Allaah, and their intensive striving against the idols and false objects of worship. Then when Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  took tawheed to a new practical level which was to physically annihilate, smash and eradicate the idols and purify the earth from them, being fully aware of their seriousness, since they are the primary source of danger for every generation of mankind since the dawn of history until the end of history, just as the leader of those upon the true and straight religion said:

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَٰذَا الْبَلَدَ آمِنًا وَاجْنُبْنِي وَبَنِيَّ أَن نَّعْبُدَ الْأَصْنَامَ رَبِّ إِنَّهُنَّ أَضْلَلْنَ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ ۖ فَمَن تَبِعَنِي فَإِنَّهُ مِنِّي ۖ وَمَنْ عَصَانِي فَإِنَّكَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

“And keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols, O my Lord, they have indeed caused the misguidance of many people.”[36]  [Soorah Ibraaheem (14):35-36]

Therefore the greatest Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  resolved to carry out the task of purifying the earth from idols, and to level the graves since tombs are the partner of the idols in causing the misguidance of mankind.

From ’Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said,

“The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  entered Makkah and there were three hundred and sixty idols erected around the Ka’bah. So he began striking them with a stick which he had in his hand and was saying, ‘The truth has arrived and falsehood has perished. The truth has arrived and falsehood cannot begin or return.’”[37]

Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  prepared an attachment to go from al-Madeenah to the tribe of Khath’am to attack Dhul-Khalasah, which they did. From Jareer ibn ’Abdullaah, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said, “There was a house[38] called Dhul-Khalasah, or the Yemeni Ka’bah or the Shaamee Ka’bah, and the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  said to me, ‘Will you not relieve me of Dhul-Khulasah?’ So I set out with a hundred and fifty riders of the Ahmas tribe. So we broke it down and killed whomever we found there. Then I came to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  and informed him, so he made supplication for blessing for us and for the tribe of Ahmas.”[39]

The wording used by al-Bukhaaree, Muslim and Ahmad is, “Will you not relieve me of Dhul-Khalasah?” See the wording used by the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) ?! It was as if the existence of idols deprived him of sleep and disturbed him, so that he could not settle or be at ease.

[Read the Continuation of this article @  All of the Prophets began with correction of matters of ‘Aqeedah, and by waging war upon Shirk and its manifestations – Shaykh Rabee’ ibn Haadee ]


[1] Soorah al-Mumtahinah (60):12.

[2] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 1/21/no.17 and 5/151 no.233), and Muslim (Eng. trans. 3/924-925 nos. 4235-4238), and an-Nasaa’ee (7/128).

[3] See Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 6/385 no.414)

[4] Reported by Ahmad (6/357) and an-Nasaa’ee (7/149).

[5] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 6/386 no. 415).

[6] Reported by Ahmad (6/379-380, 422-433) and its chain of narration contains Saleet ibn Ayyoob about whom al-Haafidh ibn Hajr said, “Maqbool,” (i.e. acceptable if supported), and adh-Dhahabee said in al-Kaashif (1/388), “Declared reliable by some,” so it is hasan due to its supports.

[7] Musnad Ahmad (6/365).

[8] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 6/388 no.418).

[9] Reported by Muslim (Eng. trans. 2/498 no.2270), Aboo Daawood (Eng. trans. 2/431 no.1638) and others…

[10] Reported by Muslim (Eng. trans. 3/971 no.4382), at-Tirmidhee (no.2716), and Ahmad (3/336) from the hadeeth of Jaabir with the wording, “And Allaah’s Messenger (*) sent letters five years before he died to Kisraa and Caesar, and to every tyrant ruler.”

[11] i.e. his followers from the weak and others, since he became a reason for their continuing upon shirk. This is from Allaah’s Justice, and His way with regard to the rulers, that they carry their own burden of sin and also the burden of sin of those who follow them in deviating from tawheed and the truth, and fighting against it. Allaah, the Most High, says:

“They will bear the burden of their own sins in full on the Day of Resurrection and the sin of those whom they lead astray.” [Soorah an-Nahl (16):25].

[12] Soorah Aal-’Imraan (3):64. Both of them are part of a single hadeeth reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 1/7 no.6) and it is a long hadeeth, abridged, and Ahmad (1/262).

[13] Ibid.

[14] Reported by Muslim (Eng. trans. 3/943 no.4294), and Aboo Daawood (Eng. trans. 2/722 no.2606) and others.

[15] Reported al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 5/445 no.634 and 9/348 no.469) and Muslim (Eng. trans. 1/14-15 nos. 27-28).

[16] Soorah al-Baqarah (2):193.

[17] Reported by Muslim (Eng. trans. 1/16 no.30) and at-Tirmidhee (no. 3341) and Ibn Maajah (no. 3928).

[18] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 9/46 no.59) and Muslim (Eng. trans. 1/15 no.29).

[19] Soorah al-Ghaashiyah (88):21-22.

[20] Reported by Muslim (Eng. trans. 1/17 no.32), at-Tirmidhee (no. 3341) and Ibn Maajah (no. 3928).

[21] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 1/25 no.24) and Muslim (Eng. trans. 1/17 no. 33).

[22] i.e. Aboo Bakr and ‘Umar.

[23] Translator’s Note: Al-Laat had its origin in a man of the tribe of Thaqeef who used to mix gruel for pilgrims in the times of ignorance near to a certain rock in Taa’if. Then after his death the people built a tomb around the rock, upon his grave. They then worshipped this and gave it the name al-Laat which they invented by twisting the name of Allaah. Allaah’s Messenger (*) sent al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah and Aboo Sufyaan to destroy it. They did so and in its place the mosque of Taa’if was built.

As for al-’Uzzaa, then it was in the form of a tree surrounded by a curtained building in a palm grove between Taa’if and Makkah. The Quraysh used to venerate it. An-Nasaa’ee reports in his Tafseer (2/357 no.567) that when Allaah’s Messenger (*) conquered Makkah he sent Khaalid ibn al-Waleed to it. He found that it was built around three trees, so he cut them down and destroyed the building. He then went to the Prophet (*) and informed him, but he said, “Return for you have done nothing.” So he returned and saw the keepers of the idol fleeing into the hills saying, “O ‘Uzzaa!” So Khaalid came and found a naked female with dishevelled hair, throwing dust upon her head. So he struck her with his sword and killed her, then he returned to the Prophet (*) and informed him. So he said, “That was al-’Uzzaa.

As for Manaat then it was situated at Mushallal, near to Qudayd, between Makkah and al-Madeenah. It was venerated by various tribes in the times of ignorance. Allaah’s Messenger (*) sent ’Alee to demolish it in the year of the Conquest of Makkah. Ibn Ishaaq said in his Seerah, “The Arabs took other structures besides the Ka’bah, buildings which they worshipped and venerated just as they honoured the Ka’bah. These shrines had keepers and guards, and offerings would be made to them just as with the Ka’bah. The people would also make tawaaf around them and make sacrifices there…” (Tafseer Ibn Katheer and Tayseerul-’Azeezil-Hameed, (p.177)).

[24] Soorah an-Najm (53):19-23.

[25] Soorah al-Hajj (22):30-31.

[26] Soorah al-Maa’idah (5):90.

[27] Reported by Muslim (Eng. trans. 2/395 no.1812) as has preceded.

[28] Reported by Ahmad (1/202 and 5/290) and is hasan as has preceded.

[29] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 1/7 no.6) as has preceded.

[30] Al-Haithumee says in Majma’az Zawaa’id (5/72), “Reported by Ahmad and at-Tabaraanee and its chain contains ’Alee ibn Yazeed (i.e. al-Alhaanee) who is weak.” [Translator’s Note]

[31] Musnad Ahmad (1/362) and Tirmidhee (no.3232) and its chain of narration contains Yahyaa ibn ’Umaarah and it is said: Ibn ’Abbaad who is mentioned by Ibn Hibbaan in ath-Thiqaat. Ibn Hajr says in Tahdheebut-Tahdheeb (11/259), “Acceptable (if supported),” and refer to, at-Taqreeb (2/354). Adh-Dhahabee says in al-Kaashif (3/224), “Declared reliable by some.” It is also reported by Ibn Jareer (23/165) with his chain of narration to al-A’mash: ’Abbaad narrated to us: from Sa’eed ibn Jubayr: from Ibn ’Abbaas, and I do not find any biography for ’Abbaad. Its chain of narration also contains weakness, but may be suitable to be supported to the level of hasan

[32] i.e. the father of Allaah’s Messenger (*). [Translator’s Note]

[33] i.e. the grandfather of Allaah’s Messenger (*). [Translator’s Note]

[34] Soorah Fussilat (41):1-13.

[35] Al-Muntakhab min Musnad ’Abd Ibn Humayd (no.1141) and Musnad Abee Ya’laa al-Mawsulee (no.1812) both of them from Aboo Bakr ibn Abee Shaybah: ’Alee ibn Muhammad narrated to us: from al-Ajlah: from adh-Dhayyaal ibn Hurmulah al-Asadee: from Jaabir, radiyallaahu ’anhu, from the Prophet (*). Ibn Katheer said in his Tafseer (7/151), after quoting the hadeeth with his chain of narration from ’Abd ibn Humayd and Aboo Ya’laa: “Al-Baghawee reports it in his Tafseer with his chain of narration from Muhammad ibn Fudayl: from al-Ajlah, who is Ibn ’Abdullaah al-Kindee, and he is declared somewhat weak from adh-Dhayyaal…” However al-Haafidh (Ibn Hajr) says about him in at-Taqreeb (1/46), “Generally acceptable Shee’ee from the seventh level.” Adh-Dhahabee said in al-Kaashif (1/99), “He was declared reliable by Ibn Ma’een and others and declared weak by an-Nasaa’ee and was a Shee’ee.” As for his Shaykh, adh-Dhayyaal, then al-Haafidh (Ibn Hajr) says of him in Ta’jeelul-Manfa’ah (p.84), “He reports from Jaabir and Ibn ’Umar and al-Qaasim ibn Mukhaymirah. Fitr ibn Khaleefah, Husayyin, al-Ajlah and Hajjaaj ibn Arlhat narrate from him. And Ibn Hibbaan declared him reliable.” The rest of the narrators of the chain are reliable.

[36] Soorah Ibraaheem (14):35-36.

[37] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 3/369 no.658 and 5/406 no.583 and 6/206 no.244) and Muslim (Eng, trans. 3/978 no.4397) and Tirmidhee (no.3138) and Ahmad (1/377).

[38] i.e. a house like a shrine, which contained idols.

[39] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 5/450-452 no.641-643), Muslim (Eng. trans. 4/1320 nos. 6052-6054), Aboo Daawood (Eng. trans. 2/777 no. 2766) and Ahmad (4/360-362).

[Excerpted from the book : “The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah – that is the way of wisdom and intelligence” – by Shaykh Rabee hafidhahullaah, translated by Dawud Burbank rahimahullah]

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Abdullaah ibn `Amr ibn al-`Aas (radiyallaahu `anhumaa) – Siyar A`laamin Nubalaa of Imaam adh-Dhahabee | Dawud Burbank


`ABDULLAAH IBN `AMR –radiyallaahu `anhumaa

(Abridged from ‘Siyar A`laamin Nubalaa·’ of Imaam adh-Dhahabee)
Translated by Abu Talha Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

`Abdullaah ibn `Amr ibn al-`Aas ibn Waa·il ibn Haashim ibn Sa`eed ibn Sa`d ibn Sahm ibn `Amr ibn Husays ibn Ka`b ibn Lu·ayy ibn Ghaalib, the Imaam, the great scholar, the worshipper. The Companion of Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and the son of his Companion.

Aboo Muhammad and it is said: Aboo `Abdir-Rahmaan, and it is said: Aboo Naseer; al-Qurashee, as-Sahmee.

His mother was Raa·itah bint al-Hajjaaj ibn Munabbih as-Sahmiyyah.

His father was no older than him except by eleven years or thereabouts.

It has reached us that he accepted Islaam before his father; and it is said that his name was ‘al-`Aas’ [the disobedient one], so when he accepted Islaam the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) changed it to `Abdullaah.

He possessed many merits and virtues, and had a high position with regard to knowledge and action. He carried a great deal of knowledge from the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم).

He was one of those who performed the Hijrah along with his father prior to the conquest of Makkah. His father was only eleven years older than him.

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) used to prefer him over his father, and in the time of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) he was a person who fasted a great deal, stood in (Night) Prayer a great deal, and recited the Qur·aan a great deal, and who sought a great deal of knowledge.

He wrote down a lot of knowledge from the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), and Aboo Hurairah acknowledged the great amount of knowledge he possessed, and said: “Because he used to write things down from the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and I had not used to write.”

The ahaadeeth he narrates from the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) reach seven hundred in number. al-Bukhaaree and Muslim were united in reporting seven of his ahaadeeth, al-Bukhaaree was alone in reporting eight, and Muslim twenty.

He wrote down a great deal of narrations with the permission of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم)…

`Abdullaah also narrated from Aboo Bakr, `Umar, Mu`aadh, Suraaqah ibn Maalik, and his father `Amr, and `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn `Awf, Abud-Dardaa· and a group; also from the people of the Book, and he closely examined their books and gave attention to that.

He was a person of excellence and was earnest in his affairs, and he criticized his father for taking part in affairs in the time of tribulation; however he feared falling into the sin of disobedience if he abandoned his father, so he was therefore present at the battle of Siffeen, but he did not unsheathe a sword.

He acquired a number of the books of the People of the Book and closely examined them, and found some amazing things in them.

His father left him a vast amount of property, and he possessed slaves and servants. He also had a garden in Taa·if called al-Waht that was worth a thousand thousand (1,000,000) dirhams.

The people of Egypt took a great deal of knowledge from him.

He passed away in Egypt in the year 65 H, during the nights of the siege of the capital –al-Fustaat– so when he died they were not able to take his funeral out because of the war between Marwaan ibn al-Hakam and the army of Ibn az-Zubayr. So he was buried in his home –radiyallaahu `anhu.

Those who narrated from him included Ibn al-Musayyib, `Ikrimah, Aboo `Abdir-Rahmaan al-Hubulee, `Urwah, Wahb, Ibn Abee Mulaykah, and Aboo `Amr Shu`ayb ibn Muhammad his grandson.

Those who narrated from him were: his son Muhammad – even though there is dispute about this, and narrations of Muhammad from him are reported in Aboo Daawood, at-Tirmidhee and an-Nasaa·ee; and his freed-slave Aboo Qaaboos, and his grandson Shu`ayb ibn Muhammad – who reported a great deal from him; and he served him and kept his company constantly, and he was brought up in his apartment because Shu`ayb’s father Muhammad died in the life time of his father `Abdullaah.

His students were many and included: his freed-slave Ismaa`eel, and his freed-slave Saalim, and Anas ibn Maalik, Aboo Umaamah ibn Sahl, and Jubayr ibn Nufayr; and Sa`eed ibn al-Musayyib, `Urwah, Aboo Salamah ibn `Abdir-Rahmaan, Zirr ibn Hubaysh, Humayd ibn `Abdir-Rahmaan ibn `Awf, Khaythamah ibn `Abdir-Rahmaan al-Ju`fee, Taawoos, ash-Sha`bee, `Ikrimah, `Ataa·, Mujaahid, al-Hasan al-Basree, `Abdullaah ibn Buraydah, Ibn Abee Mulaykah, `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Jubayr, `Ataa· ibn Yasaar, `Uqbah ibn Muslim, `Amr ibn Deenaar, Masrooq ibn al-Ajda`, Aboo Burdah ibn Abee Moosaa.

Qataadah said: “He was a stout man.”

Hammaad ibn Salamah narrated: from `Alee ibn Zayd [[ibn Jud`aan]]: from al-`Uryaan ibn al-Haytham who said: “I came in a deputation along with my father to Yazeed. So a very tall man came. He was reddish and had a large belly. So he sat down. I said: ‘Who is this?’ So it was said: `Abdullaah ibn `Amr.”…

Yahyaa ibn Ayyoob narrated: from Aboo Qabeel: from `Abdullaah ibn `Amr that he said: “We used to write down what Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said in his presence.”..

[[…Yoosuf ibn Maahak: from `Abdullaah ibn `Amr who said: I used to write down everything which I heard from Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), wanting to memorize it. So the Quraish forbade me and said: ‘Do you write everything when Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) is a man, and speaks when angry and when pleased!’ So I stopped writing, and then mentioned it to Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), so he indicated with his finger to his mouth and said: << Write, for by the One in Whose Hand is my soul, nothing comes out of it except what is true. >> (Saheeh: as-Saheehah: no. 1532)]]

It is established from `Amr ibn Deenaar: from Wahb ibn Munabbih: from his brother Hammaam that he heard Aboo Hurairah say: “No Companion of Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) had more ahaadeeth than me, except for `Abdullaah ibn `Amr, because he used to write and I do not write.”…

Qutaybah narrated: al-Layth narrated to us, along with someone else: from `Ayyaash ibn `Abbaas: from Aboo `Abdir-Rahmaan al-Hubulee: I heard `Abdullaah ibn `Amr say:

“That I should be the tenth of ten poor people on the Day of Resurrection is more beloved to me than that I should be the tenth of ten wealthy people; for those with most will be the ones with the least on the Day of Resurrection, except for those who do like this and like this: meaning: they give in charity to the right and to the left.”

[[al-Bukhaaree narrated in his ‘Saheeh’ (no. 5052): Moosaa narrated to us: Aboo `Awaanah narrated to us: from Mugheerah: from Mujaahid: from `Abdullaah ibn `Amr who said:

“My father got me married to a woman of a noble family, so he often used to ask my wife about me. So she said: ‘What a fine man he is, for a man who does not come to my bed, nor has he approached me since he married me.’ So when that continued for a long time he mentioned it to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) who said: << Let me meet him. >> So I met him afterwards and he said: << How do you observe fasting? >> So I replied: “I fast every day.” He said: << How long does it take you to complete reading the Qur·aan? >> I said: “I do so every night.” He said: << Fast for three days every month and recite the Qur’aan once every month. >> I said: “I have strength to do more than that.” He said: << Then fast the most excellent fast: the fast of Daawood: Fasting one day and refraining from fasting the next day; and finish the recitation of the whole Qur·aan once in seven nights. >> Would that I had accepted the concession of Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), as I have become a weak old man.”

So he used to recite one seventh of the Qur’aan to some of his family during the day to make sure that he remembered it for the night; and whenever he wanted to gain some strength he would abstain from fasting for some days, count them and fast them later on for he disliked leaving something which he used to do during the time of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم)]]

I [i.e. adh-Dhahabee] say: He inherited a very great deal of Egyptian gold from his father, so he was one of the kings amongst the Companions. …`Abdullaah accepted Islaam, and migrated after the seventh year and took part in some of the battles.

Aboo `Ubayd said: “He was in command of the right flank of the army of Mu`aawiyah on the day of Siffeen.”

Khaleefah ibn Khayyaat mentions him as one of Mu`aawiyah’s governors of Koofah. He said: Then he removed him from that position and replaced him with al-Mugheerah ibn Shu`bah.

There occurs in the ‘Musnad’ of Ahmad: Yazeed narrated to us: al- `Awwaam related to us: Aswad ibn Mas`ood narrated to me: from Hanzalah ibn Khuwaylid al-`Anbaree who said: “I was in the presence of Mu`aawiyah when two men came to him disputing with regard to the head of `Ammaar – radiyallaahu `anhu, so each one of them was saying: ‘I killed him.’ So `Abdullaah ibn `Amr said: “Each one of you should be pleased that it was his companion who killed him, and not himself, for I heard Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) say: << The transgressing party will kill him. >> So Mu`aawiyah said: “O `Amr! Will you not spare us this crazy person of yours? Then why are you with us?!” He [i.e. `Abdullaah ibn `Amr] said: “My father made a complaint to Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), so he said to me: << Obey your father as long as he lives. >> So therefore I am with you, but I will not fight.”

[[‘Saheeh’: ‘as-Saheehul-Musnad’ of Shaikh Muqbil]]

Naafi` ibn `Umar related: from Ibn Abee Mulaykah who said: `Abdullaah ibn `Amr –radiyallaahu `anhumaa– said: “What have I to do with Siffeen! What have I to do with fighting against the Muslims! I wish that I had died twenty years – or he said: ten years-before it. Yet even so, by Allaah, I did not strike a sword, nor fire any arrow”; and it is mentioned that he held the flag.”

Husayn al-Mu`allim related: from Ibn Buraydah: from Sulaymaan ibn ar- Rabee’ al-`Adawee: that he performed Hajj in the time of Mu`aawiyah amongst a group of the reciters: so it was told to us that `Abdullaah [ibn `Amr] is to be found in the lower part of Makkah. So we went towards him and found a very great party of people and baggage, with three hundred camels: one hundred for riding and two hundred for carrying, whereas we used to be told that he was one of the most humble of people. So we said: ‘What is all this?’ They said: ‘It is for his brothers; he conveys them, and whoever stays as a guest with him upon them.’ So we were surprised. So they said: He is a wealthy man, and they told us where to find him in the Masjidul-Haraam. So we went to him and found that he was a short man with mucus upon his eye-lids, and he was wearing a simple cloak and waistwrapper and a turban, and he let his shoes hang at his left side.”

…Yahyaa ibn Bukayr said: “`Abdullaah ibn `Amr died in Egypt, and was buried in his small house, in the year 65 H.” This saying about the year of his death was also stated by Khaleefah, Aboo `Ubayd, al-Waaqidee, al- Fallaas and others.

Posted from  the Appendix of :
Tafseer Soorat-in-Naba’- from the works of numerous mufassireen.
Compiled and translated by Abu Talhah Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

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Reciting or Touching The Mus-haf Without Wudoo – Ibn Hazm | Dawud Burbank

ABOO MUHAMMAD IBN HAZM –rahimahullaah– said in  ‘al-Muhallaa’ (1/77-80)
[Translated by Aboo Talhah Dawud ibn Ronald Burbank rahimahullaah]

“ISSUE (no. 116): And reciting the Qur’aan, and prostration during it, and touching the Mus-haf, and (words of) remembrance of Allaah-the Most High-are all permissible, whether upon wudoo· or without wudoo·, and for the ‘junub’ and for the menstruating woman.

The proof of that is that recitation of the Qur’aan, and prostration during it, and touching the Mus-haf, and the remembrance of Allaah-the Most High- are actions of good, and are recommended, and their doer is rewarded. So whoever claims that they are prohibited in some states, then he is required to bring proof.

As for the recitation of the Qur’aan, then the present opponents agree with us about this matter with regard to the person who is not in a state of wudoo·, however they disagree regarding the junub and the menstruating woman.

So a group said: The menstruating woman and the junub may not recite anything from the Qur’aan; and it is a saying related from `Umar ibn al-Khattaab, `Alee ibn Abee Taalib-radiyallaahu `anhumaa-and from others besides them, such as: al-Hasan al-Basree, Qataadah, an-Nakha`ee, and others.

And a group said: As for the menstruating woman, then she may recite whatever she wishes from the Qur’aan; but as for the junub, then he may recite two Aayahs or the like; and it was the saying of Maalik; and some of them said: He should not read a complete Aayah; and it was the saying of Aboo Haneefah.

So as for those who prevent the junub from recitation anything from the Qur’aan, then they use as evidence that which `Abdullaah ibn Salamah narrated from `Alee ibn Abee Taalib –radiyallaahu `anhu– “That nothing would prevent Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) from the Qur’aan, except from janaabah.” [1]

And there is no proof for them in this, since it does not contain a prohibition of the junub reciting the Qur’aan; rather it is just an action from him-`alaihis-Salaam– which does not make it something binding. Nor did he – `alaihis-Salaam-explain that he only withheld from reciting the Qur’aan on account of janaabah. So it may have been the case that he just happened to have left off reciting in that state, but not because of Janaabah. So he –`alaihis-Salaam-never fasted a whole month besides Ramaadaan; nor did he increase in its standing in Prayer upon thirteen rak`ahs; nor did he ever dine upon a small table; nor did he eat whilst reclining. So is it, therefore, forbidden to fast a whole month besides Ramaadaan, or that a person prays tahajjud with more than thirteen rak`ahs, or that he dines upon a small table, or that he eats whilst reclining? They do not say this, and there is much like this.

Also narrations occur prohibiting the junub and one who is not upon purification from reciting anything from the Qur’aan, but nothing from them is authentic; and we have explained the weaknesses of their chains of narrations elsewhere; and if they had been authentic, then they would have been a proof against those who permit him to recite a complete Aayah, or part of an Aayah, since they all totally prohibit recitation of the Qur’aan for the junub.

As for those who say that the junub may recite an Aayah or so, or who say that he should not recite a whole Aayah; or who permit the menstruating woman and forbid the junub, then these are futile sayings because they are claims not supported by a proof: neither from the Qur’aan, nor from the Sunnah-neither from what is authentic nor from what is weak, nor from Consensus, nor by the saying of a Companion, nor by analogy, nor by sound opinion. So part of an Aayah, and one Aayah are Qur’aan, without a doubt, and there is no difference between permitting him to recite one Aayah and (permitting) another; not between preventing one Aayah and preventing another. And those who hold these sayings hold it to be reprehensible to oppose a Companion who is not known to have anyone who disagreed with him; yet they have opposed in this matter `Umar ibn al-Khattaab, `Alee ibn Abee Taalib, and Salmaan al- Faarisee -and no one from the Companions is known to have disagreed with them radiyallaahu `anhum.

And also there are some Aayahs that comprise a single word, such as:

وَالضُّحَىٰ – 93:1 [[Sooratud-Duhaa (93):1]], and:
مُدْهَامَّتَانِ – 55:64 [[Sooratur-Rahmaan (55): 64]], and:
وَالْعَصْرِ – 103:1 [[Sooratul-`Asr (103):1]], and:
وَالْفَجْرِ – 89:1 [[Sooratul-Fajr (89): 1]];

and there are some that comprise many Words, such as the Aayah concerning a debt [[Aayah 282 of Sooratul-Baqarah]]. So when there is no doubt concerning this, then their permitting him to recite the Aayah of debt, and that which follows it, and Aayatul-Kursee, or part of it and not completing it, and their preventing him from reciting:

وَالْفَجْرِ  وَلَيَالٍ عَشْرٍ وَالشَّفْعِ وَالْوَتْرِ

[[Sooratul-Fajr (89):1-3]]; or their preventing him from completing:[[Sooratur-Rahmaan (55): 64]], is astonishing.

Likewise their making a distinction between the menstruating woman and the junub, based upon the fact that the affair of the menstruating woman is prolonged, then this is absurd; since if her reciting the Qur’aan is forbidden, then the length of her period will not make it lawful for her; and if that is lawful for her, then using as evidence the fact that her period is prolonged has no meaning.

-Muhammad ibn Sa`eed ibn Nabaat narrated to us: `Abdullaah ibn Nasr narrated to us: from Qaasim ibn Asbigh: from Muhammad ibn Waddaah: from Moosaa ibn Mu`aawiyah: Ibn Wahb narrated to us: from Yoonus ibn Yazeed: from Rabee`ah, who said: “There is no harm in the junub reciting the Qur’aan.”

-And with it to Moosaa ibn Mu`aawiyah: Yoosuf ibn Khaalid as-Samtee narrated to us: Idrees narrated to us: from Hammaad, who said: “I asked Sa`eed ibn al-Musayyib about the junub: should he recite the Qur’aan? So he said: How should he not recite it, when it is retained inside him?!”

-And with it, to Yoosuf as-Samtee: from Nasr al-Baahilee, who said: “Ibn `Abbaas used to recite al-Baqarah whilst he was junub.”

-Muhammad ibn Sa`eed ibn Nabaatah related to me: Ahmad ibn `Awnillaah narrated to us: Qaasim ibn Asbigh narrated to us: Muhammad ibn `Abdis-Salaam al- Khushanee narrated to us: Muhammad ibn Bashshaar narrated to us: Ghundar narrated to us: Shu`bah narrated to us: from Hammaad ibn Abee Sulaymaan, who said: I asked Sa`eed ibn Jubayr about the junub reciting, so he did not see any harm in it, and he said: Is the Qur’aan not within him?! And it is the saying of Daawood, and all of our Companions [2].

As for the prostration whilst reciting the Qur’aan, then it is not Prayer at all, because of what `Abdullaah ibn Rabee` narrated to us: Muhammad ibn Mu`aawiyah narrated to us: Ahmad ibn Shu`ayb narrated to us: Muhammad ibn Bashshaar narrated to us: `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Mahdee narrated to us, and Muhammad ibn Ja`far, both saying: Shu`bah narrated to us: from Ya`laa ibn `Ataa, that he heard `Alee al-Azdee-and he is `Alee ibn `Abdillaah al-Baariqee: reliable-that he heard Ibn `Umar say: from Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) that he said: << Prayer of the night and the day is in pairs >> [3]; and it is authentic from him- `alaihis-Salaam-that he said: << The Witr is a single rak`ah at the end of the night. >> [4] So it is correct that whatever is not a complete rak`ah or two rak`ah’s, or more, then it is not Prayer; and prostration whilst reciting the Qur’aan is not a rak`ah, nor two rak`ahs so it is not Prayer; and because it is not Prayer it is permissible without wudoo·, and for the junub, and for the menstruating woman, and towards other than the qiblah, just like the rest of the dhikr; and there is not difference since wudoo· is not binding except for the Prayer alone, as nothing occurs in the Qur’aan, the Sunnah, Consensus, or Analogy to make it obligatory for other than the Prayer. So if it is said that the prostration is a part of the Prayer, and a part of the Prayer is Prayer, then we say, and success is granted by Allaah, this is futile, because a part of the Prayer will not be Prayer unless it is completed in the manner in which the praying person has been commanded to perform it. So if a person were to say a takbeer, and then perform rukoo`, and then deliberately break off, then no one from the people of Islaam would say that he had prayed anything; rather they would all say that he had not prayed; but if he were to complete it as a rak`ah of the witr, or two rak`ah’s for the Jumu`ah, or the Dawn Prayer, or travelling, or optional Prayer, then he would have prayed without any disagreement.

Then we say to them: The standing is a part of the prayer, and the takbeer is a part of the Prayer, and the recitation of the Foundation of the Book is a part of the Prayer, and the Sitting is a part of the Prayer, and the Salutation is a part of the Prayer, so upon this basis it is essential that you do not permit anyone to stand, or to say takbeer, or to recite the Foundation of the Book, or to sit, or to give the Salutation except upon wudoo·. So this is something which they do not say, so their argument is nullified, and Allaah-the Most High-grants success.

So if they say: This is by Consensus [5], then,we say to them: Then you have assented to the correctness of a consensus which shows the futility of your argument, and the unsoundness of your reasoning, and Allaah-the Most High-grants success.

As for touching the mus-haf, then the narrations used as evidence by those who do not permit the junub to touch it, then nothing from them is authentic, because they are either ‘mursal’, a manuscript which does not have a fully connected chain [6], something from an unknown person, or something from a weak narrator; and we have examined them in detail elsewhere.

As for what is authentic, then it is just what `Abdullaah ibn Rabee` narrated to us, saying: Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Mufarraj narrated to us: Sa`eed ibn as-Sakan related to us: al-Firabree narrated to us: al-Bukhaaree narrated to us: al-Hakam ibn Naafi` narrated to us: Shu`ayb narrated to us: from az-Zuhree: `Ubaydullaah ibn `Abdillaah ibn `Utbah related to me: that Ibn `Abbaas informed him: that Aboo Sufyaan informed him that he was with Hiraql, and Hiraql called for the letter of Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) with which he had sent Dihyah to the ruler of Busraa, so he gave it to Hiraql, and he read it, and it contained:

“In the name of Allaah, the Extremely Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy. From Muhammad, the slave of Allaah and His Messenger to Hiraql the ruler of the Byzantines. Peace be upon whoever follows the guidance. To proceed. Then I call you with the call of Islaam: accept Islaam and you shall be safe, and if you turn away then the sin of the common folk will be upon you; and:

قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ

[Soorah Aal-`Imraan (3): 64]

[[Meaning: O people of the Scripture! Come to a true and just word to which we should all adhere: that we single out Allaah with all worship, and we do not associate anything along with Him; and that none of us should take others as lords besides Allaah. So if they turn away, then say: Bear witness that we are Muslims, submitting to our Lord.]].[7]

So here Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) sent this letter, containing an Aayah, to Christians, and he knew that they would certainly touch that letter.

So if they mentioned what `Abdullah ibn Rabee` narrated to us: Muhammad ibn Mu`aawiyah narrated to us: Ahmad ibn Shu`ayb narrated to us: Qutaybah ibn Sa`eed narrated to us: al-Layth narrated to us: from Naafi`: from Ibn `Umar who said:

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) forbade travelling to the land of the enemies with the Qur’aan, for fear that the enemy would gain possession of it.” [8]

Then this is true; it is binding to follow it; and it does not contain anything about the junub or the Disbeliever not touching the mus-haf, rather all that it contains is that the people of the land of war should not gain possession of the Qur’aan.

So if they say: Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) only sent a single Aayah to Hiraql (Heraclius), then it is said to them: Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) did not prevent anything in addition to it; and you are people of analogy, and if you will not draw analogy between one Aayah and that which is more than it, then do not make analogy between this [particular] Aayah and others.

So if they mention the Saying of Allaah -the Most High:

فِي كِتَابٍ مَّكْنُونٍ   لَّا يَمَسُّهُ إِلَّا الْمُطَهَّرُونَ

[[Meaning: In a well-guarded Book, which none touch but the purified ones]] [Sooratul-Waaqi`ah (56):78-79]

then there is no proof for them in it, since it does not contain a command; rather it is just a statement of fact, and Allaah-the Most High-does not speak except truth; and it is not permissible to divert the wording of a statement to the meaning of a command, except by the presence of a clear text or a certain Consensus. So when we see that the mus-haf is touched by those who are pure and those who are not pure, then we know that He-the Mighty and Majestic- did not mean the mus-haf, but rather He meant another Book, just as Muhammad ibn Sa`eed ibn Nabaatah related to us: Ahmad ibn `Abdil-Baseer narrated to us: Qaasim ibn Asbigh narrated to us: Muhammad ibn `Abdis-Salaam al-Khushanee narrated to us: Muhammad ibn al-Muthannaa narrated to us `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Mahdee narrated to us: Sufyaan ath-Thawree narrated to us: from Jaami` ibn Abee Raashid: from Sa`eed Ibn Jubayr, regarding the Saying of Allaah-the Most High:

لَّا يَمَسُّهُ إِلَّا الْمُطَهَّرُونَ

[Sooratul-Waaqi`ah (56):79]
[[Meaning: None touch it except the purified]], he said:

The Angels who are in the Heavens.”

-Himmaam ibn Ahmad narrated to us: Ibn Mufarraj narrated to us: Ibnul-A`raabee to us: ad-Dabaree narrated to us: `Abdur-Razzaaq narrated to us: Yahyaa ibn al-`Alaa· narrated to us: from al-A`mash: from Ibraaheem an-Nakha`ee: from `Alqamah who said:

We went to Salmaan al-Faarisee, and he came out to us from a toilet of his, so we said to him: ‘If you were to perform wudoo·, O Aboo `Abdillaah, and then recite such and such Soorah to us.” So Salmaan said: “Allaah the Mighty and Majestic-only said:

لَّا يَمَسُّهُ إِلَّا الْمُطَهَّرُونَ

[Sooratul-Waaqi`ah (56):79]

[[Meaning: In a well-guarded Book, which none touch but the purified ones]], and it is the Reminder which is in the heavens: none touch it except the Angels.” [9]

Muhammad ibn Sa`eed ibn Nabaat narrated to us: Ahmad ibn `Abdil-Baseer narrated to us: Qaasim ibn Asbigh narrated to us: Muhammad ibn `Abdis-Salaam al- Khushanee narrated to us: Muhammad ibn Bashshaar narrated to us: Muhammad ibn Ja`far narrated to us: Shu`bah narrated to us: Mansoor ibn al-Mu`tamir narrated to us: from Ibraaheem an-Nakha`ee: from `Alqamah ibn Qays: that when he wanted to take a mus-haf, he would order a Christian to transcribe it for him.

And Aboo Haneefah said: “There is no harm in the junub carrying the mus-haf by its strap, and he may not carry it without a strap”, and the one who is not upon wudoo· is the same with them.

And Maalik said: “The junub, and the one who is not in a state of wudoo· may not carry the mus-haf: neither by its strap, nor upon a pillow; but if it is in a saddle-bag, or a box, then there is no harm in the Jew, the Christian, the junub, and the one who is not in a state of purification carrying it.”

`Alee [[i.e. Ibn Hazm-rahimahullaah]] said: “There is no proof for the correctness of these distinctions; neither in the Qur’aan nor in the Sunnah-in what is authentic or what is weak, nor in Consensus, nor in analogy, nor in the saying of a Companion. So if the saddle-bag is a barrier between the carrier and the Qur’aan, then a book-cover and the back of a page should also be a barrier between the toucher and the Qur’aan, and there is no difference, and Allaah grants success.”


[1] Reported by Ahmad (1/84), Aboo Daaawood (no.229), at-Tirmidhee (no.146), an-Nasaa·ee (no.265), and Ibn Maajah (no.594). Declared ‘da`eef’ (weak) by Shaikh al-Albaanee. See ‘Irwaa·ul-Ghaleel’ (no. 485).

[2] i.e. of Aboo Sulaymaan Daawood ibn `Alee al-Asbahaanee, az-Zaahiree (d.270 H) –rahimahullaah, and the Zaahirees (transl.).

[3] Reported by Ahmad (2/26 & 51), an- an-Nasaa·ee (no.1666), and Ibn Maajah (no.1322), as a hadeeth of Ibn `Umar –radiyallaahu `anhumaa. Declared ‘Saheeh’ by Shaikh al-Albaanee.

[4] Reported by Muslim (no.752) as a hadeeth of Ibn `Umar –radiyallaahu `anhumaa.

[5] i.e. the fact that these actions may be performed without wudoo· is something known by Consensus (transl.).

[6] Referring to the long hadeeth of `Amr ibn Hazm –radiyallaahu `anhu, containing the wording:
<< None may touch the Qur’aan except one who is pure. >> (transl.).

[7] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (no.7) and Muslim (no.1773).

[8] Reported by Muslim (no.1869).

[9] ‘Musannaf `Abdir-Razzaaq’ (1/340/no.1325).

[Translated by Aboo Talhah Dawud ibn Ronald Burbank rahimahullaah]

[Download the Original PDF]

Posted from: Touching the Mus-haf without wudoo

Related Links:

Sufyaan ath-Thawree – Siyar A`laamin Nubalaa of Imaam adh-Dhahabee | Dawud Burbank



(Abridged from ‘Siyar A`laamin Nubalaa·’ of Imaam adh-Dhahabee)
Translated by Abu Talha Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

“Sufyaan ibn Sa`eed ibn Masrooq, the Imaam, Shaikhul-Islaam, The chief of the memorizers, Aboo `Abdillaah, ath-Thawree: from Thawr of the tribe of Mudar, not Thawr of Hamadaan; al-Koofee, the Jurist (Faqeeh).

He narrated from his father, and from: Zubayd ibn al-Haarith, Habeeb ibn Abee Thaabit, al-Aswad ibn Qays, Ziyaad ibn `Ilaaqah, Muhaarib ibn Dithaar, and their level.

Those who narrated from him included: Ibn al-Mubaarak, Yahyaa alQattaan, Ibn Wahb, Wakee`, al-Firyaabee, Qabeesah, Aboo Nu`aym, Muhammad ibn Katheer, Ahmad ibn Yoonus al-Yarboo`ee, and very many others.

Shu`bah, Yahyaa ibn Ma`een, and a group said: Sufyaan is the Chief of the Believers in Hadeeth.”

Ibn al-Mubaarak said: “I wrote (narrations) from one thousand one hundred Shaikhs, and there was not amongst them anyone more excellent than Sufyaan.”

Shu`bah used to say: “Sufyaan is a better memorizer than me.

Warqaa· said: “ath-Thawree did not see the like of himself.”

Ahmad said: “No one takes precedence over him in my heart.”

al-Qattaan said: “I have never seen a better memorizer then him: if you asked him about a question or about a hadeeth which he did not possess, it would trouble him greatly.”

`Abdur-Razzaaq said: Sufyaan said: “I never stored anything in my heart and then found it letting me down.”

al-Awzaa`ee said: “No one whom the Ummah is united upon in their being pleased with him and holding him to be correct remains except for Sufyaan.”

Ibn al-Mubaarak said: “I do not know anyone upon the face of the earth who is more knowledgeable than Sufyaan.”

Wakee` said: “Sufyaan was an ocean.”

al-Qattaan said: “Sufyaan is above Maalik in everything.”

Aboo Usaamah said: “Whoever informs you that he has seen the like of Sufyaan, then do not believe him.”

Ibn Abee Dhi·b said: “I have not seen in Iraaq anyone who resembles your Thawree.”

ath-Thawree said: “I would love that I am saved regarding knowledge: so that it is neither for nor against me; and there is no action which I fear more for myself than it – meaning Hadeeth.”

Yahyaa ibn Yamaan said: I heard Sufyaan say: “The scholar is the doctor of the Religion and dirhams are the disease for the Religion. So if the doctor catches the disease, then when will he be able to treat others?!”

al-Khuraybee said: “I heard ath-Thawree say: “Seeking Hadeeth (itself) is not a preparation for death, rather it is an ailment which a man prescribes himself with.”

I (i.e. adh-Dhahabee) say: ‘He has spoken the truth, by Allaah. Seeking Hadeeth is something other than Hadeeth itself. So seeking Hadeeth is a term commonly used to cover a number of affairs which are additional to actually acquiring Hadeeth itself, and many of them are just steps towards knowledge; and most of these are affairs which the narrator of hadeeth becomes engrossed with, such as: acquiring fine manuscripts; seeking shorter chains; increasing the number of one’s Shaikhs; being overjoyed at titles and praise; and hoping for a long life so that he can narrate more; and loving to be alone in narrating something; and many affairs which are closely allied to personal goals, and not to actions for the Lord. So if your seeking the Prophetic Hadeeth is surrounded by these calamities, then when will you escape from them towards acting purely and sincerely for Allaah. Then if the knowledge of narrations can be tainted, then what do you think about the knowledge of logic, controversial debating, philosophy of the earlier peoples; which strip away Eemaan and produce doubts and throw a person into confusion. These were not, by Allaah, from the knowledge of the Companions, nor the Taabi`een, nor from the knowledge of alAwzaa`ee, ath-Thawree, Maalik, Aboo Haneefah, Ibn Abee Dhi·b, or Shu`bah; nor, by Allaah, were they known by Ibn al-Mubaarak; nor by Aboo Yoosuf who said: “Whoever seeks the Religion through rhetorical theology (al-kalaam) will become an evil heretic”; nor by Wakee`, Ibn Mahdee, Ibn Wahb, ash-Shaafi`ee, `Affaan, Aboo `Ubayd, Ibn al-Madeenee, Ahmad Aboo Thawr, al-Muzanee, al-Bukhaaree, al-Athram, Muslim, anNasaa·ee, Ibn Khuzaymah, Ibn Suraij, Ibn al-Mundhir, and their like. Rather their knowledge was the Qur·aan, the Hadeeth, Fiqh, Grammar, and the like. Yes Sufyaan also said, in what al-Firyaabee heard from him: “There is no action more excellent than seeking the Hadeeth, as long as the intention is correct regarding it.”

He said: And I heard him say: “If we wanted to narrate Hadeeth to you exactly as we heard it, then we would not narrate a single hadeeth to you.”

al-Firyaabee said: I heard Sufyaan say: “I entered upon al-Mahdee and I said: “It reached me that Ibn `Umar spent twelve deenars upon his Hajj, and you are involved in what you are involved in.” So he became angry and said: ‘Do you want me to be as you are?!’ So I said: ‘If you are not as I am, then at least reduce from what you are doing. “Damurah said: I heard Maalik say: “Iraaq used to wage war upon us with dirhams and garments, and then it waged war upon us with Sufyaan ath-Thawree.”

I say: The virtues of this Imaam occur in a volume complied by Ibn alJawzee; and I have abridged it and brought a good quantity of that in my ‘Taareekh’.

Saalih Jazarah said: “Sufyaan was a greater memorizer and had more hadeeth than Maalik. However Maalik carefully selected the narrators; and Sufyaan was a greater memorizer then Shu`bah. His ahaadeeth amounted to thirty thousand, whereas the ahaadeeth of Shu`bah were about ten thousand.

“Sufyaan was born in the year 97 H. He began seeking Hadeeth whilst he was a youth, since his father was one of the scholars of Koofah. He (Sufyaan) died in Basrah, in hiding from al-Mahdee, since he was one who spoke out with the truth and strongly criticized. He died in Sha`baan in the year 161 H -radiyallaahu `anhu.

It is authentic from Ma`daan: from ath-Thawree, regarding His Saying -He the Most High:

[Sooratul-Hadeed (57): 4]
[[Meaning: And He is with you]], so he said: “His knowledge,” and this is what is reported from a group of the people of Tafseer.

al-Laalikaa·ee in ‘as-Sunnah’: al-Mukhallis related to us: Abul-Fadl Shu`ayb ibn Muhammad related to us: `Alee ibn Harb ibn Bassaam related to us: I heard Shu`ayb ibn Harb say: I said to Sufyaan ath-Thawree:

‘Tell me a saying about the Sunnah, through which Allaah will benefit me, and when I stand in front of Him and He asks me about it I can say: ‘O my Lord! Sufyaan told this to me.’ So that I will be saved and you will be taken.’

He said: “Write: In the name of Allaah, the Extremely Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy. The Qur·aan is the Speech of Allaah. It is not created. It came from Him, and it will return to Him. Whoever says other than this then he is an Disbeliever; and Eemaan is statement and action and intention, it increases and decreases; and to give precedence to the two Shaikhs [i.e. Aboo Bakr and `Umar]…” until he said: “O Shu`ayb, what you have written will not benefit you until you hold wiping over the leather socks, and until you hold reciting ‘Bismillaahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem’ quietly (in the Prayer) to be better than reciting it loudly; and until you have Eemaan in Pre-Decree (al-Qadr); and until you hold praying behind every righteous or sinful (imaam); and that the Jihaad continues until the Day of Resurrection; and having patience under the flag of the ruler, whether he is tyrannical or just.”

So I said: ‘O Aboo `Abdillaah, is that every Prayer?’ He said: “No, rather the Jumu`ah Prayer, and the two `Eid Prayers: pray them behind whoever you reach. As for the rest of that, then you have a choice, so do not pray except behind one whom you trust in, and you know that he is from the people of the Sunnah.

If you stand before Allaah and He asks you about this, then say: “O my Lord, Sufyaan ibn Sa`eed related it to me; and then leave me to my Lord – the Mighty and Majestic.”

This is established from Sufyaan, and the Shaikh of al-Mukhallis is reliable -may Allaah have mercy upon them.

[‘Tadhkiratul-Huffaaz’ (1/203-207)]

[[For the full narration, and a longer biography of Sufyaan refer to the book ‘Mountains of Knowledge.’]]

Posted from  the Appendix of :
Tafseer Soorat-in-Naba’- from the works of numerous mufassireen.
Compiled and translated by Abu Talhah Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Related Links:

Aqeedah of Tawheed was the starting point of the Da’wah of Muhammad ﷺ – Shaykh Rabee’ ibn Haadee


The Dawah of Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم

The noblest of all the Prophets and the last of them, Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullaah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم). The one sent with the greatest, most complete and most comprehensive message. The one whom Allaah sent as a mercy for the worlds, and as a bringer of good tidings and a warner, and as a Caller to Allaah with His permission, and a shining light. He did not leave anything good except that he guided his ummah to it and pointed it out to them, nor anything evil except that he warned them against it.

So which of the fundamentals of Islaam did this exalted Prophet begin with?

What was the starting point for his da’wah?

He (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) began with what all the Prophets began with, and started where they started in their da’wah: calling to the ‘aqeedah of tawheed, and calling for all worship to be made purely and sincerely for Allaah alone. He began with the testification, “None has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah,” (Laa ilaaha illallaah Muhammadur Rasoolullaah). Can it be imagined that he or any of the other Prophets would begin with anything but this great principle, the foundation of all the divine Messages?! Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) began with this fundamental principle, so the first thing which the people heard was, ‘Witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah.’ So the proud and haughty said.

أَجَعَلَ الْآلِهَةَ إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا ۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ عُجَابٌ  – وَانطَلَقَ الْمَلَأُ مِنْهُمْ أَنِ امْشُوا وَاصْبِرُوا عَلَىٰ آلِهَتِكُمْ ۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ يُرَادُ

“The unbelievers said, ‘Has he made all that is to be worshipped a single God, who alone is to be called upon and hears all invocations. This is a very curious thing which we have not heard of.’ So the leaders amongst them went off saying to one another, ‘Continue in what you are upon and persist in worshipping your idols. He only says this to gain ascendancy over us.’”  [Soorah Saad (38):5-6]

He continued calling to this lofty principle and highest goal throughout the Meccan period of his Messengership, for thirteen years. He did not become weary or languid. He patiently bore all types of harm to propagate this principle, since no religious duties or pillars of Islaam were obligated upon him, except for the Prayer which was obligated in the tenth year of Prophethood, and apart from the excellent manners of keeping ties of relationship, truthfulness and chastity which he commanded his people with. However the core of his da’wah and the cause of dispute and opposition to him was that great fundamental principle. So Allaah charged this noble Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) with the particular duty of establishing this great principle. Allaah, the Most High, says:

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ فَاعْبُدِ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصًا لَّهُ الدِّينَ  – أَلَا لِلَّهِ الدِّينُ الْخَالِصُ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ مَا نَعْبُدُهُمْ إِلَّا لِيُقَرِّبُونَا إِلَى اللَّهِ زُلْفَىٰ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ فِي مَا هُمْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ

“Indeed We have sent down the Book to you, O Muhammad, with the truth, so worship Allaah alone making all religion purely and sincerely for Him. Indeed the religion that is free of all taint of shirk is alone what is acceptable to Allaah. As for those who take and invoke helpers and protectors besides Allaah, then they say, ‘We only worship them so that they should intercede for us and bring us nearer to Allaah.’ Indeed Allaah will establish judgement between them regarding the matters of religion about which they dispute.”  [Soorah az-Zumar (39):2-3]

Allaah, the Most High, says:

قُلْ إِنِّي أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصًا لَّهُ الدِّينَ  – وَأُمِرْتُ لِأَنْ أَكُونَ أَوَّلَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ –  قُلْ إِنِّي أَخَافُ إِنْ عَصَيْتُ رَبِّي عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ – قُلِ اللَّهَ أَعْبُدُ مُخْلِصًا لَّهُ دِينِي

“Say, O Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم), ‘Allaah has commanded that I should worship Him alone, purely and sincerely, not associating anything with Him, and I am commanded to be the first of this nation who submits to Him as a Muslim, making all worship purely for Him.’ Say, O Muhammad, ‘I fear should I disobey my Lord in this, the torment of a great Day.’ Say, ‘It is Allaah alone that I worship, making all of my worship purely and sincerely for Him, and not worshipping anything else besides Him.’”[Soorah az-Zumar (39):11-14]

قُلْ إِنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ – لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ ۖ وَبِذَٰلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا أَوَّلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ

“Say, O Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم), ‘Indeed my Prayer, my sacrifice, my living and my dying are all purely and solely for Allaah, Lord of all the Worlds. There is no share of any of that for other than Him. That is what My Lord ordered me, and I am the first of this nation to submit to Allaah as a Muslim.’”[Soorah al-An’aam (6):162-163]

He also commanded him to call all of the people to fulfil and implement this principle, and to proceed upon it. Allaah, the Most High, says:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ – الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ فِرَاشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَّكُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَندَادًا وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

“O Mankind, single out your Lord with worship; He who created you and all those who came before you so that you may be of those who seek to avoid Allaah’s punishment and anger; those whom Allaah is pleased with. He Who has made the earth a resting place for you and has made the sky a canopy, and sent down rain from the sky, and brought out with it crops and fruits from the earth as provision for you. So do not set up rivals with Allaah in your worship whilst you know that you have no Lord besides Him.”  [Soorah al-Baqarah (2):21-22]

Allaah, the Most High, says:

وَإِلَٰهُكُمْ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ لَّا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ الرَّحِيمُ

“The God Who alone has the right to be worshipped is a Single God. So do not worship anything besides Him, nor associate anything in worship with Him, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy.”  [Soorah al-Baqarah (2):163]

Allaah, the Most High, says:

قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا الَّذِي لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ ۖ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ الَّذِي يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَكَلِمَاتِهِ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

“Say, O Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم), to all of the people, ‘I am the Messenger of Allaah to you all. Allaah, to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and everything therein. None has the right to be worshipped but Him. He Who alone gives life and death. So affirm true faith in Allaah and in His sole right to worship, and believe in His Messenger, the Unlettered Prophet (Muhammad صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) who believes in Allaah and His Words, and follow him, so that you may be rightly guided.’”[Soorah al-A’raaf (7):158]

The Aayaat in this regard are very many, and what we have quoted is an example showing the methodology of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   in calling to tawheed.

Then with regard to the Sunnah, there are many things clearly showing that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) began his da’wah with tawheed and completed it with it, and continued calling to it from the beginning to the end, throughout his (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) life.

(1) ’Amr ibn ’Abasah as-Sulamee, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said,

“During the times of Ignorance I used hold that the people were upon error and futility, and they used to worship the idols, then I heard of a man in Makkah who received revelation. So I set out upon my riding beast and came to him. At that time he was in hiding due to oppression of his people. So I behaved in a way that enabled me to gain access to him in Makkah, which I did. So I said to him, ‘What are you?’ He replied, ‘I am a Prophet.’ So I said, ‘And what is a Prophet?’ He said, ‘Allaah has sent me as a Messenger.’ So I said, ‘And what is it that He has sent you with?’ He said, ‘I have been sent to order the joining of ties of relationship, to break the idols, so that Allaah is worshipped alone and nothing at all is associated in worship along with Him.’ So I said, ‘And who is with you upon this?’ He said, ‘A free man and a slave.’ He said, ‘And at that time Aboo Bakr and Bilaal were with him from those who believed in him…’“ 

[Reported by Muslim (Eng. trans. 2/395 no.1812) and Ahmad in al-Musand (4/112)]

(2) When ’Amr ibn al-’Aas and ’Abdullaah ibn Rabee’ah al-Makhzoomee went to an-Najaashee, the ruler of Abyssinia, to speak to him in order to incite him against the Muslims who had emigrated to Abyssinia, they said, ‘O king, some of our foolish youths have abandoned their religion and come to your land. They have split away from their own people and have not entered your religion. Rather they have come up with an innovated religion which is not known either to us or to you…’ So the Najaashee asked the Muslims, ‘What is this religion which you have split from your people and not entered my religion or the religion of any of these nations?!’ So Ja’far ibn Abee Taalib was the one who replied, and he said to him,

‘O king, we were a people from the people of ignorance who worshipped idols, and we ate unslaughtered meat and committed foul acts, and we cut off ties of relationship, treated our neighbours in an evil manner and the strong amongst us used to devour the weak. So we were upon that until Allaah sent a Messenger to us from amongst us. We knew his lineage, his truthfulness, his trustworthiness and his chastity. So he called us to Allaah, that we should single Him out and worship Him alone and renounce everything which we and our fathers used to worship besides Him, all stones and idols; he commanded us to speak the truth and to fulfil trusts; to join ties of relationship; to live in a good manner with our neighbours; to avoid forbidden acts and shedding blood; and he forbade us from foul acts and from falsehood; and he forbade us from unlawfully devouring the wealth of orphans and falsely accusing chaste women. He ordered us to worship Allaah alone and not to worship anything along with Him…’ He said, ‘So he told him the affairs of Islaam,’ ‘So we attested to his truthfulness and believed him and followed him in that which he came with. So we worshipped Allaah alone, and did not worship anything else besides Him, and we made forbidden that which He forbade us, and declared lawful that which He allowed for us. So our people became enemies to us and tortured us and tormented us to turn back from our religion to the worship of idols, and so that we should allow the filthy actions which we used to allow. So when they oppressed us, treated us cruelly and made it unbearable for us, and came between us and our religion, then we left and came to your land, and we preferred you to others and wished to live in your company, and we hoped that we would not be oppressed while with you…’” [1]

(3) Also amongst the questions which Hirqal (Heraclius) asked Aboo Sufyaan, at the time of the peace of Hudaybiyyah, about Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) was that he asked Aboo Sufyaan, “What does he command you?” So Aboo Sufyaan replied, “He says,

Worship Allaah alone and do not worship anything else along with Him, and abandon what your fathers say. And he orders Prayer, charity, chastity and the joining of ties of relationship.’”

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 1/7/no. 6) and it is a long hadeeth]

So these ahaadeeth clearly show us what the da’wah of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  was in both the Makkan and Madinan periods.


[1] Reported by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad (1/202) and (5/290). Ahmad said, “Ya’qoob (meaning Ibraaheem ibn Sa’d az-Zuhree) narrated to us (reliable): My father narrated to us, from Muhammad ibn Ishaaq: Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn ’Ubaydillaah ibn Shihaab narrated to me: from Aboo Bakr ibn ’Abdir-Rahmaan ibn al-Haarith ibn Hishaam al-Makhzoomee:from Umm Salamah bint Abee Umayyah (meaning the Mother of the Believers, radiyallaahu ’anha).” It is a chain of narration that is fully saheeh, except for Muhammad ibn Ishaaq, but he clearly states that he heard it directly and so his narration is hasan (good and acceptable).

[Excerpted from the book : “The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah – that is the way of wisdom and intelligence” – by Shaykh Rabee hafidhahullaah, translated by Dawud Burbank rahimahullah]

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Abdullaah ibn `Abbaas (radiyallaahu `anhumaa) – Siyar A`laamin Nubalaa of Imaam adh-Dhahabee | Dawud Burbank


`ABDULLAAH IBN `ABBAAS -radiyallaahu `anhumaa

(Abridged from ‘Siyar A`laamin Nubalaa·’ of Imaam adh-Dhahabee)
Translated by Abu Talha Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

“`Abdullaah ibn `Abbaas ibn `Abdul-Muttalib -radiyallaahu `anhumaa- the Imaam, the ocean of knowledge, the great scholar (habr) of the Ummah, and the Imaam of Tafseer.

Abul-`Abbaas, al-Haashimee, the son of the paternal uncle of Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), and the father of the khulafaa· [i.e. the later `Abbaasid caliphs.]

He was born in the mountain pass of Banoo Haashim, three years before the Hijrah. He accompanied the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) for about thirty months, and Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) died when he was thirteen years old. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) supplicated for him that Allaah should grant him knowledge and understanding of the Religion, and should teach him explanation of the Book.

Khaalid al-Hadhdhaa· said: from `Ikrimah: from Ibn `Abbaas who said:

“The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) stroked my head and supplicated for wisdom for me.”

-Aboo `Aasim: Shabeeb ibn Bishr related to us: `Ikrimah related to us: from Ibn `Abbaas who said:

“Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) went to relieve himself, then he moved away and found a covered pot (of water), so he said: << Who brought this? >> So `Abdullaah (ibn `Abbaas) said: “It was I”, so he said: << O Allaah teach him explanation of the Qur·aan. >> [Saheeh: ‘Sharhut-Tahaawiyyah’ (no. 180), ‘as-Saheehah’ (no. 2589)]

-al-A`mash: from `Abud-Duhaa: from Masrooq who said: Ibn Mas`ood said:

“What a fine explainer of the Qur·aan is Ibn `Abbaas! If he had reached our age, then none of us would have attained a tenth of his knowledge.”

-al-A`mash: from Aboo Waa·il:

“`Alee placed Ibn `Abbaas in charge of the Hajj, so he gave a khutbah that day which was such that if it had been heard by the Turks and the Romans they would have accepted Islaam. Then he recited Sooratun-Noor to them and began explaining it.”

He narrated a good number of narrations from the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), and from `Umar. `Alee, Mu`aadh, his father al-`Abbaas, `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn `Awf, Aboo Sufyaan Sakhr ibn Harb, Aboo Dharr, Ubayy ibn Ka`b, Zayd ibn Thaabit, and a large number of others.

He recited Qur·aan with Ubayy (ibn Ka`b) and Zayd (ibn Thaabit). Mujaahid, Sa`eed ibn Jubayr, and a group took the recitation from him.

Those who narrated from him are: his son `Alee, the son of his brother `Abdullaah ibn Ma`bad, and his freed slaves: `Ikrimah, Miqsam, and Aboo Ma`bad Naafidh; and Anas ibn Maalik, Abut-Tufayl, Aboo Umaamah ibn Sahl, and his brother Katheer ibn `Abbaas; and `Urwah ibn az-Zubayr, `Ubaydullaah ibn `Umar, Taawoos, Abush-Sha`thaa· Jaabir, `Alee ibn al- Husayn, Sa`eed ibn Jubayr, Mujaahid ibn Jabr, al-Qaasim ibn Muhammad, Aboo Saalih as-Sammaan, Aboo Rajaa· al-`Utaaridee, Abul-`Aaliyah, `Ubayd ibn `Umayr and his son `Abdullaah `Ataa· ibn Yasaar, Ibraaheem ibn `Abdullaah ibn Ma`bad, and Arbadah at-Tameemee – the companion of the ‘Tafseer’, and Aboo Saalih Baadhaam, Taleeq ibn Qays al-Hanafee, `Ataa· ibn Abee Rabaah, ash-Sha`bee, al-Hasan, Ibn Seereen, Muhammad ibn Ka`b al-Qurazee, Shahr ibn Hawshab, Ibn Mulaykah, `Amr ibn Deenaar, `Ubaydullaah ibn Abee Yazeed, Aboo Jamrah Nasr ibn `Imraan ad-Duba`ee ad-Dahhaak ibn Muzaahim, Abuz-Zubayr al-Makkee, Bakr ibn `Abdullaah al-Muzanee, Habeeb ibn Abee Thaabit, Sa`eed ibn Abil-Hasan, Ismaa`eel as-Suddee, and many others besides them.

And ‘at-Tahdheeb’ mentions a hundred and ninety seven people who narrated from him.

-al-Madaa·inee: from Nu`aym ibn Hafs: that Aboo Bakr said:

“Ibn `Abbaas came to us in Basrah, and there was not anyone the like of him amongst the `Arabs in his body, his knowledge, his explanation , his handsomeness and his completeness.”

-`Abdur-Razzaaq: from Ma`mar who said:

“The greater part of the knowledge of Ibn `Abbaas was taken from three men: `Umar, `Alee and Ubayy ibn Ka`b –radiyallaahu `anhum.

-Aboo Bakr ibn `Ayyaash: from Muhammad ibn `Amr: from Aboo Salamah: from Ibn `Abbaas who said:

“I used to hear that a man would have a hadeeth, so I would go to him and sit until he came out. So then I would ask him; and if I had wished I could have got him to come out to me.”

-Zaa·idah: `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn `Abdullaah ibn al-Asbahaanee related to us: that `Abdullaah ibn Shaddaad, will you not be amazed? A boy came to me after I had laid down to take the noon siesta, and said: ‘There is a man at the door requesting permission to enter.’ So I said: “He must have come for some need, so grant him permission to enter.” He said: So he entered and said: ‘Will you not inform me about that man.’ So I said: “Which man?” So he said: ‘`Alee ibn Abee Taalib: when will he be returned to life?’ So I said: “Subhaan Allaah! (I declare Allaah free of all imperfections!) When everybody in the graves is resurrected.” So he said: ‘I do not see except that you are saying the same as those stupid people.’ So I said: “Get him out or I will beat him.”

-Ma`mar: from Qataadah: from Mutarrif who said: “I heard Ibn `Abbaas say:

“Revising knowledge for an hour is better than spending the whole night awake (in Prayer).”

His mother was Ummul-Fadl Lubaabah bint al-Haarith ibn Huzn ibn Bujayr al-Hilaaliyyah, descended from Hilaal ibn `Aamir.

He had a group of children; the eldest being al `Abbaas -after whom he took his kunyah; and `Alee -the father of the khulafaa· and he was the youngest of them, and al-Fadl, and Muhammad, and `Ubaydullaah, and Lubaabah and Asmaa·.

He was a person who was pleasant-looking and handsome, tall in stature, imposing, complete intellect, quick in understanding, a man complete in his characteristics.

His children al-Fadl, Muhammad and `Ubaydullaah died without offspring; whereas Lubaabah produced children and descendants from her husband `Alee ibn `Abdullaah ibn Ja`far ibn Abee Taalib; and his other daughter Asmaa·, who was married to her paternal cousin `Abdullaah ibn `Ubaydullaah ibn al-`Abbaas, gave birth to Hasan and Husayn.

Ibn `Abbaas went with his parents to the place of Hijrah [al-Madeenah] in the year of the Conquest, having accepted Islaam before that. So it is established from him that he said: “I and my mother were from the weak ones (who were excused from migrating): I was a child and my mother from the women.”

Khaalid al-Hadhdhaa·: from `Ikrimah: from Ibn `Abbaas that he said:

“The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) wiped my head and supplicated for wisdom for me.

[[al- Bukhaaree’s narration (no. 75) is: “Once the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) embraced me and said: << O Allaah bestow upon him knowledge of the Book >>.]]

Ibn Shihaab narrated: from `Ubaydullaah: from Ibn `Abbaas who said:

“I came riding an ass, and I was close to puberty, and Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) was leading the people in Prayer in Minaa.” [[al-Bukhaaree: no. 492]…

Aboo Sa`eed ibn Yoonus said: Ibn `Abbaas went on military expedition to Africa with Ibn Abee Sarh; and fifteen of the people of Egypt narrated from him.”

Aboo `Abdillaah ibn Mandah said:

“His mother was Ummul-Fadl, the sister of Ummul-Mu·mineen Maymoonah, and he was born two years before the Hijrah.”

He was light-skinned and tall; his complexion was tinged with yellow. He was stout and he was handsome, fair of face, and he had hair up to the ears. He dyed with henna, and the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) supplicated for wisdom for him.

I say: He was the maternal cousin of Khaalid ibn al-Waleed al- Makhzoomee.

Sa`eed ibn Saalim narrated: Ibn Jurayj narrated to us, saying: we were sitting with `Ataa· in al-Masjidul-Haraam and were speaking about Ibn `Abbaas. So `Ataa· said:

“I never see the moon on the fourteenth night [[i.e. when full and bright]] except that it reminds me of the face of Ibn `Abbaas.”

Ibraaheem ibn al-Hakam ibn Abaan narrated: from his father: from `Ikrimah who said:

“When Ibn `Abbaas passed along a path-way the women in the walled gardens would say: ‘Is it musk that has gone by, or was it Ibn `Abbaas?’.”…

Hammaad ibn Salamah and others narrate: from `Abdullaah ibn `Uthmaan ibn Khuthaym: from Sa`eed ibn Jubayr: from `Abdullaah [Ibn `Abbaas who said:

“I spent the night in the house of my maternal aunt Maymoonah and I placed some water for the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) to take a bath, so he said: << Who has placed this? >> So they said: ‘`Abdullaah’, so he said: << O Allaah grant him knowledge of explanation, and grant him understanding of the Religion. >> [[Saheeh: Ahmad, at-Tabaraanee…]]

Aboo Zur`ah ad-Dimashqee reports in his ‘Taareekh’ from Ibn `Umar that he said:

“He [i.e. Ibn `Abbaas] is the most knowledgeable of the people regarding that which Allaah sent down to Muhammad.”

Aboo Nu`aym reports in ‘al-Hilyah’ from Shaqeeq who said:

“Ibn `Abbaas delivered a khutbah to us whilst he was in charge of the Hajj. So he started reciting Sooratul-Baqarah. So he would recite and then explain. So I began saying to myself: I have never seen or heard the speech of a man the like of it; if the Persians and the Romans were to hear it they would enter into Islaam. ….

Saalih ibn Rustum al-Khazzaaz narrated: from Ibn Abee Mulaykah: I accompanied Ibn `Abbaas from Makkah to al-Madeenah. So when he camped at a place he would spend half of the night standing in Prayer. So Ayyoob asked him: ‘How had his recitation used to be?’ He said: He recited:

وَجَاءَتْ سَكْرَةُ الْمَوْتِ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ ذَٰلِكَ مَا كُنتَ مِنْهُ تَحِيدُ

[[Meaning: And the stupor of death will come in truth: this is what you sought to flee from]]. [Soorah Qaaf (50): 19]

So he would recite it slowly and carefully, and be sobbing a great deal.”

Ibn Jurayj narrated: from Ibn Abee Mulaykah: that Ibn `Abbaas said: “The people have passed away and the apes remain.” It was said: ‘What are the ‘apes’?’ So he replied: “Those who resemble the people but are not people.”

Ibn Taawoos narrated: from his father: from Ibn `Abbaas:

“Mu`aawiyah said to me: ‘Are you upon the way of `Alee?!’ So I replied: ‘No, nor upon the way of `Uthmaan. I am upon the way of Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم).”

From Taawoos who said:

“I did not see anyone greater in the respect they showed to Allaah’s prohibitions than Ibn `Abbaas [and whenever I remember him I wished I would weep].

Jareer ibn Haazim narrated: from Ya`laa ibn Hakeem: from `Ikrimah: from Ibn `Abbaas who said:

“When Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) passed away, I said to a man from the Ansaar: “Come let us ask questions of the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) because they are many at this time.” So he said: ‘How surprising of you, O Ibn `Abbaas! Do you think that the people will come to need you, when there are amongst the people the Companions of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) those whom you see?!’ So he left that ,and I began asking. So whenever I heard that a man had a hadeeth I would go to him whilst he was taking the noon siesta. So I would place my cloak as a pillow at his door, and the wind would blow dust over me. Then the man would come out and see me and say: “O cousin of Allaah’s Messenger! Why didn’t you send a message so that I should come to you?’ So I would say: “It is more fitting that I should come to you and ask you.” So the man [of the Ansaar] remained until he found the people gathering around me, so he said ‘This youth was more intelligent than me.’”

`Abdul-Malik ibn Abee Sulaymaan narrated from Sa`eed ibn Jubayr who said:

“Some men of the Muhaajiroon felt that they had a grievance with `Umar because of the fact that he brought Ibn `Abbaas close to him [in gatherings] and did not do so with them; and he used to question him. So `Umar said: “Today I will show you something that will cause you to recognize his excellence.” So he asked them about this Soorah:

إِذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللَّهِ وَالْفَتْحُ

[When comes the Help of Allah (to you, O Muhammad (Peace be upon him) against your enemies) and the conquest (of Makkah)] [Sooratun-Nasr (110)]

So some of them said: ‘It is a command from Allaah for His Prophet that when he saw them entering into Allaah’s Religion in crowds he was to praise Him and seek His forgiveness.’

So `Umar said: ‘O Ibn `Abbaas! Speak!’ So he said: “He informed him when he was going to die. Meaning: It will be a sign for the approach of your death, so praise your Lord and seek His forgiveness.” [[So `Umar said: I do not know about it except what you have said.]]

Yazeed ibn Ibraaheem narrated: from Sulaymaan al-Ahwal: from Taawoos: from Ibn `Abbaas that he said:

“Concerning a single matter I would ask thirty of the Companions of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم).”

[Its chain of narration is ‘Saheeh’…]

From `Ikrimah: I heard Mu`aawiyah say to me:

“Your master [i.e. Ibn `Abbaas], by Allaah, is the most knowledgeable one of those who have died and those who are alive.”

And it is related from `Aa·ishah that she said:

“The most knowledgeable person about the Hajj who remains is Ibn `Abbaas.”

I say: And he used to hold Hajj Tamattu` as being what is essential.

..Ibn Jurayj narrated: from Taawoos who said:

“I did not see anyone with more piety than Ibn `Umar, nor anyone more knowledgeable than Ibn `Abbaas.”

Mujaahid said:

“I never saw anyone the like of Ibn `Abbaas; and he was, at the time he died, the great scholar of this Ummaah.”

al-A`mash narrated: from Mujaahid who said:

“Ibn `Abbaas used to be called ‘the ocean’ (al-Bahr) because of his extensive knowledge.”…

Masrooq narrated, saying:

“When I would see Ibn `Abbaas I would say: ‘He is the most handsome of the people’, and when he uttered something I would say: ‘He is the most eloquent of the people’, and when he talked I would say: ‘He is the most knowledgeable of the people.’

al-Qaasim ibn Muhammad said: “I never saw anything futile in the gathering of Ibn `Abbaas.”…

Aboo `Awaanah narrated: from Abul-Juwayriyah who said:

‘I saw the Izaar of Ibn `Abbaas half way down his shins, or above that and he had a roman cloak upon him and he was praying.’…

Ibn Hazm said in his book ‘al-Ihkaam’: Aboo Bakr Muhammad ibn Moosaa ibn Ya`qoob ibn al-Ma·moon, one of the imaams of Islaam, gathered together the verdicts of Ibn `Abbaas in twenty volumes.

The debate of Ibn `Abbaas -radiyallaahu `anhumaa- with the Khawaarijee which resulted in the majority of them returning from their innovation to the truth:

AT-TABARAANEE reported in ‘al-Mu`jamul Kabeer’ (no. 10598): “Ishaaq ibn Ibraaheem ad-Dabaree narrated to us: from `Abdur-Razzaaq. Further Isnaad: And `Alee ibn `Abdil-`Azeez narrated to us: Aboo Hudhayfah Moosaa ibn Mas`ood narrated to us: both of them from `Ikrimah ibn `Ammaar that Aboo Zameel al-Hanafee narrated to us: that `Abdullaah ibn `Abbaas narrated to us, saying:

“When the (Khawaarij) separated themselves off in Haarooraa and gathered themselves together in some abode. So I said to `Alee: “O Ameerul Mu·mineen pray the Prayer in its earliest time so that I can then go and speak to those people.” So he said: ‘I fear for you from them.’ So I dressed in the best clothes I could and wore this Yemeni cloak. So I went to them and entered upon them whilst they were resting at the time of the start of the afternoon heat. So I entered upon a people who were such that I have never seen a people who strove harder in worship than them. Their hands were like the knees of camels, and their faces were scarred with the traces of prostration. So when I entered they said: ‘Welcome, O Ibn `Abbaas, what has brought you here?’ So he said: “I came to narrate to you from the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم): the Revelation came down and they know best about its explanation.” So some of them said: ‘Don’t speak with him’ and others said: ‘Rather we will speak with him.’ He said: I said: “Tell me the criticism you have of the son of the uncle of Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), his son in law, and the first of those who believed in him; and the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) are along with him.” They said: ‘We criticize him for three things.’ I said: “What are they?”

They said: ‘The first of them is that he caused men to pass judgement in Allaah’s Religion, whereas Allaah said:

إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلَّا لِلَّهِ

[[Meaning: Judgement is only for Allaah]].’ [Soorah Yoosuf (12): 40]

He said: “And what else?”

So they said: ‘He fought but did not take any females captured as slaves girls, nor did he seize war-booty. So if the enemy were Disbelievers, then their property was lawful for us; and if they were Believers, then it was forbidden for us to shed their blood.’

He said: I said: “And what else?”

They said: ‘He erased his title ‘Ameerul-Mu·mineen’ (chief of the Believers), so if he is not the chief of the Believers, then he must be the chief of the Disbelievers.’

He said: I said: “What do you think if I recite to you from the decisive Book of Allaah, and I narrate to you from the Sunnah of your Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) that which you cannot deny, will you turn back?” They said: ‘Yes’. He said: So I said:

“As for your saying that he caused men to judge in Allaah’s Religion, then He says:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقْتُلُوا الصَّيْدَ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ ۚ وَمَن قَتَلَهُ مِنكُم مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاءٌ مِّثْلُ مَا قَتَلَ مِنَ النَّعَمِ

up to His Saying:

 يَحْكُمُ بِهِ ذَوَا عَدْلٍ مِّنكُمْ

[[Meaning: O you who believe, do not kill game whilst in a state of ihraam; and whoever of you does that intentionally, then the penalty is a sacrifice equal to the animal killed, as adjudged by two just men among you.]] [Sooratul-Maa·idah (5): Aayah 95]

And said, with regard to a woman and her husband:

وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ شِقَاقَ بَيْنِهِمَا فَابْعَثُوا حَكَمًا مِّنْ أَهْلِهِ وَحَكَمًا مِّنْ أَهْلِهَا

[[Meaning: If you fear a breach between the husband and wife then send an arbitrator from his family and an arbitrator from her family]] [Sooratun-Nisaa· (4): 35]

I adjure you by Allaah; does the judgement of men for the sparing of their blood and their persons and rectification of relations between them have more right, or their judgement with regard to a rabbit whose price is a quarter of a dirham?” They said: ‘O Allaah: For sparing their blood and rectifying between them.’ He said: “Have you abandoned this criticism?” They said: ‘O Allaah, yes.’

Then as for your saying that they fought but did not take captured females as slave-girls and did not take war-booty: then would you take your mother as a slave-girl and make lawful from her that which you make lawful regarding other then her, for in that case you would be Disbelievers; and if you claim that she [i.e. `Aa·ishah-radiyallaahu `anhaa] is not your mother, then you are Disbelievers and have left Islaam because Allaah -the Mighty and Majestic-says:

النَّبِيُّ أَوْلَىٰ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ ۖ وَأَزْوَاجُهُ أُمَّهَاتُهُمْ

[[Meaning: The Prophet has more right upon the Believers than their own selves, and his wives are as their mothers]] [Sooratul-Ahzaab (33): 6]

so you are between two deviations and may choose whichever of them you please. Do you abandon this argument?” They said: ‘O Allaah, yes.’

He said: “As for your saying that he erased his title of ‘Ameerul- Mu·mineen’, then Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) called, on the day of Hudaybiyyah to write an agreement between him and them. So he said: << Write: This is the judgement agreed to by Muhammad, the Messenger of Allaah. >> So they said: ‘By Allaah, if we knew you to be Allaah’s Messenger we would not prevent you from the House, nor would we have fought against you. But rather write: Muhammad the son of `Abdullaah.’ So he said: << By Allaah I am the Messenger of Allaah even if you reject me. Write, O `Alee: Muhammad the son of `Abdullaah. >> So Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) was more excellent than `Alee. So do you abandon this criticism?” They said: ‘O Allaah, yes.’

So twenty thousand of them returned and four thousand remained and were killed.”

[Hasan: ‘as-Saheehul-Musnad min Fadaa·ilis-Sahaabah’ of Mustafaa al- `Adawee (pp. 427-428)].

Ibn `Abbaas died in Taa·if in the year 68 H, and Muhammad ibn al- Hanafiyyah [the son of `Alee ibn Abee Taalib and Khawlah bint al- Hanafiyyah] lead the funeral prayer over him, and said: “Today the wise scholar (rabbaanee) of this Ummah has died.” -radiyallaahu `anhumaa.

Posted from  the Appendix of :
Tafseer Soorat-in-Naba’- from the works of numerous mufassireen.
Compiled and translated by Abu Talhah Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Related Links:

Aboo Hurairah (radiyllaahu `anhu) – Siyar A`laamin Nubalaa of Imaam adh-Dhahabee | Dawud Burbank


ABOO HURAIRAH -radiyallaahu `anhu

(Abridged from ‘Siyar A`laamin Nubalaa·’ of Imaam adh-Dhahabee)
Translated by Abu Talha Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

“Aboo Hurairah ad-Dawsee, al-Yamaanee, the great memorizer, the jurist, the Companion of Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم): `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Sakhr in the most well-known saying.

His name in the times of ignorance was `Abd-Shams. He said: “My father gave me the ‘kunyah’ of Aboo Hurairah (‘Father of the kitten’) because I used to tend some sheep and I found some wild kittens. So when he saw them and heard them he said: ‘You are the father of the cat,’ and my name was `Abd-Shams.”

at-Tabaraanee said: His mother -radiyallaahu `anhaa- was Maymoonah bint Sabeeh.

Aboo Hurairah performed hijrah and arrived at the time of the conquest of Khaybar in the seventh year.

He memorized a huge amount of knowledge from the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), no one else acquired as much as him. He also took from Aboo Bakr, `Umar, Ubayy ibn Ka`b and Ka`b.

Those who narrated from him included al-Agharr Aboo Muslim, Sa`eed ibn al-Musayyib, Basheer ibn Naheek, Hafs ibn `Aasim, Humayd ibn `AbdirRahmaan az-Zuhree, Humayd ibn `Abdir-Rahmaan al-Himyaree, Aboo Saalih as-Sammaan, Khallaas ibn `Amr, Saalim Abul-Ghayth, Sa`eed alMaqburee -and his father Aboo Sa`eed, Sa`eed ibn Marjaanah, Salmaan alAgharr, Aboo Haazim Salaman al-Ashja`ee, Aboo Yoonus Sulaym ibn Jubayr, Sulaymaan ibn Yasaar, Shahr ibn Hawshab, Saalih mawlaa atTaw·amah, Damdam ibn Jaus, Taawoos, ash-Sha`bee, Aboo Idrees alKhawlaanee, Aboo `Uthmaan an-Nahdee, `Abdur-Rahmaan al-A`raj, Iraak ibn Khaalid, `Ikrimah, `Urwah, `Ataa·, Mujaahid, Ibn Seereen, Muhammad ibn Ziyaad al-Jumahee, Muhammad ibn Ka`b, Moosaa ibn Wardaan, Nu`aym al-Mujmir, Naafi` mawlaa Ibn `Umar, Hammaam ibn Munabbih, and a very great number of people.

He was one of the treasure-houses of knowledge, and one of the major imaams in verdicts, along with his great dignity and excellence, his worship and his humility.

al-Bukhaaree said: “Eight hundred people narrated from him.”

It is said: He was yellowish-brown, broad-shouldered, having his central incisor teeth widely spaced, he had two locks of hair and he used to dye with red dye. He was a poor man from the people of ‘as-Suffah’, he experienced hunger and need.

Then after the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) his condition improved and his wealth increased, and he was a person who worshipped and remembered Allaah a great deal. He came to be the governor of al-Madeenah and deputed for Marwaan in his leadership, and he used to pass through the market of al-Madeenah with a bundle of firewood, saying: “Make room on the path for the chief”, and he used to joke -radiyallaahu `anhu.

Abul-Qaasim ibn Nahhaas: I heard Aboo Bakr ibn Abee Daawood say:

“I saw Aboo Hurairah in a dream, whilst I was in Sijjistaan and was compiling his ahaadeeth, and he had a thick beard, was brown, and was wearing coarse clothes. So I said to him: “I love you”. So he replied: “I am the first student of ahaadeeth in the world.”

Ismaa`eel ibn Abee Khaalid: from Qays: from Aboo Hurairah who said:

“When I migrated to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) I said along the way: ‘Oh what a long wearing night; yet it brought about rescue from the land of Unbelief’.” He said: “And a slave belonging to me ran away. So when I came and gave the pledge of allegiance the slave appeared, so the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: << This is your slave, O Hurairah. >> So I said: “He is free for the Face of Allaah”, so I set him free.” [al-Bukhaaree: (no. 2531)]

-Ayyoob: from Muhammad: that Aboo Hurairah used to say to his daughter:

“Do not wear gold, because I fear for you the blazing flame.”

-Saalim ibn Hayyaan: from his father: from Aboo Hurairah that he said:

“I grew up as an orphan, and performed Hijrah as a poor man, and I used to be a hired worker for the daughter of Ghazwaan and my wages were food for my stomach and a turn upon the riding beast. So I would drive the camels along when they rode, and I would collect firewood when they stopped somewhere. So All praise is for Allaah Who gave strength and authority to the Religion and Who made Aboo Hurairah an Imaam.”

-az-Zuhree: from Saalim: that he heard Aboo Hurairah say:

“A people in the state of ihraam asked me about people not in the state of ihraam giving them as a gift some game that had been hunted, so I told them to eat it. Then I met `Umar and informed him of this, so he said: ‘If you had given them a different verdict I would have punished you’.”

-Qays ibn Abee Haazim: from Aboo Hurairah who said: “I came on the day of Khaybar after they had finished fighting.”

-Ibn Seereen said: Aboo Hurairah said:

“I would sometimes faint between the grave and the minbar because of severe hunger to the extent that the people would say: ‘He is possessed’, so a man would sit upon my chest. So I would raise up my head and say: “It is not what you think, it is just hunger.”

-Ahmad narrated in his ‘Musnad’ from Aboo Katheer as-Suhaymee from Aboo Hurairah who said: Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

<< O Allaah make this slave of yours -meaning Aboo Hurairah- and his mother beloved to your believing servants, and make them beloved to the two of them. >> [Muslim: (2491)]

-Ibn Abee Dhi·b: from al-Maqburee: from Aboo Hurairah who said:

“ I preserved two sack-fulls of knowledge from Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). So as for one of them, then I distributed it amongst the people; and as for the other one, then if I had opened it, then my throat would have been cut off.”

[[alBukhaaree: (no. 120): Ibn Hajr said in ‘Fathul-Baaree’: The scholars understand the sack of knowledge which he did not spread to be the ahaadeeth which gave the names of the evil rulers, and their conditions, and their times; and Aboo Hurairah used to allude to some of that but not state it plainly, out of fear of them for himself.]]

-al-A`mash: from Aboo Saalih as-Sammaan who said:

“Aboo Hurairah was one of the greatest memorizers amongst the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم).”

-ash-Shaafi`ee said:

“Aboo Hurairah was the greatest memorizer who narrated hadeeth in his time.”

Kahmas narrated from `Abdullaah ibn Shaqeeq who said: Aboo Hurairah said:

“I do not know anyone from the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) who memorized more of his ahaadeeth than me.”

-Aboo Daawood at-Tayaalisee: `Imraan al-Qattaan related to us: from Bakr ibn `Abdillaah: from Aboo Raafi`: from Aboo Hurairah that he met Ka`b and began narrating to him and asking him. So Ka`b said:

“I have not seen anyone who has not read the Tawraat having better knowledge of what is contained in it than Aboo Hurairah.”

-Hushaym: from Ya`laa ibn `Ataa·: from al-Waleed ibn `Abdir-Rahmaan: from Ibn `Umar that he said:

“O Aboo Hurairah: You were the one amongst us who most closely accompanied Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and the most knowledgeable of us of his ahaadeeth.”

-Hammaad ibn Zayd: from `Abbaas al-Jurayree: I heard Aboo `Uthmaan anNahdee who said:

“I took Aboo Hurairah as a guest for seven days; so he, his wife and his servant followed each other, dividing the night into three. One would pray and then awaken the next who would pray, and would then awaken the third.”

-Ibraaheem ibn Yoosuf related to us: Ibn Rawaahah related to us: as-Silafee related to us: Ibn al-Busree related to us: as-Sukkaree related to us: asSaffaar related to us: ar-Ramaadee related to us: `Abdur-Razzaaq related to us: Ma`mar related to us: from Muhammad ibn Ziyaad who said:

“Mu`aawiyah used to appoint Aboo Hurairah to be the governor of alMadeenah, but if he became angry with him he would send Marwaan to replace him, but it would not be long before he would re-appoint Aboo Hurairah and remove Marwaan. So he said to a black slave: “Stand at the door and do not prevent anyone from entering except Marwaan. So the servant did so. Then later when it became the turn of Marwaan he entered and said: “We were prevented (from entry)!” So he replied: ‘‘The one having the most right that I should not deny him is you.”

Khuthaym ibn `Iraak narrated from his father: from Aboo Hurairah that he said:

“The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) had gone off to Khaybar when I came as a muhaajir to al-Madeenah. So I prayed the Dawn Prayer behind Sibaa` ibn `Urfutah whom he had left in charge and in the first rak`ah he recited Soorah Maryam, and in the other one [Sooratul-Mutaffifeen] So I said: “Woe to my father! How rare it is to find a man in the land of the Azd except that he has two measures: a measure for himself and another one to short-change the people with.”

Humayd ibn `Abdir-Rahmaan al-Himyaree said: “He accompanied (the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) for four years.”

He suffered hunger and poverty, and adhered to the mosque. When he migrated he had a slave of his along with him but he fled and got away.

Hishaam: from Muhammad [i.e. Ibn Seereen] who said: we were in the presence of Aboo Hurairah [and he was wearing two linen garments dyed with red clay], and he blew his nose and wiped it upon his upper garment and said:

“All praise is for Allaah who has provided Aboo Hurairah with linen to blow his nose on! For I have seen a time when I would faint between the house of `Aa·ishah and the minbar because of severe hunger. So then a man would pass by and sit upon my chest [thinking that I had become possessed]. So I would raise up my head and say: “It is not what you think, it is just hunger.”[[al-Bukhaaree: no. 7324]]

I [i.e. adh-Dhahabee] say: Those who saw him would think that he was possessed, and so sit on him to recite ‘ruqyah’ upon him, or the like.

…from `Aamir: from Aboo Hurairah that he said:

“I was in as-Suffah [[a shaded place at the rear of the mosque of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) where the poor and those with no accommodation would stay]] so Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) sent some `Ajwah dates to us, so we would take two dates together because of our hunger; and when one of us wanted to take two dates at a time he would say to his companion: I am taking two dates at a time, so do likewise.”[[‘as-Saheehah’: 2323]]

Mujaahid narrated: that Aboo Hurairah used to say:

“By Allaah, besides Whom none has the right to be worshipped, I used to lay down on the ground resting upon my liver because of hunger, and I used to tie a stone upon my belly because of hunger. One day I sat by the way where the people would come out, and Aboo Bakr passed by. So I asked him about an Aayah from the Book of Allaah, and I only asked him so that he would satisfy my hunger, but then he carried on and did not do so. Then `Umar passed by me and so I asked him about an Aayah from the Book of Allaah, and I only asked him so that he would satisfy my hunger, but then he carried on and did not do so. Then Abul-Qaasim (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) passed by me and smiled when he saw me and recognized what was in my heart and on my face. He said: << O Aboo Hirr! >> I replied: “At your service, O Messenger of Allaah.” He said: << Follow me >>. So he proceeded and I followed him, and he entered his house. So I requested permission to enter and was admitted. So he entered and found some milk in a bowl. So he said: << Where is this milk from? >> So they said: ‘It was presented as a gift by such and such man, or such and such woman.’ He said: << O Aboo Hirr! >> I said: “At your service, O Messenger of Allaah!” He said: << go to the people of ‘Suffah’ and call them to me >> and the people of ‘Suffah’ were the guests of Islaam: they did not have families, wealth or any person to support them. So whenever some charity came to him he would send it to them, and he would not take anything from it himself; and whenever something was sent to him as a gift he would send something to them and take some of it himself, and cause them to share in it. So his order upset me and I said (to myself): ‘How will this small quantity of milk be enough for the people of ‘as-Suffah’?!’ I felt I was more entitled to drink from that milk in order to strengthen myself by it. But if they came, then he would command me to give it to them; and then what would remain of that milk for me?!’ However I could not but obey Allaah and obey His Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). So I went to them and invited them and they came. So they sought permission to enter and he admitted them. So they took their seats in the house. He said: << O Aboo Hirr! >> I said “At your service, O Messenger of Allaah!” He said: << Take it and give it to them. >> So I took it and started by giving it to one man who drank until he was full, and then he returned it to me. Then I gave it to the next man who drank until he was full and then returned it to me, until I came to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and all of the people had drank until they were full. So he took the bowl and placed it upon his hand, then he looked at me and smiled, and said: << O Aboo Hirr! >> I said: “At your service, O Messenger of Allaah!” He said: << There remain I and you. >> I said: “You have spoken the truth, O Messenger of Allaah.” He said: << Sit down and drink. >> So I sat down and drank. He said: << Drink! >> So I drank, and he kept on saying: “Drink!” until I said: “No, by the One Who sent you with the truth, I have no more room for it.” He said: << Hand it to me. >> So I gave him the bowl, and he praised Allaah and mentioned Allaah’s Name upon it and drank the remainder.” [al-Bukhaaree: (no. 6452)]

…Aboo Katheer as-Suhaymee and his name was Yazeed ibn `AbdirRahmaan narrated: that Aboo Hurairah narrated to me, saying:

“By Allaah, Allaah has not created a true Believer who hears of me except that he loves me.” I said: ‘How do you know that?’ He said: “My mother was a Mushrik woman, and I used to call her to Islaam but she would not accept it from me. So I called her one day but she said something disagreeable to me about Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). So I went to Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and I was weeping. So I informed him and asked him to supplicate for her, so he said: << O Allaah guide the mother of Aboo Hurairah. >> So then I went out running to give her the good news. So I arrived and the door was closed and I heard the splashing of water, and she heard the sound of my footsteps. So she said: ‘Wait as you are!’ Then she opened the door, and she had put her gown on, and had been too hasty to put on her khimaar. So she said: ‘I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His Slave and His Messenger.’ He said: “So I went back to Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) weeping with joy just as I had wept from sorrow, and I informed him, and I said: “Make supplication to Allaah that he should cause me and my mother to be beloved to His believing servants. So he said: << O Allaah make this slave of Yours and his mother beloved to Your believing servants, and cause them to be loved by these two. >>” –“Its chain of narration is ‘hasan’.” [[Reported by Ahmad (2/319-320), and Muslim (no. 2491)]]

Ibn Shihaab: from Sa`eed [Ibn al-Musayyib] and Aboo Salamah: that Aboo Hurairah said:

“You people say that ‘Aboo Hurairah narrates too many ahaadeeth from Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم)! And you say that why is it not the case that the Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar do not narrate like him!’ But my brothers from the Muhaajiroon were busy in the markets, and my brothers from the Ansaar were busy working upon their property. But I was a poor man from the poor people of ‘as-Suffah’. I used to adhere to Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and be content with what filled my stomach. So I would be present when they were absent, and remember when they would forget; and Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said to us one day: << No one will spread out his garment till I have finished what I am saying, and then gather his garment upon himself except that he will preserve whatever I say. >> So I spread out a striped cloak which I had upon me until he finished what he was saying, and then gathered it upon my chest. So I did not forget anything from that narration.” [[al-Bukhaaree (no. 2047) and Muslim (no. 2492)]]

az-Zuhree, also: from al-A`raj: from Aboo Hurairah who said:

“You claim that I narrate excessively from Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم)! Whereas the truth is known by Allaah. I was a poor man who accompanied Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and contented myself with whatever filled my stomach. So he narrated to us one day and said: << Whoever will spread out his garment, will never forget anything which he heard from me. >> So I did so, and by the One Who sent him with the truth I have never forgotten anything which I heard from him.” [[al-Bukhaaree (nos. 118 & 2350); Muslim (no. 2492)]]

…al-Maqburee: from Aboo Hurairah who said: I said:

“O Messenger of Allaah who will be the most fortunate of people to attain your intercession?” He said: << I thought that none would ask me about this before you, because I have seen your eagerness upon learning hadeeth: The most fortunate of the people to attain my intercession on the day of resurrection will be whoever says: ‘None has the right to be worshipped except Allaah’, sincerely from his heart. >> [[al-Bukhaaree (no. 99)]]

ash-Shaafi`ee said:

Aboo Hurairah was the best memorizer of those who narrated hadeeth in his time.”

…from Hammaam [ibn Munabbih] who said: I heard Aboo Hurairah say:

“There is no one from the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) who has more hadeeth than me, except for `Abdullaah ibn `Amr because he used to write, whereas I did not write.” [[al-Bukhaaree (no. 113)]]

`Abdul-Waahid ibn Ziyaad and others: `Aasim ibn Kulayb narrated to us: My father narrated to us that he heard Aboo Hurairah, and he used to begin narrating hadeeth by saying:

“Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: << Who ever lies upon me deliberately, then let him take his place in the Fire. >>” [[Ahmad: (2/413)]]

…from Ibn `Umar that he said to Aboo Hurairah:

O Aboo Hurairah! You were the one from us who most closely adhered to Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), and the one from us who best memorized his ahaadeeth.” [[‘Saheeh Sunanit-Tirmidhee (no. 3836)]]

Aboo Hurairah passed away in the year 58 H, and this was stated by a group; and others said: 59 H; and it was said: 57 H -radiyallaahu `anhu- at the age of 78.”

Posted from  the Appendix of :
Tafseer Soorat-in-Naba’- from the works of numerous mufassireen.
Compiled and translated by Abu Talhah Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

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Knowledge of the Current Affairs (Fiqh ul-Waaqi) – Imam al-Albaani

BismillaahKnowledge of Current Affairs (Fiqh al Waaqi) – by  Imam al-Albaani
Translated by Abu Talhah Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Author’s Introduction

All praise is for Allaah, Lord of the worlds and may His praises and peace be upon the noblest of Messengers and upon his family and all his Companions.

To proceed: I have included in this treatise the answer to a question asked about that which has been named Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ , its ruling, how great is the Muslims’ need for it and an explanation of its correct form in the Sharee’ah. The basis for this treatise was an unprepared answer in a sitting from the sittings of knowledge, in which there were, all praise is for Allaah, a number of Muslim youth keen to seek correct knowledge, drawn from the Book and the Sunnah, upon the manhaj of the Salaf us- Saalih (the Pious Predecessors), the best of this Ummah.

One of these brothers, may Allaah reward him with good, transcribed my words from cassette-tape and presented it to me. I corrected it, added to it and revised it for publication, such that its benefit would be more universal and of greater worth , if Allaah wills. I ask Allaah to make this brief treatise of benefit to it’s reader and to make it of use to those who seek it. Indeed He is the One. who hears and responds.

Muhammad Naasir ud-Deen al-Albaanee
Ammaan, 29th of Shawwaal 1412H.

The Knowledge of Current Affairs

All praise is for Allaah. We praise Him, seek His aid, seek His forgiveness and we seek Allaah’s refuge from the evil of ourselves and from our evil actions. Whosoever Allaah guides, then none can misguide him and whosoever Allaah misguides, then none can guide him. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah alone, having no partners and I bear witness that Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is His slave and Messenger.

To proceed:

The Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

“The nations are about to call each other and set upon you just as the diners sets upon food.” It was said, Will it be because of our small number that day. He said, “Rather, on that day you will be many, but you will be like foam, like the foam on the river and Allaah will remove the fear of you from the hearts of your enemies and will throw weakness (wahn) into your hearts.”  Someone said, O Messenger of Allaah, what is wahnHe said, “Love of the world and hatred for death.” [1]

[Saheeh – related by Abu Daawood (4297), ar-Rooyaanee in al-Musnad (2/ 134/25), Ibn Asaakir in Taareekh Dimashq (2/ 97/ 8) from Thawbaan – radiallaahu ’anhu. It was authenticated in as-Saheehah (958) of Shaikh al-Albaanee.]

The State of Affairs of the Muslims

This noble prophetic hadeeth has manifested, with the strongest expression and clearest image, the very great trial (fitnah) that has come upon the Muslims, which has destroyed their unity, weakened their resolve and split their ranks. Part of this trial has struck at the root of the hearts of a great number of du’aat and students of knowledge so that they have become divided , regretfully, between themselves. Some of them speaking ill of others and the others criticizing the remainder and refuting them.

Recognizing the Truth through Refutation

These rebuttals on their own, or these criticisms alone, will harm neither the one refuting, nor the one refuted. Since, with the people of Justice, the truth is recognized by its light and its proofs. This is not so with the people of blind-sectarianism and deviation. But what will harm them is speech without knowledge, talking without restraint and speaking untruthfully about the servants of Allaah!

The Matter of Fiqh ul-Waaqi’

During this trial, various questions have sprung-up concerning fiqh, manhaj and da’wah and we were able to answer them at that time with answers backed by knowledge and all praise is for Allaah, the Most Perfect.

Amongst the questions brought about by this trial, about which there had been much talk is that which some have decided to start calling Fiqh ul- Waaqi. I do not argue concerning the form of this knowledge for which they have newly invented this name which is Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ , since many of the scholars have previously written that those who should take on the responsibility of guiding the Ummah and providing answers to their problems (that they) should be aware of and know their state of affairs. Therefore, from amongst those sayings well-known is: Passing judgement about a matter comes after comprehending it. This does not come about except by knowing the situation surrounding the matter under discussion. This is a basic principle of giving religious verdicts (fataawaa) in particular and from the principles of knowledge in general.

S0 Fiqh ul- Waaqi’, is to find out those things which are of importance to the Muslims from their affairs, or the plans of their enemies, in order to warn them and uplift them practically. It is not speculative talk nor preoccupying oneself with news and reports about the unbelievers nor drowning oneself in analyzing them and their thoughts!

The Importance of Knowing the State of Affairs

So knowing the situation in order to arrive by it at the Sharee’ah ruling is an important obligation from the obligations which have to be carried out by a discerning section of the specialist Muslim students of knowledge. Just like any branch of Sharee’ah knowledge, or social, economic or military affairs or any knowledge which benefits the Ummah of lslaam and brings it closer to the roads leading to a return of its strength, splendour and supremacy; especially when these branches of knowledge develop with the change of time and place.

Some Categories of Fiqh which are Obligatory

It must be mentioned here, that the category of Fiqh [2] required from the Muslims as a whole is not just the Fiqh of the schools of thought, which they know and are instructed in, nor this Fiqh which some of the young du’aat have become aware of and started to call the attention of others towards. Since the categories of Fiqh which are obligatory upon the Muslims to master, even if they are only of the level of being obligatory upon some (Fard Kifaayah) are greater than all of this, and more widespread.

[2] Fiqh: Understanding. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said. as is related by al-Bukhaaree (1/25) and at-Tahaawee in Mushkil ul-Aathaar (2/278): “When Allaah intends excellence for someone, He gives them the understanding (Fiqh) of the Deen. Indeed I am the distributor and Allaah is the giver. (Publisher’s Note)

So from this, for example, is Fiqh ul-Kitaab (understanding the Book), Fiqh us-Sunnah (understanding the Sunnah), Fiqh ul-Lughah (understanding the Language), Fiqh us-Sunan ul-Kawniyyah (understanding the ways in which the creation Operates), Fiqh ul-Khilaaf (understanding the differences between the scholars) and their like.

These categories of Fiqh , in general, are of no lesser importance than the two types of Fiqh previously indicated, whether the Fiqh that is well- known or Fiqh ul- Waaqi ’ which we are at the moment trying to clarify here. Despite all of this, we do not find anyone who calls the attention of the people to these categories of Fiqh! Particularly Fiqh ul-Kitaab was-Sunnah, which is the head of these categories and is their foundation. This Fiqh, which if someone were to say that it is obligatory upon every individual (Fard ’Ayn), then he would not be far wrong, due to the dire need of the Muslims for it and how necessary it is for them. Yet, in spite of this, we do not hear those who speak constantly about it, laying down its methodology, nor occupying the youth with it, nor training and cultivating them upon it!

What We Need is the Manhaj, not Mere Talk

Indeed, there are many, all praise is for Allaah, who speak about the Book and the Sunnah today and point to them. However, the obligation that we require is not in merely writing a small work here and giving a lecture there, but rather What we need is that the Book and the Sunnah are made the general framework for every small or large matter and that their manhaj is made the undergarment and overgarment of Da’wah – its beginning and its end and that the thinking of those youths and others who are giving Da’wah should be lead in accordance with this great manhaj , upon which is the only means for the well-being of the Ummah. So there has to be scholars in every branch of Fiqh that has preceded, particularly Fiqh of the Book and the Sunnah, with clear criteria and principles.

Partitioning of the People through Fiqh ul-Waaqi’

We have heard and noticed that many Muslim youth have become trapped in a predicament about this branch of knowledge which they have called Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ and have regretfully partitioned into two groups at variance with each other. Some have gone beyond the bounds in this matter and others have fallen short of the mark! Since you will see and hear from those who over-inflate the importance of Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ and place it in a very high position, above its correct place amongst the branches of knowledge, that they want every scholar of the Sharee’ ah to be a scholar of what they call Fiqh ul- Waaqi’! Just as the reverse also occurs from them. Those who listen to them and are instructed by them are made to think that everyone who is aware of the state of affairs (waaqi’) of the Islaamic world is (also) a scholar of the Book and the Sunnah and is upon the manhaj of the Salaf us-Saalih. This does not automatically follow, as is clear.

Completeness is Something Very Rare

We do not expect to find a human being who is complete in every sense of the word, i.e., that we find one (person) who is a scholar of all these branches of knowledge that we have indicated and spoken about. Therefore, it is obligatory that all those who have spent their time and effort in coming to know the state of affairs of the Islaamic Ummah and the plots against it should work and co-operate with the scholars of the Book and the Sunnah, upon the manhaj of the Salaf of this Ummah. So they should put forward their Views and ideas and the scholars should explain Allaah’s ruling, Most perfect is He, based upon the authentic proof and clear evidence.

As for the one who speaks about Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ ; in the minds of those who hear him, he becomes one of the scholars and muftees, for no other reason than that he speaks about this Fiqh which we have indicated. This is something not in any way supported by truth. Then his words are taken as a stepping stone to reject the religious verdicts given by the scholars and to invalidate their ijtihaad and rulings which they have clarified.

The Mistake of a Scholar Does Not Mean that He is to be Renounced

It is important to mention here that a scholar may make a mistake in passing judgement about a particular matter from these questions relating to the state of affairs, this has happened and will happen. Does this mean that the scholar is to be renounced and that those who disagree with him should describe him with improper words which it is not permissible to use for him? For example and it has been said: He is a scholar of the Sharee’ah and he is not a scholar of the current affairs! This is a statement which conflicts both with the Sharee’ah and the true state of affairs!

According to this saying of theirs, it is as if they make it obligatory for the scholars of the Book and the Sunnah to also be fully aware of economics, social-affairs, politics, military affairs, use of modern weapons-systems and other matters also! I do not think that there is a sensible human who imagines all of these branches of knowledge and disciplines combined in the heart of a single man, however great a scholar or however complete!

The Mistake of Being Ignorant of the State of Affairs

We have also heard people saying: It is not important for us to know the state of affairs. This is also an error. Rather justice demands that it be said: There must be for every branch of knowledge those who know about it and specialize in it and that they all work together as required by Islaam as sincere brothers, not due to partisanship , nor sectarianism – in order to realize that which is of benefit to the Islaamic Ummah and to establish the Islaamic society that every Muslim aspires to, such that Allaah’s Sharee’ah is applied upon His earth. Each of these branches of knowledge are obligatory upon some of the scholars of the Muslims and it is not obligatory at all that a single person gathers all of them, not to mention the impossibility of that actually occurring!

For example: In some cases, it is not permissible for a surgeon to carry out a particular operation until he has obtained the View of a scholar of the Book of Allaah, the Most Perfect and the Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم), upon the manhaj of the Salafus-Saalih. Since it is difficult, if we do say impossible, to find a proficient surgeon who also has good knowledge of the Book and the Sunnah, their Fiqh and the rulings derived from them.

The Obligation of Co-operation

Therefore, there has to be co-operation, acting upon the saying of the Lord of the worlds in His noble Book:

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَىٰ ۖ وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ

Help you one another in righteousness and piety and do not help one another in sin and transgression. [Sooratul-Maa‘idah (5):2]

Through this, the good that is hoped for, for the Islaamic Ummah may be attained. This matter is something obvious, since a Muslim cannot think of a scholar having great knowledge of the Book and the Sunnah and then further that he is a skilled surgeon. Then on top of that, he is fully aware of what they call today Fiqh ul- Waaqi’. Since, when he occupies himself with one branch of knowledge, that will reduce his time spent on other branches of knowledge. Thus, if he gives greater importance to a certain field then he will naturally be detracted from other fields and so on.

Completeness will not come about except by all of them working together, each of them in his special field. By this means and this means alone, what the Sharee’ah wishes, for all the Muslims, can be achieved and they can be saved from clear ruin. The Lord of the worlds says:

وَالْعَصْرِ – إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ – إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ

By Time! Verily man is in loss. Except those who believe and do righteous deeds and help one another to the truth and help one another to patience.‘

[Sooratul-‘Asr (103) :1-3]

Going Beyond Bounds Regarding that which is Essential

Yet what we have noticed and still notice, is that the wild and fervent emotions which know no bounds have a number of negative results.From them is going beyond bounds in that which is essential. Since that which is obligatory and essential is of two types:

Firstly: That which is obligatory upon every Muslim (Fard ’Ayn)
Secondly: That which, if carried out by some, then it is not required from the rest (Fard Kifaaee).

It is not permissible to treat the Fard Kifaaee like the Fard ’Ayn and to make them equal. Even if we were to say, for the sake of argument, that it were obligatory upon the up and coming students of knowledge to know Fiqh ul- Waaqi’. How could that be? Since we are not even able to apply this unrestricted statement to the major scholars of the Muslims, not to mention making it obligatory upon the students of knowledge to know the state of affairs, along with the necessary Fiqh demanded by this knowledge, so that each case can be given its fitting ruling.

Fiqh ul-Waaqi’ is not to be Rejected

Likewise, since this is the case, it is not permissible for any of the students of knowledge to reject the necessity of this Fiqh ul- Waaqi’. Since it is not possible to obtain that which was lost and is hoped for by all the Muslims, which is freeing ourselves from the colonialization of the Muslim lands by the unbelievers , or at the very least, some of them, except by knowing their mutual plots and agreements, in order to beware and warn, so that their colonialization and enslavement of the Islaamic world ceases to continue. A large part of this goal cannot be attained except by educating and cultivating the Muslim youth correctly in Aqeedah, knowledge and manhaj, built upon the purification (tasfiyah) of Islaam from all the accretions that have been added to it and upon the principle of cultivation and education (tarbiyah) upon this pure Islaam, just as Allaah sent it down upon the heart of His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم).

Between the Scholars and the Rulers

From those matters which need to be mentioned here is that the ones who have the ability to bring the Ummah to carry out that which is obligatory upon it, whether upon all or some of them, are not those passionate speakers, nor the academic scholars, rather they are the rulers (hukkaam) who have the power of giving orders and having them implemented and to enact and to dissolve, nor are they the enthusiastic youth, nor emotional du’aat who carry no weight, nor authority with them!!

So the speakers, the scholars and the callers must educate and train the Muslims to accept the law of Islaam and to submit to it and also to call the rulers with that which is best, to that which is right. To use the scholars properly with their various levels and types of knowledge: Fiqh of the Book and the Sunnah, Fiqh of the Language, Fiqh of the ways in which the creation operates, Fiqh of the state of affairs and likewise for all important matters. Putting into effect the great Islaamic principle of Shooraa (carrying out the affairs through consultation), then on that day will the affairs be straightened out and the Believers rejoice at the victory from Allaah:

فَإِنْ أَعْرَضُوا فَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظًا

But if they turn away, then We have not sent you as a protector over them. [Sooratush-Shooraa (42):48]

The Reason Behind the Degradation of the Muslims

A very important matter must be explained here, about which many are unaware. The reason why the Muslims continue to be downtrodden and enslaved by the unbelievers, even by the Jews of some Islaamic lands, is not that many of the people of knowledge are ignorant about the state of affairs, not knowing the plots and the plans of the Unbelievers, as some think!

From the Mistake of Some Du’aat

Therefore, I hold that giving extra and undue importance to Fiqh ul- Waaqi , such that it becomes a total program for the du’aat and the youth, upon which they are educated and educate others, thinking that it is the way to salvation, is an evident error and a clear mistake! The matter about which no two scholars differ and about which no two goats would lock horns over is that the primary reason for the degradation which has settled upon the Muslims is:

Firstly: The ignorance of the Muslims of the Islaam which Allaah sent down upon the heart of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).

Secondly: That many of the Muslims who know about the Islaamic rulings for some of their affairs do not put them into practice, but neglect them and allow them to fall into disuse.

Tasfiyah and Tarbiyah

Therefore, the key to a return of the glory of Islaam is: Implementation of beneficial knowledge (’Ilm un-Naafi’) and establishing righteous action (’Amal us-Saalih) and this is a very great affair which the Muslims cannot reach, except through the manhaj of tasfiyah and tarbiyah. These are two very great obligations.

By the first of these the following is intended:

Firstly: Purifying the Islaamic ’Aqeedah from that which is alien to it, such as Shirk (associating partners along with Allaah in those things that are specific to Him), ta’teel (denial of Allaah’s attributes), ta’weel (twisting the meanings of Allaah’s attributes) and refusing authentic ahaadeeth because they are connected to ’Aqeedah, and their like.

Secondly: Purifying the Islaamic Fiqh from the erroneous judgements made, which are contrary to the Book and the Sunnah, freeing the minds from the bonds of blind-following and the darkness of sectarianism.

Thirdly: Purifying the books of tafseer, fiqh, raqaaiq (matters concerning the heart) and other than that, from ahaadeeth that are weak (da’eef), fabricated (maudoo’) and unsupported narrations of the people of the Book (Israaeeleeyaat) and reprehensible matters (munkaraat).

As regards the second obligation: Then by it I mean cultivating the young generation upon this Islaam, purified from all that we have mentioned, giving them a correct Islaamic education from the beginning, without any influence of the infidel western education.

There is no doubt, that bringing these two obligations about requires huge efforts and sincere co-operation between all of the Muslims organisations and individuals, from all of those who are truly concerned with establishing the desired Islaamic society, each one working in his own field and speciality.

Correct Islaam

Therefore, the scholars who know the rulings from the correct Islaam must take pains to call the Muslims to this correct Islaam and bring them to understand it, then to cultivate them upon it, just as Allaah says:

وَلَٰكِن كُونُوا رَبَّانِيِّينَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تُعَلِّمُونَ الْكِتَابَ وَبِمَا كُنتُمْ تَدْرُسُونَ

Rather, be you Rabbaani’yyeen,[01] because you teach the Book and you study it. 
[Soorah Aal-‘Imraan (3):79]

[01Rabbaanee (plural: Rabbaaniyyeen) is the scholar who acts upon his knowledge and has insight into the condition of the people, so that he raises them upon the primary matters of knowledge before that which is more detailed. In his Jaami’ us-Saheeh (1/192 – with Fath), al-Bukhaaree – rahimahullaah – says: Ibn ‘Abbaas said: “Be Rabbaaniyyeen. wise-ones and scholars.” It is said: The Rabbaanee is one who teaches people simple knowledge before the more difficult one. (Publisher’s note)

This is the only solution, which comes in the Book and the Sunnah, as is in His saying:

إِن تَنصُرُوا اللَّهَ يَنصُرْكُمْ وَيُثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَكُمْ

If you help Allaah then Allaah will help you and establish your feet firmly.
[Soorah Muhammad (47) : 7]

How Will Allaah’s Help Come?

All praise is for Allaah. From those things about which there is total agreement between the Muslims is that:

إِن تَنصُرُوا اللَّهَ يَنصُرْكُمْ

If you help Allaah then Allaah will help you. 

This means if you carry out what He has ordered you to do, then Allaah will grant you victory over your enemies.

From the most important texts that support this meaning and which totally fits the state of affairs in which we are presently living, in that the disease and the cure are both mentioned together is his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saying:

“When you indulge in eenah transactions and take hold of the tails of cows and become satisfied with cultivation and abandon Jihaad , then Allaah will cover you with humiliation, which He will not remove from you, until you return to your Deen.”

[Saheeh – related by Abu Daawood (3426), ad-Dawlaabee. in al-Kunaa (2/65), aI-Baihaqee in as-Sunan ul-Kubraa (5 / 3l 6) and others, from Ibn ’Umar – radiallaahu ’anhu. It was authenticated by al-Albaanee in as-Saheehah (11).]

The Reason for the Sickness of the Muslims

Therefore, the sickness of the Muslims today is not because of their ignorance of any particular branch of knowledge. Although, I agree that every branch of knowledge which is of benefit to the Muslims is obligatory in proportion to this. But the reason for the degradation which has come upon the Muslims is not their ignorance of this knowledge known today as Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ ’. Rather, the reason, as occurs in the authentic hadeeth, is their neglecting action in accordance with the rulings of the Deen, from the Book and the Sunnah.

His (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saying: “When you indulge in eenah transactions” is an indication of a type of usurious transaction, seeking a means around the Sharee’ah.

His (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saying: “and take hold of the tails of cows” is an indication of giving importance to worldly matters and pre-occupying oneself with them and not giving importance to the Sharee’ah and its rulings.

Likewise is his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saying: “and become satisfied with cultivation” and his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saying: “and abandon jihaad ” is a result of desiring this world.

He, the Most High, says:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَا لَكُمْ إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمُ انفِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ اثَّاقَلْتُمْ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ ۚ أَرَضِيتُم بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا مِنَ الْآخِرَةِ ۚ فَمَا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ

O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that when you are asked to go forth in the path of Allaah you cling heavily to the earth? Do you prefer the life of this world to the Hereafter? But little is the comfort of this world in comparison to the Hereafter. [Sooratut-Tawbah (9):38]

His (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saying: “Allaah will cover you with humiliation, which He will not remove from you, until you return to your Deen” contains a clear indication that the Deen which it is obligatory to return to is that which Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, mentions in a number of verses, such as His saying:

إِنَّ الدِّينَ عِندَ اللَّهِ الْإِسْلَامُ

Indeed the Deen with Allaah is Islaam.
[Soorah Aal-‘Imraan (3):19]

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

This day have I perfected your Deen for you, completed My favours upon you and have chosen for you Islaam as Deen. [Sooratul-Maa‘idah (5):3]

lmaam Maalik’s famous comment about this aayah clearly explains what is meant, when he – rahimahullaah – said:

What was not on that day considered Deen, is not Deen today. So the latter part of this Ummah will not be set right except by that which set right its first part.”

Going Beyond Bounds in Fiqh ul-Waaqi’

As regards those du’aat today who concentrate heavily on Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ and over inflate it’s importance and give it a higher position than is due. They go into excesses in this understanding and giving others the understanding, perhaps unintentionally, that it is obligatory upon every scholar, indeed every student of knowledge to have knowledge of this Fiqh!

Whereas, many of those du’aat know fully that this Deen with which our Lord, the Mighty and Majestic, is pleased for us, has been greatly misunderstood within the Muslim Ummah for a long time, even with regards to Aqeedah, to the extent that we find many people indeed who say Laa ilaaha illallaah and carry out the pillars and even carry out optional worship, such as standing in prayer during the night, giving charity and their like, but they deviate from the sayings of Allaah, the Most High, (such as):

فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ

Know that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah. [SoorahMuhammad (47):19]

The State of the Du’aat with regards to Fiqh ul-Waaqi’

We know that many of these du’aat agree with us fundamentally in recognizing the reason for the evil situation in which the Muslims live. That is their being far from the correct understanding of Islaam that is obligatory upon every individual to have, not just obligatory upon some only. So what is obligatory is to correct the beliefs, correct the worship and correct the manners.

Where in this Ummah are those who are seeking to establish this obligation which is an obligation upon all (Fard ’Ayn) and not just upon some (Fard Kifaaee)? ? Since the Fard Kifaaee should come after the Fard Ayn, as has been established and not before! Therefore, being pre-occupied with and giving undue importance in calling the elite of the Muslim Ummah, to take care of a Fard Kifaaee, which is Fiqh ul- Waaqi and giving less importance to the Fiqh which is Fard ’Ayn upon every Muslim, which is Fiqh of the Book and Sunnah, as I have indicated, is an excess and a neglect of that which is obligatory upon every individual of the Muslim Ummah. It is going beyond bounds in raising the importance of something, which in reality, is no more than Fa’rd Kifaayah!

The True and Just Saying about Fiqh ul-Waaqi’

So the matter is as Allaah, the Most High, says:

وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا

Thus have We made you a justly-balanced Ummah.
[Sooratul-Baqarah (2):143]

So Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ with its correct Sharee’ah meaning is obligatory without doubt, but it is obligatory upon some, not all. If some of the scholars attain it, then it is not obligatory upon the rest of the scholars, not to mention the students of knowledge or the common Muslims!

Therefore, it is essential to keep matters in due proportion when calling the Muslims to awareness of Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ and not to drown them with political news and analysis of western thinkers. Rather, what is obligatory always, is to concentrate on the tasfiyah (purification) of Islaam from corruption, then the tarbi’yah (cultivation) of the Muslims, groups and individuals, upon this pure Islaam; connecting them to the pure and correct manhaj (methodology) of Da’wah: The Book and the Sunnah with the understanding of the Salaf of this Ummah.

The Obligation of Mutual Love and Ties of Relationship

From that which is also obligatory upon the scholars, with their various specialities, not to mention the rest of the Ummah , is that they should comply with the saying of their Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم):

The example of the Believers in their mutual love and mercy is like a single body.” [01]

[01] Saheeh – related by Muslim (8/20), Ahmad (4/70) and at-Tiyaalasee (790). from an- Numaan ibn Basheer radiallaalm ’anhu. The full text of the hadeeth being: “The example of the Believers in their mutual love and mercy is like a single body. When one part of it feels pain then the whole of the body suffers in sleeplessness and fever.”

This great prophetic simile, with its beautiful meaning, will not be realized except by the scholars working in co-operation with the individuals of the society, teaching and learning, calling and acting.

Therefore, those who know the Fiqh of the Sharee’ah with its evidences and rulings, should co-operate with those who know Fiqh ul-Waaqi’ in its correct and practical form, not merely as a discussion. S0 one supports the other with what they have of knowledge and understanding and one alerts the other to what is clear to them so that they can be aware and warn. From this sincere co-operation between the scholars and the Du’aat, with their different areas of expertise, it will be possible to fulfill the hope of every sincere Muslim.

The Danger of Accusing the Scholars

As regards accusing some of the scholars or students of knowledge and labelling them as being ignorant of Fiqh ul- Waaqi’ and accusing them with such things as one would feel shame to mention, then this is a mistake and an error. It is not permissible for this to continue, since it is from hatred and many ahaadeeth prohibit the Muslims having hatred for each other, rather the opposite has been ordered, that is, to have mutual love, to come together and to co-operate.

How Can We Cure the Mistakes

Any Muslim who sees a matter about which a scholar or caller has made a mistake, then it is obligatory upon him to remind and advise them. If the mistake was in a particular place, then it should be called to their attention there and then in the best way without broadcasting or publicizing it; in order to bring about what is more befitting.

If the mistake was made publicly and broadcasted, then there is no harm in calling the mistake to attention and explaining it openly, but as Allaah, the Most High, says:

ادْعُ إِلَىٰ سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ ۖ وَجَادِلْهُم بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ

Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching and argue with them in ways that are best. [Sooratun-Nahl (16):125]

It is important to explain that the correction of an error meant here, is not the correction founded upon the emotions and feelings of the youth without any knowledge or proof. Rather, what is meant is correction based upon clear proof and sound evidence.This correction, in this mild and wise manner, will not be achieved except between sincere scholars and well-wishing and sincere students of knowledge, who are together in their knowledge and Da’wah built upon the Book and the Sunnah and upon the manhaj of the Salaf us-Saalih.

As regards the case if the one who is to be corrected is one who knowingly deviates from this methodology, then there is for him a particular treatment and method befitting the scale of his deviation and distance from the truth and correct way.

The Danger of Present-Day Politics

Finally, we must advise the Muslims of a very important matter in this regard. Our approval of Fiqh ul-Waaqi’ with its approved form in the Sharee’ah or our preoccupation with it, must not lead us to opening the doors of modern politics (siyaasah) of the transgressors. Those fooled by the words of the rulers, willing pupils of their methods and those drowned in their ways.

Rather, what is obligatory, is to pursue the politics of the Sharee’ah – which is to protect and take care of the affairs of the Ummah. This cannot be except in the light of the Book and the Sunnah upon the manhaj of the Salaf us-Saalih and in the hands of the active scholars and the just rulers. Since Allaah curbs with the rulers those whom He does not curb with the Qur‘aan.[1]

[1] See ad-Durrul-Manthoor (4/99) of as-Suyootee.

But as for the western politics, which open the doors and deceives its people; it has no Deen with it. It flows onwards with those caught in its tide, or drowned in its sea. Its harm comes upon him and he is afflicted by its fire, since he preoccupied himself with the subsidiary (furoo’) and left the fundamentals (usool)!

May Allaah have mercy upon the one who said: Whosoever seeks to hasten something before its time is ripe, is punished by being deprived of its achievement.

Our final call is that all praise is for Allaah, Lord of the worlds.


Knowledge of Current Affairs (Fiqh al Waaki) – by  Imam al-Albaani
Translated by Abu Talhah Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah
Courtesy of the eBook:
Transcribed from PDF (eBook) by AbdurRahman.Org with slight modifications 

Related Link:

Excerpts from “Muqaddimah fee Usoolit-Tafseer” of Ibn Taymiyyah – Dawud Burbank

Introduction to Tafseer – Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah)
Taken from Tafseer Soorat-in-Naba’
Compiled and translated by Abu Talhah (rahimahullaah)


All praise is for Allaah. We praise Him, we seek His aid, and we ask for His forgiveness. We seek Allaah’s refuge from the evils of our selves and from the evil consequences of our deeds. Whomever Allaah guides then none can misguide him, and whomever He misguides then none can guide him. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, having no partner; and I testify that Muhammad is his Slave and His Messenger.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنتُم مُّسْلِمُونَ

[Meaning: O you who believe in Allaah and His Messenger! Fear and be dutiful to Allaah, by obeying Him and avoiding disobedience to Him, as He deserves to be feared (Obey Him and do not disobey Him; give thanks to Him and do not show ingratitude; remember Him and do not forget Him); and do not die except as Muslims: obediently submitting to Him, and worshipping Him alone.] [Soorah Aali `Imraan (3): 102]

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا

[[Meaning: O Mankind! Fear and be dutiful to your Lord, Who alone created you from a single person (Aadam), and from him He created his mate, and from these two He produced many men and women; and fear and be dutiful to Allaah through Whom you ask each other for your rights, and beware of cutting ties of kinship. Allaah is ever a Watcher over you.]] [Sooratun-Nisaa· (4): 1]

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَقُولُوا قَوْلًا سَدِيدًا – يُصْلِحْ لَكُمْ أَعْمَالَكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ ۗ وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ فَازَ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا

[[Meaning: O you who believe in Allaah and His Messenger! Fear and be dutiful to Allaah and speak with truth and justice, and He will rectify your deeds for you and forgive your sins; and whoever obeys Allaah and His Messenger has attained tremendous success.]] [Sooratul-Ahzaab (33): 70-71]

To proceed: Then the truest speech is the Book of Allaah -the Most High, and the best way is the way of Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم); and the worst of affairs are those things which are new introductions (into the Religion) and every new introduction is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance, and all misguidance will be in the Fire.

“The Ummah (the Islamic nation) has a great and pressing need to understand the Qur·aan, which is the strong Rope of Allaah, and the wise Reminder; one who follows it will not be led astray by desires, and it will not become confused upon the tongues. It does not become dull through repetition, its wonders never cease, and the scholars can never have enough of it. Whoever speaks in accordance with it will speak the truth, whoever acts in accordance with it will be rewarded; whoever judges by it has judged justly, and whoever calls to it then he invites to the straight path. Whichever tyrant abandons it then Allaah will break him, and whoever seeks guidance in other than it then Allaah will misguide him.

He -the Most High- said:

فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّي هُدًى فَمَنِ اتَّبَعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا يَضِلُّ وَلَا يَشْقَىٰ – وَمَنْ أَعْرَضَ عَن ذِكْرِي فَإِنَّ لَهُ مَعِيشَةً ضَنكًا وَنَحْشُرُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَعْمَىٰ – قَالَ رَبِّ لِمَ حَشَرْتَنِي أَعْمَىٰ وَقَدْ كُنتُ بَصِيرًا – قَالَ كَذَٰلِكَ أَتَتْكَ آيَاتُنَا فَنَسِيتَهَا ۖ وَكَذَٰلِكَ الْيَوْمَ تُنسَىٰ

[[Meaning: Then if guidance comes to you from Me, then whoever follows My Guidance shall not go astray and he shall not be wretched; but whoever turns away from My Reminder then he shall have a bleak and constricted life, and on the Day of Resurrection We shall raise him up blind. He will say: ‘O my Lord! Why have you raised me up blind when I used to have sight in the world?’ He will say: ‘Thus it is: Our signs came to you and you turned away from and abandoned them, and so this Day you shall be abandoned.]] [Soorah TaaHaa (20): 123-126]

And He -the Most High- said:

 قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ كَثِيرًا مِّمَّا كُنتُمْ تُخْفُونَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَعْفُو عَن كَثِيرٍ ۚ قَدْ جَاءَكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ –  يَهْدِي بِهِ اللَّهُ مَنِ اتَّبَعَ رِضْوَانَهُ سُبُلَ السَّلَامِ وَيُخْرِجُهُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَيَهْدِيهِمْ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

[[Meaning: There has come to you Our Messenger Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), explaining to you much of that which you used to hide from the Scripture, and overlooking much. There has come to you from Allaah a light and a clear Book. By it Allaah guides those who seek His Pleasure to the path which leads to safety and salvation; and He brings them out of darkness into the light, by His Permission, and He guides to the Straight Path.]] [Sooratul-Maa·idah (5): 15-16]

And He -the Most High- said:

الر ۚ كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ إِلَيْكَ لِتُخْرِجَ النَّاسَ مِنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِمْ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَمِيدِ – اللَّهِ الَّذِي لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ

[[Meaning: Alif Laam Raa. This is a book which We have sent down to you, in order that you might lead mankind out of darkness into light, by the permission of their Lord, to the path of the All-Mighty, the One worthy of all praise: Allaah, to Whom belongs everything that is in the heavens and in the earth.]] [Soorah Ibraaheem (14): 1-2]

And He -the Most High- said:

وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ رُوحًا مِّنْ أَمْرِنَا ۚ مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِي مَا الْكِتَابُ وَلَا الْإِيمَانُ وَلَٰكِن جَعَلْنَاهُ نُورًا نَّهْدِي بِهِ مَن نَّشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا ۚ وَإِنَّكَ لَتَهْدِي إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ – صِرَاطِ اللَّهِ الَّذِي لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ أَلَا إِلَى اللَّهِ تَصِيرُ الْأُمُورُ

[[Meaning: And likewise We have revealed this Qur·aan to you, as a mercy, by Our Command. You did not know what the Book is, nor what is Faith. But We have made it a light by which We guide whomever We wish from Our servants. And you certainly guide Our servants towards the Straight Path: the Path of Allaah, to Whom belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. Certainly all affairs shall return to Allaah for judgement.]] [Sooratush-Shooraa (42): 52-53]

… It is binding that a person should know that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) explained the meaning of the Qur·aan to his Companions, just as he made clear to them its Words.

So His Saying -He the Most High:

 وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ 

[Sooratun-Nahl (16): 44]

[[Meaning: And We sent down this Qur·aan to you, O Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), as a reminder to them, so that you should then explain clearly to the people what has been sent down to them][1] includes both this and that [i.e. the Words and the meaning.]]

And Aboo `Abdir-Rahmaan as-Sulamee said:

‘Those who taught us the recitation of the Qur·aan, such as `Uthmaan ibn `Affaan, `Abdullah ibn Mas`ood, and others, when they had learned ten Aayahs from the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), would not go beyond them until they had learned what they contained from knowledge and action. They said: So we learned the Qur·aan, and knowledge, and action, together.’[2]

Therefore they used to remain for a period of time learning a Soorah, and Anas said: “When a man had learned [Soorah] al-Baqarah and [Soorah] Aali `Imraan he attained stature in our eyes” [3], and Ibn `Umar took some years to learn al-Baqarah, it is said that it was eight years; Maalik mentioned it. [4]

And that was because Allaah -the Most High- has said:

كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ إِلَيْكَ مُبَارَكٌ لِّيَدَّبَّرُوا آيَاتِهِ 

[[Meaning: This Qur·aan is a Book which We have sent down to you, full of blessings, so that they may reflect upon its Aayahs.]] { [Soorah Saad (38): 29]

And He said:

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ ۚ

[[Meaning: Will they not carefully reflect upon the Qur·aan?]]
[Sooratun-Nisaa· (4): 82]

And He said:

أَفَلَمْ يَدَّبَّرُوا الْقَوْلَ

[[Meaning: Have they not reflected upon the Qur·aan?]]
[Sooratul-Mu·minoon (23): 68]

And carefully reflecting upon speech is not possible without understanding its meaning.

Likewise He -the Most High- said:

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

[Soorah Yoosuf (12): 2]

[[Meaning: We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur·aan, in order that you may comprehend its meaning]], and comprehending speech includes understanding it.

It is also known that what is intended from all speech is that its meaning be understood, not just its wording, so the Qur·aan has more right to that; and also the normal behaviour of the people prevents them from reading a book in any field of knowledge, be it medicine or mathematics, and then not seeking necessary explanation of it. So how about the Speech of Allaah, which is their essential safeguard, and through which they are to attain salvation and bliss, and by means of which their Religion and their worldly lives are correctly established?!

This is why disagreement amongst the Companions with regard to the tafseer of the Qur·aan was extremely rare; and even though it occurred more amongst the Taabi`een (the Successors of the Companions) than it did amongst the Companions, then still it was little in comparison to what occurred with those who came after them. So the more excellent a time was, then the greater the unity, the harmony, the knowledge, and the clarity of understanding was in it.

So from the Taabi`een there were those who learned the whole tafseer from the Companions, just as Mujaahid said: “I went through the whole mus-haf with Ibn `Abbaas, stopping him at every Aayah and asking him about it.” [5]

Therefore ath-Thawree said: “If tafseer comes to you from Mujaahid, then it will suffice you.” [6]

Therefore his tafseer was relied upon by ash-Shaafi`ee, al-Bukhaaree, and others from the people of knowledge; and likewise Imaam Ahmad, and others who wrote works of tafseer, would repeatedly quote chains of narration from Mujaahid, more so than from others besides him. So what is intended is that the Taabi`een took the tafseer from the Companions, just as they took knowledge of the Sunnah from them….

As for Tafseer, then the people who were most knowledgeable about it were the people of Makkah, since they were the students of Ibn `Abbaas, such as: Mujaahid, `Ataa· ibn Abee Rabaah, `Ikrimah-the freed slave of Ibn `Abbaas, and others from the students of Ibn `Abbaas, such as: Taawoos, AbushSha`thaa·, Sa`eed ibn Jubayr, and their like.

Likewise the people of al-Koofah, from the students of Ibn Mas`ood, and they had distinction in some of that over others; and the scholars of tafseer from the people of al-Madeenah, such as Zayd ibn Aslam – whom Maalik took tafseer from, and likewise his [i.e. Zayd’s] son `Abdur-Rahmaan took it from him (also), and `Abdullaah ibn Wahb took it from `AbdurRahmaan…

And in summary, whoever turns away from the positions of the Companions and the Taabi`een, and their tafseer, in favour of something contrary to that, then he is in error in doing that, indeed he is an innovator; unless if he is performing legitimate ijtihaad, in which case his error is forgiven…

So if someone were to say: ‘What is the best approach with regard to Tafseer?’ Then the answer is that the most correct approach is to explain the Qur·aan with the Qur·aan. So what has been left unspecified at one place will be explained at another place, and what is mentioned briefly at one point will be detailed elsewhere…

And if you become unable to do that, then take hold of the Sunnah, for the Sunnah explains and clarifies the Qur·aan…, and when we do not find the tafseer in the Qur·aan, nor in the Sunnah, then we refer back for that to the sayings of the Companions, for they knew best about it because of what they actually witnessed relating to the Qur·aan, and because of the circumstances particular to them, and because of their complete understanding, their correct knowledge, and their righteous deeds… And if you do not find the tafseer in the Qur·aan, nor in the Sunnah, nor do you find it from the Companions, then many of the imaams refer back in that case to the statements of the Taabi`een, such as Mujaahid ibn Jabr… and such as Sa`eed ibn Jubayr, `Ikrimah-the freed slave of Ibn `Abbaas, `Ataa· ibn Abee Rabaah, al-Hasan al-Basree, Masrooq ibn al-Ajda`, Sa`eed ibn alMusayyib, Abul-`Aaliyah, ar-Rabee` ibn Anas, Qataadah, ad-Dahhaak ibn Muzaahim, and others from the Taabi`een, and those who succeeded them, and those who came after them.

So their sayings are mentioned with regard to an Aayah, and the wordings which they used may differ, and so one who has no knowledge may think that they are disagreements, when this is not actually the case. So some of them may refer to something by mentioning that which it necessitates, or by mentioning that which corresponds to it, and some of them may state the actual thing itself; and all of these actually have the same meaning, and this occurs in many places, so let the discerning person be alert to this; and Allaah is the One Who guides.” [7]


[1] as-Suyootee quoted in his ‘Miftaahul-Jannah fil-I`tisaam bis-Sunnah’ (p. 58): “Ibn Mas`ood said, as reported by Ibn Abee Haatim:

‘There is nothing except that it has been made clear to us in the Qur·aan, however our understanding falls short of reaching it, so therefore He -the Most High- said:

بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالزُّبُرِ ۗ وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

[[Meaning: So that you, O Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), should then explain clearly to the people what has been sent down to them]].’ { [Sooratun-Nahl (16): 44]

[2] as-Suyootee quoted in his ‘Miftaahul-Jannah fil-I`tisaam bis-Sunnah’ (2/437): “at-Tabaree reported it in his ‘Tafseer’ (1/60), and as-Samarqandee in his ‘Tafseer’ (1/71) and Ibn Sa`d in ‘at-Tabaqaat’ (6/172), and Ibn Abee Shaybah in ‘al-Musannaf’:..6/117, and its chain of narration contains `Ataa· ibn as-Saa·ib:Sadooq (truthful), whose memory deteriorated; however the narrator from him is Hammaad ibn Zayd, as occurs in ‘as-Siyar’ (4/269), and his narrations from him are good…”

[3] Reported by Imaam Ahmad (3/120). Shu`ayb al-Arnawoot said in his checking of the ‘Musnad’ (no. 12236): “Its chain of narration is ‘saheeh’ to the standard of the two Shaikhs.”

[4] Imaam Maalik stated in his ‘Muwatta·’ (1/205) that it had reached him (balaaghan) that `Abdullaah ibn `Umar had remained for eight years learning Sooratul-Baqarah.

[5] Fawwaaz Ahmad Zumarlee said in his checking of as-Suyootee’s ‘al-Itqaan’ (2/473): “It was reported in ‘al-Hilyah’ (3/280)..; and it was reported by at-Tabaree in his ‘Tafseer’(1/65), and Aboo Nu`aym in ‘al-Hilyah’ (3/279-280); and its chain of narration contains Muhammad ibn Ishaaq who narrated it with both of them with `an`anah (without stating that he had heard it directly from the narrator before him); however it has another chain of narration which supports it, since it was also reported by al-Qaasim ibn Sallaam in ‘Fadaa·ilul-Qur·aan’ (p. 216), and by Ahmad in ‘al-Fadaa·il’ (no. 1866), and its chain of narration contains Ibn Abee Najeeh, who reported a great amount from Mujaahid; but he would narrate from him things that he had not heard directly from him. Refer to ‘Tabaqaatul-Mudalliseen’ (p. 9).”

[6] Reported by at-Tabaree in his ‘Tafseer’ (1/65).

Taken from ‘Muqaddimah fee Usoolit-Tafseer’ (pp. 43-47, 71-72, 91, 93-94, 96, 100-101) of Shaikhul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah; and it occurs in ‘Majmoo`ul-Fataawaa’ (13/329-375).

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Posted fromIntroduction to Tafseer – Ibn Taymiyyah – Taken from Tafseer Soorat-in-Naba’

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Biographies of The Authors of The Books of Tafseer – Dawud Burbank



Muhammad ibn Jareer ibn Yazeed, Aboo Ja`far at-Tabaree: “The imaam, the outstanding scholar, the Mujtahid. The scholar of his time: Aboo Ja`far at-Tabaree, the author of excellent works.

He was from the people of Aamul in Tabaristaan (a town 80 miles NE of Tehran in Persia). He was born in the year 224 H, and began seeking knowledge after the year 240 H. He travelled greatly and met the preeminent men. He was singular amongst the people of his time in knowledge, intellect and in the great number of his works. It is rare that anyone the like of him is seen…

Al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee said of him: ‘He gathered such branches of knowledge as were not attained by anyone from the people of his time. He had memorised the Book of Allaah; he was knowledgeable of the different modes of recitation; he had insight of the meaning; he was a learned jurist with regard to the rulings contained in the Qur·aan; he was a scholar of the details of the Sunnah and of its chains of narration; the authentic and the unauthentic; he knew the abrogating texts and the abrogated texts; he was knowledgeable of the sayings of the Companions and the Taabi`een; he was well-acquainted with the past events and history of the peoples, and he compiled the famous book: ‘Narratives and history of the nations’; and he compiled his ‘Tafseer’: the like of which has not been written. He also wrote a book entitled ‘Tahdheeb-Aathaar’, and I have not seen a similar work the like of it, but he did not complete it. He also wrote many books about the principles and details of Fiqh, and his preferred sayings from the sayings of the jurists. He had certain verdicts specific to him which were preserved’.” [‘Siyar A`laamin-Nubalaa·’ of adh-Dhahabee: (14/267-)].

Concerning his Tafseer (printed in thirty volumes) Aboo Haamid alIsfaraayeenee said: “If a person were to travel to China to obtain the Tafseer of Muhammad ibn Jareer it would not be too much.”

Shaikhul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah said: “As for the Tafseers that the people have with them, then the most authentic of them is the Tafseer of Muhammad ibn Jareer at-Tabaree, because he mentions the sayings reported from the Salaf with established chains of narration, and it does not contain innovation, and he does not report from those accused of being liars such as Muqtaatil ibn Bukayr and al-Kalbee.” [‘Majmoo`ul-Fataawaa’:13/385]

Ibn Katheer said, concerning his ‘Tafseer’: “He authored a complete Tafseer which is such that it has no equal,” and concerning him: “He had high standing in worship, zuhd (abstaining from the unnecessary things of this world), piety, and establishing the truth: not being prevented from that by the blame of anyone. He had a fine voice in recitation, along with complete knowledge of the modes of recitation – upon the finest characteristics. He was one of the major righteous people, and one of the scholars of hadeeth who gathered in Egypt in the time of Ibn Tooloon; and they were: Muhammad ibn Ishaaq ibn Khuzaymah – the imaam of the imaams, Muhammad ibn Nasr al-Marwazee, Muhammad ibn Haaroon arRuwayaanee, and this one: Muhammad ibn Jareer at-Tabaree…” [‘al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah’ (11/156-)].

Al-Firghaanee said: “Muhammad ibn Jareer was of those who did not care about the blame of anyone for Allaah’s sake, along with the very great harm he suffered and the slanders he received from the ignorant, envious and apostates; but as for the people of knowledge and Religion, then they do not deny his knowledge, his abstinence with regard to this world and how he renounced it. He sufficed himself with a small inheritance left for him by his father in Tabaristaan.” And al-Firghaanee said: “I heard him say: “My father’s inheritance has been delayed, so I had to remove the sleeves of my robe and sell them.” [‘Tabaqaatush-Shaafi`iyyah’: (3/120), quoted in Dr. `Abdullaah at-Turkee’s introduction to ‘Jaami`ul-Bayaan’.]

It was mentioned about him that everyday for forty years he would fill forty pages with his writing; and that he originally proposed dictating his ‘history’ of a length of thirty thousand pages, and his Tafseer of similar length, but was dissuaded by his students and so reduced each of them to a tenth of the intended size, saying: “Indeed we belong to Allaah! Peoples’ eagerness has died!”

as-Suyootee said in ‘al-Itqaan’ (2/476): “So if you were to say: ‘Which of the tafseers do you direct us towards, and tell a person to rely upon?’ Then I say: The tafseer of Aboo Ja`far ibn Jareer at-Tabaree, about which the reputable scholars have agreed that its like has not been written in the field of tafseer. an-Nawawee said in his ‘Tahdheeb’: ‘No one has written the like of the book of Ibn Jareer in tafseer’.”

He passed away at the time of Maghrib on the night of the 28th of Shawwal in the year 310 H, at the age of 86 -rahimahullaah.


“The imaam, the outstanding scholar, the Muftee of Khuraasaan, Shaikh of the Shaafi`ees; Abul-Muzaffar Mansoor ibn Muhammad ibn `Abdil-Jabbaar ibn Ahmad, at-Tameemee, as-Sam`aanee, al-Marwazee, previously alHanafee, then ash-Shaafi`ee. He was born in the year 426 H…

He went out on foot to perform Hajj at a time when riding parties were prevented from travelling, so he and a group of people were captured by brigands. So he bore this with patience until Allaah freed him from these bedouins, and he performed Hajj and accompanied az-Zanjaanee.

He used to relate: < They took us captive, so I used to tend their camels. So it happened that their chief wanted to marry off his daughter, so they said: we will have to travel to a town to find someone to perform the marriage for us. So one of their men said: ‘The man who tends our camels is the jurist of Khuraasaan.’ So they asked me about some matters, and I answered them, and I spoke to them in correct Arabic, so they became embarrassed and excused themselves. So I performed the marriage for them, and said the (marriage) address, so they were happy and asked me to accept some reward from that, but I refused. So they conveyed me to Makkah in the middle of the year. >

`Abdul-Ghaafir said in his ‘Taareekh’: “He was the singular scholar of his age in excellence and behaviour, and in zuhd and piety. He came from a household of knowledge and zuhd. He acquired knowledge of Fiqh from his father, and he became one of the foremost amongst the people of speculation. He then studied the books of hadeeth, performed Hajj and returned, and abandoned the way upon which he had debated for thirty years and became a Shaafi`ee. He manifested this in the year 468 H and the people of Marw were thrown into turmoil and the common folk became perplexed. So letters were sent concerning him by the Ameer of Balkh which spoke harshly against him. So he left Marw in the company of DhulMajdayn Abul-Qaasim al-Moosawee and a group of students, and he was attended to by a number of the jurists. So he went to Toos, and proceeded on to Naysaaboor. So he was met by the students with a great reception in the time of Nizaamul-Mulk, and `Ameedul-Hadrah Aboo Sa`d. So they honoured him and gave him a position of great respect, and a gathering for admonition was established for him in the Shaafi`ee school; and he was an ocean with regard to admonition and he was a great memorizer, so he was greatly accepted by the people. He attained firmness and prominence in the Shaafi`ee madhhab and then he returned to Marw and taught there in the Shaafi`ee school, and an-Nizaam gave him precedence over his peers, and his students became apparent. Then he went off to Asbahaan in a state of high standing.

He wrote the book ‘al-Istilaam,’ and the book ‘al-Burhaan,’ and ‘alAmaalee’ in Hadeeth, and he stood firmly with the people of the Hadeeth, the Sunnah and the Jamaa`ah; and he was a thorn in the eyes of the opponents, and a proof for the people of the Sunnah.

[His grandson] Aboo Sa`d said: ‘My grandfather wrote a work of Tafseer, and in Fiqh, Usool and Hadeeth. His Tafseer is of three volumes’ … The Imaam Aboo `Alee ibn as-Saffaar said: ‘When I debate with AbulMuzaffar then it is as if I am debating with an imaam from the Taabi`een, because of the signs of the righteous people which I see in him.’ He also said about himself: “I never forgot anything which I had memorized.”

… He died in the year 489 H, having lived for sixty-three years – rahimahullaah.” [‘Siyar A`laamin-Nubalaa·’ (19/114-119)] Ibn al-`Imaad said about him in ‘Shadharaatudh-Dhahab’ (3/393): “The imaam, the eminent scholar, Abul-Muzaffar as-Sam`aanee Mansoor ibn Muhammad, at-Tameemee, al-Marwazee, al-Hanafee, then ash-Shaafi`ee. He learned Fiqh from this father and from others, and he was the imaam of his age in the madhhab of Aboo Haneefah. But when he performed Hajj, that which necessitated his moving to the madhhab of ash-Shaafi`ee became clear to him in al-Hijaaz. So when he returned to Marw he suffered great harm because of his changing over. He wrote many books regarding the Shaafi`ee madhhab and he wrote in refutation of the opponents, and he wrote ‘at-Tabaqaat’ which he excelled in, and he wrote a good and fine Tafseer…” -rahimahullaah.


“Shaikhul-Islaam, the outstanding exemplary scholar, the Haafiz: ShaikhulIslaam, the reviver of the Sunnah, Aboo Muhammad al-Husayn ibn Mas`ood ibn Muhammad ibn al-Farraa·, al-Baghawee, ash-Shaafi`ee: the scholar of Tafseer; the compiler of works such as ‘Sharhus-Sunnah,’ ‘Ma`aalimut-Tanzeel,’ ‘al-Masaabeeh’ and the book ‘at-Tahdheeb’ upon the madhhab, and ‘al-Jam`u baynas-Saheehayn,’ and ‘al-Arba`eena hadeethan’ and other works.

He acquired knowledge of Fiqh from the Shaikh of the Shaafi`ees al-Qaadee Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Marwaroodhee, the author of ‘at-Ta`leeqah,’ before the year 460 H….

Al-Baghawee was given the title ‘Muhiyyus-Sunnah’ (the reviver of the Sunnah), and the ‘the pillar of the Religion’, and he was a person of nobility and an Imaam. He was a person of knowledge and outstanding scholar. He abstained from the superfluous things of this world and was satisfied with a little. He used to eat dry bread on its own, but was criticised by people for that, so he began accompanying it with oil. His father used to make and sell fur garments (al-Farraa·). He was granted blessing in his writings, and granted complete acceptance with regard to them: this was on account of his fine resolve, and true and sincere intention. The scholars vied in acquiring his works, and he would not deliver a lesson except in a state of purification. He was moderate in his dress: he wore a crude robe, and a small turban – upon the way of the Salaf- which he wore and tied as they did. He was firmly established in Tafseer, and fully proficient in Fiqh -may Allaah have mercy upon him…” [‘Siyar A`laamin-Nubalaa·’ of adh-Dhahabee: (19/439-)]

He was born in the town of Bagh (30 miles NW of Herat in Afghanistan) in Khuraasaan, and travelled throughout Khuraasaan seeking knowledge, finally settling in Marw ar-Roodh (SE Turkmenistan) where he taught and compiled his works, and died in the year of 516 H at over eighty years of age.

Ibn Katheer said: “…He excelled in the branches of knowledge, and he was the foremost scholar of his time in them. He adhered to the Religion, was pious, a ‘zaahid,’ and a righteous worshipper.” -rahimahullaah. [‘al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah (12/206).’]


“He is Abul-Fidaa·, `Imaadud-Deen, Ismaa`eel ibn (ash-Shaikh Abee Hafs Shihaabud-Deen) `Umar – who was the ‘khateeb of his village – ibn Katheer ibn Daw· ibn Katheer ibn Zar’ al-Qurashee, al-Basrawee in origin, adDimashqee with regard to his upbringing, nurturing and education. He was born in the town of Mijdal, in the district of the town of Busraa, to the [north-] east of Damascus, in the year of 701 H, and his father was a khateeb. His father died when he was four years old, so he was brought up by his brother, the Shaikh `Abdul-Wahhaab, and he learned Fiqh from him at the beginning of his affair.

Then he moved to Damascus in the year 706 H, at the age of five. He then acquired knowledge of Fiqh from Shaikh Burhaanuddeen Ibraaheem ibn

`Abdur-Rahmaan al-Fazaaree, well known as Ibn al-Firkaah – who died in the year 729 H.

He also heard in Damascus from `Eesaa ibn al-Muta“im, and from Ahmad ibn Abee Taalib – who lived more than a hundred years and who was well known as Ibnush-Shihnah, and also known as al-Hajjaar -who died in year 730 H. Also from al-Qaasim ibn `Asaakir, and Ibnush-Sheeraazee, Ishaaq ibn al-Aamidee, and Muhammad ibn Zarraad. He closely accompanied the Shaikh Jamaaluddeen Yoosuf ibn az-Zakiyy al-Mizzee – the author of ‘Tahdheebul-Kamaal’ and ‘Atraaful-Kutubis-Sittah’ who died in the year 742 H; and he greatly benefited from him and became proficient in knowledge, and he married his daughter.

He also studied a great deal with Shaikhul-Islaam Taqiyyuddeen Ibn Taimiyyah, who died in the year 728 H. He closely accompanied him, loved him and benefited from his knowledge. He also studied with the Shaikh, the Haafiz, the historian Shamsuddeen adh-Dhahabee Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Qaaymaaz, who died in the year 748 H.

He was granted ‘ijaazah’ (permission to narrate) in Egypt by Aboo Moosaa al-Qaraafee, and al-Husaynee, and `Alee ibn `Umar al-Waanee, Yoosuf alHutanee and others. Al-Haafiz Shamsuddeen adh-Dhahabee said of him in ‘al-Mu`jamulMukhtass’: “The imaam, the muftee, the outstanding muhaddith, the precise jurist, the critical and precise scholar of tafseer. He has a number of beneficial works.”

Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr said of him in ‘ad-Durarul-Kaaminah’: “He became occupied with hadeeth, carefully studying its texts and narrators. He could quote a great deal from memory and was delightful in speech. His works spread widely in his lifetime, and people benefited from them after his death. He was not upon the way of those muhadditheen who merely seek briefer chains of narration, and seek to distinguish shorter from longer chains of narration and other such disciplines of theirs; rather he was from the jurists of the muhadditheen.’…”

“His works included:

(1) ‘Tafseerul-Qur·aanil-Kareem,’ and it was one of the most beneficial books of tafseer based upon narrations. He would explain the Qur·aan with the Qur·aan, and then with the famous ahaadeeth from the dependable sources of the muhadditheen – along with their chains of narration. He discussed the chains of narration with the terms of rejection and acceptance, and made clear anything the narrations contained with regard to strangeness, being contrary to what is authentic, or confliction with the reliable reports. Then he would mention the reported sayings from the Companions and the Taabi`een.

As-Suyootee said: “The like of it, similar in form, has not been written.”

(2) His history entitled ‘al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah,’ in which he mentioned the stories of the Prophets and the previous nations, based upon what occurs in the Noble Qur·aan and the authentic narrations…then he carefully detailed the Prophetic Seerah, and the history of Islaam to his time. Then he went on to mention the tribulations, signs of the Last Hour, the forthcoming battles and the conditions in the Hereafter….

He died on Thursday, the 26th of Sha`baan in the year 774 H, at the age of 74; and al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr said: He lost his eyesight at the end of his life – rahimahullaah wa radiyallaahu `anhu.”

[Taken from the introduction to ‘al-Baa`ithul-Hatheeth’; the biography was compiled by Shaikh Muhammad `Abdur-Razzaaq Hamzah.]

Ibn al-`Imaad said in ‘Shadharaatudh-Dhahab’ (6/231/232): “…He had many students; from them was Ibn Hajjee who said about him: ‘He was the greatest memorizer of the texts of hadeeth that we have come across, and the one best acquainted with their defects, and their narrators, and the authentic and the unauthentic from them, and his peers and his Shaikhs acknowledged that for him. I do not think, despite the frequency with which I went to him, that I ever met him except I took benefit from him.’ Others, as Qaadee Shahbah mentioned in his ‘Tabaqaat’ stated that he was a particularly close student of Ibn Taimiyyah, and used to defend him and follow many of his views; and he used to give verdict with his view regarding divorce, and he was put to trial because of it and suffered harm. He died in Sha`baan, and was buried…next to his Shaikh, Ibn Taimiyyah.” -rahimahullaah.


Muhammad ibn `Alee ibn Muhammad ibn `Abdullaah, ash-Shawkaanee, then as-San`aanee [the capital of Yemen]. He was born on Monday the 28th of Dhul-Qa`dah in 1173 H in the town of Hijrah Shawkaan.

He grew up in the manner of students of legislated knowledge, memorizing the Qur·aan and becoming proficient in it, and he memorized many of the texts before he began serious study by the age of ten. Then he sat with the major Shaikhs, and he greatly occupied himself with studying history in the sciences of the language. His father did not allow him to occupy himself with other than knowledge, nor to leave San`aa. He sat to deliver verdicts at the age of twenty, and he had thirteen lessons each day: some he delivered, and others he studied with his Shaikhs. [‘al-Badrut-Taali`’: (2/215, 218-219)]

He authored 278 works, including works of Tafseer, Fiqh, Usoolul-Fiqh, the `Aqeedah of the Salaf, and in refutation of blind-following (taqleed). al-`Allaamah Hasan ibn Ahmad al-Bahkalee said…: (start of quote): “In the year 1250 H, in the month of Jumaadal-Aakhirah, our Shaikh Muhammad ibn `Alee ash-Shawkaanee passed away. He was the judge of the whole community, Shaikhul-Islaam, the verifier, the `Allaamah, the imaam, sultaan of the scholars, imaam of the world….

So in summary, he did not see anyone the like of himself; nor did he see anyone who had seen the like of him in knowledge, piety and establishment of the truth with strength of spirit and eloquence of tongue…. He was born on Monday, the 28th of the sacred month of Dhul-Qa`dah in the year 1172 H….

He studied under his father, and studied continuously under the Qaadee, imaam of the details of Fiqh in his time Ahmad ibn Muhammad alHaraazee, and he derived benefit from him in Fiqh… He learned Arabic grammar and morphology from as-Sayyid al-`Allaamah Ismaa`eel ibn Hasan, and al-`Allaamah `Abdullaah ibn Ismaa`eel an-Nahmee, and al- `Allaamah al-Qaasim ibn Muhammad al-Khawlaanee… and in many of the branches of knowledge he studied constantly with the reviver of his time as Sayyid `Abdul-Qaadir ibn Ahmad al-Kawkabaanee; and in the science of hadeeth he took from al-Haafiz `Alee ibn Ibraaheem ibn `Aamir, and from other Shaikhs besides them….

He authored magnificent, delightful, beneficial, and useful works in most branches of knowledge; from them ‘Naylul-Awtaar’ – a commentary upon ‘Muntaqal-Akhbaar’ of [Majduddeen `Abdus-Salaam] Ibn Taimiyyah – rahimahullaah- in four volumes the like of which is not to be seen in these times with regard to its careful verification and precision. He gave each matter its due right, with justice and fairness; and did not adhere to blindfollowing. He quoted the positions of the later scholars and of the Predecessors. His noble Shaikhs and other prominent scholars related it from him, and it spread throughout the lands in his lifetime. It was read to him many times, and the scholars derived benefit from it; and it was the only one out of his works that he was personally satisfied with, because of its high level of accuracy, and its close adherence to proof in the best manner. He wrote it during the lifetime of his Shaikhs, and they were able to point out certain points, which he edited.

He also wrote the large Tafseer entitled ‘Fathul-Qadeer’ which combined the sciences of narration of hadeeth, and its understanding… … And I [i.e. his student Hasan ibn Ahmad al-Bahkalee] learned from him in many of the fields of knowledge, and I took from him most of his noble works, and with his death the shining lamp of Yemen was extinguished for them; and I do not think that in precision and verification they will see the like of him.” (end of quote.)

And the Lord of creation, the One free of all imperfections-blessed this Qaadee and Imaam from the vast ocean of His Generosity with three things which I do not know to have been combined in these later times for anyone besides him: Firstly: Vast and deep knowledge of all the different branches, types and forms of knowledge; secondly: the great number of students he had who were verifiers, people of nobility and precision: people of discerning intellect, and outstanding virtues…; thirdly: the great number of his skilled and precise works, and his intricate treatises and responses which in their number outstripped great scholars, and whose precision and exactness reached every possible limit…”-rahimahullaah.

[‘at-Taajul-Mukallal’ (pp.452-461) of `Allaamah Siddeeq Hasan Khaan alQanoojee; and the introduction to ‘Fathul-Qadeer.’]


“Ash-Shaikh Aboo `Abdillaah `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Naasir ibn `Abdillaah ibn Naasir Aal-Sa`dee, from the tribe of Tameem. He was born in the town of `Unayzah in the district of al-Qaseem [Saudi Arabia], on the 12th of Muharram 1307 H and his mother died when he was four years old. Then his father died when he was seven years old, so he grew up as an orphan. However he had a fine up bringing and it was noticed that from an early age he was distinguished by intelligence and a desire to learn. He read the whole Qur·aan after the death of his father and then memorized it completely, and he was fully proficient in it at the age of eleven. Then he occupied himself with acquiring knowledge from the scholars of his land, and from those who came to his land. So he strove and exerted himself until he acquired a good portion of every branch of knowledge. Upon reaching the age of twentythree he sat to teach. So he would learn and also teach, and spend all of his time in that. This continued until the year 1350 H, when he took charge of all teaching in his town, and all students referred back to him. He took knowledge from Shaikh Ibraaheem ibn Hamd ibn Jaasir, and he was the first teacher he studied with. He described his Shaikh as a memorizer of hadeeth, and he would speak about his piety and how he used to love and take care of the poor. Often a poor person would come to him in winter and he would take off one of his two garments and give it to the poor person, even though he himself needed it and possessed very little himself – rahimahullaah.

Also from his Shaikhs was Muhammad ibn `Abdul-Kareem ash-Shibl, with whom he learned Fiqh, sciences of Arabic language and other than that. He also studied with ash-Shaikh Saalih ibn `Uthmaan al-Qaadee, the judge of `Unayzah. He learnt from him Tawheed, Tafseer, Fiqh: its Usool and its details, and the sciences of the Arabic language. He was the one whom he studied with the most, and he kept his company constantly until he passed away -rahimahullaah.

He also studied with Shaikh `Abdullaah ibn `Aayid, and Shaikh Sa`b alQuwayjaree, and Shaikh `Alee as-Sinaanee, and Shaikh `Alee an-Naasir Aboo Waadee with whom he studied hadeeth, and took the six books and others from him with ‘ijaazah’ (permission to narrate).

He also studied with Shaikh Muhammad ibn ash-Shaikh `Abdul-`Azeez Aal Muhammad al-Maani` (the director of cultural/educational affairs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia at present); he studied with him in `Unayzah. Also from his Shaikhs was Shaikh Muhammad ash-Shanqeetee (who settled in the Hijaaz…) when he came to teach in `Unayzah. He studied with him Tafseer, Hadeeth, the sciences of Hadeeth, and the sciences of the language – such as grammar, morphology and so on.

He was upon a high level of virtuous manners, showing humility with the young and the old, and the rich and the poor. He used to spend some of his time sitting in gatherings with whoever wished to attend, so the gathering would be a gathering of knowledge. He was keen that these gatherings should discuss matters of knowledge and social affairs, and the people of the gatherings would derive great benefit from the useful discussions they involved themselves in. So their recreational gatherings were turned into gatherings of worship and knowledge. He would speak to each person with whatever befitted him, and would discuss with him matters that would be beneficial to his worldly life and his Hereafter.

He would frequently resolve dispute in a just manner which satisfied both sides.

He had great concern for the poor, the needy, and strangers and he would personally assist them as far as he was able, and he would encourage the wealthy people – those whom he knew to love doing good – to be compassionate towards them.

He was upon a very high level of good manners, chastity, purity of spirit, and firmly resolved and serious in all his affairs.

He was also the best of people in his manner of teaching, and the best at causing his students to understand…

He occupied himself most of all and benefited most from the books of Shaikhul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah and his student Ibnul-Qayyim. This benefited him greatly with regard to knowledge of Usool, Tawheed, Tafseer, and Fiqh and other branches of beneficial knowledge…

He was especially proficient in Tafseer, having read a number of Tafseers and excelling in it. He authored a fine Tafseer, in a number of volumes…entitled ‘Tayseerul-Kareemir-Rahmaan fee Tafseer KalaamilMannaan’.… He passed away at the age of 69 in the year 1376 in the town of `Unayzah – rahimahullaah…”

[Abridged from the biography written by one of his students and included as a preface to his Tafseer].

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Tafseer Soorat-in-Naba’- from the works of numerous mufassireen.
Compiled and translated by Abu Talhah Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Allaah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said: “Do not abuse my companions” – Dawud Burbank



From Aboo Hurairah-radiyallaahu `anhu who said: Allaah‟s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

<<Do not abuse my Companions! Do not abuse my Companions! For by the One in Whose Hand is my soul! If one of you were to spend the like of Uhud in gold in charity, it would not reach the hands-full of one of them, nor even a half of it. >>

* al-Haafiz Abul-`Abbaas al-Qurtubee said in “al-Mufhim” (6/492):

“From that which is known, about which there is not doubt, is that Allaah-the Most High-chose the Companions of His Prophet for His Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), and to establish His Religion. So everything which we now have from knowledge, actions, virtues, conditions, possessions, property, honour, authority, Religion, Eemaan, and other favours-which no tongue can enumerate, and which no amount of time can provide a valuation for, then it all came about by means of them. So this being the case, then it becomes obligatory upon us to acknowledge their rights, and to be grateful to them for their tremendous efforts in order to establish what Allaah-the Most High-has obligated with regard to being thankful to one who has bestowed a favor upon you, and to avoid what He has forbidden to showing ingratitude towards him.

This goes along with what we have confirmed from the praise of Allaah-the Most High-upon them, and His Saying-He the Most High:

…لَّقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ

[[Meaning: Allaah was indeed pleased with the Believers when they gave the Pledge to you under the tree]]…

 Until His Saying:

…مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ

[[Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah…]];

[Sooratul-Fath (48): 18-29]

and His Saying:

…لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الَّذِينَ

[[Meaning: And there is also a share in the booty for the emigrants…]] [Sooratul Hashr (59): 8]

and other than this.

And such as his (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) saying:

<<Allaah chose my Companions over all the worlds except for the Prophets and Messengers>> [1]

Along with the rest of the ahaadeeth comprising praise upon them-may Allaah be pleased with them all.

So upon this whoever abuses them, and denies their tremendous rights, then he has relinquished Eemaan, and has responded to favours with denial.

So sufficient in this regard is what at-Tirmidhee reported from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Mughaffal-radiyallaahu `anhu-who said Allaah‟s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

<<Be dutiful to Allaah! Be dutiful to Allaah! With regard to my Companions. Do not take them as a target for (verbal) attacks after me. So whoever loves them then it is because of their love for me that they love them; and whoever has hatred for them, then it is because of their hatred for me that they hate them. Whoever wrongs/troubles them has wronged me; and whoever wrongs me has wronged Allaah; and whoever wrongs Allaah, then He will soon seize him with punishment>> [2], and he said: “This is a “ghareeb” (singular/weak) hadeeth.”

So this hadeeth, even though its chain of narration is weak, then it is authentic with regard to its text, since it is supported by what we have already mentioned from the Book and the authentic Sunnah, and by what is known from the Religion of the Ummah; since there is no disagreement about the obligation of having respect for them, and the forbiddance of abusing them. And there is no disagreement about the fact that whoever says that they were upon Unbelief or misguidance is an Unbeliever (Kaafir), and should be killed. This is because he has denied something known necessarily from Legislation: so he has declared Allaah and His Messenger to have lied in that which they informed of concerning them.

The same ruling applies to one who declares one of the four rightly-guided Caliphs to be an Unbeliever or to have been astray.

Then is he judged to be an Apostate (murtadd)-such that repentance is sought from him, or is he judged to be an unbelieving heretic (zindeeq) –such that repentance is not sought from him, and he is thus to be killed whatever? This is something about which there is disagreement.

As for someone who abuses/reviles them with something other than this, then if it is something which would necessitate a prescribed punishment-such as accusing of fornication, then he is given that prescribed punishment. Following this he is given another severe punishment: life-imprisonment and he is humiliated; unless he is referring to `Aa.ishah-radiyallaahu `anhaa, since one who accuses her of it is to be killed. This is because he is denying what occurs in the Book and the Sunnah with regard to her innocence. This was stated by Maalik and others. Then they disagree with regard to the other wives of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). So it is said: Anyone who accuses them of adultery is to be killed, since this is to cause harm to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم); and it is said: he is to be given the prescribed punishment and further severe punishment-as we have said: there being two sayings.

As for the one who reviles them with something other than accusations of fornication, then he is lashed in a manner causing pain, and he is given severe punishment. Ibn Habeeb said: And he is imprisoned until he dies, and it is related from Maalik that he said: “Whoever abuses `Aa.ishah is to be killed, without restriction‟, and it is possible to understand this to mean accusation of fornication; and Allaah-the Most High knows best.”



[1] al-Haythumee mentioned it in “Majma`” (10/16): “al-Bazzaar reported it, and its narrators are reliable, and there is disagreement about some of them”; and al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr said in “al-Isaabah” (1/12): “al-Bazzaar reported it in his “Musnad“, and its narrators are declared reliable by some.”

[2] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (no. 3862), and declared “da`eef” (weak) by Shaikh al-Albaanee.

[Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank]

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The People Of The Book Turned Away From Their Covenant With Allaah – Imam as-Sa’dee

BismillaahThe People Of The Book Turned Away From Their Covenant With Allaah [1]

وَإِذْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَاقَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَتُبَيِّنُنَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَا تَكْتُمُونَهُ فَنَبَذُوهُ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ وَاشْتَرَوْا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۖ فَبِئْسَ مَا يَشْتَرُونَ

[[Meaning: And remember when Allaah took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture to make it clear to the people, and not hide it; but they cast it behind their backs, and they purchased thereby some paltry gain. So evil is that which they purchased.]] [Soorah Aali `Imraan (3): 187]

Shaikh `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Naasir as-Sa’dee- rahimahullaah-said in his Tafseer of the Aayah:

“The Covenant (al-Meethaaq) is the weighty, emphatic covenant; and Allaah-the Most High-took this Covenant from everyone to whom He gave the Book, and whom He taught knowledge to; that they should clarify to the people whatever they are in need of from that which Allaah taught him, and that they should not hide that, nor be miserly with them regarding it – particularly if they ask him about it, or when something occurs which necessitates that. So in such a situation it is obligatory upon everyone who possesses knowledge that he clearly explains it to the people, and clarifies the truth from falsehood. So as for those guided to correctness by Allaah, then they carry this out in the most complete manner, and they teach the people that which Allaah has taught them, seeking the Pleasure of their Lord, and out of compassion for the creation, and from fear of the sin of hiding the truth.

As for those who were given the Scripture, from the Jews and the Christians and their like, then they cast this agreement and this covenant behind their backs. They took no notice of it. So they hid the truth and they put forth falsehood. They boldly violated the prohibitions laid down by Allaah; and they neglected the rights of Allaah and the rights of the creation. Through concealing the truth they purchased a paltry gain- which is what they acquire, if they acquire anything, from positions of authority and trivial wealth; from their lowly ones- from those who follow their desires, and who give precedence to their desires over the truth.

فَبِئْسَ مَا يَشْتَرُونَ

[[Meaning: So evil is that which they bought]]:

since it is the most wretched exchange. They turned away from clarifying the truth, which is something which brings about eternal bliss, and religious and worldly benefits – the most tremendous and exalted goals. So they only chose that which is lowly and despicable over that which is lofty and precious because of their wretchedness and degradation, and because they are not fitting for anything other than that which they were created for.”

[1] Taken from “Tayseerul-Kareemir-Rahmaan fee tafseer Kalaamil-Mannaan” of Shaikh AbdurRahmaan ibn Naasir as-Sa’dee.

[Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank -rahimahullaah]

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القَاهِر Al-Qaahir (The Invincible Subduer) : One of the Names of Allaah

القَاهِر Al-Qaahir (the Invincible Subduer), the One Who subdues His creation from above to Whom everything submits, none can repel what He ordains or depart from what He decrees.

[SourceThe Ninety-Nine Names of Allaah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En] & Transcribed PDF]

وَهُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ
And He [Allaah] is al-Qaahir  above His slaves.
[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-An’aam (6:18)].

Allaah is al-Qaahir: The Most Mighty and the Magnificent, is dominant over all his slaves being Himself above creation, the Ever-living, the Mighty, and the AllPowerful. He is the One who subdued all of his creatures; everything in the upper and lower worlds is subservient to His Will, and Authority; whatever He willed to happen will certainly occur and as He wanted it to be, and whatever He willed not to occur will never take place; All creatures are in need of Him, they have no control of good or harm to themselves; nor can they control death nor life nor Resurrection. The most powerful creature is nothing before the domination and power of Allaah, the AllMighty; the creatures which people have taken as “gods” besides Allaah, cannot protect themselves let alone to dominate others. Allaah, the perfect is His domination deserves to be worshipped alone.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

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الله Allaah: The ‘alam (identifying name or title) of the majestic, sole, and true God

Allaah is the ‘alam (identifying name or title) of the majestic, sole, and true God. This noun, which is the name of Allaah, applies to none other than Him. He, Most Majestic and High, has other names all of which follow on from His name Allaah. The meaning of the name “Allaah” is the ma’looh (that which is worshipped out of love, magnification, deification, and longing).

[See Shaykh Muhammad Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Sharhul ‘Aqeedah Al-Waasitiyyah (Dammaam, KSA: Daar Ibnul Jawzi, 2d. ed. 1415/1994], p. 38, and Sharh Lum’at Al-’Itiqaad (Ismaa’eeliyyah, Egypt: MaktabatulImaam al-Bukhaari (checked by Ashraf Maqsood), 1412/1992)], p. 29.]

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Concerning the name Allaah, Ibn ul-Qayyim said in Midaarij us-Saalikeen:

“The name Allaah indicates all of the perfect names and lofty attributes in all three ways of indication since it indicates His Divinity, which indicates affirmation of all the characteristics of divinity for Him along with negation of their opposites for Him. So, the attributes of divinity are the attributes of perfection being free from any likeness with the creation and free of any deficiency or imperfection.”

And the author of the explainer of Kitaab at-Tawheed in Tayseer ul-`Azeez al-Hameed, brings a quote from Ibn ul-Qayyim also with regard to the excellent qualities of the name Allaah that Ibn ul-Qayyim rahimahullaah said:

As for the particular virtues of the meaning of this name Allaah then in this regard the most knowledgeable of the creation sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam himself said:

“I could not praise You enough as You deserve, You are as You have praised Yourself.”

[Reported by Muslim from the hadeeth of A’ishah radiyAllaahu `anha.]

He said, so how could we enumerate the special virtues of the name of the One Who comprises every perfection unrestrictedly and every praise and commendation and every laudation and exaltation and all splendour and all perfection and all glory and all beauty and all good and all eminence and all generosity, excellence and goodness is for Him and is from Him.

So, this name Allaah is not mentioned upon a small amount of something except that it causes it to increase. Nor is it mentioned in a state of fear except that it removes it. Nor is it mentioned upon any misfortune except that it relieves it. Nor in any state of anxiety and distress except that it brings relief. Nor upon any state of difficulty except that it brings ease to it. None who is weak resorts to it except that it brings strength to him. Nor anyone in a state of humiliation except that it brings honour to him. Nor anyone in poverty except that he is enriched. Nor anyone who feels estranged and uneasy except that it causes him to feel at ease. Nor is it mentioned by one who has been overcome except that it brings aid and victory for him. Nor by one who is in straitened circumstances except that his difficulty is removed. Nor is it mentioned by a fugitive except that he finds refuge.

So, it is the name, meaning Allaah’s name Allaah, it is the name through which distress is removed through which the descent of blessings is sought and through which supplications are answered. Through it slips are corrected, sins are warded away and good deeds are brought closer.

It is the name with which the earth and heavens were established and with which the revealed books were sent down and with which the messengers were sent. With it the legislated laws were prescribed, through it the prescribed punishments were established and with it jihaad was prescribed.

Through this name the creation will become divided into the fortunate and the wretched. With it the true and tremendous day is established and with it, the scales of justice are set up, the bridge laid down and the Paradise and the Fire established. With it, the Lord of all creation is worshipped and praised, for its right the messengers were sent and it will be asked about in the grave and for it, there will be the resurrection. Dispute is regarding it and judgement is to it and alliance and enmity are for it. Through it those who know it and establish its rights will be the fortunate ones and through it those who are ignorant of it and leave its rights will be the wretched ones.

So, it is the reason for creation and command and through it, they are established and confirmed and to it they arrive at a conclusion. So, the creation comes about through it, returns to it and exists because of it. So, there is nothing in creation and no command nor reward and no punishment except that it starts from it and ends with it. That is what brings it about and its reason. Then he quotes the aayah:

رَبَّنَا مَا خَلَقْتَ هَٰذَا بَاطِلًا سُبْحَانَكَ فَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ

O our Lord, You have not created all of this without purpose, free and far removed are You from that. So save us from the punishment of the Fire.  (Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 191)

Then with regard to the name الله  Allaah, brief indication of the meaning which is – the One Who is truly venerated and worshipped, the One deserving that He be singled out with all worship because of His perfect attributes of divinity.

[SourceThe Ninety-Nine Names of Allaah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En] & Transcribed PDF]

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الرَّحْمَان Ar-Rahmaan & الرَّحِيم  Ar-Raheem

 الرَّحْمَان Ar-Rahmaan (the Extremely Merciful), the Merciful One Who has as His attribute mercy, the One possessing tremendous and extensive mercy.

 الرَّحِيم  Ar-Raheem (the Bestower of mercy), the One Who has mercy upon the creation.

As the verifier has mentioned, the difference between Ar-Rahmaan and Ar-Raheem is Ar-Rahmaan is with regard to the attribute of Allaah’s self, the attribute He has Himself of extreme mercy and Ar-Raheem is His bestowing mercy upon the creation with regard to His action.

[SourceThe Ninety-Nine Names of Allaah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En] & Transcribed PDF]

ar-Rahmaan (The One Who is Most Merciful): This is one of Allaah’s particular names and which denotes the attribute of very great and extensive mercy that exists with Him.

[See Ibnul Qayyim’s Badaai’ Al-Fawaa’id (Beirut, Lebanon: Daarul Khayr, 1st. ed. 1414/1994)], vol. 1, pp. 23-24, and Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Sharhul ‘Aqeedah Al-Waasitiyyah, ibid.]

ar-Raheem (The One Who Bestows Mercy): This name denotes that the attribute is related to the marhoom (i.e. the one whom Allaah chooses to receive His Rahmah (Mercy).

So, the difference between ar-Rahmaan and ar-Raheem is that in the case of the former, ar-Rahmah is His attribute, and in the latter, ar-Rahmah is His act, meaning that He is the One Who bestows ar-Rahmah upon others. So, when both names come together [i.e. ar-Rahmaan, ar-Raheem], then the meaning in this context is that Allaah’s Mercy is very great and extensive, and that His Mercy reaches His creation. This is what is meant by those who say that ar-Rahmaan is the One Whose Mercy encompasses everything (general Mercy), and ar-Raheem is the One who has Mercy upon the believers (special Mercy). Since Allaah’s Mercy upon the kaafir is a special one in this life only, then it is as if they have no mercy upon them, because in the Hereafter when they will ask Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) to save them from Hell and admit being wrong, Allaah will deal with them with His Justice, not His Mercy, Saying:

اخْسَئُوا فِيهَا وَلَا تُكَلِّمُونِ
“Remain you in it [Hell] with ignominy! And speak not to Me!”
[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Mu’minoon (23:108)].

The name ar-Raheem is applied to Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) and may be applied to others. Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) has described His Messenger Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) as Raheem (Soorat At-Tawbah, 9:128).

Ibn Katheer (رحمه االله) said:

“Some of the names of Allaah تعالى are restricted to Him only like the names: Allaah, ar-Rahmaan, al-Khaaliq, ar-Raaziq and so forth. Some other names, however, may be applied to other than Him.”

[See Badaai’ Al-Fawaa’id, p. 24, Sharhul ‘Aqeedah Al-Waasitiyyah, pp. 38-39, Lum’atul I’tiqaad, p. 29, Tafseer Ibn Katheer (1:21), Sharh Thalaathat Al-Usool within Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Majmoo’ Fataawaa (Riyadh, KSA: Daar Ath-Thuraya, 1st. ed. 1414/1993)], vol. 6, p. 11.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Link :

Biography of Imaam Muwaffaqud-Deen `Abdullaah ibn Ahmad ibn Qudaamah – Dawud Burbank

1. HIS LINEAGE: He was Aboo Muhammad, `Abdullaah ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Qudaamah ibn Miqdaam ibn Nasr ibn `Abdillaah ibn Hudhayfah ibn Muhammad ibn Ya`qoob ibn al-Qaasim ibn Ibraaheem ibn Ismaa`eel ibn Yahyaa ibn Muhammad ibn Saalim ibn `Abdillaah ibn `Umar ibn al-Khattaab-radiyallaahu `anhumaa.

al-Qurashee; al-Maqdisee; al-Jammaa`eelee; then ad-Dimashqee; as-Saalihee; al-Hanbalee.

al-Qurashee: He was from the tribe of Quraysh, since he was descended from `Umar-radiyallaahu `anhu – who was `Adawee (i.e. from the sub-tribe of Banoo `Adiyy who were part of Quraysh).

al-Maqdisee: His family’s ascription to ‘Baytul-Maqdis’ (Jerusalem) since they lived close to it.

al-Jammaa`eelee: In ascription to the village of Jammaa`eel where he was born; and it is a village on the hills of Nablus – a city about 40 miles north of Jerusalem in present day occupied Palestine.

ad-Dimashqee: In ascription to Damascus (in Syria) which is where his family migrated to, and where he lived for most of his life, and where he died.

as-Saalihee: In ascription to the mosque of as-Saalihiyyah.

His brother Shaykh Aboo `Umar said: “They ascribe us to ‘as-Saalihiyyah’ because we settled at the mosque of Aboo Saalih, not that we were righteous people (saalihoon).” [And this is from piety since they were indeed a family of righteousness and rectification].

al-Hanbalee: In ascription to the Hanbalee madhhab, i.e. that he learned and was an expert in the madhhab, i.e. that he learned and was an expert in the principles and details of Fiqh followed by the students of Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal. [and he was not a blind follower].

2. HIS BIRTH: He was born in the month of Sha`baan in the year 541H in the town of Jammaa`eel.

3. HIS FAMILY: He was from a family who were noble in their lineage, their knowledge, and their piety.

His father: Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Qudaamah was born in 491H and died in 558H. [He had his son at the age of 50]. He was one of the righteous scholars; famous for knowledge, zuhd and worship. He was the Khateeb of the mosque of Jammaa`eel. He educated his children and taught them the Qur’aan, and the hadeeth, and correct manners.

He died when Imaam Muwaffaqud-Deen was about 17 years old, so his elder son Muhammad ibn Ahmad – who was known as Aboo `Umar – continued his upbringing and education.


For the first ten years of his life he remained with his family in Palestine, and he began memorization of the Qur’aan.

Then in 551H, when he was 10 years old, his father performed Hijrah (migration) with the family, fleeing from the invading Christians, and migrated to Damascus.

In Damascus he completed memorization of the Qur’aan, and he memorized a large number of ahaadeeth. Then he memorized ‘Mukhtasar al-Khiraqee’-on the Fiqh of Imaam Ahmad. (Then later in life he wrote an explanation of it in 9 volumes, called al-Mughnee).

He remained in Damascus for 10 years, and at the age of twenty he undertook his first journey in search of knowledge.

-In 561H: he travelled to the main city of knowledge and of the scholars at that time- Baghdaad. He was accompanied by his maternal cousin al-Haafidh `Abdul-Ghanee al- Maqdisee;

He inclined towards the study of Fiqh and his cousin towards hadeeth, however they accompanied each other to the lectures and acquired both;

There he studied with many of the scholars, amongst them: Shaykh `Abdul-Qaadir al-Jeelaanee (D. 561H), Ibnul-Battee, and Ibnul-Manniyy.

He remained in Baghdaad for four years. He studied ‘Mukhtasar al-Khiraqee’ under `Abdul-Qaadir al-Jeelaanee, and then the Shaykh died 50 nights after his arrival; then they studied under Ibnul-Jawzee; then he remained with Ibnul-Manniyy, and learned the Fiqh of the Hanbalee madhhab with him, and its principles, and the different sayings of the scholars- and he excelled in that.

He then returned to Damascus.

– In 567H he again travelled to Baghdaad where he remained for a year seeking knowledge.

– In 573H he travelled to Makkah to perform Hajj, and he met the people of knowledge there; amongst them al-Mubaarak ibn at-Tabbaakh.

Then after performing Hajj in 574: –

– Then from Makkah he travelled to Baghdaad – where he again remained for a year seeking knowledge.

– Then from Baghdaad he returned to Damascus where he started to write works on many branches of knowledge, the most famous of his works being ‘al-Mughnee.’


-His Shaykhs included:

1. His father Ahmad bin Qudaamah al-Maqdisee (491-558H),
2. His elder brother Aboo `Umar Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisee (528-607H),
3. Shaykh `Abdul-Qaadir al-Jeelaanee (471-561H),
4. Ibnul-Jawzee,
5. Abul-Fath Nasr ibn Fityaan ibn Matr Ibnul-Mannee (501-583),
6. Abul-Fath Ibnul-Battee (477-564H),
7. Fakhrun-Nisaa. Shuhdah, the daughter of the Muhaddith Aboo Nasr Ahmad ibn al-Faraj AdDeenawaree – (>480-574H),
8. Shaykh Badr ibn `Abdillaah al-Badr (hafidahullaah) in his introduction to his checking of Ibn Qudaamah’s book ‘Ithbaat Sifaat-`Uluww’ gathers a list of his Shaykhs numbering 67, and then said: “and many others besides them.”

6. HIS STUDENTS: Amongst them:

1. al-Bahaa.ul-Maqdisee (d. 624H) who wrote ‘al-`Uddah Sharh al-`Umdah.’
2. Diyaa.ud-Deen al-Maqdisee (d. 643H)
3. The son of his brother: Shamsuddeen ibn Qudaamah (d. 682H)
4. al-Haafidh al-Mundhiree (d. 656H) – who wrote many works, including; ‘al-Mukhtasar Saheeh Muslim,’ ‘Mukhtasar Sunan Abee Daawood,’ ‘at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb’…Shaykh Badrul-Badr gathers the names of 44 of his students and then says: “And many others.”


His student ad-Diyaa. al-Maqdisee said: “He was of full height, white, with a bright face, large distinct eyes; he was so handsome that it was as if his face was radiating light; he had a broad forehead and a long beard; a straight nose and his eyebrows joined. He had a small head, slender arms and legs; and a thin body; and full senses and faculties. He was extremely intelligent; and behaved in a fine manner…”

Ibnul-Najjaar said: “al-Muwaffaq was the Imaam of the Hanbalees in the main congregational mosque of Damascus. He was fully reliable, an evidence (in narrating), noble. He had plentiful virtues; and he kept away from anything not befitting; he was pious, a worshipper.He was upon the way of the Salaf. Light and dignity could be seen upon him. A man would take benefit from seeing him even before hearing his speech.”

Ibn Katheer said: “He used to engage in optional prayers between the two night prayers (i.e. Maghrib and `Ishaa.) close to his place of prayer. Then when he had prayed the `Ishaa. prayer he would return to his house of the street of ad-Duwalla`ee by the bank of the river. He would take back with him those he could from the poor and needy, and they would eat with him, and his primary house was upon Qaasiyyoon…”

ad-Diyaa. said: “He was fine in his manners: he would hardly ever be seen except that he was smiling. He would relate incidents and joke. I heard al-Bahaa. say; When the people read with him he would joke with us, and be cheerful and at ease. Once they complained to him about some children who studied with him, so he said; “They are children. They have to have some play, and you used to be just like them.”

And al-Bahaa. described him as being courageous, and said: “He used to go forward to the enemy, and he was wounded upon his hand; and he used to take part when the army and the enemy were firing at each other.”

ad-Diyaa. said: “He used to pray with ‘Khushoo`’ (humility and attentiveness). He would hardly ever pray the Sunnah prayer before Fajr and after `Ishaa. except in his house; and between the two night prayers he used to pray four rak`ahs, reciting: ‘as-Sajdah,’ ‘Yaaseen,’ ‘ad-Dukhaan,’ and ‘Tabaarak.’ He would hardly miss out on them. He used to stand in prayer in the last hours of the night reciting 1/7th of the Qur’aan. He would sometimes raise his voice and he had a beautiful voice.”


The very scholar of hadeeth, Aboo `Amr ibn as-Salaah said: “I have not seen the like of al-Muwaffaq.”

Aboo Bakr ibn Ghaneemah – the muftee of Baghdaad – said: “I do not know anyone in our time who has reached the level of ijtihaad except for al-Muwaffaq.”

Sibt ibn al-Jawzee said: “He was an Imaam in many fields. After his brother Aboo `Umar and al-`Imaad, there was no one in his time who had greater ‘zuhd’ or piety than him. He had a great deal of ‘hayaa.’ (sense of shame), and he remained aloof from this world and its people.

He was easy and mild-mannered, humble, and he had love for the poor. He was fine in manners, generous and giving, whoever saw him then it was as if he had seen one of the Companions; and it was as if light came from his face. He was plentiful in worship.”

Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah said: “After al-Awzaa`ee no one entered Shaam having more Fiqh knowledge and understanding of the religion than al-Muwaffaq.”

ad-Diyaa. al-Maqdisee said: “He was an Imaam with regard to the Qur’aan and its explanation; an Imaam in the knowledge of hadeeth and its problematic matters; an Imaam in Fiqh – indeed the outstanding scholar of his time in that; an Imaam of knowledge of the disagreements of scholars; the outstanding scholar of his time in Laws of Inheritance; an Imaam in Usoolul-Fiqh; an Imaam in Arabic Grammar; an Imaam in mathematics; an Imaam in the movements and positions of stars and planets.

Ibn Rajab al-Hanbalee said: “The Faqeeh, the Zaahid, the Imaam. Shaykhul-Islaam. The singular exception scholar.”

al-Haafidh ibn Katheer said: “Shaykhul-Islaam. An Imaam. An outstanding scholar. There was not in his time, indeed even for a long time before him, anyone having greater knowledge of Fiqh than him.”

Ibn Rajab said: “He used to closely follow the texts in the matter of al-Usool (fundamentals and belief) and in other than it. He did not hold applying any acts of worship for which there was no narration. He used to order affirmation of the texts, and leaving them as they are – with regard to what occurs in the Book and the Sunnah from ‘as-Sifaat’ (Allaah’s Attributes): Not altering them, not declaring how they are, not distorting the meaning; not interpreting them away with ‘ta’weel,’ and not negating them.”


He died (rahimahullaah) on Saturday, the day of `Eidul-Fitr, in 620H, at the age of 79 in his home in Damascus. His funeral which had a huge attendance was held the next day and he was buried on the hill of Qaasiyyoon.


He married his paternal cousin Maryam bint Abee Bakr ibn `Abdillaah ibn Sa`d al-Maqdisee. They had a number of children: (al-Majd) `Eesaa, Muhammad, Yahyaa, Safiyyah, and Faatimah. Then he took a slave girl, and then another. Then he married `Izziyyah- who died before him. All his sons died in his lifetime, and none of them had offspring except for `Eesaa- who had two righteous sons, however both of them died without any offspring. So the Shaykh had no remaining progeny.


Dr. `Alee ibn Sa`eed al-Ghaamidee lists his work and they come to 38 in number.

Amongst his printed works are:

  • al-Mughnee in Fiqh, (9 volumes);
  • Rawdatun-Naadhir in Usoolul-Fiqh (2 volumes);
  • Kitaabut-Tawwaabeen (1 volume);
  • Dhammut-Ta’weel (booklet);
  • Ithbaat Sifaatil-`Uluww
    (1 volume with checking of Shaykh Badrul-Badr (hafidahullaah)).
  • Lum`atul-I`tiqaad
    (Printed along with the explanation of Shaykh Saalih ibn `Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) and translated and printed with the title: Sufficiency in Creed). And (printed with the explanation of Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan (hafidahullaah): [01]

[01] Sources:

1. Ikhtiyaaraat ibn Qudaamah al-Fiqhiyyah of Dr. `Alee ibn Sa`eed al-Ghaamidee;
2. The biography of the author included in Shaykh al-Fawzaan’s explanation of Lum`atul-I`tiqaad;
3. The biography complied by Shaykh Badrul-Badr in his checking of Ithbaat Sifatil-`Uluww.


1. Siyaar A`laamin-Nubalaa. (22/165-173) of Dhahabee;
2. al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah (13/99-101) of Ibn Katheer;
3. Shadharaatudh-Dhahab (5/88-92) of Ibnul-`Imaad;
4. Dhayl Tabaqaatil-Hanaabilah (2/133-149) of Ibn Rajab;
5. al-Mughnee verifiers introduction (1/6-37).

Download the original PDF Here.

Compiled and Translated by Abu Talha Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

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Moosaa’s call was directed to tawheed, NOT to gain rulership and authority – Shaykh Rabee’

Moosaa, the one to whom Allaah spoke directly, the strong and trustworthy.

We see that his call was directed to tawheed and carried the lights of guidance and wisdom. Moosaa was brought up and was raised in the palaces of the greatest tyrant who claimed divinity. He knew the various types of corruption, unbelief, tyranny, injustice and despotism from what he witnessed in the palaces. He saw things which it is difficult to imagine or think possible. He also saw the enslavement of his people, the Children of Israa’eel, and their humiliation, and their women taken as slaves, and the killing of their children, to such an extent that it surpassed any oppression known to mankind. Allaah, the Most High, says,

“Pharaoh exalted himself haughtily in the land, and divided its people into castes. He enslaved a group of them (i.e., the Children of Israa’eel), killing their sons and letting their women live. He was indeed one of the corrupt evil-doers.”[1]

The people of Pharaoh were also people of shirk and idol-worship without a doubt.

So how did Moosaa begin? Was his call directed to correction of the ‘aqeedah of this idolatrous nation? Or did it begin with a demand for the restoration of the rights of the Children of Israa’eel, and a struggle to gain rulership and authority from the hands of the tyrant, and at the head of them Pharaoh, who claimed divinity for himself?

The call of Moosaa was just like the call of his forefathers and brothers from the earlier Prophets. His Lord instructed him and inspired him with the principle of tawheed, and chose him to carry his revelation, and to establish worship of Him. Allaah, the Most High, says,

“Has not the story of Moosaa come to you? When he saw a fire and said to his family, ‘Remain where you are for I have seen a fire. Perhaps I can bring a fire-brand from it or find someone who can show us the way.’ So when Moosaa came to the fire his Lord called him, ‘O Moosaa, I am your Lord. Remove your shoes, indeed you are in the purified valley of Tuwaa. I have chosen you as My Messenger, so listen to and heed what I reveal to you. Indeed I am Allaah. None has the right to be worshipped but Me. So worship Me and do not worship anything else besides Me, and establish Prayer for My remembrance. Indeed the Final Hour is certainly coming, which I keep hidden from all except Myself, in order to reward each soul according to its good or bad deeds.’”[2]

So this was the beginning of his Messengership; he was inspired and ordered with the ‘aqeedah of tawheed. He was ordered to establish it in himself and to represent it in his life. Then he was entrusted with the duty of calling to this sublime principle and was sent by Allaah to the Pharaoh. Allaah furthermore explained to him the correct manner of giving da’wah and the wise way in which he was to face the Pharaoh. Allaah, the Most High, said: 

“Go to Pharaoh who has transgressed all bounds in his haughtiness, pride, unbelief, and say, ‘Will you not purify yourself from the sin of unbelief and be obedient to your Lord? And that I guide you to the worship of your Lord, so that you may submit fearfully to Him and obey Him.’”[3]

He also supported him with his brother Haaroon in order for the proof to be established to the utmost, and He taught them to use gentleness and mildness in da’wah since that is the best way to attain the guidance of those whom Allaah wishes to guide:

“Go both of you to Pharaoh, indeed he has transgressed beyond all bounds, and speak mildly with him that he might accept admonition and fear and be obedient to his Lord.”[4]

So they carried out the order of their Lord and called him to Allaah, hoping for him to be guided and purified, so that he should be one of those who fear Allaah and fear and beware of the evil consequences of shirk and oppression. But he did not respond to this wise and composed call. So Moosaa manifested the great signs and clear proofs of his Prophethood and the truthfulness of his Messengership. But the despotic tyrant Pharaoh merely increased in his transgression and rejection of the truth:

“But Pharaoh denied the signs which Moosaa came with and disobeyed his order for him to fear and obey his Lord. Then he turned away from what he ordered him (i.e., obedience to his Lord) and instead worked evil and corruption, and he gathered his people and his followers and said, ‘I am your lord, the most high.’ So Allaah seized him with punishment for his latter and his earlier saying.”[5] 

The Escalation of the Tyranny of the Pharaoh and how Moosaa and his People Faced it with Patient Perseverance and Forbearance

“The chiefs of Pharaoh’s people said, ‘Will you leave Moosaa and his people to cause mischief in the land when they have abandoned worship of you and worship of your gods?’ He said, ‘We will kill their sons and let their women live, and will have full power over them.’”[6]

So what was the sin of Moosaa and his people in the view of these criminals? No crime except that they called to the tawheed of Allaah and to remain firm upon it, and to disbelieve in Pharaoh and his idols. Then what was the response of Moosaa with respect to these disgraceful and outrageous transgressions which exceeded all bounds in its barbarity and ferocity?!

His response was to remain firm upon correct belief, and to have patience and forbearance, and to seek the aid of Allaah in facing these calamities. Then he awaited the good outcome, and victory as a consequence and a good fruit of this remaining firm and this patient perseverance.

“Moosaa said to his people, ‘Seeks Allaah’s help and be patient, the earth is Allaah’s, He gives it as a heritage to whom He pleases from His servants. The final outcome is in favour of those who fear Allaah by avoiding disobedience of Him and doing what He orders.’”[7]

Then when no hope that the Pharaoh and his people would believe remained, and the suffering which the Children of Israa’eel were subjected to increased in severity, the sole request which Moosaa made to the Pharaoh was that he should allow the Children of Israa’eel the freedom to leave the land of Egypt and emigrate to wherever Allaah willed that they should go, in order to save them from the torment inflicted upon them.

“So go to the Pharaoh, saying, ‘We are the Messengers sent by your Lord, to order you to free the Children of Israa’eel. So release them and cease tormenting them. Indeed we bring you a clear sign from your Lord, and peace and safety from Allaah’s punishment are for those who follow the guidance.’”[8]

It was a sublime call to the tawheed of Allaah containing light and wisdom. It was also accompanied by an eager desire for the guidance of those who were being called, and that they should be purified. It also contained a clear example of the utmost patience and forbearance in enduring great harm, and in facing tyranny and haughty oppression. It also shows the way to face the most difficult situations with wisdom and forbearance, whilst having the strongest hope in Allaah, that He will assist and grant victory to the Believers and destroy the unbelieving oppressors. Including clear lessons for those who make their call purely seeking the Face of Allaah and desire to rectify mankind and to turn to their Lord, and for them to be guided to His Straight Path.

Footnotes :

[1] Soorah al-Qasas (28):4.

[2] Soorah Taa Haa (20):9-15.

[3] Soorah an-Naazi’aat (79):17-19.

[4] Soorah Taa Haa (20):43-44.

[5] Soorah an-Naazi’aat (79):21-25.

[6] Soorah al-A’raaf (7):127.

[7] Soorah al-A’raaf (7):128.

[8] Soorah Taa Haa (20):47.

[Excerpted from the book : “The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah – that is the way of wisdom and intelligence” – by Shaykh Rabee hafidhahullaah, translated by Dawud Burbank rahimahullah]

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