Biography of Imaam Muwaffaqud-Deen `Abdullaah ibn Ahmad ibn Qudaamah – Dawud Burbank

1. HIS LINEAGE: He was Aboo Muhammad, `Abdullaah ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Qudaamah ibn Miqdaam ibn Nasr ibn `Abdillaah ibn Hudhayfah ibn Muhammad ibn Ya`qoob ibn al-Qaasim ibn Ibraaheem ibn Ismaa`eel ibn Yahyaa ibn Muhammad ibn Saalim ibn `Abdillaah ibn `Umar ibn al-Khattaab-radiyallaahu `anhumaa.

al-Qurashee; al-Maqdisee; al-Jammaa`eelee; then ad-Dimashqee; as-Saalihee; al-Hanbalee.

al-Qurashee: He was from the tribe of Quraysh, since he was descended from `Umar-radiyallaahu `anhu – who was `Adawee (i.e. from the sub-tribe of Banoo `Adiyy who were part of Quraysh).

al-Maqdisee: His family’s ascription to ‘Baytul-Maqdis’ (Jerusalem) since they lived close to it.

al-Jammaa`eelee: In ascription to the village of Jammaa`eel where he was born; and it is a village on the hills of Nablus – a city about 40 miles north of Jerusalem in present day occupied Palestine.

ad-Dimashqee: In ascription to Damascus (in Syria) which is where his family migrated to, and where he lived for most of his life, and where he died.

as-Saalihee: In ascription to the mosque of as-Saalihiyyah.

His brother Shaykh Aboo `Umar said: “They ascribe us to ‘as-Saalihiyyah’ because we settled at the mosque of Aboo Saalih, not that we were righteous people (saalihoon).” [And this is from piety since they were indeed a family of righteousness and rectification].

al-Hanbalee: In ascription to the Hanbalee madhhab, i.e. that he learned and was an expert in the madhhab, i.e. that he learned and was an expert in the principles and details of Fiqh followed by the students of Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal. [and he was not a blind follower].

2. HIS BIRTH: He was born in the month of Sha`baan in the year 541H in the town of Jammaa`eel.

3. HIS FAMILY: He was from a family who were noble in their lineage, their knowledge, and their piety.

His father: Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Qudaamah was born in 491H and died in 558H. [He had his son at the age of 50]. He was one of the righteous scholars; famous for knowledge, zuhd and worship. He was the Khateeb of the mosque of Jammaa`eel. He educated his children and taught them the Qur’aan, and the hadeeth, and correct manners.

He died when Imaam Muwaffaqud-Deen was about 17 years old, so his elder son Muhammad ibn Ahmad – who was known as Aboo `Umar – continued his upbringing and education.

4. HIS EARLY YEARS, AND HIS SEEKING KNOWLEDGE, AND HIS TRAVELLING TO SEEK KNOWLEDGE:

For the first ten years of his life he remained with his family in Palestine, and he began memorization of the Qur’aan.

Then in 551H, when he was 10 years old, his father performed Hijrah (migration) with the family, fleeing from the invading Christians, and migrated to Damascus.

In Damascus he completed memorization of the Qur’aan, and he memorized a large number of ahaadeeth. Then he memorized ‘Mukhtasar al-Khiraqee’-on the Fiqh of Imaam Ahmad. (Then later in life he wrote an explanation of it in 9 volumes, called al-Mughnee).

He remained in Damascus for 10 years, and at the age of twenty he undertook his first journey in search of knowledge.

-In 561H: he travelled to the main city of knowledge and of the scholars at that time- Baghdaad. He was accompanied by his maternal cousin al-Haafidh `Abdul-Ghanee al- Maqdisee;

He inclined towards the study of Fiqh and his cousin towards hadeeth, however they accompanied each other to the lectures and acquired both;

There he studied with many of the scholars, amongst them: Shaykh `Abdul-Qaadir al-Jeelaanee (D. 561H), Ibnul-Battee, and Ibnul-Manniyy.

He remained in Baghdaad for four years. He studied ‘Mukhtasar al-Khiraqee’ under `Abdul-Qaadir al-Jeelaanee, and then the Shaykh died 50 nights after his arrival; then they studied under Ibnul-Jawzee; then he remained with Ibnul-Manniyy, and learned the Fiqh of the Hanbalee madhhab with him, and its principles, and the different sayings of the scholars- and he excelled in that.

He then returned to Damascus.

– In 567H he again travelled to Baghdaad where he remained for a year seeking knowledge.

– In 573H he travelled to Makkah to perform Hajj, and he met the people of knowledge there; amongst them al-Mubaarak ibn at-Tabbaakh.

Then after performing Hajj in 574: –

– Then from Makkah he travelled to Baghdaad – where he again remained for a year seeking knowledge.

– Then from Baghdaad he returned to Damascus where he started to write works on many branches of knowledge, the most famous of his works being ‘al-Mughnee.’

5. HIS SHAYKHS

-His Shaykhs included:

1. His father Ahmad bin Qudaamah al-Maqdisee (491-558H),
2. His elder brother Aboo `Umar Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisee (528-607H),
3. Shaykh `Abdul-Qaadir al-Jeelaanee (471-561H),
4. Ibnul-Jawzee,
5. Abul-Fath Nasr ibn Fityaan ibn Matr Ibnul-Mannee (501-583),
6. Abul-Fath Ibnul-Battee (477-564H),
7. Fakhrun-Nisaa. Shuhdah, the daughter of the Muhaddith Aboo Nasr Ahmad ibn al-Faraj AdDeenawaree – (>480-574H),
8. Shaykh Badr ibn `Abdillaah al-Badr (hafidahullaah) in his introduction to his checking of Ibn Qudaamah’s book ‘Ithbaat Sifaat-`Uluww’ gathers a list of his Shaykhs numbering 67, and then said: “and many others besides them.”

6. HIS STUDENTS: Amongst them:

1. al-Bahaa.ul-Maqdisee (d. 624H) who wrote ‘al-`Uddah Sharh al-`Umdah.’
2. Diyaa.ud-Deen al-Maqdisee (d. 643H)
3. The son of his brother: Shamsuddeen ibn Qudaamah (d. 682H)
4. al-Haafidh al-Mundhiree (d. 656H) – who wrote many works, including; ‘al-Mukhtasar Saheeh Muslim,’ ‘Mukhtasar Sunan Abee Daawood,’ ‘at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb’…Shaykh Badrul-Badr gathers the names of 44 of his students and then says: “And many others.”

7. HIS PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISTICS:

His student ad-Diyaa. al-Maqdisee said: “He was of full height, white, with a bright face, large distinct eyes; he was so handsome that it was as if his face was radiating light; he had a broad forehead and a long beard; a straight nose and his eyebrows joined. He had a small head, slender arms and legs; and a thin body; and full senses and faculties. He was extremely intelligent; and behaved in a fine manner…”

Ibnul-Najjaar said: “al-Muwaffaq was the Imaam of the Hanbalees in the main congregational mosque of Damascus. He was fully reliable, an evidence (in narrating), noble. He had plentiful virtues; and he kept away from anything not befitting; he was pious, a worshipper.He was upon the way of the Salaf. Light and dignity could be seen upon him. A man would take benefit from seeing him even before hearing his speech.”

Ibn Katheer said: “He used to engage in optional prayers between the two night prayers (i.e. Maghrib and `Ishaa.) close to his place of prayer. Then when he had prayed the `Ishaa. prayer he would return to his house of the street of ad-Duwalla`ee by the bank of the river. He would take back with him those he could from the poor and needy, and they would eat with him, and his primary house was upon Qaasiyyoon…”

ad-Diyaa. said: “He was fine in his manners: he would hardly ever be seen except that he was smiling. He would relate incidents and joke. I heard al-Bahaa. say; When the people read with him he would joke with us, and be cheerful and at ease. Once they complained to him about some children who studied with him, so he said; “They are children. They have to have some play, and you used to be just like them.”

And al-Bahaa. described him as being courageous, and said: “He used to go forward to the enemy, and he was wounded upon his hand; and he used to take part when the army and the enemy were firing at each other.”

ad-Diyaa. said: “He used to pray with ‘Khushoo`’ (humility and attentiveness). He would hardly ever pray the Sunnah prayer before Fajr and after `Ishaa. except in his house; and between the two night prayers he used to pray four rak`ahs, reciting: ‘as-Sajdah,’ ‘Yaaseen,’ ‘ad-Dukhaan,’ and ‘Tabaarak.’ He would hardly miss out on them. He used to stand in prayer in the last hours of the night reciting 1/7th of the Qur’aan. He would sometimes raise his voice and he had a beautiful voice.”

8. SCHOLARS’ PRAISE OF HIM:

The very scholar of hadeeth, Aboo `Amr ibn as-Salaah said: “I have not seen the like of al-Muwaffaq.”

Aboo Bakr ibn Ghaneemah – the muftee of Baghdaad – said: “I do not know anyone in our time who has reached the level of ijtihaad except for al-Muwaffaq.”

Sibt ibn al-Jawzee said: “He was an Imaam in many fields. After his brother Aboo `Umar and al-`Imaad, there was no one in his time who had greater ‘zuhd’ or piety than him. He had a great deal of ‘hayaa.’ (sense of shame), and he remained aloof from this world and its people.

He was easy and mild-mannered, humble, and he had love for the poor. He was fine in manners, generous and giving, whoever saw him then it was as if he had seen one of the Companions; and it was as if light came from his face. He was plentiful in worship.”

Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah said: “After al-Awzaa`ee no one entered Shaam having more Fiqh knowledge and understanding of the religion than al-Muwaffaq.”

ad-Diyaa. al-Maqdisee said: “He was an Imaam with regard to the Qur’aan and its explanation; an Imaam in the knowledge of hadeeth and its problematic matters; an Imaam in Fiqh – indeed the outstanding scholar of his time in that; an Imaam of knowledge of the disagreements of scholars; the outstanding scholar of his time in Laws of Inheritance; an Imaam in Usoolul-Fiqh; an Imaam in Arabic Grammar; an Imaam in mathematics; an Imaam in the movements and positions of stars and planets.

Ibn Rajab al-Hanbalee said: “The Faqeeh, the Zaahid, the Imaam. Shaykhul-Islaam. The singular exception scholar.”

al-Haafidh ibn Katheer said: “Shaykhul-Islaam. An Imaam. An outstanding scholar. There was not in his time, indeed even for a long time before him, anyone having greater knowledge of Fiqh than him.”

Ibn Rajab said: “He used to closely follow the texts in the matter of al-Usool (fundamentals and belief) and in other than it. He did not hold applying any acts of worship for which there was no narration. He used to order affirmation of the texts, and leaving them as they are – with regard to what occurs in the Book and the Sunnah from ‘as-Sifaat’ (Allaah’s Attributes): Not altering them, not declaring how they are, not distorting the meaning; not interpreting them away with ‘ta’weel,’ and not negating them.”

9. HIS DEATH:

He died (rahimahullaah) on Saturday, the day of `Eidul-Fitr, in 620H, at the age of 79 in his home in Damascus. His funeral which had a huge attendance was held the next day and he was buried on the hill of Qaasiyyoon.

10. HIS WIFE, SLAVE-GIRLS AND CHILDREN:

He married his paternal cousin Maryam bint Abee Bakr ibn `Abdillaah ibn Sa`d al-Maqdisee. They had a number of children: (al-Majd) `Eesaa, Muhammad, Yahyaa, Safiyyah, and Faatimah. Then he took a slave girl, and then another. Then he married `Izziyyah- who died before him. All his sons died in his lifetime, and none of them had offspring except for `Eesaa- who had two righteous sons, however both of them died without any offspring. So the Shaykh had no remaining progeny.

11. HIS WORKS:

Dr. `Alee ibn Sa`eed al-Ghaamidee lists his work and they come to 38 in number.

Amongst his printed works are:

  • al-Mughnee in Fiqh, (9 volumes);
  • Rawdatun-Naadhir in Usoolul-Fiqh (2 volumes);
  • Kitaabut-Tawwaabeen (1 volume);
  • Dhammut-Ta’weel (booklet);
  • Ithbaat Sifaatil-`Uluww
    (1 volume with checking of Shaykh Badrul-Badr (hafidahullaah)).
  • Lum`atul-I`tiqaad
    (Printed along with the explanation of Shaykh Saalih ibn `Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) and translated and printed with the title: Sufficiency in Creed). And (printed with the explanation of Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan (hafidahullaah): [01]

[01] Sources:

1. Ikhtiyaaraat ibn Qudaamah al-Fiqhiyyah of Dr. `Alee ibn Sa`eed al-Ghaamidee;
2. The biography of the author included in Shaykh al-Fawzaan’s explanation of Lum`atul-I`tiqaad;
3. The biography complied by Shaykh Badrul-Badr in his checking of Ithbaat Sifatil-`Uluww.

References:

1. Siyaar A`laamin-Nubalaa. (22/165-173) of Dhahabee;
2. al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah (13/99-101) of Ibn Katheer;
3. Shadharaatudh-Dhahab (5/88-92) of Ibnul-`Imaad;
4. Dhayl Tabaqaatil-Hanaabilah (2/133-149) of Ibn Rajab;
5. al-Mughnee verifiers introduction (1/6-37).

Download the original PDF Here.

Compiled and Translated by Abu Talha Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Related Links

[Book Study] Lum’at-ul-I’tiqaad (Sufficiency in Creed) – Imaam Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisee

Text under study

Lum’atul I’tiqaad al-haadee ilaa sabeel irrashaad by Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisee, a short text about ‘aqeedah (creed and belief).

In this book, Imaam Ibn Qudaamah presents the Creed of the Salaf as is the custom of the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah in every century — to preserve the authentic Creed by way of writing it down in books and spreading it So this Creed became well known amongst the scholars and studied in the gatherings of knowledge. In fact the treatise continues to be studied and reviewed by students of knowledge throughout the world.


Introduction by Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan

The Defenders of the Creed and Belief

All praise is for Allaah, the Lord of the whole of creation. May Allaah extol and grant peace and security to our Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam), the Seal and final one of the Prophets, and upon his true followers, and his companions and the tabi`een upon good until the Day of Recompensing. To proceed:

Allaah, the One Free of all imperfections, has established for the creed and belief of the Muslims, trustworthy guardians from the scholars who are firmly founded in knowledge. So, when the enemies made attacks trying to corrupt the creed and belief of the Muslims, bringing misgivings and raising doubts from the disbelievers, the atheists, the hypocrites, and the companions of the deviant sects, those who deviated away from the methodology of the pious predecessors with regard to the Jahmiyyah, the Mu`tazilah, the Shee`ah, the Baatiniyyah and others; the Baatiniyyah, the Qadariyyah, the Khawaarij, the Murji`ah, the Soofiyyah, and the grave worshippers. Those scholars who are firmly founded in knowledge, who educate and train the people, stood to clarify the correct `aqeedah which is founded upon the Book and the Sunnah and that is what the salaf-us-saalih (pious predecessors) were upon from these affairs.

They stood to repel the doubts and deviations which those contentious enemies put forth. So through them, Allaah threw back their plots into their necks, and their arrows rebounded into their own chests and the correct `aqeedah remained fully protected and clear in its signposts by means of what those imaams have written from books and treatises, some of them abridged and some large in size, which the Muslims studied generation after generation. From those Imaams who were rabbaniyyoon (scholars upon wisdom and taught their students in a wise manner) was Shaykhul-Islaam Muwaffaqud-Deen Aboo Muhammad, `Abdullaah ibn Qudaamah al-Hanbalee, with what he wrote in his book: Lum`atul-I`tiqaad al-Haadee ilaa Sabeel ar-Rashaad.

I taught this book and those lessons were recorded on cassette tapes. One of the brothers, may Allaah bless him, transcribed those tapes and arranged them, then he showed the result to me, so I amended and corrected that and refined it. [So] from that came this book which I put forward for their reader despite its deficiency. However, it is a small effort, just as it has been said: “Giving something extra to your requirements is not generosity until you give generously when you only possess a small amount.”

I ask Allaah to cause it (with what it contains) to be a benefit and that He forgives me wherever I have fallen short or made a mistake.

May Allaah extol and send peace and security upon our Prophet Muhammad, his true followers and companions.

Written by:
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan bin `Abdillaah al-Fawzaan 6/9/1424H


Q. What is the meaning of the word al lum’ah?

It is taken from the word al-lam’aan, which means something which radiates light and shines. So this book is al-lum’ah in that it is something that shines – in contrast to adhdhulmah (darkness).

Q. Why is this book entitled lum’ah?

This name lum’ah is appropriate for this book on account of the distinction between it on one hand and the books of darkness on the other – those books which cause the people to have doubts in their creed and belief.

Q. What is al-i’tiqaad and how is it different from al-eemaan?

This is the verbal noun which is derived from the verb i’taqada and has the meaning of al yaqeen ul jaazim (absolute certainty) which is held as belief in the heart.

It carries the same meaning as al eemaan – there is no difference in meaning between the two terms.

For this reason, Jibreel ‘alaiyhissalaam said to the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaiyhi wa sallam ‘Tell me about al eemaan’.

And the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaiyhi wa sallam replied:

Al eemaan is that you truly believe in Allaah, and His angels, and His books, and His messengers, and the Day of Judgement, and you truly believe in al-qadr (the Divine Predecree), both the good of it and the evil of it.

And these are the fundamentals of al i’tiqaad and are called the pillars of al eemaan.

Q. What is ar-rashaad and why is it part of this book’s title?

Ar-Rashaad (correct guidance) is the opposite of al-ghayy (error) and ad-dalaal (misguidance).

So this i’tiqaad (that which is contained in this book) guides to the correct path which leads on to Allaah subhaanahu wa ta’aala – in contrast to the the creeds and beliefs of the people of misguidance which lead to destruction and straying.


Resources

Sufficiency in Creed (Lum’at-ul-‘Itiqaad) – Imaam Ibn Qudaamah
This is a translation of the classic treatise Lum’at-ul-‘Itiqaad (Sufficiency in Creed) of the great Imaam, Abu Muhammad Muwaffaq-ud-Deen Ibn Qudaamah AI-Maqdisee, may Allaah have mercy on him.

Lumatul Ittiqaad – Arabic Audio Text

Explanation of Lum’at-ul-I’tiqaad (Sufficiency in Creed) – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawood Burbank [Audio-En].Explanation by Sh Fawzaan hafizahullaah Translated by Abu Talhah rahimahullaah

Lumatul Ittiqaad – Questions & Answers– Checked by Dawood Burbank [PDF]
These are LUMATUL ITTIQAAD Questions and Answers designed to accompany these audio recordings. Written by Nasser ibn Najam, checked by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank rahimahullaah, they contain 200 pages of detailed questions, as well as footnotes containing additional quotes from the scholars.

[Book Reco] The Explanation of the Sufficiency in Creed (Lum’at-ul-‘Itiqaad) : Shaikh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen
In this book, we present the classical treatise on Creed of Imaam Ibn Qudaamah Al-Maqdisee, rahimahullaah, known as Lum’at-ul-‘Itiqaad, which is studied all over the Muslim world. Imaam Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen, rahimahullaah, has provided an in depth explanation for the points touched on by the author in a clear and simple manner. Furthermore, the narrations mentioned in the book have been verified and lengthy and extensive footnotes have been provided to make this book a valuable source of reference.

Faith In Everything That The Messenger Informed Of – Imaam Ibn Qudaamah Al-Maqdisee

We are obligated to have Faith in everything that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) informed us about and in what has been authentically attributed to him through reports, whether we witnessed it or it was hidden from us. We know that it is a reality and the truth. This is the same with regard to whether we comprehend it or we do not comprehend it.

We do not go beyond the outer actuality (i.e. literalness) of its meaning, such as the hadeeth concerning the Israa and the Mi’raaj.[20] It occurred while the Prophet was awake and not in a dream, for indeed the Quraish denied it and considered it something incredible. And they did not used to deny dreams.

Another example of that, is when the angel of death approached Moosaa in order to take his soul. He (Moosaa) struck him and gouged his eye, so he returned to his Lord who gave him his eye back.

Another example of that: are the signs of the Hour, such as the emergence of the Dajjaal, the descent of ‘Eesaa bin Maryam, who will then kill him, the coming out of Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj, the emergence of the Beast, the rising of the sun from the west, and all that is related to this from what has been authentically reported. [21]

The punishment and pleasure of the grave are true. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would seek refuge from it (the punishment) and he commanded that it be done in every prayer.

The trial of the grave is true. The questioning of Munkar and Nakeer is true. The resurrection after death is true, and that will occur when Israafeel blows on the trumpet.

“And behold from the graves they will come out quickly to their Lord.” [Surah YaaSeen (36): 51]

Mankind will be gathered on the Day of Judgement, barefoot, naked, uncircumcised, and having nothing with them (i.e. possessions). They will stop at the final place of standing, until our Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) intercedes for them and

Allaah, Blessed and Exalted, reckons with them (i.e. judges them). The Balances will be set up, the records will be distributed and the pages containing the deeds of each individual will be dispersed into the right hands and the left hands.

“Then as for him who will be given his record in his right hand, he surely, will receive an easy reckoning. And will return back to his family in joy! But whoever is given his record behind his back (or in his left hand), he will invoke (for his) destruction. And he shall enter a blazing Fire and made to taste it’s burning flames.” [Surah Al-Inshiqaaq (84): 7-12]

The Balance (Al-Meezaan) has two scales and a tongue, with which it will weigh the deeds.

“Then those whose Balances (of good deeds) are heavy, they are the successful. And those whose Balances (of good deeds) are light, they are those who lose their own selves, in Hell will they abide.” [Surah Al-Mu’minoon (23): 102103]

Our Prophet Muhammad (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) will have the Fountain (AlHawd) on the Day of Judgement. Its water is whiter than milk and sweeter than honey. Its drinking vessels are as numerous as the stars in the sky. Whosoever drinks a serving from it, will never thirst again after that.

The Bridge is true. The righteous ones will cross it and the evil ones will fall from it.

Our Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) will intercede for the members of his ummah who have entered the Hellfire due to their major sins. Thus they will be extracted from it due to his (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) interceding (for them), but only after having been set ablaze and burned to ashes and charcoal. Then they will enter Paradise due to his intercession.

There will also be interceding done by the rest of the prophets, believers and angels. Allaah says:

“And they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. And they stand in awe for fear of Him.” [Surah Al-Anbiyaa (21): 28]

The intercession of the interceders will be of no avail to the disbelievers. Paradise and the Hellfire are two creations that will not cease to exist. Paradise is the abode of the close friends of Allaah, while the Hellfire is the place of punishment for His enemies. The inhabitants of Paradise will abide therein (i.e. Paradise) forever.

“Verily, the sinful evildoers will be in the torment of Hell to abide therein forever. (Their torment) will not be lightened for them, and they will be plunged into destruction with deep regrets and sorrows.” [Surah Az-Zukhruf (43): 74-75]

Death will be brought in the form of a sturdy ram and slaughtered between Paradise and Hellfire. Then it will be said: “O inhabitants of Paradise! Eternity for you and no (more) death! And O inhabitants of Hellfire! Eternity for you and no (more) death!” [22]

Footnotes :

[22] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree: Book of Commentary of Surah Maryam (no. 4730)
[20] See the hadeeth of Al-Bukhaaree (no. 3207) and Muslim (no. 164) from the report of Anas bin Maalik on the authority of Maalik bin Sa’sah.
[21] Refer to An-Nihaayah of Ibn Katheer (rahimahullaah) and Al-Idhaa’ah of Sideeq Hasan Khaan (rahimahullaah) for this.

Posted from : Sufficiency in Creed (Lum’at-ul-‘Itiqaad) –  Imaam Ibn Qudaamah Al-Maqdisee
http://salaf-us-saalih.com//2014/10/01/sufficiency-in-creed-lumat-ul-itiqaad-imaam-ibn-qudaamah/

Book Study : http://salaf-us-saalih.com/category/book-study/lumatul-ittiqaad/

O you human being, who stands in need and who was created for a tremendous matter ! – Imam Ibn Qudaamah Al-Maqdisee

So O you human being, who stands in need and who was created for a tremendous matter, you for whom the Hellfire and the Gardens of Bliss were created, if you devote your attention to the musical instruments with your ears; and you look at what Allaah forbade with your eyes; and you eat doubtful matters with your mouth, allowing them to enter your stomach; and you are pleased with yourself dancing and swaying; and you waste all of your precious time engaged in these despicable acts; and you throw away your life, which has no value, in trying to attain these condemnable things; and you busy your body, which was created for worship, with that which Allaah forbade for His servants; and you sit in the gathering of the people of falsehood; and you perform the acts of the sinners and the ignorant.

You will come to know, when the cover has been lifted, and the Command (of Allaah) comes to pass, what will befall you from regret on the Day when you see the positions of those who have preceded (you) and the reward of those who did good deeds. While you will be with those who were left behind, the squanderers, and you will be counted as being in the company of the people of falsehood, the neglectful. You have stopped proceeding, the pains have befallen you, and your regrets have become tremendous. For on that Day, the one who cries will not be shown mercy, nor will the one who complains be listened to. Nor will the one who regrets be comforted. Nor will anyone be saved from the Torment of Allaah except for he who is granted mercy.

May Allaah awaken you and us from the sleep of heedlessness, and may He enable you and us to perform what He created us for (i.e. worship), by His mercy.

Posted from eBook – Condemning the Practices of those who claim Sufism – Imaam Ibn Qudaamah Al-Maqdisee (al-ibaanah publishing)

Sufficiency in Creed (Lum’at-ul-‘Itiqaad) – Imaam Ibn Qudaamah

AUTHOR: Imaam Ibn Qudaamah Al-Maqdisee [died 620H]
TRANSLATED: Al-Ibaanah Book Publishing
PRODUCED BY: Al-Ibaanah.com

About the Book:

This is a translation of the classic treatise Lum’at-ul-‘Itiqaad (Sufficiency in Creed) of the great Imaam, Abu Muhammad Muwaffaq-ud-Deen Ibn Qudaamah AI-Maqdisee, may Allaah have mercy on him.

In this book, Imaam Ibn Qudaamah presents the Creed of the Salaf as is the custom of the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah in every century — to preserve the authentic Creed by way of writing it down in books and spreading it So this Creed became well known amongst the scholars and studied in the gatherings of knowledge. In fact the treatise continues to be studied and reviewed by students of knowledge throughout the world.

This book was explained in recent times by Imaam Muhammad bin Saalih Al-Uthaimeen and assigned for study by the Board of Educational Institutes in Saudi Arabia. All footnotes and hadeeth verifications were extracted in abridged form from Ashraf bin Abdil-Maqsood’s checking of Imaam Ibn Al-Uthaimeen’s explanation of ‘Sufficiency in Creed’

We ask Allaah to make this treatise a benefit for the students of knowledge to study and acquire understanding of their Religion.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction
2. The Speech of Allaah
3. The Qur’aan is the Speech of Allaah
4. The Believers will see their Lord on the Day of Judgement
5. The Divine Decree and Ordainment of Allaah
6. Eemaan (Faith) is Speech and Action
7. Faith in Everything that the Messenger informed of
8. Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets

INTRODUCTION

All praise is due to Allaah, the One praised in every tongue (i.e. language), the One worshipped in every era. There is not a place that is free of His Knowledge nor does one affair preoccupy Him over another. He is far beyond any equals and rivals, as well as being free of any wife or children. His Decree is carried out in all of His servants. No intellect can derive an example of Him with its pondering, nor can any heart attempt to depict Him.

“There is nothing whatsoever like Him (in comparison). And He is the AllHearer, the All-Seer.” [Surah Ash-Shoora (42): 11]

To Him belong the best of Names and the most honorable of Attributes.

“The Most Gracious (Allaah) rose over the Throne (in a manner that suits His majesty). To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, and all that is between them, and all that is under the soil. And if you speak aloud, then verily, He knows the secret and that which is yet more hidden. Allaah! None has the right to be worshipped except Him. To Him belong the best of Names.” [Surah TaHa (20): 5-8]

His knowledge encompasses everything. He subjugates all creatures by His Honor and Rule. And His knowledge and mercy engulf everything.

“He (Allaah) knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them (in the Hereafter) but they will never encompass anything of His knowledge.” [Surah TaHa (20): 110]

He is described by what He has attributed to Himself in His Magnificent Book and upon the tongue of His honorable Prophet.

We are obligated to believe in and to welcome with submission and acceptance everything that is mentioned in the Qur’aan or that is authentically reported on the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) concerning Allaah’s Attributes. And we must abandon opposing it (which is done) by radd (rejection), ta’weel (distortive misinterpretation), tashbeeh (comparison) and tamtheel (representation). As for what appears unclear from that, then we are obligated to affirm its wording and not oppose it’s (literal) meaning. We are to return the precise knowledge of it to the One who stated it and we entrust it upon the one who transmitted it, following the example of the ones who are deeply endowed with knowledge, those whom Allaah has praised in His manifest Book, saying:

“And those who are firmly grounded with knowledge say: ‘We believe in it (the Qur’aan); the whole of it (clear and unclear verses) is from our Lord.’” [Surah Aali ‘Imraan (3): 7]

And He says, dispraising the one who seeks the ta’weel (hidden meaning) of the unclear verses of His revelation.

“As for those in whose hearts there is deviation, they follow that which is not entirely clear thereof, seeking fitnah (mischief) and seeking for its ta’weel (hidden meanings), but no one knows its hidden meanings except Allaah.” [Surah Aali ‘Imraan (3): 7]

Thus Allah has placed the aspect of seeking after the hidden meanings (ta’weel) as a sign of deviation. And He has placed it at the same level of seeking after mischief, in the dispraise of it. Then He placed a barrier between them and that which they aspire and He cuts off their ambitions from what they seek after, by saying:

“But no one knows its hidden meanings except Allaah.” [Surah Aali ‘Imraan (3): 7]

Concerning the hadeeths: “Verily, Allaah descends to the lowest heaven” and “Verily, Allaah will be seen on the Day of Judgement” and what is similar to these ahaadeeth, Imaam Abu ‘Abdillaah Ahmad bin Hanbal (rahimahullaah) said:

“We believe in them and we attest to their verity, without saying how and without ascribing a (fixed) meaning for them. Nor do we reject any part from them. We know that whatever the Messenger came with is the truth. We do not reject what Allaah’s Messenger came with, nor do we describe Allaah with more than He has described Himself, without limits.

Allaah says: ‘There is nothing whatsoever like Him (in comparison). And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.’ We say as He has said. We describe Him with what He has described Himself and we do not transgress that. The description of those who (attempt to) describe Him, cannot grasp Him. We believe in the Qur’aan, all of it, its clear verses as well as its unclear verses. We do not reject any of His Attributes due to a discomfort (that we may perceive towards it). We do not transgress the Qur’aan and the Hadeeth. And we have no knowledge of how to understand them, except through the affirmations of the Messenger and the confirmation of the Qur’aan.” Imaam Abu ‘Abdillaah Muhammad bin Idrees Ash-Shaafi’ee, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: “I believe in Allaah and in what has been reported concerning Allaah, upon what was intended by Allaah. And I believe in the Messenger of Allaah and in what has been reported concerning the Messenger of Allaah, upon what was intended by the Messenger of Allaah.”

This is the way that the scholars of the past and present have followed, may Allaah be pleased with them. They all unanimously agreed on acknowledging, accepting, and affirming what has been mentioned in the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) concerning the Attributes, without turning towards the use of ta’weel.

We have been commanded to follow their way (the Prophet and his Companions) and to be guided by their example. And we have been warned of the newly invented matters and we have been informed that they are from among the things that lead astray. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Stick to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly-guided Khaleefahs (who will come) after me. Bite onto it (i.e. the Sunnah) with your molar teeth and beware of newly invented matters.

For indeed, every newly invented matter is an innovation and every innovation is a misguidance.” [1]

‘Abdullaah bin Mas’ood (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) said: “Follow (the Sunnah) and do not innovate! For you have been sufficed.” [2]

‘Umar bin ‘Abd-il-‘Azeez (rahimahullaah) said something with the meaning:

“Stop where the people have stopped! For, indeed, they stopped upon receiving knowledge. The clear evidences would suffice them and they were the strongest at manifesting it. If there were any addition (to the Religion), they would be most likely to have done it (first). So if you say: it was introduced after them, then no one introduces into it except for he who opposes their guidance and desires other than their example. They have described from it what was enough and they have spoken concerning it what has sufficed. What is above them is excessiveness. And what is below them is inadequacy. Some people have fallen short of them and so they have drawn away. And others have transgressed them and so they became extreme. But indeed, they were between these two, upon a straight guidance.”

Abu ‘Amr Al-Awzaa’ee (rahimahullaah) said: “Stick to the narrations of those who came before you (man salafa), even if the people reject you. And beware of the opinions of men, even if they beautify them for you with their speech.”

Muhammad bin ‘Abd-ir-Rahmaan Al-Adarmee (rahimahullaah) said to a man who was speaking of an innovation and calling the people towards it:

“Did the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthmaan and ‘Alee have knowledge of it or did they not have knowledge of it?” He said: “They did not have knowledge of it.” He said: “So something which they had no knowledge of, you know!?!” The man said: “Then I say that they did have knowledge of it!” He said: “Was it sufficient for them that they not speak about it nor call the people towards it, or was it not sufficient for them?” The man said: “Of course it was sufficient for them.” He said: “So something which was sufficient for the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and his Khaleefahs is not sufficient for you!?!” So the man refrained (from his call) and the Khaleefah, who was present there, said: “May Allaah not suffice the one who is not satisfied by what they found sufficient.”

Similarly, whoever does not feel content with what was sufficient for the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), his Companions, those who followed them in righteousness, the Imaams that came after them and those deeply endowed with knowledge, regarding reciting the verses on (Allaah’s) Attributes, reading the reports about them and leaving them the way they came (i.e. were reported), then may Allaah not suffice him.

Among what has been revealed in the verses concerning Allaah’s Attributes, is:

“And the Face of your Lord, full of Majesty and Honor, will remain forever.” [Surah Ar-Rahmaan (55): 27]

And His saying: “Nay, both His Hands are widely outstretched.” [Surah AlMaa’idah (5): 64]

His statement in which He informs us that ‘Eesaa bin Maryam said:

“You know what is in my inner-self, though I do not know what is in Your Self.” [Surah Al-Maa’idah (5): 116]

His statement: “And your Lord comes…” [Surah Al-Fajr (89): 22]

His saying:

“Do they then wait for anything other than that Allaah should come to them.” [Surah Al-Baqarah (2): 210]

His statement:

“Allaah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him.” [Surah Al-Maa’idah (5): 119]

His saying:

“Allaah will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him.” [Surah AlMaa’idah (5): 54]

His statement concerning the disbelievers:

“And the Anger of Allaah is upon them.” [Surah Al-Fath (48): 6]

His statement:

“That is because they followed that which discontented Allaah…” [Surah Muhammad (47): 28]

And His saying:

“But Allaah disliked their being sent forth.” [Surah At-Tawbah (9): 46]

From the Sunnah is the statement of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam):

“Our Lord, may He be Blessed and Exalted, descends to the lowest heaven every night.” [3]

His (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) statement:

“Your Lord is amazed by the youth who does not possess childish manners.” [4]

And his (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saying:

“Allaah laughs at two men – one of whom kills the other, then they both enter Paradise.” [5]

We believe in this and what is similar to it, from that which has an authentic chain and reliable reporters. We do not reject it nor do we negate it. Nor do we change its meaning with something that contradicts what is literally apparent from it. We do not compare it to the attributes of the creation nor by (using) the naming schemes of the innovators. And we know that Allaah, Glorified and Exalted, has no equal or comparison.

“There is nothing whatsoever like Him (in comparison). And He is the AllHearer, the All-Seer.” [Surah Ash-Shoora (42): 11]

Everything that is imagined by the intellect or pondered in one’s thoughts, then Allaah is contrary to that. Another example is His saying:

So Allaah revealed:

“But they give preference to others over themselves, even though they had a need for it.” [Surah Al-Hashr (59): 9]

“The Most Merciful rose over the Throne.” [Surah TaHa (20): 5]

And His statement:

“Do you feel secure that He, who is above the heavens…” [Surah Al-Mulk (67): 16]

And the statement of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam):

“Our Lord, Allaah, who is above the heavens! Sanctified be your Name.” [6]

And his (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saying to the slave girl: “Where is Allaah?” She said: “Above the heavens.” So he said: “Free her, for indeed, she is a believer.” Maalik bin Anas, Muslim and other scholars have reported this hadeeth.

The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said to Husayn (bin ‘Imraan): “How many gods do you worship?” He said: “Seven. Six in the earth and one above the heavens.” He (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said “Who is it that you hope in and fear (most)?” He said: “The One that is above the heavens.” He said: “Then abandon the six and worship the One who is above the heavens, and I will teach you two supplications.” So he accepted Islaam and the Prophet taught him to say: “O Allaah, Grant me guidance and save me from the evil of my self.” [7]

What was reported in the previously revealed books, concerning the signs of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and his Companions, is that: “They prostrate on earth while claiming that their god is above the heavens.”

Abu Dawood reported in his Sunan that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Indeed what is between one level of heaven and (another) level of heaven is a distance of such and such…” He continued until he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) mentioned: “And above that is the Throne. And Allaah, the One free of all defects, is above that.” [8]

This and what is similar to it is from what the Salaf, may Allaah have mercy on them, have unanimously agreed on reporting and accepting. And we do not incline towards rejecting it (radd), nor toward distorting its meaning (ta’weel), nor towards making comparisons to it (tashbeeh), nor towards likening it (tamtheel).

Imaam Maalik bin Anas (rahimahullaah) was questioned once, and it was said to him: “O Abu ‘Abdillaah! (Allaah says): ‘The Most Merciful rose over the Throne.’ How does He rise?” So he (rahimahullaah) responded: “The Rising (Al-Istiwaa) is not something unkown. How (it is done) is incomprehensible. Believing in it is an obligation. And asking concerning it is an innovation.” Then he put someone in charge of the man and he was thrown out. [9]

THE SPEECH OF ALLAAH

From the Attributes of Allaah is that He speaks with a speech that is pre-existent. He causes whomsoever He wills to hear it. Moosaa heard it from Him without there being any intermediary. Jibreel heard it, as well as whomever He permits from His angels and messengers. He, the One free from all defects, will speak to the believers in the Hereafter and they will speak to Him. He will grant them permission and they will visit Him. Allaah says:

“And to Moosaa, Allaah spoke directly.” [Surah An-Nisaa (4): 164]

And Allaah says:

“He (Allaah) said: ‘O Moosaa, I have chosen you above men by My messages, and by My speaking (to you).’” [Surah Al-A’araaf (7): 144] And He says: “Those messengers! We preferred some of them over others; to some of them Allaah spoke (directly).” [Surah Al-Baqarah (2): 253]

And He says:

“It is not for any human being that Allaah should speak to him unless (it be) by Revelation, or from behind a veil.” [Surah Ash-Shuraa (42): 51]

And He says:

“And when he came to it (the fire), he was called by name: ‘O Moosaa! Verily, I am your Lord!’” [Surah TaHa (20): 11-12]

And Allaah says:

“Verily, I am Allaah! None has the right to be worshipped but I, so worship Me, and establish the prayer for My Remembrance.” [Surah TaHa (20): 14]

It is not permissible for anyone to say this (last ayah) except Allaah.

‘Abdullaah bin Mas’ood (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) said: “When Allaah speaks through revelation, the inhabitants of the heavens hear His Voice.” He reported this on the Prophet. [10]

‘Abdullaah bin Anees (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) reported that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Allaah will gather the creatures on the Day of Judgement, naked, barefoot, uncircumcised and not having anything with them. He will then call them with a voice that those who are far as well as those who are near will be able to hear: ‘I am Al-Malik (the King). I am Ad-Dayyaan (the Recompenser).’” [11]

In some narrations, it mentions that: One night Moosaa saw the Fire and it overthrew him so he became frightened from it. Then his Lord called to him: “O Moosaa!” So he responded quickly, being familiar with the voice: “Here I am to serve you! Here I am! I hear Your voice but I do not see Your place (i.e. where you are). Where are You?” He said: “I am above you and in front of you and on your right and on your left.” So he realized that this attribute did not befit anyone except Allaah. He (Moosaa) then said: “You are just as You say, my Lord. Do I hear Your speech or the speech of one of Your messengers (angels)?” He said: “No, rather My speech, O Moosaa.”

THE QUR’AAN IS THE SPEECH OF ALLAAH

From the Speech of Allaah, is the Glorious Qur’aan. It is the plain Book of Allaah and His firm rope. It is His straight path and the revelation of the Lord of the universe. The most honorable spirit (Jibreel) brought it to the heart of the best of messengers, in a clear Arabic language. It was revealed and not created. From Him it began and to Him it will return.

It consists of precise chapters, clear verses, and letters and words. Whoever recites it and does so properly (with ‘Iraab), he will have ten good deeds for every letter he recites. It has a beginning and an end, and it consists of sections and parts. It is that which is recited by the tongues, memorized in the hearts, listened to by the ears, and recorded in the scriptures (masaahif).

In it are verses that are clear and ambiguous, that which abrogates and those that are abrogated, those that are specific and those that are general, and those that contain obligations and prohibitions.

“Falsehood cannot approach it from before it or behind it. (It is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise (Allaah).” [Surah Fussilat (41): 42]

“Say: If mankind and jinn were to gather together to produce the likes of this Qur’aan, they would not produce the likes thereof, even if they helped one another.” [Surah Al-Israa (17): 88]

This is the Arabic Book of which the disbelievers said concerning it: “We will never believe in this Qur’aan.” [Surah Saba (34): 31]

And some of them said:

“This is nothing but the words of a human being!” [Surah Al-Mudaththir (74): 25]

So Allaah said:

“I will cast him into the Hellfire.” [Surah Al-Mudaththir (74): 26]

Some of them said that it was poetry, so Allaah said:

“And We have not taught him (i.e. Muhammad) poetry nor is it suitable for him. This is only a reminder and a plain Qur’aan.” [Surah YaaSeen (36): 69] Thus, when Allaah denies that it is poetry and confirms that it is a Qur’aan, there should not remain any doubt for the one possessing intellect, that the Qur’aan is that Arabic Book which is composed of words, letters and verses. This is because if it were not so, then they (disbelievers) would not have claimed that it was poetry.

Allaah, the Mighty and Sublime, says:

“And if you (disbelievers) are in doubt concerning what We have sent down (i.e. the Qur’aan) to Our slave (Muhammad), then produce a chapter the like thereof and call your witnesses besides Allaah.” [Surah Al-Baqarah (2): 23] It is not right for Him to challenge them with producing something that they neither know nor understand (i.e. it is words and letters, which they know).

Allaah says:

“And when Our clear verses are recited unto them, those who hope not to meet Us, say: ‘Bring us a Qur’aan other than this, or change it.’ Say (O Muhammad) ‘It is not for me to change it on my own accord. I only follow that which is revealed unto me.’” [Surah Yoonus (10): 15]

This confirms that the Qur’aan is (made of) verses, which are recited unto them (i.e. the disbelievers).

Allaah says:

“Nay, but they are clear verses that are preserved in the hearts of those who have been given knowledge.” [Surah Al-‘Ankaboot (29): 49]

And He says after having sworn upon it:

“This is indeed an honorable Qur’aan. In a Book well guarded (i.e. Al-Lawh-ulMahfoodh), which none can touch, except the purified (i.e. the angels).” [Surah
Al-Waaqi’ah (56): 77-79]

And Allaah says:

“Kaaf-Ha-Ya-‘Ayn-Saad” [Surah Maryam (19): 1]

“Ha-Meem. ‘Ayn-Seen-Qaaf” [Surat-ush-Shooraa (42): 1]

He commences twenty-nine chapters of the Qur’aan with individually separated letters. The Prophet (sallAallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Whoever recites the Qur’aan and recites it properly, there will be ten good deeds for him, for every letter from it. And whoever recites the Qur’aan and recites it improperly, there will be one good deed for him for every letter.” [12]

And he (sallAallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Read the Qur’aan before there comes to you a people who will throw forth its words as fast as an arrow (shoots out), yet it will not pass their throats. They will hasten its reward and not delay it.” [13]

Abu Bakr and ‘Umar (radyAllaahu ‘anhumaa) said: “To make ‘Iraab of the Qur’aan (recite it properly with all its rules) is more beloved to us than to memorize some of its letters.” [14]

‘Alee (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) said: “Whoever disbelieves in one letter from it, then he has disbelieved in all of it.” [15]

The Muslims (i.e. scholars) have unanimously agreed on the number of chapters (suwar), verses, words and letters of the Qur’aan. There is no disagreement amongst the Muslims (i.e. scholars) concerning the disbelief of one who denies a chapter (surah), verse (ayah), word, or letter from the Qur’aan, which has been agreed on. There is a clear decisive proof in this that it is (made of) letters.

THE BELIEVERS WILL SEE THEIR LORD ON THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT

The believers will see their Lord in the Hereafter with their own eyes and they will visit Him. He will speak to them and they will speak to Him. Allaah says: “(Some) Faces on that Day will be shiny and radiant. Looking at their Lord (Allaah).” [Surah Al-Qiyaamah (75): 22-23]

And He says: “Nay! Surely, they (evildoers) will be veiled from seeing their Lord that Day.” [Surah Al-Mutaffifeen (83): 15]

If Allaah is screened from these people (disbelievers) during a state in which they are in discontentment this indicates that the believers will see Him while being in (the opposite) a state of pleasure. If this were not so, there would be no distinction between the two.

The Prophet (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) said: “Indeed, you will see your Lord, just as you see this moon. There is no difficulty in your seeing it.” This is an authentic hadeeth that has been agreed upon. [16]

This statement is a comparison between one manner of seeing with another manner of seeing. It is not a comparison between what is being seen and something else that is being seen, for indeed, Allaah has neither comparisons nor equals.

THE DIVINE DECREE AND ORDAINMENT OF ALLAAH

From the Attributes of Allaah, is that He does whatsoever He wants. Nothing comes to pass, except by His desire (Iraadah) and nothing escapes His Will (Mashee’ah). There is nothing in this world that escapes from His Preordainment (Taqdeer) and nothing comes to pass except with His Administration (Tadbeer). There is no one that can go around the Preordainment (Qadar) that has been recorded for him. Nor can one transgress the limits of what has been decreed for him in the Written Tablet (Al-Lawhul-Mahfoodh). He wills all that the creation does. Had He made them infallible, they would not disobey Him, and had He willed that they all obey Him, they would surely obey Him. He created the creation and their actions, and He preordained their provision and lifespans. He guides whom He wills by His wisdom. Allaah says:

“He cannot be questioned as to what He does, while they will be questioned.” [Surah Al-Anbiyaa (21): 23]

Allaah says:
“Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainment).” [Surah Al-Qamar (54): 49]

And He says:
“He has created everything, and so He has assigned its Preordainment.” [Surah Al-Furqaan (25): 2]

And He says:

“No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves, except that it is (written) in a Book (Al-Lawh-ul-Mahfoodh) before We bring it into existence.” [Surah Al-Hadeed (57): 22]

And He says:

“And whoever Allaah wills to guide, he opens his breast (i.e. heart) to Islaam. And whoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast (i.e. heart) closed and constricted.” [Surah Al-Ana’aam (6): 125]

Ibn ‘Umar reported that Jibreel asked the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) what Eemaan was, so he responded: “To believe in Allaah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day and Al-Qadar, the good of it and the bad of it.” So Jibreel told him: “You have spoken truthfully.” Reported by Muslim [17]

And the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “I believe in Al-Qadar, the good of it and the bad of it, the sweet of it and the bitter of it.” [18]

One of the supplications that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) taught AlHasan bin ‘Alee and which he himself used to supplicate with during the Qunoot of
Witr, was: “And save me from the bad of what You have ordained.” [19]

We do not use the Qadaa and the Qadar of Allaah as an excuse for us to abandon following His commandments and avoiding His prohibitions. Rather, we are obligated to believe in and know that with Allaah lies the proof (eliminating all excuses) by His revealing of the Books and His sending of the Messengers. Allaah says:

“In order that mankind shall have no excuse (i.e. proof) against Allaah after the (coming of) Messengers.” [Surah An-Nisaa (4): 165]

We know that Allaah, High and Exalted, did not command or forbid except that which can be acted upon or abandoned. He did not force anyone to commit acts of disobedience nor did He compel anyone to abandon obeying Him. Allaah, the Most High, says:

“Allaah has not given any soul a responsibility, except that He has given it the ability (to carry out that responsibility).” [Surat-ul-Baqarah (2): 286]

And Allaah says:
“So fear Allaah as much as you are able to.” [Surah At-Taghaabun (64): 16]

And Allaah says:
“This Day every person will be recompensed for what he earned. There will be no injustice (upon anybody in their judgement) on that Day.” [Surah Ghaafir (40): 17]

This indicates that every servant possesses actions and things he earns – he will be recompensed for his good deeds with reward and for his bad deeds with punishment. This will occur by the Divine Execution (Al-Qadaa) and Decree (Al-Qadar) of Allaah.

EEMAAN IS SPEECH AND ACTION

Eemaan (Faith) is a statement of the tongue, an action of the limbs and a belief of the heart. It increases with obedience and decreases with disobedience. Allaah says:

“And they were commanded not, except that they should worship Allaah alone, making the Religion sincere to Him, and establish the prayer, and give the Zakaah. And that is the right religion.” [Surah Al-Bayyinah (98): 5]

So He has placed the worship of Allaah, the sincerity of the heart, the establishment of prayer and the giving of Zakaah, all as being from the Religion (i.e. Eemaan). The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Eemaan consists of more than seventy branches. The highest of them is to testify that La ilaaha illa Allaah (None has the right to be worshipped except Allaah). And the lowest of them is removing a harmful object from the road.”

So he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) placed speech and action as part of Eemaan (Faith). Allaah says:

“As for those who believe, it has increased their Eemaan.” [Surah At-Tawbah (9): 124]

And He says:
“In order that they may grow more in Eemaan (Faith), along with their (present) Eemaan.” [Surah Al-Fath (48): 4]

The Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Whoever says: ‘Laa Illaaha Illaa Allaah’ and he has in his heart Eemaan, the weight of a wheat grain, or a mustard’s seed or an atom, he will be extracted from the Hellfire.” Therefore he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) has placed Eemaan at different levels.

FAITH IN EVERYTHING THAT THE MESSENGER INFORMED OF

We are obligated to have Faith in everything that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) informed us about and in what has been authentically attributed to him through reports, whether we witnessed it or it was hidden from us. We know that it is a reality and the truth. This is the same with regard to whether we comprehend it or we do not comprehend it. We do not go beyond the outer actuality (i.e. literalness) of its meaning, such as the hadeeth concerning the Israa and the Mi’raaj.[20] It occurred while the Prophet was awake and not in a dream, for indeed the Quraish denied it and considered it something incredible. And they did not used to deny dreams.

Another example of that, is when the angel of death approached Moosaa in order to take his soul. He (Moosaa) struck him and gouged his eye, so he returned to his Lord who gave him his eye back.

Another example of that: are the signs of the Hour, such as the emergence of the Dajjaal, the descent of ‘Eesaa bin Maryam, who will then kill him, the coming out of Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj, the emergence of the Beast, the rising of the sun from the west, and all that is related to this from what has been authentically reported. [21]

The punishment and pleasure of the grave are true. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would seek refuge from it (the punishment) and he commanded that it be done in every prayer.

The trial of the grave is true. The questioning of Munkar and Nakeer is true. The resurrection after death is true, and that will occur when Israafeel blows on the trumpet.

“And behold from the graves they will come out quickly to their Lord.” [Surah YaaSeen (36): 51]

Mankind will be gathered on the Day of Judgement, barefoot, naked, uncircumcised, and having nothing with them (i.e. possessions). They will stop at the final place of standing, until our Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) intercedes for them and Allaah, Blessed and Exalted, reckons with them (i.e. judges them). The Balances will be set up, the records will be distributed and the pages containing the deeds of each individual will be dispersed into the right hands and the left hands.

“Then as for him who will be given his record in his right hand, he surely, will receive an easy reckoning. And will return back to his family in joy! But whoever is given his record behind his back (or in his left hand), he will invoke (for his) destruction. And he shall enter a blazing Fire and made to taste it’s burning flames.” [Surah Al-Inshiqaaq (84): 7-12]

The Balance (Al-Meezaan) has two scales and a tongue, with which it will weigh the deeds.

“Then those whose Balances (of good deeds) are heavy, they are the successful. And those whose Balances (of good deeds) are light, they are those who lose their own selves, in Hell will they abide.” [Surah Al-Mu’minoon (23): 102- 103]

Our Prophet Muhammad (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) will have the Fountain (AlHawd) on the Day of Judgement. Its water is whiter than milk and sweeter than honey. Its drinking vessels are as numerous as the stars in the sky. Whosoever drinks a serving from it, will never thirst again after that.

The Bridge is true. The righteous ones will cross it and the evil ones will fall from it. Our Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) will intercede for the members of his ummah who have entered the Hellfire due to their major sins. Thus they will be

extracted from it due to his (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) interceding (for them), but only after having been set ablaze and burned to ashes and charcoal. Then they will enter Paradise due to his intercession.

There will also be interceding done by the rest of the prophets, believers and angels. Allaah says:
“And they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. And they stand in awe for fear of Him.” [Surah Al-Anbiyaa (21): 28]

The intercession of the interceders will be of no avail to the disbelievers. Paradise and the Hellfire are two creations that will not cease to exist. Paradise is the abode of the close friends of Allaah, while the Hellfire is the place of punishment for His enemies. The inhabitants of Paradise will abide therein (i.e. Paradise) forever. “Verily, the sinful evildoers will be in the torment of Hell to abide therein forever. (Their torment) will not be lightened for them, and they will be plunged into destruction with deep regrets and sorrows.” [Surah Az-Zukhruf (43): 74-75]

Death will be brought in the form of a sturdy ram and slaughtered between Paradise and Hellfire. Then it will be said: “O inhabitants of Paradise! Eternity for you and no (more) death! And O inhabitants of Hellfire! Eternity for you and no (more) death!” [22]

MUHAMMAD, THE SEAL OF THE PROPHETS

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), the seal of the Prophets and the leader of those sent by Allaah. The Eemaan (Faith) of a servant is not valid until he believes in his message and bears witness to his prophethood. Mankind will not be judged on the Day of Judgement except with his (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) intercession. And no nation will enter Paradise, until his nation has entered it first.

He is the possessor of the banner of praise, the most praiseworthy station (almaqaam-ul-mahmood) and the flowing Fountain (Al-Hawd). He is the leader (Imaam) of the prophets, their spokesman and the one who holds their intercession. His (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) nation is the best of nations and his Companions are the best of those who accompanied prophets, may the peace of Allaah be upon them. The best of the Prophet’s ummah was Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq, then ‘Umar Al-Faarooq, then ‘Uthmaan Dhun-Noorain, and then ‘Alee Al-Murtadaa. May Allaah be pleased with all of them. This is due to what has been reported on ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Umar that he said: “We used to say, while the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was alive: ‘The best of this nation, after its Prophet, is Abu Bakr, then ‘Umar, then ‘Uthmaan, then ‘Alee.’ This would reach the Prophet and he would not oppose it.” [23]

It is authentically reported on ‘Alee that he said: “The best of this nation after its Prophet is Abu Bakr, then ‘Umar. And if I wanted to, I would have named the third.” [24]

Abu Ad-Dardaa reported that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The sun does not rise nor does it set upon anyone better, after the prophets and the messengers, than Abu Bakr.” [25]

He (Abu Bakr) was the most deserving of the Khilaafah from all of the creation, after the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), due to his merits, his precedence, and also due to the Prophet’s preference of him to lead the prayer over all of his Companions, may Allaah be pleased with them. It is also due to the unity in agreement of the Companions upon his precedence and giving the oath of allegiance to him. And Allaah would not have united them in agreement upon something erroneous.

Then after him was ‘Umar, due to his merits and Abu Bakr’s empowering it to him. Then ‘Uthmaan due to the preference of him by the members of the governing council. Then ‘Alee due to his merits and the unanimous agreement of the people of his time on it.

These are the rightly guided Khaleefahs. They are the ones about whom the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Stick to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly-guided Khaleefahs (who will come) after me. Bite onto it (the Sunnah) with your molar teeth.”

The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The Khilaafah after me will endure for thirty years.” [26] The last part of it occurred with the Khilaafah of ‘Alee, may Allaah be pleased with him.

We bear witness that the ten (individuals) will be in Paradise, just as the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) bore witness to it, when he said: “Abu Bakr is in Paradise. ‘Umar is in Paradise. ‘Uthmaan is in Paradise. ‘Alee is in Paradise. Talha is in Paradise. Az-Zubair is in Paradise. Sa’ad is in Paradise. Sa’eed is in Paradise. ‘Abd-ur-Rahmaan bin ‘Awf is in Paradise. Abu ‘Ubaydah Ibn AlJarraah is in Paradise.” As for everyone else whom the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) has testified will be in Paradise, then we bear witness to that (as well). This is reflected in his statement: “Al-Hasan and Al-Husayn are the (two) leaders of the youth in Paradise.”[27] And his statement to Thaabit bin Qays: “Indeed, he (Thaabit) is from the inhabitants of Paradise.” [28]

We do not ascertain for anyone from the people of the Qiblah (i.e. Muslims) that he will be in Paradise or the Hellfire, except for he whom the Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) has ascertained it for. However, we wish well for the good-doer and we fear for the evildoer.

We do not declare anyone from the people of our Qiblah (Muslims) a disbeliever due to a sin nor do we cast him out of the fold of Islaam based on a deed. We hold that Hajj and Jihaad are everlasting along with the obedience to every leader, whether he is righteous or evil. In addition, praying behind them (in congregation) is permissible.

Anas (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) reported that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Three things are from the essence of Eemaan: Refraining from (harming) anyone who says: ‘Laa Ilaaha Illaa Allaah’. We do not declare him a disbeliever due to a sin (he may have committed) nor do we cast him out of Islaam due to an action. The Jihaad is everlasting from the time that Allaah sent me to the time when the last part of my ummah fights the Dajjaal. Neither the oppression of a tyrant nor the justice of a righteous leader nullifies it. And (the third is) the belief in Al-Qadar (Divine Preordainment).” Abu Dawood reported it. [29]

From the Sunnah is: Loyalty to the Sahaabah, love for them, mentioning their good qualities, and asking Allaah to grant them mercy and to forgive them. And (also) refraining from mentioning their bad qualities and what they differed in, believing in their virtues and acknowledging their superiority. Allaah says:

“And those who came after them say: ‘Our Lord! Forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in Faith. And put not in our hearts any hatred against those who have believed.’” [Surah Al-Hashr (59): 10]

And Allaah says:

“Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. And those who are with him are severe against the disbelievers, while being merciful among themselves.” [Surah Al-Fath (48): 29]

The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Do not revile my Companions, for indeed if one of you were to give in charity, the equivalent of mount Uhud in gold, it would not reach a mudd (handful) of one of them, nor even half of it.” [30]

From the Sunnah is: Being content with the wives of Allaah’s Messenger, the Mothers of the Believers, and the pure ones free from every type of evil. The best of them were Khadeejah Bint Khuwailid and ‘Aa’isha Bint As-Siddeeq, whom Allaah absolved from guilt in His Book. She is the wife of the Prophet in this world and the next. Whosoever discards her from what Allaah has absolved her from, has disbelieved in Allaah, the Most Great.

Mu’awiyah is the (maternal) Uncle of the Believers and one of those who wrote down the revelation of Allaah. He was one of the Khaleefahs of the Muslims, may Allaah be pleased with him.

From the Sunnah is: Hearing and obeying the Muslim leaders and the Khaleefahs (Ameer-ul-Mu’mineen), the righteous from among them as well as the evil. This is so long as they do not command us with disobedience to Allaah, for indeed, there is no obedience to anyone if it involves disobedience to Allaah.

It is obligatory to obey: Whoever is given the Khilaafah while the people agree and are pleased with him, as well as (to obey) the one who fought against the people till he became the Khaleefah and was proclaimed “Ameer-ul-Mu’mineen.” Opposing him, revolting against him and sowing the seeds of dissension amongst the Muslims against him is forbidden.

And from the Sunnah is: Making Hijrah from (i.e. Boycotting) the People of Innovations and separating oneself from them, abandoning arguing and disputing in the Religion, not looking into the books of the innovators and giving attention to their speech. And every newly invented matter in the Religion is an innovation.

Anyone who attributes himself with something other than Islaam and the Sunnah is an innovator, such as the Raafidah, the Jahmiyyah, the Khawaarij, the Qadariyyah, the Murji’ah, the Mu’atazilah, the Karaamiyyah, the Kilaabiyyah and those similar to them. These are sects of misguidance and groups of innovation. May Allaah grant us refuge from them.

In respect to an Imaam, concerning the (differing in the) subsidiary issues of the Religion, such as the four madhaahib (schools of thought), then it is not blameworthy. For indeed, differing in the subsidiary issues of the Religion is a mercy and those who differ in it are praiseworthy in their differing, and will be rewarded for their Ijtihaad. Their differing is a vast mercy and their agreement is a conclusive evidence. We ask Allaah that He protect us from innovations and fitnah and that He cause us to live upon Islaam and the Sunnah. And (we ask) that He make us from among those who follow the Messenger of Allaah when alive, and that He resurrect us in his company after death, by His Mercy and His Grace, Ameen.

This is the last of the Creed – all praise is due to Allaah, alone. And may Allaah send His peace and blessings upon our leader Muhammad, his family and his Companions.

Footnotes:

[1] An authentic hadeeth transmitted by Ahmad in his Musnad (4/126-127), Abu Dawood in his Sunan: Book of Adhering to the Sunnah (no. 4607) and At-Tirmidhee in his Sunan: Book of Knowledge (no. 2676). Ibn Maajah reported it in the introduction to his Sunan (no. 42 & 43) as did Ad-Daarimee in his Sunan (1/44) and Ibn Hibbaan (no. 102 of Al-Mawaarid). Al-Haakim (1/97), Ibn Abee ‘Aasim in As-Sunnah (pg. 17, no. 20,29 & 30), AlBayhaqee in Dalaa’il-un-Nubuwah (6/541) and Ibn ‘Abd-il-Barr in Jaami’ Bayaan-il-‘Ilm wa Fadlihi (1/222) also reported it. Al-Albaanee authenticated it in Saheeh Al-Jaami’-us-Sagheer (2/346) as well as his takhreej (checking) of As-Sunnah by Ibn Abee ‘Aasim (pg. 29-30).

[2] An authentic narration reported on Ibn Mas’ood by Ad-Daarimee (no. 211), At-Tabaraanee in Al-Kabeer (no. 8870), Al-Bayhaqee in Al-Madkhal (no. 204), and Ibn Wadaah in Al-Bid’a wan-Nahee ‘anhaa (pg. 10), Abu Khaithama in Al-‘Ilm (no. 54) and others.

[3] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree: Book of Tahajjud (no. 1145) and Saheeh Muslim: Book of the Traveler’s Prayer (no. 758) from the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah.

[4] A weak hadeeth reported by Ahmad (4/151), Ibn Abee ‘Aasim in As-Sunnah (571), Abu Ya’laa (1479), AtTabaraanee in Al-Kabeer (17/309), Al-Qadaa’ee in Musnad ash-Shihaab (576), Tamaam Ar-Raazee in his Fawaa’id (1287) and Al-Bayhaqee in Al-Asmaa was-Sifaat (pg. 600). Al-Albaanee declared it weak in AdDa’eefah (no. 2426). Allaah’s Attribute of Amazement is still affirmed by the hadeeth reported in Saheeh AlBukhaaree (no. 4889) from Abu Hurairah about the guest. The Prophet said: “Allaah was indeed amazed at – or He laughed at – this man and this woman (who did a good deed by providing food for the Prophet’s guest).”

[5] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree: Book of Jihaad (no. 2826) and Saheeh Muslim: Book of Leadership (no. 1890) from the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah.

[6]Abu Dawood reported this hadeeth and in its chain is Ziyaadah bin Muhammad. Al-Bukhaaree said that his hadeeth are rejected (munkar).

[7] A weak narration reported by Ibn Qudaamah in Al-‘Uluww (19). And from that path of narration, it was mentioned by Adh-Dhahabee in his Al-‘Uluww Lil-‘Alee-il-Ghafaar (23, 24).

[8] A weak hadeeth reported by Ahmad (1/206-207), Abu Dawood (4723), At-Tirmidhee (3320), Ibn Maajah (193) and many others. Al-Albaanee graded it da’eef in his checking of As-Sunnah by Ibn Abee ‘Aasim (no. 577) as did Al-Arna’oot in his notes to Al-‘Aqeedat-ut-Tahaawiyyah (2/365).

[9] An authentic narration reported by Ibn Qudaamah in Al-‘Uluww (104), Adh-Dhahabee in Al-‘Uluww (pg. 141- 142), Abu Nu’aim in Al-Hilyah (6/325-326), ‘Uthmaan bin Sa’eed ad-Daarimee in Ar-Radd ‘alal-Jahmiyyah (55), Al-Laalikaa’ee in Sharh Usool ‘Itiqaad Ahl-is-Sunnah (664), Abu ‘Uthmaan in ‘Aqeedat-us-Salaf (24-26) and others.

[10] An authentic hadeeth reported on Ibn Mas’ood in mawqoof form (as his saying), as well as in marfoo’ form (as a saying of the Prophet) in Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, At-Tawheed of Ibn Khuzaimah and Sunan Abee Dawood.

[11] A good (hasan) hadeeth reported by Al-Bukhaaree in his Saheeh (1/173), (13/453) and in his book Al-Adab-ulMufrad (970). The hadeeth was also reported by Ahmad in his Musnad (3/495), Al-Bayhaqee in Al-Asmaa wasSifaat (pg. 78-79), Ibn Abee ‘Aasim in As-Sunnah (pg. 514) and Al-Haakim in Al-Mustadrak (2/437/574-575) who authenticated it, and Adh-Dhahabee agreed. Al-Albaanee said in his checking to As-Sunnah (514): “It is an authentic hadeeth.”

[12] A very weak hadeeth reported by At-Tabaraanee in Al-Awsat as is stated in Majma’-uz-Zawaa’id (7/163) on the authority of Ibn Mas’ood who said: “The Messenger of Allaah said: ‘Recite the Qur’aan pronouncing it properly (with ‘Iraab), for indeed whoever recites the Qur’aan and pronounces it properly will have ten good deeds. And ten evil deeds of his will be expiated and he will be raised ten levels.’” Al-Haythamee said of it: “In its chain is Nuhshal and he is rejected (matrook).” Nuhshal is Ibn Sa’eed bin Wardaan Al-Wardaanee. Ishaaq Ibn Raahawaih declared him a liar.

[13] An authentic hadeeth reported by Ahmad (5/338), Abu Dawood (831) and Ibn Hibbaan (1876 of Al-Mawaarid). Its chain of narration is saheeh as has been stated by Al-Albaanee in As-Saheehah (259). Ibn Qudaamah also mentioned the hadeeth in Al-Burhaan (pg. 35-36) from the report of Sahl bin Sa’ad.

[14] This is an extremely weak narration reported by Ibn Al-Anbaaree in Al-Waqf wal-Ibtidaa (1/20) with the wording: “Some ‘Iraab (pronouncing properly) of the Qur’aan is more pleasing to us than memorizing some of its letters.” Its chain is da’eef jiddan (very weak) for there is weakness and a break in its chain, according to Badr AlBadr’s notes to Lumu’at-ul-‘Itiqaad (19).

[15] Reported by Ibn Abee Shaybah (10/513-514) and Ibn Jareer (At-Tabaree) in his Tafseer (56).

[16] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree: Book of the Times of Prayer (no. 573) and Saheeh Muslim: Book of Masjids and Places of Prayer (no. 633) from the hadeeth of Jareer bin ‘Abdillaah.

[17] Saheeh Muslim: Book of Faith (no. 1) and it is also found in the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah in Saheeh AlBukhaaree (no. 50) and Muslim (no. 5)

[18] The chain of this hadeeth is weak. It is reported by Al-Haakim in Ma’arifatu ‘Uloom-il-Hadeeth (31-32) and from that path of narration, by Al-‘Iraaqee in his Sharh of Al-Ulfiyyah (pg. 327), from the path of Yazeed ArRaqaashee on the authority of Anas bin Maalik.

[19] An authentic hadeeth reported by Ahmad (1723), Abu Dawood (1425-1426), At-Tirmidhee (464), An-Nassaa’ee (3/248) and Ibn Maajah (1178) and its chain is saheeh. Ahmad Shaakir (rahimahullaah) authenticated it in his notes to Sunan At-Tirmidhee.

[20] See the hadeeth of Al-Bukhaaree (no. 3207) and Muslim (no. 164) from the report of Anas bin Maalik on the authority of Maalik bin Sa’sah.

[21] Refer to An-Nihaayah of Ibn Katheer (rahimahullaah) and Al-Idhaa’ah of Sideeq Hasan Khaan (rahimahullaah) for this.

[22] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree: Book of Commentary of Surah Maryam (no. 4730)

[23] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree: Book of the Virtues of the Companions (no. 3655). And in another wording found in AlBukhaaree (no. 3697), it states: “During the lifetime of the Prophet, we used to not put anyone equal to Abu Bakr, then (the same was with) ‘Umar, then (the same was with) ‘Uthmaan. Then we left the (remaining) Companions of the Prophet alone, not distinguishing between any of them.”

[24] An authentic narration reported by Ahmad in his Musnad (1/106 & 110) and his son ‘Abdullaah in his Zawaa’id (1/10620110 & 127). Ibn Abee ‘Aasim also reported it in the book As-Sunnah (1201) and Al-Albaanee authenticated it in his checking of As-Sunnah (2/570)

[25] A hadeeth with a weak chain of narration reported by Ahmad in Fadaa’il-us-Sahaabah (135), Ibn Abee ‘Aasim in As-Sunnah (1224) and Abu Nu’aim (3/325) from the hadeeth of Abu Ad-Dardaa. Refer to the comments on this narration found in the checking of Fadaa’il-us-Sahaabah of Imaam Ahmad with the notes of Wasiyullaah bin Muhammad bin ‘Abbaas (1/152-153).

[26] An authentic hadeeth reported by Abu Dawood (4646-4647), At-Tirmidhee (2226) who declared it hasan, AnNasaa’ee in Fadaa’il-us-Sahaabah (52) and Al-Haakim (3/71 & 145) who authenticated it, and Adh-Dhahabee agreed. Refer to Al-Albaanee’s As-Saheehah (459) for a tremendous discussion on it as well as a refutation against those who claim it to be da’eef.

[27] Al-Albaanee authenticated it in As-Saheehah (796), saying: “For the most part, the hadeeth is authentic, without any doubt about it. Rather, it is mutawaatir as has been stated by Al-Manaawee.”

[28] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree: Book of Virtues (no. 3613) and Saheeh Muslim: Book of Faith (no. 119) from the hadeeth of Anas.

[29] A weak hadeeth reported by Abu Dawood (2532) and Abu ‘Ubayd Al-Qaasim bin Salaam in his book AlEemaan (pg. 47). Its chain is weak for in it is Yazeed bin Abee Nushba and he is unknown as is stated in AtTaqreeb. Al-Mundhiree graded its chain weak in his abridgement to Sunan Abu Dawood (3/380) for this reason.]

[30] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree: Book of the Virtues of the Companions (no. 3673) and Saheeh Muslim: Book of the Virtues of the Companions (no. 2541) from Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudree.

The following articles are extracted from the above book:

Faith In Everything That The Messenger Informed Of – Imaam Ibn Qudaamah Al-Maqdisee

Condemning the Practices of those who claim Sufism – Imaam Ibn Qudaamah

AUTHOR: Imaam Ibn Qudaamah Al-Maqdisee [Died 620H]
TRANSLATED: isma’eel alarcon
PRODUCED BY: Al-Ibaanah.com

About the Book:

This is a translation of a small booklet titled Dhammu maa ‘alayhi Mudda’oo at-Tasawwuf (Condemning the Practices of those who Claim Sufism) by Imaam Abu Muhammad Ibn Qudaamah Al-Maqdisee, may Allaah have mercy on him.

The booklet was published by Maktab al-Islami and is a short treatise containing a fatwa (religious verdict) from this great scholar of the seventh century on some of the practices that those who ascribed themselves to Sufism were upon in those days, and still are upon till this day.

The fatwa generally focuses on musical instruments and singing, which were practices the Sufis performed, taking it as part of the religion and using that as a means of drawing nearer to Allaah. The Shaikh has filled his response With Quranic verses, prophetic ahaadeeth and narrations from the Salaf.

[Download PDF eBook]

Articles extracted from this e-Book

Explanation of Lum’at-ul-I’tiqaad (Sufficiency in Creed) – Dawood Burbank [Audio-En]

Lum’at-ul-I’tiqaad – by Imaam Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisee rahimahullaah
Explanation by Shaykh Fawzaan hafizahullaah
Translated by Abu Talhah Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

ReadBiography of Imaam Muwaffaqud-Deen `Abdullaah ibn Ahmad ibn Qudaamah – Compiled & Translated by Dawud Burbank

66 Audio Lessons ( Complete Series)

[01] [02] [03] [04] [05] [06] [07] [08] [09] [10]
[11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]
[21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30]
[31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40]
[41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50]
[51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60]
[61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66]

Introduction by Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan

The Defenders of the Creed and Belief

All praise is for Allaah, the Lord of the whole of creation. May Allaah extol and grant peace and security to our Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam), the Seal and final one of the Prophets, and upon his true followers, and his companions and the tabi`een upon good until the Day of Recompensing. To proceed:

Allaah, the One Free of all imperfections, has established for the creed and belief of the Muslims, trustworthy guardians from the scholars who are firmly founded in knowledge. So, when the enemies made attacks trying to corrupt the creed and belief of the Muslims, bringing misgivings and raising doubts from the disbelievers, the atheists, the hypocrites, and the companions of the deviant sects, those who deviated away from the methodology of the pious predecessors with regard to the Jahmiyyah, the Mu`tazilah, the Shee`ah, the Baatiniyyah and others; the Baatiniyyah, the Qadariyyah, the Khawaarij, the Murji`ah, the Soofiyyah, and the grave worshippers. Those scholars who are firmly founded in knowledge, who educate and train the people, stood to clarify the correct `aqeedah which is founded upon the Book and the Sunnah and that is what the salaf-us-saalih (pious predecessors) were upon from these affairs.

They stood to repel the doubts and deviations which those contentious enemies put forth. So through them, Allaah threw back their plots into their necks, and their arrows rebounded into their own chests and the correct `aqeedah remained fully protected and clear in its signposts by means of what those imaams have written from books and treatises, some of them abridged and some large in size, which the Muslims studied generation after generation. From those Imaams who were rabbaniyyoon (scholars upon wisdom and taught their students in a wise manner) was Shaykhul-Islaam Muwaffaqud-Deen Aboo Muhammad, `Abdullaah ibn Qudaamah al-Hanbalee, with what he wrote in his book: Lum`atul-I`tiqaad al-Haadee ilaa Sabeel ar-Rashaad.

I taught this book and those lessons were recorded on cassette tapes. One of the brothers, may Allaah bless him, transcribed those tapes and arranged them, then he showed the result to me, so I amended and corrected that and refined it. [So] from that came this book which I put forward for their reader despite its deficiency. However, it is a small effort, just as it has been said: “Giving something extra to your requirements is not generosity until you give generously when you only possess a small amount.”

I ask Allaah to cause it (with what it contains) to be a benefit and that He forgives me wherever I have fallen short or made a mistake.

May Allaah extol and send peace and security upon our Prophet Muhammad, his true followers and companions.

Written by:
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan bin `Abdillaah al-Fawzaan 6/9/1424H

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah
Audio  Courtesy: ittibaa.com

[Book Reco] The Explanation of the Sufficiency in Creed (Lum’at-ul-‘Itiqaad) : Shaikh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen

The Explanation of the Sufficiency in Creed (Lum'at-ul-'Itiqaad) : Shaikh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-'Uthaimeen

In this book, we present the classical treatise on Creed of Imaam Ibn Qudaamah Al-Maqdisee, rahimahullaah, known as Lum’at-ul-‘Itiqaad, which is studied all over the Muslim world. Imaam Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen, rahimahullaah, has provided an in depth explanation for the points touched on by the author in a clear and simple manner. Furthermore, the narrations mentioned in the book have been verified and lengthy and extensive footnotes have been provided to make this book a valuable source of reference.

Shaikh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen said in his introduction to this book: ‘This is a brief commentary of the book ‘Lum’at-ul-‘Itiqaad”, written by Abu Muhammad ‘Abdullaah bin Ahmad Ibn Qudaamah Al-Maqdisee (rahimahullaah), who was born in Sha’baan in 541H in a village from the districts of Nablis (present-day Palestine) and who died on the day of ‘Eed-ul-Fitr in 620H.

In this book, the author (rahimahullaah) gathered together the main points of the Islaamic Creed (‘Aqeedah). For this reason, the Board of the Educational Institutes assigned this book to be studied and taught during the second semester of the first year of study, so that it may serve as a pillar upon which one can establish his Creed at this stage.

Because I saw the importance of this book in terms of the topics it touches upon, its methodology and the lack of there being any explanation for it, I became determined, while seeking assistance from Allaah and hoping that He grant me correctness in intention and action, to put forth some words on it, in the attempt to clarify its ambiguous parts, explain its meanings and bring to light its main points.’

No doubt this book is of great importance for the Muslim with regard to establishing the correct Creed. This book is deserving of being taught and studied so that it may serve as a foundation for both the students of knowledge and the common Muslims. The topics touched upon by the author relate to the authentic Creed and Methodology, which all Muslims are obligated to have knowledge of. Consequently, we encourage everyone to purchase a copy of this magnificent book.

View the Table of Contents and Introduction @ http://www.dar-us-salam.com/inside/RA20-SufficiencyinCreed.pdf

The Inner Secrets of Fasting : Imam Ibn Qudamaah Al-Maqdisee

Bismillaah

Imam Muwaffaq-ud-Deen Ibn Qudamaah Al-Maqdisee
This article is taken from the book Mukhtasar Minhaajul-Qaasideen (p. 38-41)
This article was translated by Isma’eel Ibn al-Arkaan, al-ibaanah.com


Know, that in the fast (Sawm) is a special quality that is not found in anything else. And that is its close connection to Allaah, such that He says:

‘‘The Fast (Sawm) is for Me and I will reward it.’’ [2]

This connection is enough to show the high status of fasting. Similarly, the Ka’bah is highly dignified due to its close connection to Him, as occurs in His statement:

‘‘And sanctify My House.’’ [3]

Indeed, the fast is only virtuous due to two significant concepts:

THE FIRST:
It is a secret and hidden action, thus, no one from the creation is able to see it Therefore riyaa‘ (showing off) cannot enter into it.

THE SECOND:
It is a means of subjugating the enemies of Allaah. This is because the road that the enemies (of Allaah) embark upon (in order to misguide the Son of Aadam) is that of desires. And eating and drinking strengthens the desires. There are many reports that indicate the merits of fasting, and they are well known

THE RECOMMENDED ACTS OF FASTING:

The pre-dawn meal (suhoor) and delaying in taking it are preferable, as well as hastening to break the fast and doing so with dates. Generosity in giving is also recommended during Ramadhaan, as well as doing good deeds and increasing in charity. This is in accordance with the way of the Messenger of Allaah. It is also recommended to study the Qur‘aan and perform I‘tikaaf (seclusion for worship) during Ramadhaan, especially in its last ten days, as well as increasing upon the exertion (towards doing good deeds) in it. In the two Saheehs, ’Aa‘ishah said: ‘‘When the last ten days (of Ramadhaan) would come, the Prophet would tighten his waist wrapper (izaar)’’ [4] The scholars have mentioned two views concerning the meaning of ‘tighten his wrapper (izaar)’ The first is that it means the turning away from women. The second is that it is an expression denoting his eagerness and diligence in doing good deed. They also say that the reason for: the last ten days of Ramadhaan was due to his seeking of the Night of al-Qadr (Laylatul-Qadr).

AN EXPLANATION OF THE INNER SECRETS OF FASTING AND ITS CHARACTERISITCS:

There are three levels of fasting, the general fast, the specific fast and the more specific fast. As for the general fast, then it is the refraining of ones stomach and their private parts from fulfilling their desires. The specific fast is the refraining of ones gaze, tongue, hands, feet, hearing and eyes, as well as the rest of his body parts from committing sinful acts. As for the more specific fast, then it is the heart’s abstention from its yearning after the worldly affairs and the thoughts which distance one away from Allaah, as well as its (the heart’s) abstention. From all the things that Allaah has placed on the same level. [5] From the characteristics of the specific fast is that one lowers his gaze and safeguards his tongue from the repulsive speech that is forbidden, disliked, or which has no benefit, as well as controlling the rest of his body parts. . In a hadeeth by al-Bukhaaree: ‘‘Whosoever does not abandon false speech and the acting upon it, Allaah is not in need off his food and drink.’’ [6]

Another characteristic of the specific fast is that one does not overfill himself with food during the night. Instead, he eats in due measure, for indeed, the son of Aadam does not fill a vessel more evil than his stomach. If he were to eat his fill during the first part of the night, he would not make good use of himself for the remainder of the night. In the same way, if he eats to his fill for suhoor, he does make good use of himself until the afternoon. This is because excessive eating breads laziness and lethargy therefore, the objective of fasting disappears due to one’s excessiveness in eating, for what is indeed intended by the fast, is that one savours the taste of hunger and becomes an abandoner of desires.

RECOMMENDED FASTS:

As for the recommended fasts, then know that preference for fasting is established in certain virtuous days. Some of these virtuous days happen every year, such as fasting the first six days of Shawwaal after Ramadhaan, fasting the day of ’Arafah, the day of ’Ashooraa, and the ten days of Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram. Some of them occur every month, such as the first part of the month, the middle part of it, and the last part of it. So whoever fasts the first part of it, the middle part of it and the last part of it, then he has done well. Some fasts occur every week, and they are every Monday and Thursday. The most virtuous of the recommended fasts is the fast of Daawood. He would fast one day and break his fast the next day. This achieves the following three objectives, the soul is given its share on the day the fast is broken. And on the day of fasting, it completes its share in full. The day of eating is the day of giving thanks and the day of fasting is the day of having patience. And Faith (eemaan) is divided into two halves- that of thankfulness and that of patience. [7] It is the most difficult struggle for the soul. This is because every time the soul gets accustomed to a certain condition, it transfers itself that. As for fasting every day, then it has been reported by Muslim, from the hadeeth of Aboo Qataadah that ’Umar (radiyallaahu ’anhu) asked the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam): What is the case if one were to fast everyday? So he (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘‘He did not fast nor did he break his fast or, he did not fast and he did not break his fast.’’ [8] This is concerning the one who fasts continuously, even during the days in which fasting is forbidden.

CHARACTERISITCS OF THE MORE SPECIFIC FASTS:

Know that the one who has been given intellect, knows the objective behind fasting. Therefore, he burdens himself to the extent that he will not be unable to do that which is more beneficial than it. Ibn Mas’ood would fast very little and it is reported that he used to say: ‘‘When I fast, I grow weak in my prayer. And I prefer the prayer over the (optional) fast.’’ Some of the Companions would weaken in their recitation of the Qur‘aan when fasting. Thus, they would exceed in breaking their fast (i.e.. by observing less optional fasts), until they were able to balance their recitation. Every individual is knowledgeable of his condition and of what will rectify it.

Footnotes:

[1] This article is taken from the book Mukhtasar Minhaajul-Qaasideen (p. 38-41) of the illustrious scholar and righteous Imaam, Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisee (d.529H). This article was translated by Isma’eel Ibn al-Arkaan and edited by Abu Khaliyl. There were also slight adaptions made to it, such as the exclusion of a couple of statements.

[2] Related by al-Bukhaaree (4/118) and Muslim (no. 1151).

[3] Sooratul-Hajj: 26

[4] Related by al-Bukhaaree (4/322) and Muslim (no. 1147).

[5] (Editors note: Additional comment is required here, The levels mentioned are levels of abstinence. The first of these three levels entails the abstinence which is fulfilled, the fast is considered complete in view of the one having met the legislated requirements [i.e. It does not have to be repeated or made up, the servant has indeed fasted.] The remaining levels deal with the value of the Fast. If the second is level is not met, the fast will be of less value to the servant, than if it were met and likewise for the third. Thus it is said that intentional eating and intercourse render the fast null and void, whereas committing other unlawful acts such, likes speaking falsely, placing the unlawful look to the opposite sex. And so on will constitute a sin of one degree or another, but not nullify the fast.

[6] Related by al-Bukhaaree (4/99)

[7] {Editors note: This statement is based upon an unauthentic Hadeeth, which has been reported by al-Kharaa‘itee and ad-Daylamee. One of its narrators was graded ‘‘abandoned’’ by an-Nisaa‘ee and adh-Dhahabee. Al-Manawee and al-Albaanee approved of its grading. See ad-Da’eefah (no. 625).

[8] Related by Muslim

Ramadhan Index Pagehttps://abdurrahman.org/ramadhan

 

Three Levels of Fasting – Imam Ibn Qudamaah Al-Maqdisee

There are three levels of fasting, the general fast, the specific fast and the more specific fast.

As for the general fast, then it is the refraining of ones stomach and their private parts from fulfilling their desires.

The specific fast is the refraining of ones gaze, tongue, hands, feet, hearing and eyes, as well as the rest of his body parts from committing sinful acts.

As for the more specific fast, then it is the heart’s abstention from its yearning after the worldly affairs and the thoughts which distance one away from Allaah, as well as its (the heart’s) abstention.

From all the things that Allaah has placed on the same level. [5]

From the characteristics of the specific fast is that one lowers his gaze and safeguards his tongue from the repulsive speech that is forbidden, disliked, or which has no benefit, as well as controlling the rest of his body parts. . In a hadeeth by al-Bukhaaree:

‘‘Whosoever does not abandon false speech and the acting upon it, Allaah is not in need off his food and drink.’’ [6]

Another characteristic of the specific fast is that one does not overfill himself with food during the night. Instead, he eats in due measure, for indeed, the son of Aadam does not fill a vessel more evil than his stomach. If he were to eat his fill during the first part of the night, he would not make good use of himself for the remainder of the night. In the same way, if he eats to his fill for suhoor, he does make good use of himself until the afternoon. This is because excessive eating breads laziness and lethargy therefore, the objective of fasting disappears due to one’s excessiveness in eating, for what is indeed intended by the fast, is that one savours the taste of hunger and becomes an abandoner of desires.

References:

[5] (Editors note: Additional comment is required here, The levels mentioned are levels of abstinence.

The first of these three levels entails the abstinence which is fulfilled, the fast is considered complete in view of the one having met the legislated requirements [i.e. It does not have to be repeated or made up, the servant has indeed fasted.]

The remaining levels deal with the value of the Fast. If the second is level is not met, the fast will be of less value to the servant, than if it were met and likewise for the third.

Thus it is said that intentional eating and intercourse render the fast null and void, whereas committing other unlawful acts such, likes speaking falsely, placing the unlawful look to the opposite sex and so on will constitute a sin of one degree or another, but not nullify the fast.

[6] Related by al-Bukhaaree (4/99)

Posted from : The Inner Secrets of Fasting
Imam Muwaffaq-ud-Deen Ibn Qudamaah Al-Maqdisee
Translated by Isma’eel Ibn al-Arkaan

Did you break wind or was it Shaytân pulling a hair?

Did you break wind or was it Shaytân pulling a hair?
Also, how to prevent any waswasah in regards to urine-drops

Gasses during prayer or Shaytan pulling a hair from your back?

Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (radhiya Allahu ‘anh) reported that the prophet (salla Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The devil may approach one of you during Salah, and pull a hair from your back. If the man were to imagine that his ablution had been broken, he should not leave his prayer, unless he should hear a sound or perceive a smell.” (Recorded by Abu Dawud)

(Waswasah: The whispering of the Shaitan, p. 44)

What to do in order to prevent any Waswasah in regards to urine drops after answering the call of nature?:

Shaykh Abu Muhammad bin Qudamah al-Maqdisi said:

“It is recommended to sprinkle one’s private part and trousers with water after urinating (in the toilet), in order to prevent any waswasah. And so, if one finds any wetness in his clothing, he would say: “This is the water that I sprinkled there.” al-Hakam bin Sufyan at-Thaqafi (radhiya Allahu ‘anh) reported that when the prophet (salla Allahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) urinated, he performed ablution and sprinkled water on his private parts.” (Recorded by Abu Dawud)

(Ibid, p. 44)

These two gems are great reliefs for those who are affected by the whispers of Shaytân. You will see them remaking Wudhu’ and prayers for several hours and in the end they even imagine that they have the disease of a 60 year old man, while just a month or two ago before they started to pray, they were totally healthy.

Source: aFatwadotcom (the site is down)