Wudhu (Ablution) is not nullified by mere Doubt or Imagination – Dr. Saleh As-Saleh [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Umdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification
Hadith No. 24

Narrated `Abbad bin Tamim:

My uncle asked Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) about a person who imagined to have passed wind during the prayer. Allah’ s Messenger (ﷺ) replied: “He should not leave his prayers unless he hears sound or smells something.”

Sahih al-Bukhari 137 (Book 4, Hadith 3)
Muhsin Khan Translation

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Posted fromUmdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio Series|En]

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Reciting or Touching The Mus-haf Without Wudoo – Ibn Hazm | Dawud Burbank

BismillaahRECITING OR TOUCHING THE MUS-HAF WITHOUT WUDOO
ABOO MUHAMMAD IBN HAZM –rahimahullaah– said in  ‘al-Muhallaa’ (1/77-80)
[Translated by Aboo Talhah Dawud ibn Ronald Burbank rahimahullaah]

“ISSUE (no. 116): And reciting the Qur’aan, and prostration during it, and touching the Mus-haf, and (words of) remembrance of Allaah-the Most High-are all permissible, whether upon wudoo· or without wudoo·, and for the ‘junub’ and for the menstruating woman.

The proof of that is that recitation of the Qur’aan, and prostration during it, and touching the Mus-haf, and the remembrance of Allaah-the Most High- are actions of good, and are recommended, and their doer is rewarded. So whoever claims that they are prohibited in some states, then he is required to bring proof.


As for the recitation of the Qur’aan, then the present opponents agree with us about this matter with regard to the person who is not in a state of wudoo·, however they disagree regarding the junub and the menstruating woman.

So a group said: The menstruating woman and the junub may not recite anything from the Qur’aan; and it is a saying related from `Umar ibn al-Khattaab, `Alee ibn Abee Taalib-radiyallaahu `anhumaa-and from others besides them, such as: al-Hasan al-Basree, Qataadah, an-Nakha`ee, and others.

And a group said: As for the menstruating woman, then she may recite whatever she wishes from the Qur’aan; but as for the junub, then he may recite two Aayahs or the like; and it was the saying of Maalik; and some of them said: He should not read a complete Aayah; and it was the saying of Aboo Haneefah.

So as for those who prevent the junub from recitation anything from the Qur’aan, then they use as evidence that which `Abdullaah ibn Salamah narrated from `Alee ibn Abee Taalib –radiyallaahu `anhu– “That nothing would prevent Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) from the Qur’aan, except from janaabah.” [1]

And there is no proof for them in this, since it does not contain a prohibition of the junub reciting the Qur’aan; rather it is just an action from him-`alaihis-Salaam– which does not make it something binding. Nor did he – `alaihis-Salaam-explain that he only withheld from reciting the Qur’aan on account of janaabah. So it may have been the case that he just happened to have left off reciting in that state, but not because of Janaabah. So he –`alaihis-Salaam-never fasted a whole month besides Ramaadaan; nor did he increase in its standing in Prayer upon thirteen rak`ahs; nor did he ever dine upon a small table; nor did he eat whilst reclining. So is it, therefore, forbidden to fast a whole month besides Ramaadaan, or that a person prays tahajjud with more than thirteen rak`ahs, or that he dines upon a small table, or that he eats whilst reclining? They do not say this, and there is much like this.

Also narrations occur prohibiting the junub and one who is not upon purification from reciting anything from the Qur’aan, but nothing from them is authentic; and we have explained the weaknesses of their chains of narrations elsewhere; and if they had been authentic, then they would have been a proof against those who permit him to recite a complete Aayah, or part of an Aayah, since they all totally prohibit recitation of the Qur’aan for the junub.

As for those who say that the junub may recite an Aayah or so, or who say that he should not recite a whole Aayah; or who permit the menstruating woman and forbid the junub, then these are futile sayings because they are claims not supported by a proof: neither from the Qur’aan, nor from the Sunnah-neither from what is authentic nor from what is weak, nor from Consensus, nor by the saying of a Companion, nor by analogy, nor by sound opinion. So part of an Aayah, and one Aayah are Qur’aan, without a doubt, and there is no difference between permitting him to recite one Aayah and (permitting) another; not between preventing one Aayah and preventing another. And those who hold these sayings hold it to be reprehensible to oppose a Companion who is not known to have anyone who disagreed with him; yet they have opposed in this matter `Umar ibn al-Khattaab, `Alee ibn Abee Taalib, and Salmaan al- Faarisee -and no one from the Companions is known to have disagreed with them radiyallaahu `anhum.

And also there are some Aayahs that comprise a single word, such as:

وَالضُّحَىٰ – 93:1 [[Sooratud-Duhaa (93):1]], and:
مُدْهَامَّتَانِ – 55:64 [[Sooratur-Rahmaan (55): 64]], and:
وَالْعَصْرِ – 103:1 [[Sooratul-`Asr (103):1]], and:
وَالْفَجْرِ – 89:1 [[Sooratul-Fajr (89): 1]];

and there are some that comprise many Words, such as the Aayah concerning a debt [[Aayah 282 of Sooratul-Baqarah]]. So when there is no doubt concerning this, then their permitting him to recite the Aayah of debt, and that which follows it, and Aayatul-Kursee, or part of it and not completing it, and their preventing him from reciting:

وَالْفَجْرِ  وَلَيَالٍ عَشْرٍ وَالشَّفْعِ وَالْوَتْرِ

[[Sooratul-Fajr (89):1-3]]; or their preventing him from completing:[[Sooratur-Rahmaan (55): 64]], is astonishing.

Likewise their making a distinction between the menstruating woman and the junub, based upon the fact that the affair of the menstruating woman is prolonged, then this is absurd; since if her reciting the Qur’aan is forbidden, then the length of her period will not make it lawful for her; and if that is lawful for her, then using as evidence the fact that her period is prolonged has no meaning.

-Muhammad ibn Sa`eed ibn Nabaat narrated to us: `Abdullaah ibn Nasr narrated to us: from Qaasim ibn Asbigh: from Muhammad ibn Waddaah: from Moosaa ibn Mu`aawiyah: Ibn Wahb narrated to us: from Yoonus ibn Yazeed: from Rabee`ah, who said: “There is no harm in the junub reciting the Qur’aan.”

-And with it to Moosaa ibn Mu`aawiyah: Yoosuf ibn Khaalid as-Samtee narrated to us: Idrees narrated to us: from Hammaad, who said: “I asked Sa`eed ibn al-Musayyib about the junub: should he recite the Qur’aan? So he said: How should he not recite it, when it is retained inside him?!”

-And with it, to Yoosuf as-Samtee: from Nasr al-Baahilee, who said: “Ibn `Abbaas used to recite al-Baqarah whilst he was junub.”

-Muhammad ibn Sa`eed ibn Nabaatah related to me: Ahmad ibn `Awnillaah narrated to us: Qaasim ibn Asbigh narrated to us: Muhammad ibn `Abdis-Salaam al- Khushanee narrated to us: Muhammad ibn Bashshaar narrated to us: Ghundar narrated to us: Shu`bah narrated to us: from Hammaad ibn Abee Sulaymaan, who said: I asked Sa`eed ibn Jubayr about the junub reciting, so he did not see any harm in it, and he said: Is the Qur’aan not within him?! And it is the saying of Daawood, and all of our Companions [2].


As for the prostration whilst reciting the Qur’aan, then it is not Prayer at all, because of what `Abdullaah ibn Rabee` narrated to us: Muhammad ibn Mu`aawiyah narrated to us: Ahmad ibn Shu`ayb narrated to us: Muhammad ibn Bashshaar narrated to us: `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Mahdee narrated to us, and Muhammad ibn Ja`far, both saying: Shu`bah narrated to us: from Ya`laa ibn `Ataa, that he heard `Alee al-Azdee-and he is `Alee ibn `Abdillaah al-Baariqee: reliable-that he heard Ibn `Umar say: from Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) that he said: << Prayer of the night and the day is in pairs >> [3]; and it is authentic from him- `alaihis-Salaam-that he said: << The Witr is a single rak`ah at the end of the night. >> [4] So it is correct that whatever is not a complete rak`ah or two rak`ah’s, or more, then it is not Prayer; and prostration whilst reciting the Qur’aan is not a rak`ah, nor two rak`ahs so it is not Prayer; and because it is not Prayer it is permissible without wudoo·, and for the junub, and for the menstruating woman, and towards other than the qiblah, just like the rest of the dhikr; and there is not difference since wudoo· is not binding except for the Prayer alone, as nothing occurs in the Qur’aan, the Sunnah, Consensus, or Analogy to make it obligatory for other than the Prayer. So if it is said that the prostration is a part of the Prayer, and a part of the Prayer is Prayer, then we say, and success is granted by Allaah, this is futile, because a part of the Prayer will not be Prayer unless it is completed in the manner in which the praying person has been commanded to perform it. So if a person were to say a takbeer, and then perform rukoo`, and then deliberately break off, then no one from the people of Islaam would say that he had prayed anything; rather they would all say that he had not prayed; but if he were to complete it as a rak`ah of the witr, or two rak`ah’s for the Jumu`ah, or the Dawn Prayer, or travelling, or optional Prayer, then he would have prayed without any disagreement.

Then we say to them: The standing is a part of the prayer, and the takbeer is a part of the Prayer, and the recitation of the Foundation of the Book is a part of the Prayer, and the Sitting is a part of the Prayer, and the Salutation is a part of the Prayer, so upon this basis it is essential that you do not permit anyone to stand, or to say takbeer, or to recite the Foundation of the Book, or to sit, or to give the Salutation except upon wudoo·. So this is something which they do not say, so their argument is nullified, and Allaah-the Most High-grants success.

So if they say: This is by Consensus [5], then,we say to them: Then you have assented to the correctness of a consensus which shows the futility of your argument, and the unsoundness of your reasoning, and Allaah-the Most High-grants success.


As for touching the mus-haf, then the narrations used as evidence by those who do not permit the junub to touch it, then nothing from them is authentic, because they are either ‘mursal’, a manuscript which does not have a fully connected chain [6], something from an unknown person, or something from a weak narrator; and we have examined them in detail elsewhere.

As for what is authentic, then it is just what `Abdullaah ibn Rabee` narrated to us, saying: Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Mufarraj narrated to us: Sa`eed ibn as-Sakan related to us: al-Firabree narrated to us: al-Bukhaaree narrated to us: al-Hakam ibn Naafi` narrated to us: Shu`ayb narrated to us: from az-Zuhree: `Ubaydullaah ibn `Abdillaah ibn `Utbah related to me: that Ibn `Abbaas informed him: that Aboo Sufyaan informed him that he was with Hiraql, and Hiraql called for the letter of Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) with which he had sent Dihyah to the ruler of Busraa, so he gave it to Hiraql, and he read it, and it contained:

“In the name of Allaah, the Extremely Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy. From Muhammad, the slave of Allaah and His Messenger to Hiraql the ruler of the Byzantines. Peace be upon whoever follows the guidance. To proceed. Then I call you with the call of Islaam: accept Islaam and you shall be safe, and if you turn away then the sin of the common folk will be upon you; and:

قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ

[Soorah Aal-`Imraan (3): 64]

[[Meaning: O people of the Scripture! Come to a true and just word to which we should all adhere: that we single out Allaah with all worship, and we do not associate anything along with Him; and that none of us should take others as lords besides Allaah. So if they turn away, then say: Bear witness that we are Muslims, submitting to our Lord.]].[7]

So here Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) sent this letter, containing an Aayah, to Christians, and he knew that they would certainly touch that letter.

So if they mentioned what `Abdullah ibn Rabee` narrated to us: Muhammad ibn Mu`aawiyah narrated to us: Ahmad ibn Shu`ayb narrated to us: Qutaybah ibn Sa`eed narrated to us: al-Layth narrated to us: from Naafi`: from Ibn `Umar who said:

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) forbade travelling to the land of the enemies with the Qur’aan, for fear that the enemy would gain possession of it.” [8]

Then this is true; it is binding to follow it; and it does not contain anything about the junub or the Disbeliever not touching the mus-haf, rather all that it contains is that the people of the land of war should not gain possession of the Qur’aan.

So if they say: Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) only sent a single Aayah to Hiraql (Heraclius), then it is said to them: Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) did not prevent anything in addition to it; and you are people of analogy, and if you will not draw analogy between one Aayah and that which is more than it, then do not make analogy between this [particular] Aayah and others.

So if they mention the Saying of Allaah -the Most High:

فِي كِتَابٍ مَّكْنُونٍ   لَّا يَمَسُّهُ إِلَّا الْمُطَهَّرُونَ

[[Meaning: In a well-guarded Book, which none touch but the purified ones]] [Sooratul-Waaqi`ah (56):78-79]

then there is no proof for them in it, since it does not contain a command; rather it is just a statement of fact, and Allaah-the Most High-does not speak except truth; and it is not permissible to divert the wording of a statement to the meaning of a command, except by the presence of a clear text or a certain Consensus. So when we see that the mus-haf is touched by those who are pure and those who are not pure, then we know that He-the Mighty and Majestic- did not mean the mus-haf, but rather He meant another Book, just as Muhammad ibn Sa`eed ibn Nabaatah related to us: Ahmad ibn `Abdil-Baseer narrated to us: Qaasim ibn Asbigh narrated to us: Muhammad ibn `Abdis-Salaam al-Khushanee narrated to us: Muhammad ibn al-Muthannaa narrated to us `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Mahdee narrated to us: Sufyaan ath-Thawree narrated to us: from Jaami` ibn Abee Raashid: from Sa`eed Ibn Jubayr, regarding the Saying of Allaah-the Most High:

لَّا يَمَسُّهُ إِلَّا الْمُطَهَّرُونَ

[Sooratul-Waaqi`ah (56):79]
[[Meaning: None touch it except the purified]], he said:

The Angels who are in the Heavens.”

-Himmaam ibn Ahmad narrated to us: Ibn Mufarraj narrated to us: Ibnul-A`raabee to us: ad-Dabaree narrated to us: `Abdur-Razzaaq narrated to us: Yahyaa ibn al-`Alaa· narrated to us: from al-A`mash: from Ibraaheem an-Nakha`ee: from `Alqamah who said:

We went to Salmaan al-Faarisee, and he came out to us from a toilet of his, so we said to him: ‘If you were to perform wudoo·, O Aboo `Abdillaah, and then recite such and such Soorah to us.” So Salmaan said: “Allaah the Mighty and Majestic-only said:

لَّا يَمَسُّهُ إِلَّا الْمُطَهَّرُونَ

[Sooratul-Waaqi`ah (56):79]

[[Meaning: In a well-guarded Book, which none touch but the purified ones]], and it is the Reminder which is in the heavens: none touch it except the Angels.” [9]

Muhammad ibn Sa`eed ibn Nabaat narrated to us: Ahmad ibn `Abdil-Baseer narrated to us: Qaasim ibn Asbigh narrated to us: Muhammad ibn `Abdis-Salaam al- Khushanee narrated to us: Muhammad ibn Bashshaar narrated to us: Muhammad ibn Ja`far narrated to us: Shu`bah narrated to us: Mansoor ibn al-Mu`tamir narrated to us: from Ibraaheem an-Nakha`ee: from `Alqamah ibn Qays: that when he wanted to take a mus-haf, he would order a Christian to transcribe it for him.

And Aboo Haneefah said: “There is no harm in the junub carrying the mus-haf by its strap, and he may not carry it without a strap”, and the one who is not upon wudoo· is the same with them.

And Maalik said: “The junub, and the one who is not in a state of wudoo· may not carry the mus-haf: neither by its strap, nor upon a pillow; but if it is in a saddle-bag, or a box, then there is no harm in the Jew, the Christian, the junub, and the one who is not in a state of purification carrying it.”

`Alee [[i.e. Ibn Hazm-rahimahullaah]] said: “There is no proof for the correctness of these distinctions; neither in the Qur’aan nor in the Sunnah-in what is authentic or what is weak, nor in Consensus, nor in analogy, nor in the saying of a Companion. So if the saddle-bag is a barrier between the carrier and the Qur’aan, then a book-cover and the back of a page should also be a barrier between the toucher and the Qur’aan, and there is no difference, and Allaah grants success.”

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Ahmad (1/84), Aboo Daaawood (no.229), at-Tirmidhee (no.146), an-Nasaa·ee (no.265), and Ibn Maajah (no.594). Declared ‘da`eef’ (weak) by Shaikh al-Albaanee. See ‘Irwaa·ul-Ghaleel’ (no. 485).

[2] i.e. of Aboo Sulaymaan Daawood ibn `Alee al-Asbahaanee, az-Zaahiree (d.270 H) –rahimahullaah, and the Zaahirees (transl.).

[3] Reported by Ahmad (2/26 & 51), an- an-Nasaa·ee (no.1666), and Ibn Maajah (no.1322), as a hadeeth of Ibn `Umar –radiyallaahu `anhumaa. Declared ‘Saheeh’ by Shaikh al-Albaanee.

[4] Reported by Muslim (no.752) as a hadeeth of Ibn `Umar –radiyallaahu `anhumaa.

[5] i.e. the fact that these actions may be performed without wudoo· is something known by Consensus (transl.).

[6] Referring to the long hadeeth of `Amr ibn Hazm –radiyallaahu `anhu, containing the wording:
<< None may touch the Qur’aan except one who is pure. >> (transl.).

[7] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (no.7) and Muslim (no.1773).

[8] Reported by Muslim (no.1869).

[9] ‘Musannaf `Abdir-Razzaaq’ (1/340/no.1325).

[Translated by Aboo Talhah Dawud ibn Ronald Burbank rahimahullaah]

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Posted from: Touching the Mus-haf without wudoo

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The Wudhoo (Ablution) – Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee | Dawud Burbank

PURIFICATION FOR THE PRAYER (AT-TAHAARAH LISSALAAT):

From Ibn `Umar –radiyallaahu `anhumaa– who said: I heard the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) say: <<Prayer will not be accepted without purification.>> [01]

Contents:

  • The Wudoo : It’s Description
  • The Conditions (Shuroot) of Wudoo for Its Correctness
  • Obligations (Faraa’id) of Wudoo
  • Sunnahs of Wudoo
  • The Things Which Nullify the Wudoo
  • That Which the Wudoo Is Obligatory for (What Is Forbidden for the Person Whose State of Purification Is Broken)
  • That Which the Wudoo Is Recommended For

THE WUDOO·:

Its description:

From Humraan-the mawlaa (freed-slave) of `Uthmaan: that `Uthmaan ibn `Affaan radiyallaahu `anhu– called for some water for wudoo and he performed the wudoo .

So he washed his hands three times; then he washed his mouth and washed out his nose; then he washed his face three times; then he washed his right arm up to and including the elbow three times; then he washed his left arm likewise; then he wiped his head; then he washed his right foot up to and including the ankle three times; then he washed the left one likewise.

Then he said: “I saw Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) perform wudoo with the like of this wudoo of mine. Then Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:Whoever performs wudoo like this wudoo of mine, and he prays two rak`ahs-not conversing with himself in them, then his previous sins will be forgiven for him.”” Ibn Shihaab said: “Our scholars used to say: This wudoo is the most complete wudoo which anyone can make for the Prayer.” [02]

THE CONDITIONS (SHUROOT) FOR ITS CORRECTNESS:

1- The intention (an-Niyyah):

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: Actions are but by intentions, [03] and it is not legislated to utter it in words, since it is not established from the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam).

2- Mentioning Allaah’s name (at-Tasmiyah):

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: There is no Prayer for the one who does not have wudoo, and there is no wudoo· for the one who does not mention Allaah’s name upon it.” [04]

3- Continuity (al-Muwaalaat):[05]

Because of the hadeeth of Khaalid ibn Ma`daan: [from one of the Companions of the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saw a man praying with a dry spot the size of a dirham, which water had not touched. So the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) ordered him to repeat the wudoo· and the Prayer. [06]

ITS OBLIGATIONS (FARAA’ID):

1- Washing the face, and from it is washing the mouth (al-Madmadah) and washing out the nose (al-Istinshaaq).
2- Washing the two arms up to the elbows.[07]
3- Wiping the whole of the head; and the ears are from the head.
4- Washing the feet up to and including the ankles: because of His Saying -He the Most High:

[..and your feet up to and including the ankles].
[Sooratul-Maa·idah (5):6]

[[Meaning: O you who believe! When you stand to pray, wash your faces and your arms up to and including the elbows, and wipe your heads,]]

As for the washing of the mouth (al-Madmadah) and the washing out of the nose (alIstinshaaq) being from the face, such that they are obligatory, then this is because Allaah -the Perfect- commanded the washing of the face in His Mighty Book; and it is established that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) continually practised that in every wudoo, and it was reported by all those who reported his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) wudoo· and explained its description. So this shows that the washing of the face which has been commanded in the Qur’aan includes washing the mouth and washing out the nose. [08]

And there occurs a command for the two of them in his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “When one of you performs wudoo, then let him put water into his nose and then let him blow it out.”,[09] and his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Exert in sniffing water into the nose, unless you are fasting”,[10] and his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “When you perform wudoo, then wash your mouth.” [11]

As for the obligation of wiping over the whole of the head, then this is because the command in the Qur’aan to wipe is left unspecified (mujmal). So the Sunnah is referred to for its clarification, and it is established in the two Saheehs and elsewhere that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) wiped the whole of his head. So this contains a proof that it is obligatory to wipe the head completely.

So then if it is said: It is established from a hadeeth of al-Mugheerah that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) wiped over his forelock and upon his turban (`imaamah), then the response is: he only restricted himself to wiping the forelock because he completed the rest of the wiping of the head upon the turban, and we hold this as our saying; and there is no proof in it for the permissibility of limiting the wiping to the forelock, or to a part of the head, without completing it upon the turban.[12]

So in summary it is obligatory to wipe the whole of the head; and the person who wipes may wipe upon the head only, or upon the turban only, or upon the head and turban. All of this is authentic and established.

As for the two ears being from the head, such that it is obligatory to wipe them, then it is because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “The two ears are from the head.” [13]

7- Rubbing the wetted fingers through the beard:

Because of the hadeeth of Anas ibn Maalik radiyallaahu `anhu that when Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed wudoo he used to take a handful of water and enter it under his chin, and he would rub it through his beard, and say “This is what my Lord -the Mighty and Majestic- has commanded.” [14]

8- Entering the wet fingers between the fingers and toes:

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Complete the wudoo·, and rub between the fingers and toes, and exert in entering water into the nose unless you are fasting.”[15]

ITS SUNNAHS:

1- The siwaak (tooth-stick):

From Aboo Hurayrah radiyallaahu `anhu who said: Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

“If it were not that I would make a difficulty upon my nation I would have commanded them to use the siwaak with every wudoo·.”[16]

2- Washing the hands three times at the beginning of the wudoo·:

Because of what is established from `Uthmaan -radiyallaahu `anhu, that when he showed how the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed wudoo·, he washed his hands three times.[17]

3- Combining the washing of the mouth and the washing of the nose three times, each with a single handful:

Because of what occurs in the hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Zayd -radiyallaahu `anhu when he taught the people how Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed the wudoo·: that he washed his mouth and washed his nose from a single handful, and he did that three times.[18]

4- Exerting in these two, for the one who is not fasting:

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Exert in sniffing water into the nose, unless you are fasting.”[19]

5- Giving precedence to the right side over the left side:

Because of the hadeeth of `Aa·ishah –radiyallaahu `anhaa-: “Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to like to begin with the right side, when putting on shoes, and when combing his hair, and in his purification, and in all his affairs.”[20]

And because of what occurs in the hadeeth of `Uthmaan, when he showed how the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed wudoo·: that he washed the right side and then the left.

6- Rubbing (water upon the body parts):

Because of the hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Zayd: that two thirds of a handful of water was brought to the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) so he rubbed his forearms.[21]

7- Washing three times:

Because of the hadeeth of `Uthmaan: that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed the wudoo, washing each part three times; and it is authentic that he (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed wudoo· washing each part once; and washing each part twice. [22]

And it is recommended to repeat the wiping of the head sometimes: because of what is authentic from `Uthmaan that he performed wudoo·, and he wiped his head three times, and he said: “I saw Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) perform wudoo· like this.”[23]

8- (Keeping to) the order (at-Tarteeb):

Since this was what Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) generally did, as is reported by those who reported his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) wudoo·.

However it is authentic from al-Miqdaam ibn Ma`deekarib: “That he brought some water for wudoo· for Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) So he performed wudoo·, and he washed his hands three times, and he washed his face three times; then he washed his forearms three times; then he washed his mouth and washed out his nose three times; then he wiped his head and his ears…”, the hadeeth.[24]

9- Making supplication (du`aa·) after it:

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying:

“There is not one of you who performs wudoo·, and completes the wudoo·, and then says:

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

(Ashhadu an laa ilaaha illallaah, wahdahu laa shareeka lahu, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan `abduhu wa rasooluhu)

‘I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, having no partner; and I testify that Muhammad is His Slave and His Messenger’,

except that the eight gates of Paradise are opened for him: he may enter through whichever of them he pleases.”[25]

at-Tirmidhee added:

اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْنِي مِنَ التَّوَّابِينَ وَاجْعَلْنِي مِنَ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ

(Allaahummaj `alnee minat-Tawwaabeena waj`alnee minal- Mutatahhireen)

‘O Allaah! Make me from those who constantly repent, and make me from those who purify themselves.’[26]

And from Aboo Sa`eed that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Whoever performs wudoo· and says:

سبْحانَك اللَّهُمّ وبحَمْدكَ أشْهدُ أنْ لا إله إلا أنْت أسْتغْفِركَ وَأتَوبُ إليْك

(Subhaanakallaahumma wa bihamdika, ashhadu an laa ilaaha illaa Anta, astaghfiruka wa atoobu ilaika)

‘ I declare You free of all imperfections, and all praise is for You. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but you. I seek Your forgiveness, and I turn in repentance to You’,

then it is written upon a parchment, then it is sealed with a seal, and it is not broken until the Day of Resurrection.”[27]

10- Praying the two rak`ahs after it – because of the saying of `Uthmaan, after he taught them the description of the wudoo· of Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam)

“I saw the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) perform wudoo· with the like of this wudoo·, and the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said: “Whoever performs wudoo· with the like of this wudoo·; then he stands and prays two rak`ahs, not conversing with himself in them, then his previous sins are forgiven.”[28]

And from Aboo Hurayrah: that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said to Bilaal, at the time of the Dawn Prayer: “O Bilaal! Tell me about the action which you have done in Islaam which gives you the most hope, for I have heard your footsteps in front of me in Paradise.”

He said: “I have not done any action which gives me greater hope than the fact that I have never purified myself at any hour of the night or the day except that I prayer what was written for me to pray with that purification.”[29]

THE THINGS WHICH NULLIFY THE WUDOO·:

1. That which comes out of the two pathways (the genitals and the anus) from excrement, urine, and wind.

Due to the Saying of Allaah- the Most High:

[[Meaning: Or if one of you comes from the toilet]],
[Sooratul-Maa·idah (5):6]

and it is an expression which means relieving oneself.

And due to the saying of the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) “Allaah will not accept the Prayer of any one of you who breaks his purification until he performs wudoo·.”

So a man from Hadramawt said: “What is ‘breaking purification’ (hadath), O Aboo Hurayrah?’’ He said: “Breaking wind noiselessly or with a sound.’’[30]

It is likewise nullified by discharge of pre-seminal fluid (al-Madhee) and al-Wadee.[31]

From Ibn `Abbaas -radiyallaahu `anhu)maa- who said: “al-Manee, and al-Wadee and al-Madhee. As for al-Manee (semen) then it is that which necessitates taking a bath (ghusl). As for ‘al-Wadee’ and al-Madhee (pre-seminal fluid), then he said: Wash your penis, or the parts of your penis, and perform the wudoo as you would do for the Prayer.’’ [32]

2. Sleep which overwhelms, such that no consciousness remains with him, whether he is sitting with his buttocks firmly on the ground or not.

Because of the hadeeth of Safwaan ibn `Assaal who said: “Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to command us that when we were on a journey that we should not take off our leather socks for three days along with their nights, except from janaabah. [33] However from excrement, and urine, and sleep.” [34]

So the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) equated sleep with urinating and voiding excrement. From `Alee radiyallaahu `anhu who said “The eye is the tying string (wikaa·) for the anus (as-Sah), so whoever sleeps then let him perform wudoo·.”[35]

And the wikaa·, with a kasrah on the waaw, is the string which is used to tie a leather bag.

And the sah, with a fathah on the seen -which is without dots, and with a kasrah on the haah -which is without shaddah is the anus. And the meaning is that being awake is the tying-string for the anus, i.e. guarding that which is contained within it from coming out, since as long as he is awake he will feel that which comes out from it. [36]

3. Loss of consciousness through intoxication or illness:

Because unconsciousness through these causes is more profound than when it results from sleep.[37]

4. Touching the uncovered genitals, if it is done with desire:

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Whoever touches his penis, then let him perform wudoo·”[38]

And his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Is it not except a part of you.” [39] So it is just a part of you if there is no desire attached to the touching, because in this condition it is possible to see the resemblance of touching that part with touching any other part of the body. Contrary to when he touches it with desire, for then touching it will not resemble touching any other part, because that will not normally be connected to desire. And this matter is clear, as you can see.[40]

5. Eating camel meat:

Because the hadeeth of al-Baraa· ibn `Aazib -radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)- who said: Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said: “Perform wudoo· from camel meat, and do not perform wudoo· from meat of sheep.”[41]

And from Jaabir ibn Samurahradiyallaahu `anhu : That a man asked the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) Should I perform wudoo· from eating the meat of sheep?” He said: “If you wish then perform wudoo·, and if you wish then don’t perform wudoo·.” He said: “Should I perform wudoo· from the meat of camels. He said: “ Yes, perform wudoo· from the meat of camels.” [42]

THAT WHICH THE WUDOO· IS OBLIGATORY FOR (WHAT IS FORBIDDEN FOR THE PERSON WHOSE STATE OF PURIFICATION IS BROKEN):

1. The Prayer:

Because of His Saying, He -the Most High:

[[Meaning: O you who believe! When you stand up intending to pray, then wash your faces…]], the Aayah. [Sooratul Maa·idah (5):6]

Due to the saying of the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) that Allaah will not accept a Prayer without Purification.” [43]

2. Performing Tawaaf around the House:

Due to his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Tawaaf around the House is Prayer, except that Allaah has made speech permissible in it.”[44]

THAT WHICH THE WUDOO· IS RECOMMENDED FOR:

1. The remembrance of Allaah- the Mighty and Majestic:

Because of the hadeeth of al-Muhaajir ibn Qunfudh, that he gave the greeting of Salaam to the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) whilst he was urinating, and he did not respond to him until he had performed wudoo·. Then he responded to him, and he said:

“I was not prevented from responding to you except by the fact that I disliked to make mention of Allaah except upon purification..”[45]

2. Sleep:

Because of what al-Baraa· ibn Aazib -radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)- said: The Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

“When one of you go to your bed then perform wudoo as you would perform wudoo· for the prayer. Then lie down upon your right-hand side, then say:

“O Allaah I have submitted my soul to You, and I have turned my face to You, and I have entrusted my affair to You, and I have placed my dependence upon You, hoping and having fear in You. There is no shelter and no place of safety from You except towards You. O Allaah, I believe in Your Book which You sent down and in Your Prophet who You sent.”

So if you die on that night of yours , then you will be upon the fitrah (the true Religion), and make them the last things you speak with.”[46]

3. The Junub (The person who is in a state of Janaabah):

When he wants to eat or drink or sleep or repeat the act of intercourse: From `Aa·ishah- radiyallaahu `anhaa- that she said that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) when he was junub, and he wanted to eat or sleep, would perform wudoo· in the way in which he performed wudoo· for the Prayer. [47]

And from `Ammaar ibn Yaasir -radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)- that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) gave concession for the junub, when he wanted to eat or drink or sleep, that he could perform wudoo· in the manner in which he performs wudoo· for the Prayer.[48]

And from Aboo Sa`eedradiyallaahu `anhu from the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) that he said:

“When one of you has relations with his wife and then he wants to repeat, then let him perform wudoo·.”[49]

4. Before taking a ghusl (bath), whether it is one which is obligatory or one which is recommended:

From `Aa·ishah- radiyallaahu `anhaa- who said:

‘‘When Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to take a bath from janaabah he would begin with washing his hands. Then he would pour water with his right hand over his left hand and wash his genitals, then he would perform wudoo· in the manner in which he performed wudoo· for the Prayer.’[50]

5. Eating that which has been touched by fire (eating cooked food):

Because of the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrahradiyallaahu `anhu who said: I heard Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Perform wudoo· from that which has been touched by fire.”[51]

And it is taken to be a recommendation because of the hadeeth of `Ammaar ibn `Umayyah ad-Damree who said: I saw the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) cutting some meat from the shoulder of a sheep and he ate from it, then he was called to the Prayer. So he got up, and threw down the knife, and prayed and he did not perform wudoo·.[52]

6. For every Prayer:

Because of the hadeeth of Buraydah radiyallaahu `anhu who said: ‘The Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to perform wudoo· for every Prayer. Then, when it was the Day of the Conquest, he performed wudoo·, and he wiped over his leather socks, and he prayed the Prayers with a single wudoo·. So `Umar said to him: “O Messenger of Allaah! You have done something which you had not used to do.” So he said: “ I did it deliberately, O `Umar.”[53]

7. Every time that purification is broken:

Because of the hadeeth of Buraydah radiyallaahu `anhu who said Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) entered the morning one day, and he called for Bilaal, and said:

“O Bilaal on account of what have you preceded me in Paradise? Last night I entered Paradise and I heard the sound of your footsteps in front of me.”

Bilaal said: “O Messenger of Allaah! I have never given the adhaan except that I prayed two rak`ahs; and my purification was never broken except that I then performed wudoo·. So Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said: “Because of this.”[54]

8. From vomiting:

Because of the hadeeth of Ma`daan ibn Abee Talhah: from Abud-Dardaa·: that Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) vomited, so he broke his fast, and he performed wudoo·. He said: So I met Thawbaan in the mosque of Damascus, and I mentioned that to him. So he said: ‘He has spoken the truth. I poured the water out for him to make wudoo·.’[55]

9. Whoever carries a dead person:

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Whoever washes a dead person, then let him take a bath; and whoever carries him, then let him perform wudoo·.”[56]

Footnotes:

[01] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (104); Muslim (1/204/224), at-Tirmidhee (1/3/1)

[02] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/204/226)-and this is his wording, al-Bukhaaree (1/266/164), Aboo Daawwood (1/180/ 106), an-Nasaa.ee (1/64).

[03] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/9/1), Muslim (3/1515/1907), Aboo Daawood (6/284/2186), at-Tirmidhee (3/100/1698), Ibn Maajah (2/1413/4227), an-Nasaa·ee (1/59).

[04] Hasan: Saheeh Ibn Maajah (320); Aboo Daawood (1/174/101), Ibn Maajah (1/140/399).

[05] Shaikh al-Fawzaan said in ‘Tasheelul-Ilmaam’ (1/147):

“The jurists say ‘al-Muwaalaat’ (continuity) is that the person does not delay washing a body part to such an extent that the previous one has dried-in a moderate amount of time. So if he delays it until the previous body part has become dry, then it is obligatory upon him to repeat (the whole wudoo) [transl.].

[06]Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 161); Aboo Daawood (1/296/175).

[07] ash-Shaafi`ee said in ‘al-Umm’ (1/25):

“The washing of the arms will not be sufficiently accomplished at all unless it includes everything which lies between the tips of the fingers up to the washing of the elbows; and it will not be sufficient until he washes the front, the back, and the sides of them; such that he washes them completely. If he leaves anything from this, even a small amount, it will not suffice.”

[08] as-Saylul-Jarraar (1/81)

[09] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (no. 443); Aboo Daawood (1/234/140), an-Nasaa·ee (1/66).

[10] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 129); Aboo Daawood (1/236/142)

[11] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 131); Aboo Daawood (1/236/144)

[12] Tafseer Ibn Katheer (2/24)-with slight paraphrasing.

[13] Saheeh: Saheeh Ibn Maajah (no. 357); Ibn Maajah (1/152/443)

[14] Saheeh: al-Irwaa· (no. 92); Aboo Daawood (1/243/145), al-Bayhaqee (1/54).

[15] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 129); Aboo Daawood (1/236/142)

[16] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (5317); Ahmad (1/294/171)

[17] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/204/226)-and this is his wording; al-Bukhaaree (1/266/164), Aboo Daawood (1/180/106), an-Nasaa.ee (1/64).

[18] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (no. 125); Muslim (1/210/235)

[19] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 129); Aboo Daawood (1/236/142)

[20] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/269/168), Muslim (1/226/268) and (11/199/4122), an-Nasaa.ee (1/78).

[21] Its chain of narration is ‘Saheeh’, Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah (1/62/118)

[22] Hasan Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no.124); al-Bukhaaree (1/258/158) from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Zayd; and Aboo Daawood (1/230/136) and at-Tirmidhee (1/31/43) reported it from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah.

[23] Hasan Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood no.101); Aboo Daawood (1/188/110)

[24] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood: (no. 112); Aboo Daawood (1/211/121)

[25] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (143); Muslim (1/209/234).

[26] Saheeh: Saheeh at- Tirmidhee (no. 48); at-Tirmidhee (1/38/55)

[27] Saheeh: at-Targheeb (no. 220); al-Haakim (1/564); and there is nothing authentic concerning supplication during the wudoo

[28] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/204/226)-and this is his wording, al-Bukhaaree (1/266/164), Aboo Daawood (1/180/106), an-Nasaa.ee (1/64)

[29] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (3/34/1149), Muslim (4/1910/2457)

[30] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/234/no.135), al-Bayhaqee(1/117), Ahmad (2/75/352), and the basis of the hadeeth occurs with others without the addition: Muslim (1/204/no. 225),Aboo Daawood (1/87/60), and at-Tirmidhee (1/150/76).

[31] Wadee is a thick white fluid which may come out after urination (Fiqhus-Sunnah: 1/24)

[32] Saheeh:…al-Bayhaqee (1/115).

[33] The state resulting from sexual intercourse, wet-dreams, or orgasm, and which necessitates a bath (ghusl).(transl.)

[34] Hasan: Saheeh Sunanin-Nasaa.ee(123), Sunan at-Tirmidhee (1/65/69), Sunan an-Nasaa.ee (1/84).

[35] Hasan: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (386), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/161/477), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/347/200) with its like.

[36] Naylul-Awtaar: (1/242).

[37] Ibn al-Mundhir in ‘al-Awsat’ (1/155),and an-Nawawee in his explanation of Saheeh Muslim mention that there is consensus (ijmaa`) of the scholars that unconsciousness nullifies the wudoo (transl.)

[38] Saheeh: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (388), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/307/179), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/161/479), Sunan an-Nasaa·ee (1/100), Sunan at-Tirmidhee (1/55/no.82)-with the addition :” …so let him not pray until he has performed wudoo·.”

[39] Saheeh: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (392), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/312/180), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/163/483), Sunan an-Nasaa·ee (1/101), ), Sunan at-Tirmidhee (1/56/85).

[40] Tamaamul-Minnah (p. 103).

[41] Saheeh: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (401), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/315/182), Sunan at-Tirmidhee (1/54/81), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/166/494)-in abridged form.

[42]Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim: (no.146), Muslim (1/275/360).

[43] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (104); Muslim (1/204/224), at-Tirmidhee (1/3/1)

[44] Saheeh: [Saheehul-Jaami`is-Sagheer (3954)], Sunan at-Tirmidhee (2/217/967)

[45] Saheeh: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (28), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/34/17), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/126/350), Sunan an-Nasaa.ee (1/37), and he does not report the portion traced back to the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam )

[46] Agreed upon: Saheehul-Bukhaaree (11/109/6311), Muslim (4/2081/271).

[47] Saheeh: [Abridgement of Muslim (162), Muslim (1/248-22-305), Sunan an-Nasaa·ee (1/138), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/374/221)

[48] Saheeh: Sunan Abee Daawood (1/375/222). – Declared da`eef (weak) by Shaikh al-Albaanee because of a hidden defect (`illah) [Da`eef Sunan Abee Daawood: (no.29)] (transl.)

[49] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami`is-Sagheer (263), Muslim (1/249/308), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/371/217), Sunan atTirmidhee (1/94/141), Sunan an-Nasaa·ee (1/142), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/193/587).

[50] Saheeh:[Abridgement of Muslim (155), Saheeh Muslim (1/253/316)

[51] Saheeh:[Abridgement of Muslim (147), Saheeh Muslim (1/272/352), Sunan an-Nasaa.ee (1/105)

[52] Saheeh: [Abridgement (148), Saheeh Muslim (1/274-93-355),

[53] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (142); Muslim (1/232/277), Aboo Daawood (1/292/171), at-Tirmidhee (1/42/61), anNasaa.ee (1/86)

[54] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (7894); at-Tirmidhee (5/282/3772)

The full answer of Bilaal as reported by at-Tirmidhee was: “O Messenger of Allaah! I never gave the adhaan except that I prayed two rak`ahs; and I never broke my purification except that I then performed wudoo, and I held that Allaah was due two rak`ahs from me.’’

[55] Its chain of narration is Saheeh: Tamaamul-Minnah (p.111); at-Tirmidhee (1/58/87), Aboo Daawood (7/8/2364)- and he does not have: “and he performed wudoo”

[56] Saheeh: al-Janaa·iz (53): Ahmad (2/145/486), Ibn Hibbaan (191/751), al-Bayhaqee (1/300), at-Tirmidhee (2/231/998), with its meaning; and what is apparent from the order is that it brings about obligation. However we do not say that because of the hadeeth of Ibn `Abbaas that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said: “You do not have to take the bath for washing your dead, when you have washed him; for your dead person is not impure. So it is sufficient for you to wash your hands.” It was reported by al-Haakim (1/386), and al-Bayhaqee (3/398). Slightly adapted from ‘Ahkaamul-Janaa·iz’ of al-Albaanee (p. 53)

SourceAl-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank .

An excellent book on the rules and regulations of various acts of worship, with evidences from the Book and Sunnah. This chapter deals with water and aspects of purification, wudhoo, ghusl, the toilet etc

Tahara Index Pagehttps://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

Wiping Over the Leather Socks (al-Mash ‘alal-khuffayn) – Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee | Dawood Burbank

WIPING OVER THE LEATHER SOCKS (al-Mash `alal-khuffayn):

Imaam an-Nawawee -rahimahullaah- said in his explanation of Muslim (3/164):

‘Those whose sayings are counted in consensus have agreed that it is permissible to wipe over the leather socks, when on a journey and when in residence, whether it is done for a need or otherwise, to the extent that it is permissible for the woman who stays within her house, and at times when the person is not walking about. It is only criticised by the Shee`ah and the Khawaarij, and their disagreement is not counted.

al-Hasan al-Basree -rahimahullaah- said:

Seventy of the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) narrated to me that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) used to wipe upon the leather socks.’

And the best thing that is used as evidence for the permissibility of wiping is that which Muslim reported from al-A`mash: from Ibraaheem from Hammaam, who said: Jareer urinated, and then he performed wudoo·, and he wiped over his leather socks. So it was said: “You do this.” He said, “Yes, I saw Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) urinate, and then he performed the wudoo·, and then he wiped over his leather socks.”

al-A`mash said: Ibraaheem said: “This hadeeth used to please them, because the Islaam of Jareer happened after Sooratul-Maa·idah came down’’. [1]

an-Nawawee said [2] : ‘Meaning that Allaah- the Most High- said:

“Then wash your faces and your arms up to and including the elbows, and wipe your heads, and wash your feet up to and including the ankle bones.” [Sooratul Maa·idah (5):6]

He said: “So if the Islaam of Jareer had come before the descent of al-Maa·idah it would have been possible that his hadeeth about wiping over the leather socks was abrogated by the Aayah of al-Maa.idah, but since his Islaam came later on, then we know for certain that his hadeeth is to be acted upon; and it clarifies that the one who is meant by the Aayah is the person who is not wearing leather socks. So therefore the Sunnah particularises the Aayah, and Allaah knows best.’’

Its Conditions:

It is a condition for the permissibility of wiping that he should wear the leather socks upon the state of having made wudoo·.

From al-Mugheerah ibn Shu`bah -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: I was with the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) one night on a journey. So I poured water out for him from the pot, and he washed his face and his two forearms, and he wiped his head. Then I reached down to remove his leather socks, so he said: “Leave them because I entered them both in a state of purification.” And he wiped over them. [3]

The time period for wiping:

From `Alee ibn Abee Taalib -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) laid down three days and their nights for the traveller,and one day and night for the resident. [4]

The place of wiping and its description:

The place which it is legislated to wipe is the upper surface of the leather sock, because of the saying of `Alee ibn Abee Taalib -radiyallaahu `anhu- : “If the Religion were in accordance with opinion, then underneath of the leather sock would have more right to be wiped then its top part, but I saw Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) wiping over the upper surface of his leather socks.” [5]

And what is obligatory in wiping is whatever the term ‘wiping’ is applied to.

Wiping over socks and sandals:

And just as it is permissible to wipe upon leather socks then it is permissible to wipe upon normal socks and upon sandals, because of the hadeeth of al-Mugheerah ibn Shu`bah that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) performed the wudoo·, and he wiped over the socks and the sandals. [6]

And from `Ubayd ibn Juraij who said: “ It was said to Ibn `Umar: We have seen you doing something which we did not see anyone else besides you doing.’ He said: ‘And what is it?’ They said: ‘We have seen you wearing these animal- hair sandals.’ He said: ‘I saw Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) wearing them and performing wudoo· in them, and he wiped over them.’ [7]

That which nullifies the wiping:

The wiping is annulled by one of these three:

1) Completion of the time period, because wiping has a time limit, as you have known. So it is not permissible to increase upon the time period which has been established.

2) Janaabah: Because of the hadeeth of Safwaan: “Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) used to command us when we were upon a journey that we should not remove our leather socks for three days along with their nights except from janaabah, but rather from passing excrement, and urine and sleep.” [8]

3) Removing that which has been wiped upon from the feet, because if he removes them, and then wears them again, then he will not have entered his two feet in a state of purification.

A point of benefit:

The completion of the time period, and removing that which he has wiped upon nullify the wiping alone. So it is not permissible to wipe until he has performed the wudoo·, and washed his feet, and then worn it. However if he was still in a state of wudoo· when he took off the thing that he wiped over, or when the time period finished, then he remains upon his state of wudoo·. He can pray with it as he wishes until he breaks his wudoo·.

A point of benefit:

Whoever wears two pairs of socks upon a state of purification, and then wipes over them, and then he removes the top one -after having wiped over it, then it is permissible for him to complete the time period by wiping over the underneath one, because it is correct that he entered his two feet into them in a state of being pure. But if he wore a sock, and wiped over it, and then he wore another one on top of it, then he may not wipe over that. This is because it will not be correct that he has entered the two of them when they were pure. [9]

Footnotes:

[1] Saheeh: [Mukhtasar Muslim (136), Muslim (1/227/272), at-Tirmidhee (1/63/93).
[2] Sharh Muslim (3/164)
[3] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/230-79-274), al-Bukhaaree (1/309/206)-in abridged form, Aboo Daawood (1/256/151)
[4] Saheeh:[ Mukhtasar Muslim (139), Muslim (1/232/276), an-Nasaa·ee (1/84).
[5] Saheeh: [Irwaa.ul-Ghaleel 103], Aboo Daawood (1/278/162).
[6] Saheeh: [Irwaa·ul-Ghaleel 101], Aboo Daawood (1/269/159), at-Tirmidhee (1/67/99), Ibn Maajah (1/185/559).
[7] Ibn Khuzaymah (1/p.100 hadeeth 199), al-Bayhaqee (1/ p.287 )
[8] Hasan: [Irwaa·ul-Ghaleel 104], at-Tirmidhee (1/65/96), an-Nasaa·ee (1/84)
[9] This is what Shaikh al-Albaanee mentioned to me.

Source : Al-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank . An excellent book on the rules and regulations of various acts of worship, with evidences from the Book and Sunnah. This chapter deals with water and aspects of purification, wudhoo, ghusl, the toilet etc

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

The Use of Nail Polish and Artificial Nails in relation to the Purification – Dr. Saleh As Saleh [Audio Clip]


This Short Clip was extracted from this Mp3

Audio Sourcehttp://understand-islam.net/site/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=75&Itemid=58#Travel

Drying the Body Parts after Purification – Fahd ibn ‘Abdir Rahman ash-Shuwaib

‘Uthman ibn ‘Affaan, al- Hasan ibn ‘Alee, Anas ibn Maalik, al-Hasan al-Basree, Ibn Seereen, ‘Alqamah, al-Aswad, Masrooq, ad-Dahhaak, ‘Abdullaah ibn al Haarith, Abu Ya’laa, Abul Ahwas, Ash-Sha’bee, Ath-Thawree, Ishaaq, Ibn ‘Umar in a narration, and Abu Hanifah, Maalik, Ahmad, and the Shafi’ee Madhhab in one saying, all say that –

It is permissible after both wudoo and ghusl to dry the body-parts.

And their evidence is what ‘Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) reports – she said:

Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) had a cloth which he used to dry himself with after making wudoo .

[Reported by at-Tirmidhee who declared it to be da’eef]. Then al Ainee states that an-Nasaa’ee records it in ‘al-Kunaa’ with saheeh isnaad.

I say: And it has other narrations which support and strengthen it. (See Fiqh al-Imam Sa’eed, 1/70). Al-Albaanee declares the hadeeth to be hasan. (Saheeh ul Jaami’, 4706).

65. Salmaan al-Faarsee narrates that the –

Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo , then turned up a woollen cloak he had and wiped his face with it.

[Reported by Ibn Maajah (no.468)]. In az-Zawaa’id it is said: Its isnaad is saheeh.

I say: In its isnaad is al-Wadeen ibn ‘Ataa who is sadooq but has a bad memory as al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr says in ‘Taqreeb ut-Tahdheeb’, so its isnaad is da’eef!! – but it is strengthened by the previous hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah to the level of hasan – and Allaah Knows best.

Some others hold it to be makrooh to dry the body-parts after Purification and their proof is:

66. What is established from Maimoonah (radhiAllaahu’anhaa) who described the Prophet’s (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) ghusl from Janaabah and said: Then I brought him a cloth but he refused it. [Al-Bukhaaree, and Muslim – and the word is his].

The Final word: Is that –

Drying the body-parts is one of the desirable actions as shown by the hadeeth of Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) – as for the saying that it is makrooh then that is not acceptable as the saying of Maimoonah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) “but he refused it” does not amount to the fact that it is makrooh – and Allaah Knows best.

Posted from eBook: 
Sifat Wudoo’-in-Nabee (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) – Fahd ibn ‘Abdir Rahman ash-Shuwaib

Benefit: Sleeping in a State of Purification 

From Abu Hurairah that the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – said:

       ” من بات طاهرا بات في شعاره ملك لا

         يستيقظ ساعة من الليل إلا قال الملك:

        اللهم اغفر لعبدك فلانا، فإنه بات طاهرا “.

‘Whoever sleeps while in a state of purification then an Angel sleeps in his garment, he does not wake up at any time during the night except that the Angel says: O Allaah forgive Your slave such and such since he went to sleep upon purification.’

[Collected by Abdullaah ibn al-Mubarak in ‘Hadeethihi’ & ‘Zuhd’, and Albaani declared it to have a Hasan Isnaad in Silsilah Saheehah no. 2539]

Translated by Abbas Abu Yahya
Miraath al-Anbiyya

Two Situations of Traveler’s Salah Without Wudu – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Short Clip|En]

Points of Benefit in Salaat – 20- Two Situations of Traveler Without Wudu

Posted from: Points of Benefit in Salah – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Transcription of the Audio Clip:

Another point of benefit, a traveler led by a resident Imam.

The traveler started his salah without wudu and completed the salah with the Imam. Then afterwards he remember that he entered the salah with the resident Imam without wudu. In this case, he makesup his salah as two rakah.

Second situation, the same as this one however during the salah he looses his ritual purity. Say for example a minor ritual impurity but this is during the salah. In this case he makes up his salah as four rakah.

Can you see the difference between these two situations?

نعم, so in the second situation his salah now linked to the Imam. But in the beginning he didn’t enter the salah. So his salah with him is two rakah initially. With the first situation he didn’t enter the salah because he didn’t have the state of purity to begin with. In the second, it is linked but it was then nullified. So, in this case he does the four rakah in the second situation to makeup and the first situation he brings two rakah. And this happens, this really happens a lot and the people don’t know what to do in terms of the makeup.

So at the first place the first person’s salah was not commenced in the first place and what is due upon him is two rakah for the problem. So in this case he didn’t enter any salah to begin with. So therefore he makesup his salah as regularly two. At the second situation, his salah commenced with the Imam correctly in the beginning, but it was corrupted during the salah. He lost his wudu after commencing the salah with the Imam. So in this case he makes it up as four.

Transcribed by Sawdah K for AbdurRahman.Org

After he urinates he has drops of urine come out (Urinary incontinence) – Answered by Shaykh Saalih al-Luhaydaan

Q.The individual is asking about drops of urine. After he urinates he has drops of urine come out.

A.The shaykh (HafithahullAllaahu ta’alaa) mentioned this breaks the wudhoo (ablution) and an individual should be diligent in performing wudhoo again.

The shaykh mentioned (HafithahuAllaahu ta’alaa) that if this is the norm, meaning that he usually has these drops after he urinates, so what a person should do in this case is… if he needs to urinate before he prays he does it early. He urinates early before he prays & then he makes his wudhoo. If he feels the drops before he prays then he makes the wudhoo again, as the norm is that drops of urine come after he urinates. The shaykh said before the time of prayer he should urinate and he should make wudhoo. If he feels the drops he should perform istinjaa (meaning clean himself again) & perform a new wudhoo in order that the drops of urine do not come out while he is praying.

However, if the case is that he has constant coming out of urination even if he has not gone to the bathroom then that person, the ruling is that he makes wudhoo once the time of prayer has entered and he prays his nawaafil before the salaah, the obligatory prayer and the nawaafil after the salaah even if his urination has come out. Why? Because this person has a sort of disease and if he wants to pray later on in the day for example he wants to pray the Asr thereafter or Dhuhr thereafter he would do the same thing. He would perform the wudhoo he would pray his sunnah prayers before the obligatory and after it. So that is what this person should do every time it’s time to pray a new prayer that individual should make wudhoo and pray even if the drops come out.

Shaykh Saalih Muhammad al-Luhaydaan (May Allaah preserve him) (Kitaab-ut-Tawheed Class Q&A Session 02.02.13 Riyadh). Translated by Mustafa George hafidhahullaah

A Supplication To Be Said After Performing The Wudoo – Compiled and Translated by Dawud Burbank

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Imaam Muslim -rahimahullaah- reported in his ‘Saheeh’ [The Book of Purification]: (no.234): “Muhammad ibn Haatim ibn Maymoon narrated to me: `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Mahdee narrated to us: Mu`aawiyah ibn Saalih narrated to us: from Rabee`ah -meaning Ibn Yazeed: from Aboo Idrees alKhawlaanee: from `Uqbah ibn `Aamir; And Aboo `Uthmaan narrated to me: from Jubayr ibn Nufayr: from `Uqbah ibn `Aamir, who said:

‘We were tending camels, and my turn came, so I brought them back in the evening. So then I found Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) standing, speaking to the people, and I caught from what he was saying:

<<There is not one of you who performs the wudoo·, and he performs the wudoo· well, and then he stands and prays two rak`ahs, turning his full attention to them with his heart and his face, except that Paradise will be binding for him>>.’

He said: So I said: ‘How fine this is!’ So then someone in front of me said: “That which came before it was even finer.” So I looked, and it was `Umar. He said: “I saw that you came just now. So he had (already) said:

<<There is not one of you who performs the wudoo·, and he performs the wudoo· completely -or: and he performs it fully, then he says:

wudoo-dua-1

(Ashhadu an laa ilaaha illallaah, wa anna Muhammadan `abduhu wa Rasooluh) ‘I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His Slave and His Messenger’,

except that the eight gates of Paradise are opened for him: he may enter through whichever of them he wishes >>.”

And Aboo Bakr ibn Abee Shaybah narrated it to us: Zayd ibn al-Hubaab narrated to us: Mu`aawiyah ibn Saalih narrated to us: from Rabee`ah ibn Yazeed: from Aboo Idrees al-Khawlaanee and Aboo `Uthmaan: from Jubayr ibn Nufayr ibn Maalik al-Hadramee: from `Uqbah ibn `Aamir al-Juhanee: that Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said.., and he mentioned its like, except that he said:

<<Whoever performs the wudoo·, and says:

wudoo-dua-2

(Ashhadu an laa ilaaha illallaah, wahdahu laa shareeka lahu, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan `abduhu wa Rasooluh)
<<‘I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, with no partner; and I testify that Muhammad is His Slave and His Messenger’>>.”

Imaam at-Tirmidhee -rahimahullaah-reported in his ‘Sunan’ [The Book of Purification from Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) : Chapter (41): What should be said after the wudoo·] (no.55):

“Ja`far ibn Muhammad ibn `Imraan ath-Tha`labee, al-Koofee, narrated to us, saying: Zayd ibn Hubaab narrated to us: from Mu`aawiyah ibn Saalih: from Rabee`ah ibn Yazeed ad-Dimashqee: from Aboo Yazeed al-Khawlaanee and Aboo `Uthmaan: from `Umar ibn al-Khattaab, who said: Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said:

<<Whoever performs the wudoo, and he performs the wudoo well, then he says:

wudoo-dua-3

(Ashhadu an laa ilaaha illallaah, wahdahu laa shareeka lahu, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan `abduhu wa Rasooluh. Allaahummaj `alnee minat-Tawwaabeena waj`alnee minal- Mutatahhireen)

<< ‘I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, with no partner; and I testify that Muhammad is His Slave and His Messenger’ O Allaah! Make me from those who constantly repent, and make me from those who purify themselves’>>.”

[Declared ‘Saheeh’ by Shaikh al-Albaanee -rahimahullaah: ‘Saheehut-Tirmidhee’ (no. 48).]

[Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank rahimahullaah]

[Download the Original PDF]

Posted from PDF: https://alitisaambissunnah.wordpress.com

Touching the Private Parts During Ghusl – Shaykh ‘Ubayd al-Jaabiree [Video|Ar-En Subtitles]

Touching the Private Parts During Ghusl – Shaykh ‘Ubayd al-Jaabiree حفظه الله
http://ar.miraath.net/fatwah/10884
Translated by Abu Afnaan Muhammad Abdullah حفظه الله
Video Courtesy: Bilal Nahim

Reciting the Qur’aan (from Memory or from the Mus-haf) whilst not having wudoo – Shaykh Fawzaan

[8] Question: Noble Shaikh, what is the ruling on one who recites the Qur’aan whilst not having wudoo, regardless of whether he recites from memory or from the mus-haf?

[8] Answer: It is permissible for a person to recite the Qur’aan without having wudoo if he recites from his memory. This is since nothing prevented the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) from reciting the Qur’aan except for Janaabah (sexual impurity). He (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would recite the Qur’aan whilst in a state of wudoo and without it.

As for the mus-haf, it is not permissible for someone who has broken his wudoo to touch it, regardless of whether it is the minor form of impurity or the major form. Allaah says: “No one touches it except for the pure.” [Surah Al-Waaqi’ah: 79] This means: “Those who are pure and free from impurities, uncleanness and Shirk.” Also in the hadeeth, the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) wrote a letter to his vice-regent ‘Amr bin Hazm in which he instructed him: “No one should touch the mus-haf except for the purified.” 

This is also the view that has been unanimously agreed upon by the four Imaams – that it is not permissible for one in the state of impurity – whether major or minor state – to touch the mus-haf except from behind a covering, such as when the mus-haf is in a box or a bag or if one touches it using one’s garment or sleeve as a barrier.

SourceQuestions & Answers on the Qur’aan – Shaykh Saalih Al-Fawzaan, al-ibaanah.com

How should the Sick person Purify Himself? – Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen

1. The Sick person is required to purify himself with water, performing ablution from minor impurity and Ghusl from major impurity.

2. If he is unable to purify himself using water, due to weakness or fear of increasing his illness, or delaying his recovery, then he may perform Tayammum.

3. The way to perform Tayammum is to strike the clean earth with his hands once, then wipe his whole face with them, then wipe his hands, one with the other.

4. If he is unable to purify himself, the another person should assist him in making the ablution, or performing the Tayammum.

5. If a certain part of the body which is to be purified is afflicted by a wound, he should wash it with water; but if washing it with water will cause harm to him, then he may wet his hand with water and then wipe over it. If wiping over it may also cause harm he may perform Tayammum for it.

6. If he has a severe fracture in any of his limbs, which is covered with a dressing or cast, he may wipe over it with water, instead of washing it, and it does not require Tayammum, because the wiping takes the place of washing.

7. It is permisable to make Tayammum using a wall, or anything else which is clean and contains dust. If the wall is covered with anything which is not from th earth such as paint, then one should not make Tayammum with it, unless there is dust over it.

8. If the Tayammum is not made on the earth or a wall or anything else containing dust, there is no objection to the collecting of dust in container or a hankerchief, in order to make Tayammum with it.

9. If a person performs Tayammum for prayer, and remains in a purified state until the time of the next prayer, then he may pray with the Tayammum he made before and he does not need to repeat it for the second prayer, since he remains purified and nothing has invalidated it.

10. The sick person is obliged to cleanse his body from all manner of impurity, but if he is unable to do so, he may pray as he is, and his prayer will be correct and he does not need to repeat it.

11 The sick person is required to pray in clean clothes, and if they became soiled, they must be cleaned or replaced with clean ones. If this is not possible, he may pray as he is, and his prayer will be correct and he does not need to repeat it.

12. The sick person is obliged to pray upon something clean and if it becomes soiled, he must wash it, change for something clean or cover it with something clean. If he is unable to do so, he may pray there, and his prayer will be correct and he does not need to repeat it.

13. It is not permissible for the invalid to delay the prayer due to his inability to achieve purification; rather, he should purify himself as much as he is able, then perform the prayer on time, even if there is some impurity on his body, his clothes or his place of prayer, which he is unable to remove.

Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-`Uthaymeen
Fatawa Islamiyah, Vol. 2, p23-25, Dar-us-Salam

Rulings on Purification for the Sick – Shaykh Ibn Baz

All praise be to Allaah, the Lords of the Worlds, and may peace and blessings of Allaah be upon the noblest of the Prophets and Messengers, our Prophet, Muhammad and upon all his family and Companions. As for what follows:

Verily, Allaah, the Most Glorified, Most High has legislated purification for every prayer, because the elimination of impurity and the removal of pollution – whether on the body, the clothes or the place of prayer – are two of the conditions of prayer. So when the Muslim wishes to pray, he must perform the well known ablution (Wudhu) to purify himself from minor impurity, or make Ghusl if the impurity is of the major kind. And before making ablution, Istinja’ must be performed with water, or Istijmar by the one who has urinated or defecated in order that the purification and cleansing be complete. What follows is an explanation of some of the rulings related to this.

Istinja’ with water is obligatory every time something is discharged from the bowel and bladder, such as urine or faeces. But it is not necessary for the sleeper or one who passes wind to perform Istinja’. He is only required to perform ablution, because Istinja’is only prescribed for the removal of impurity, and there is no impurity in this situation.

Istijmar is performed using stones, or another material in its place (such as wood, paper etc.) It must consist of three clean stones, as proved by the Hadith of the Prophet(Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) which states that he said:

“Whoever performs Istijmar, let him make it Witr (i.e. use an odd number of stones).” [Abu Dawud no.35 and Ibn Majah no. 337]

And he (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) also said:

“If any of you goes to defecate, he should take with him three stones, for they will be sufficient for him.”

Muslim narrated that he (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) forbade Istijmar with less than three stones. It is not permissible to make Istijmar with animal droppings, bones or food or anything which contains some forbidden material. It is preferred for a person to perform istijmar with stones, or the like such as tissues etc. After which, he should use water, because the stones remove the essence of the pollution, but the water purifies the area and is therefore more thorough. A person has a choice of Istinja’ with water, orIstijmar with stones or the like. It is reported on the authority of Anas, may Allaah be pleased with him, that he said:

“The Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) entered the toilet and I and a young boy like me carried materials, including water and ‘anaza (a short spear) and he would perform Istinja’ with the water.” [al-Bukhari no.152 & Muslim no.271.]

It is reported on the authority of ‘Aishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, that she said to a group of women:

“Order your husbands to clean themselves following defecation with water, for I am too embarrassed to do so, and the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) used to do so.” At-Tirmidhee said that it was authentic [At-Tirmidhee no.19]

If a person wants to use only one of them (i.e. stones or water), it is preferred to choose water, because it cleans the area removing the essence and the traces and it is more thorough in cleansing. If he chooses to only use stones, he should content himself with three, if it cleanses the area, but if it is not enough, he may use four or five (or more) until he has cleaned the area, but it is better to finish with an odd number, based upon the saying of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

“Whoever performs Istijmar, let him make it Witr.” [Abu Dawud no.35 and Ibn Majah no. 337]

It is not permissable to make the Istijmar with the right hand, according to the Hadith of Salman, may Allaah be pleased with him, in which he said:

“The Messenger of Allaah forbade us from performing Istinja’ with the right hand.” And he said:

“None of you should hold his penis in his right hand while he is urinating. nor should he wipe himself with the right hand after answering the call of nature.” [Al-Bukhari no.153 & Muslim no.267]

But if his left hand has been cut off, or is broken or there is some disease in it, he may use his right hand, and there is no objection to that.

Because the Islamic law is based upon facility and ease, Allaah, the Most Glorified, Most High has lightened the burden of worship on those who have some excuse, according to the excuse. He, the Most High says:

“And (He) has not laid upon you in religion any hardship.” [Surah al-Hajj 22:78]

And He says:

“Allaah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.”[Surah al-Baqarah 2:185]

And He says:

“So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can.” [Surah at-Taghabun 64:16]

And the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said:

“If I order you to do something, do it as much as you can.” [Al-Bukharino.7288 & Muslim no.1337]

And he (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said:

“Verily the Religion is ease.” [Narrated by al-Bukhari]

If a sick person is unable to cleanse himself of minor impurity with the water by making ablution, or he is unable to purify himself of major impurity by making Ghusl, due to weakness, or fear of making his illness worse, or delaying his recovery, he may performTayammum [Dry ablution using sand or dust.]

This is done by striking his hands in clean dust once, then wiping his face with the palms of his hands and his fingers slowly, based upon the Words of Him, the Most High:

“And if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes after answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (by sexual relations) and you find no water, perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands (Tayammum). Truly, Allaah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.” [Surah An-Nisa 4:43]

The ruling on those who are unable to use water is the same that of those who are unable to find water, according to the words of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

“The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” [Al-Bukhari no. 1]

A sick person may fall into one of a number of categories:

1. If his illness is a simple one and he does not fear to use the water, such as an ailment from which there is no fear that using the water will delay his recovery, or increase his pain, or cause any infection, such as a headache, toothache and the like, or he is able to use warm water without harm, then it is not allowed for him to make Tayammum. Because the permission to perform it is in order to prevent harm, and there is no fear of harm to him, and because he can find water, therefore he must use it.

2. If he fears from an illness which he fears may – should he use water – cause his death or harm one of his organs, or may lead to some illness which might cause his death or harm one of his organs, or cause the loss of some faculty, then it is permissible for him to perform Tayammum, based upon the words of the Most High:

“And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allaah is Most Merciful to you.”[Surah an-Nisa’ 4:29]

3. If he is suffering from some illness which makes him unable to move, and he finds no one to bring him water, it is permissible for him to perform Tayammum.

4. Anyone suffering from a wound, an ulcer or fracture, or any illness which will be exacerbated by using water, and who becomes Junub [in a state of sexual impurity] is allowed to perform Tayammum, based upon the above evidences. If he is able to wash the healthy areas of his body, he must do so and make Tayammum for the rest.

A sick person who is in a place in which he finds neither water nor dust, or anyone who can bring him either one of them, may pray whatever condition he is in, and he is not allowed to delay the prayer, as Allaah, the Most High say:

“So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can.” [Surah at-Taghabun 64:16]

6. An invalid afflicted with incontinence of urine, who is not cured by his treatment, must make ablution for every prayer after the start of its prescribed time, wash off any urine that has affected his body, and wear a clean garment for his prayer, if this is not a burden on him. But if it is, he is excused from it, based upon the Allaah Words:

“And (He) has not laid upon you in religion any hardship.” [Surah al-Hajj 22:78]

And His Words:

“Allaah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.”[Surah al-Baqarah 2:185]

And He says:

And the words of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

“If I order you to do something, do it as much as you cable.” [Al-Bukhari no.7288 & Muslim no.1337]

He must try to the best of his ability to prevent the spread of the urine to his clothes, or his body, or the place in which he will pray. And everything that invalidates ablution also invalidates Tayammum, and in addition, the ability to use water or its presence. And Allaah knows best.

Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz
Fatawa Islamiyah, Vol. 2, p17-23, Dar-us-Salam

How To Purify Yourselves For The Salaah – Abu Muhammad Al-Maghribi [Audio|En]

Listen / Download Mp3 Here (Time 50:08)

Based on the lecture of Shaykh Salih Fawzan hafidhahullaah

Woe to dry heels because of Hellfire – Dr. Saleh as Saleh

Bismillaah

Narrated ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Amr ibnu-l’Aas and Abu Hurayrah and ‘Aa’ishah (May Allaah be pleased with them), who said that Allaah’s Apostle (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “Woe to dry heels because of Hellfire.” [Sahih Muslim, Book 002, Number 0473]

Click the below link to read the explanation of above hadith

Umdatul Ahkaam – H3 – Shaykh Uthaymeen – Dr Saleh as Saleh [PDF]

Listen/ Download Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 03 – Wudu Done Improperly

The Narrators

‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr ibnu-l’Aas ibn Waa’il al-Qurayshi. He was a devout worshipper, memorizing narrations from the Prophet (`alayhi salaatu wassalaam), but limited are the narrations from him. His narrations were not as many as those reported by Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with all of them), because he was a worshipper utilising much of his time in worship. As to his date of death; there is differences among the historians as to when and where did he die. It is reported from Imaam Ahmad, that he died at the end of Dhul-Hijjah the year 63 AH (may Allaah be please with him).

Abu Hurayrah was spoken about earlier.

‘Aa’ishah, Ummul-Mu’mineen (the mother of the believers), the daughter of Abi Bakr ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Aamir al-Qurayshi at-Taymee (may Allaah be pleased with her and her father), was born in Islaam and the Prophet (`alayhi salaatu was-salaam) married her in Makkah following the death of Khadeejah and before his marriage to Sawdah. The marriage contract was done when she was six and the commencement of the marriage took place in Madeenah when she was nine. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi was-sallam) died when she was eighteen years of age. The marriage of ‘Aa’ishah in knowledge and wisdom and understanding is well known. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi was-sallam) spoke about her saying: “The merits of ‘Aa’ishah and her excellence over the rest of women is like the excellence of ath-Thareed (a meat dish) over the rest of food. [Bukhaaree and Muslim].

Many used to consult with her concerning aspects of knowledge. She died in the city of Madeenah in the month of Ramadaan 58 years AH, after a life spent propagating much knowledge that benefited the Ummah. May Allaah be pleased with her.

The Subject and Overall Explanation

The subject of this hadeeth is improperly performing wudhuu’. As to the meanings of some of the words:

• waylun : This is a threat (wa’eed). And it is said that this could be a valley in Hellfire, and the other opinion is that it means punishment.

• Al-a’qaab – The plural of‘ aqib (heel). This refers to the heels which were left not completely wet in wudhuu’.

The overall meaning is that since taharah (purification) is one of the greatest and most important conditions for salaah, improperly doing it will take away from the salaah. That is why the Prophet (`alayhi salaatu was-salaam) warned against incompletion or improperly making the purification to the degree that he gave such a threat regarding improper handling of one of the parts upon which wudhuu’ is to be made; a threat of Punishment in Hell on that particular part. Why did the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi was-sallam) particularize the heels as the part? This is because it was the place where the wudhuu’ on it was not completed as in the hadeeth referring to this incident.

In the version reported by ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr he said: “We returned from Makkah to Madeenah with the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and when we came to some water on the way, some of the people were in a hurry at the time of the afternoon prayer and performed ablution hurriedly; and when we reached them, their heels were dry, no water had touched them. The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘Woe to (dry) heels, because of Hell-fire. Make your ablution thorough’.” [Muslim]. In another narration also by ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr who said: “The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) lagged behind us on a journey. We travelled (back) and we took him; and then came the time of the afternoon prayer, and as we were going to wipe our feet he (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) called out: ‘Woe to the heels because of Hell-fire’.” [Muslim]. So this is the reason behind the hadeeth, and in the version by Abi Hurayrah, he reported that: “Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saw a man who did not wash his heel and he remarked: ‘Woe to the heels because of Hell-Fire’.” [Muslim].

From the Benefits of this Hadeeth

1. It is obligatory to complete the wudhuu’ on each part of the parts of wudhuu’ thoroughly, leaving no dry spots.
2. There is a warning and a threat as to the one who neglects this and improperly handles it.
3. Since there is a threat, then negligence regarding this matter is a major sin.
4. Washing the feet in wudhuu’ is obligatory if they are uncovered.
5. Affirming the recompense on the actions. The recompense is related to the kind of action.

The Questions for this Hadeeth

1. Why is it that ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr ibnu-l’Aas did not report many narrations?
2. When did ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) die?
3. What is intended in this hadeeth?
4. True or False
a. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi was-sallam) died when ‘Aa’ishah was a teen.
b. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi was-sallam) particularized the heels because they are the places of accumulation of filth.
c. Washing the feet in wudhuu’ is mandatory if they are uncovered.
d. Negligence concerning any of the parts of wudhuu’ is from the minor sins.

Faces, Hands and Feet are Bright because of Wudu – Umdatul Ahkaam – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 10 – Faces Bright Because of Wudu

1024. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) saying: “On the Day of Resurrection, my followers (or Ummah) will be summoned `Al-Ghurr Al-Muhajjalun’ from the traces of Wudu’. Whoever can increase the area of his radiance should do so.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Commentary: The word “Ghurr” is the plural of  “Agharr”  which means shining or white. It is used for animals (like a horse), i.e., a white mark on its face. Here, it refers to that radiance which will issue from the brows of the believers on the Day of Resurrection and which will make them prominent. Muhajjalun is from Tahjil  which also means whiteness but it is used for that whiteness which is found on all the four or at least on three legs of a horse. Here, it refers to that light which will shine through the hands and feet of the believers because of their habit of performing Wudu’. This means that the believers among the Muslims will be distinguished from other communities by virtue of the refulgence issuing from their faces, hands and feet on the Day of Resurrection in the same way that a horse with a white forehead is easily distinguised from other horses.

(From the Book Riyadussaliheen. darussalam english publication)

Posted fromUmdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio Series|En]

Related Links:

Wiping over the Khuff (Socks) : Umdatul Ahkaam – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 21 – 22 – Wiping over the Khuff

Source: Umdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Wudu of the Prophet : Umdatul Ahkaam – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 07 – Wudu of the Prophet – part 1

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 08 – Wudu of the Prophet – part 2

Source: Umdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Sifat Wudoo’-in-Nabee (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) – Fahd ibn ‘Abdir Rahman ash-Shuwaib

Sifat Wudoo’-in-Nabee (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam)
A Description of How the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) Made Wudoo’
By Fahd ibn ‘Abdir Rahman ash-Shuwaib
Translated by Dawood Burbank al-Britanee.
Contents:

Introduction

Preface

Verily all praise is for Allaah, we praise Him and seek His aid and ask for His forgiveness, and we seek refuge with Allaah from the evils of ourselves and our evil actions. Whomever Allaah guides there is none who can misguide him, and whomever Allaah misguides there is none who can guide him, and I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah Alone, having no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger.

O mankind! Be dutiful to your Rabb (Creator, Master, Owner of All-Things), Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both, He created many men and women and, and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights). and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allah is Ever an All-Watcher over you. [Sooratun-Nisaa’: Ayat 1]

O You who Believe! Fear Allah (by doing all that He has ordered and by abstaining from all that he has forbidden) as He should be feared. [Obey Him, be thankful to Him. and remember Him always] And do not die except in a state of Islam (as Muslims) with complete submission to Allah. [Sooratul-‘Imraan ayah: Ayat 102]

O You who Believe! Keep your duty to Allah and fear Him, and speak (always) the truth. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you of your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (saws) he has indeed a great achievement (i.e. he will be saved from the Hell-Fire and made to enter Paradise). [Sooratul-Ahzaab: Ayat 70-71]

As for what follows: Verily the most truthful speech is the Word of Allaah and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), and the worst of affairs are the novelties and every novelty is an innovation and every innovation is a going astray and every going astray is in the Fire.

I desired to write this as a completion for the treatises which are in circulation amongst the people today – about the different fields – especially of worship such as Prayer and Fasting, etc. – which have made easier that which is difficult as regards religious rulings and being guided thereby, as it maybe difficult these days for some to read, research and extract these rulings from their places within the source books – either because of the ignorance of the Muslims or laziness or other worldly problems. I sincerely advise all the Muslims to read and research until they come to know and understand their true Deen – and I wished to write this in order to complete the series of the types of worship, especially since no one has particularized this topic in a treatise – except what occurs within the books of reference as we have explained – but I have not found this in the form of a treatise.

My method for this treatise has been not to quote except what is authentic from the hadeeth of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) - if Allaah wishes – ordering it according to the order of the Wudoo of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), and I have commented on some of the points about which there is difference of opinion – stating that which is correct therefrom in our view after replying to the other opinions.

I ask Allaah to guide us to that which is proper – verily He is the One having authority over that and having the Power to do so.

The Definition of Wudoo

Wudoo in the Arabic Language:
Wudoo is the action, and wadoo the water used therefor – and it is also a verbal noun; or they are two forms of the same word, both meaning the verbal-noun and maybe both referring also to the water used.
Wudoo in the Sharee’ah:
Wudoo is using clean and cleansing (Tuhoor) water upon certain body parts as Allaah ta’ala has prescribed and explained.

The Prescription of Wudoo in The Kitaab And Sunnah:

Allaah ta’ala says: O Ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles [soorat-ul-Maa’idah, 5:7]

1. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: The Prayer of anyone of you breaching purification is not accepted unless he makes wudoo. [Al-Bukhaaree, (Fath ul-Baaree, 1/206), Muslim (no.225) and others].

2. Ibn ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu ‘anhumaa) said: Indeed I heard Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) say: Allaah does not accept Prayer without purification, nor Sadaqah from illegally attained wealth. [Muslim (1/160) and others].

3. Ibn ‘Abbaas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhumaa) said: Rasolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: Verily I have been ordered to make wudoo when I stand for Prayer. [Saheeh. Reported by Abu Dawood (no.3760); at-Tirmidhee (no.1848), and he declared it to be ‘hasan-saheeh’: an-Nasaa.ee (1/73). And Shaikh al-Albaanee declares it to be ‘saheeh’ (‘Saheeh ul-Jaami’, no.2333)].

4. Abu Sa’eed (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: The key to Prayer is purification, its ‘tahreem’[1] is the takbeer and its ‘tahleel’[2] is the giving salaam. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.60); at-Tirmidhee (no.3); Ibn Maajah (no.275) and others. Declared as ‘saheeh’ by Shaikh al-Albaanee: (‘Saheeh ul-Jaami’, no.5761)].


The Excellence of Wudoo

5. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu’alaihi wa sallam) said: Shall I not guide you to that by which Allaah wipes away the sins and raises the ranks? They said: Certainly O Messenger of Allaah! He said Completing the wudoo when it is a hardship, and many steps to the mosques and waiting for the [next] Prayer after the Prayer, that is ‘ar-Ribaat’ (defending the frontiers), that is ‘ar-Ribaat’ that is ‘ar-Ribaat’). [Reported by Muslim (1/151) and others].

6. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) reports that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said When the Muslim (or ‘Believing’) servant makes wudoo and washes his face then the sin of everything he looked at with his eye comes away with the water, or with the last drop of the water, and when he washes his hands then the sin of everything he stretched out his hands to comes away with the water, or with the last drop of the water. And when he washes his feet every sin which his feet walked towards comes away with the water or with the last drop of the water – so that he leaves clean (clear/pure) from sins. [Reported by Muslim (1/148) and others].

7. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) reports that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) came to the graveyard and said Peace be upon you, dwelling of Believing People and we will (all) if Allaah wills join you soon. I would have liked to have seen our brothers! They said: Are we not your brothers, O Messenger of Allaah? He said You are my Companions and our brothers are those who have not yet come! They said: How will you know those who have not yet come from your Ummah, O Messenger of Allaah? He said Have you not seen that if a man had a horse with a white blaze and hoof along with a totally jet-black horse, then would he not know his horse? They said: Certainly, O Messnger of Allaah. He said So they will come with white blazes and marks from the wudoo and I am present before them at the Hand (‘water-tank’) Indeed men will be driven away from my ‘water-tank’ as the lost camel is driven away from their gathering place. ‘Come on’. So it will be said: ‘Indeed they have made changes after you,’ so I will say: Be off, be off. [Muslim 249].

8. Abu Umaamah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said When a Muslim makes wudoo the sins he has committed come away from his hearing and from his sight and from his hand and from his feet, so when he sits he sits down having been forgiven. [Reported by Ahmad (5/252) and is hasan].

9. Abu Maalik al-Ash’aree (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said Purification is half of Imaan. And ‘al-hamdu lillaah’ fills the Scales. And ‘subhaanAllaah’ and ‘al-hamdu lillaah’ fill whatever is between the heaven and the earth. And Prayer is a light. And Sadaqah is a clear proof. And Sabr (patience) is a shining light. And the Qur’aan is a proof for or against you. Every person starts the day dealing for his own soul so he either sets it free or destroys it. [Reported by Muslim (1/140) and others].

10. ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Whoever makes wudoo and makes it well, his sins come out from his body, even coming out from under his nails. [Reported by Muslim (3/133) and others].

11. ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Whoever makes wudoo like this – then all of his previous sins are forgiven – and his Prayer and his walking to the mosque are above and beyond that. [Reported by Muslim, 3/113].

12. Ibn ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu ‘anhumaa) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu’alaihi wasallam) said When one of you makes wudoo and makes it well, then goes out to the mosque – having no purpose except Prayer – then his left foot continues to wipe away his evil deeds and his right foot continually writes for him good deeds until he enters the mosque. And if the people knew what there was in the night prayer and Subh prayers – then they would come to them even if they had to crawl. [Reported by at-Tabraanee in ‘al-Mu’jam ul-Kabeer’. And Ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee declares it to be saheeh (As-Saheehah, no.454). And its meaning is reported by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim from the narration of Abu Hurairah].

13. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Whoever makes wudoo and makes it well then goes out – and then finds that the people have finished the Prayer – then Allaah gives him the same reward as one who had prayed it along with the people without diminishing any of their reward.[Reported by Abu Dawood (no.564) and an-Nasaa’ee (no.856) and others. Al-Albaanee declares it to be ‘saheeh’ (As-Saheehah, no.6039)].

14. Zaid ibn Khaalid al Juhanee (radhiAllaahu’anhu) relates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Whoever makes wudoo and makes it well, then prays two rak’ahs not letting his mind wander in them – then Allaah forgives him all of his previous sins. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.905) and others. Al-Albaanee declares it to be ‘hasan’ (As-Saheehah, no.6041)].

15. ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Whoever makes wudoo and makes it well, then prays two rak’ahs concentrating therein with his heart and his face – then Paradise is obligatory for him. [Reported by an-Nasaa’ee. Al-Albaanee declares it to be ‘saheeh’ (As-Saheehah, no.6062)].

16. ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: I heard Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) say Whoever makes wudoo for Prayer and completes the wudoo – then walks to the obligatory Prayer and prays it with the people – or with the congregation – or in the mosque – then Allaah forgives his sins. [Reported by Muslim (1/144) and others].

17. ‘Alee (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) relates that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Completing the wudoo when it is a hardship, and walking to the mosque, and waiting for the next prayer after the previous one (greatly) washes away the sins. [Reported by al-Haakim (1/132) who declared it to be saheeh to the standard of Muslim. And al-Haithumee said in ‘Az-Zawaa-id’: It is narrated by Abu Ya’laa and al-Bazzaar. And its narrators are up to the standard of Al-Bukharee],

18. Humraan ibn Abaan relates that ‘Uthmaan asked for water to make wudoo – then he mentioned how the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo . Then he said: The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said at the end of the hadeeth Whoever makes wudoo in the same way that I have just made wudoo then stands up and prays two rak’ahs, not thinking of other things, then his previous sins are forgiven. [Related by al-Bukhaaree (Fath ul-Baaree, 11/213) and Muslim (no.226) and an-Nasaa’ee ( 1/63)] .


The Components of Wudoo

An Niyyah (Intention)

This is the firm resolve of the heart to perform wudoo in obedience to the order of Allaah ta’ala and His Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimahullaah) said (Majmoo’at-ur-Rasaa-il il-Kubraa 1/243): “The place of the niyyah is the heart and not the tongue in all forms of ‘ibaadah – and that is agreed upon by all the Muslim scholars – Purification, Prayer, Zakaat, Sawm, Hajj, ‘Itq (freeing of slaves), Jihaad, etc. If he were to express with his tongue other than that which he intended in his heart – then what he intended is counted, not what he said. If he voiced the intention with his tongue and the intention was not in his heart, that will not count – by total agreement of all the scholars of Islaam – so the niyyah is the firm intention and resolve itself.”

19. As Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) himself explained in the hadeeth narrated by ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) in the Sahihain Verily the actions are by intention and there is for everyone only what he intended… [Fath-ul-Baaree, 1/9, and Muslim, 6/48].

At-Tasmiyyah (Mentioning Allaah’s Name)

20. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’ anhu) said that Rasoolullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said There is no wudoo for him who does not mention Allaah’s name upon it.[Reported by Ibn Maajah (no.399), At-Tirmidhee (no.26), Abu Dawood (no.101) and others. Ash-Shaikh al-Albaani says: hadeeth Saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaarni’, no.7444)].

Imam Ahmad in one of his two sayings is of the opinion that it is obligatory in wudoo, ghusl, and Tayammum. He was followed in this opinion by Abu Bakr, and it is the saying of al-Hasan (al-Basaree) and Imam Ishaaq – as reported by Ibn Qudaamah in ‘al-Mughnee’ (1/84) and their proof is this hadeeth.

Ibn Qudaamah adds: If we take the saying that it is obligatory, then the wudoo of one who deliberately leaves it is not correct as he has left an obligatory duty in Purification – just as if he had left the intention; and if he left it forgetfully then his purification is correct. (Al-Mughnee). And this is the saying that we regard as being correct.

As for Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimahullah) he held it to be obligatory if the related hadeeth was authentic – as occurs in his Kitaab-ul-Imaan – and the hadeeth is authentic, so therefore his opinion (rahimahullah) is that it is obligatory.

21. Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim report from Anas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) that some of the Companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) sought water for wudoo , so Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Does any of you have water? So he put his hand into the water and said Make wudoo in the name of Allaah. And I saw the water coming out from between his fingers until they all made wudoo . Thaabit said: “I said to Anas (radhiAllaahu’anhu): How many were there? He said: About seventy. [Al-Bukhaaree, 1/236, Muslim, 8/411, An-Nasaa’ee, V8].

As for the proof for that which we have stated – it is his (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) saying Make wudoo in the name of Allaah. As for those who say that it is only sunnah mu’akkadah then they base that upon the relative hadeeth being da’eef ( There is no wudoo … ). However since the hadeeth is saheeh as we have explained, then there remains no proof for them and the proof is with us, and Allaah Knows Best.

So it is therefore obligatory as we have shown, however the one who forgets should mention Allaah’s name when he remembers.

Washing the Hands

22. Humraan (radhiAllaahu’anhu) narrates that ‘Uthmaan called for water to make wudoo and washed his hands three times… then said: I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)make wudoo just as I have made wudoo . [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, and as preceded].

23. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said When one of you awakes from sleep then let him not enter his hand into the bowl/vessel until he washes it three times as he does not know where his hand has spent the night. [Al-Bukhaaree (Fath ul-Baaree, 1/229), Muslim and it is his wording, as al-Bukhaaree doesn’t report “three times”].

24. And in the hadeeth of’Abdullaah ibn Zaid (radhiAllaahu’anhu) he was asked about the wudoo of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), so he called for a bowl of water and made wudoo from it as the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo, and he poured out water from the bowl upon his hand and washed it three times. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, l/255), Muslim, 3/121].

25. Aus ibn Abi Aus reports from his grandfather (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam) make wudoo washing his hands three times. [Ahmad (4/9), An-Nasaa’ee (1/55) – with saheeh isnaad].

Al-Madmadah and Al-Istinshaaq

AL-MADMADAH: Is washing the mouth and moving the water around within it.

AL-ISTINSHAAQ: Is taking water into the nose and breathing it into its backmost part.

AL-ISTINTHAAR: Is expelling the water from the nose after istinshaaq.

Washing the Mouth and Nose Together with One Handful (of Water)

26. ‘Abdullaah ibn Zaid al-Ansaaree said that it was said to him: Perform for us the wudoo of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), so he called for a pot of water..until he said: So he washed his mouth and nose with a single handful and did that three times. [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim].

Washing the Mouth

27. In the hadeeth of ‘Amr ibn Yahyaa (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) he said: And he washed his mouth and nose using three handfuls of water. [Muslim, 3/123].

Al-Imam an-Nawawi says: And in this hadeeth is a clear proof for the correct opinion that the sunnah in washing the mouth and nose is that it should be with three handfuls of water – washing the mouth and nose [together] with each of them.

28. In the hadeeth of’Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu’anhaa) in which she describes the wudoo of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) that he said When you make wudoo then wash your mouth. [Al-Baihaqi says: ‘Its isnaad is saheeh.’ And it contains an addition to the previous hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah in Abu Dawood, no.l43].

Washing the Nose and Expelling the Water

29. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said When one of you makes wudoo then let him enter water into his nose, then expel it. [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/229), Muslim (no.237), Abu Dawood (no. 140)].

30. Exerting in sniffing in the water as long as you are not fasting is reported in the hadeeth of Laqeet (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: O Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), inform me of the wudoo . He said Complete the wudoo and rub between the fingers and excert in breathing in the water into the nose unless you are fasting. [Abu Dawood, no.l42; At-Tirmidhee, no.38; An-nasaa’ee, no.ll4; IbMaajah, no.407; and others]. (Declared as saheeh by Ibn Hibbaan and al-Haalcim, and adh-Dhahabee agreed to that. Also declared as saheeh by Ibn al Qaataan, An-Nawawi and Ibn Hajr. Refer to the footnote in al-Baghawi’s Sharh us-Sunnah: 1/417].

It is clear from these two ahaadith that washing the mouth and nose are both obligatory (waajib). Ibn Qudaamah says in ‘al-Mughnee’: Washing the nose and washing the mouth are both obligatory in both forms of purification – Ghusl and wudoo – as washing the face is obligatory in both of them in the established view of the madhhab; and it is the saying of Ibn al-Mubaarak, Ibn Abi Lailaa and Ishaaq, and it is reported from ‘Ataa.

Taking Water into the Nose with the Right Hand and Expelling it with the Left

‘Abd Khair said: We were sitting looking towards ‘Alee – as he made wudoo – and he entered into his mouth a handful of water with his right hand and washed his mouth and nose, then expelled it from his nose with his left hand – he did that three times, then said: Whoever would like to see the way of purification of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) – then this is his purification. [Reported by ad-Daarimee. Ash-shaikh al-Albaanee says in his notes on al-Mishkaat: Its isnaad is saheeh].

Washing the Face

The face (wajh) is determined as being everything between the beginnings of the hair down to the cheeks and the chin, and up to the start of the ears including that which is between the beard and ear.

Allaah ta’ala says: O Ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. [soorat-ul-Maa’idah,5:7]

Humraan ibn Abaan narrates that ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) called for water to make wudoo and so mentioned the way in which the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo . Humraan said: Then he washed his face three times. [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/312), Muslim (no.226)].

Running Water Through the Beard with the Fingers

31. ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu’anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to run his (wet fingers) through his beard. [At-Tirmidhee (no.31), Ibn Maajah (no.430), Ibn Jaarood (p.43) and al-Haakim (1/14~) who declared its isnaad as saheeh as did Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibbaan. See the note in al-Baghagawi’s Sharh us-Sunnah, 1/421].

32. Anas (radhiAllaahu’anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu’alaihi wa sallam), when he made wudoo , used to take a handful of water and enter it below his chin and rub it through his beard and said This is what my Lord – the Great and Exalted – has ordered me to do. [Abo Dawood (no.145), al-Baihaqee (1/54), al-Haakim (1/149). Ash-Shaikh al-Albaani declares it to be saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaami’, no.4572)].

Some of the scholars have declared that entering water through the beard is obligatory and say: If he deliberately leaves it – then he must repeat the ( wudoo and) prayer. And this is the saying of Imam Ishaaq and Abu Thaur.

Most of the scholars however are of the opinion that the order is an order of desirability (istihbaab) and it is not obligatory – and that it is clearer that that which is obligatory is moving water through that part of the beard..so that it reaches the skin underneath. [Al-Khattaabee, 1/56].

Imam Ahmad and Laith and most of the scholars hold that moving water through the beard is obligatory when taking ghusl from Janaabah – and not obligatory in wudoo . [‘Aun al Ma’bood, 1/247].

Washing the Arms Including the Elbows

Note: The arms here which we are ordered to wash begin with the fingertips and hands – which are to be included in this washing – they being part of the arm (yad) which we are ordered to Wash in the aayah.

Allaah ta’ala says: O Ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. [soorat-ul-Maa’idah,5:7]

Humraan ibn Abaan reports that ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu’anhu) called for water for wudoo and mentioned the Prophet’s (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) way of making wudoo – and Humraan said: Then he washed his right arm including the elbow three times, then the left in the same way. [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim as has preceded].

Regarding inclusion of the elbows in the washing of the arms – scholars have differed: Some of them saying that they must be included in this washing, and others saying that this is not so. And this difference of opinion is due to their disagreement over the meaning of the word “ilaa” (to) in the aayah – does it mean ‘up to/until’ or ‘up to and including’ ?

He who says that it means ‘up to’ does not include the elbows in the washing – just as Allaah ta’ala says: ... thumma 'atimmus-siyaama ilaa -llail: Then complete your fast till the night appears; [soorat-ul-Baqara, 2:187]. And this is the opinion of some of the companions of Imam Maalik.

Most scholars, however, hold the view that the meaning is ‘up to and including/along with’ – and thus include the elbows in the washing and use as their evidence Allaah ta’ala’s saying: ...wa yayazidkum quwwatan ilaa quwwatikum...: ...and add strength to your strength; [Soorat-ul-Hud 11:52]

33. The proof in this matter is the hadeeth of Nu’aim ibn Mijmar who said: I saw Abu Hurairah make wudoo – he washed his face and completed the wudoo , then washed his right hand until he reached the upper arm, then his left hand till he reached the upper arm” – then in the end of the hadeeth he said: “This is how I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) make wudoo . [Muslim, 1/246]

So, dear reader, it is clear from this hadeeth that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to wash the elbows further, he used to increase upon that and wash part of the upper arm.

34. Jaabir (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said that when the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallarn) made wudoo , he would pass the water over his elbows. [Reported by ad-Daaraqutnee (1/15), al-Baihaqee (1/56) and others – Ibn Hajr declared it to be hasan. And Ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee declared it to be saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaami’, 4547)].

Wiping the Head and Ears and ‘Imaamah

1. Wiping over all of the head as Allaah ta’ala says: ...wamsahoo bi ru'oosikum...: …rub your heads (with water) [Soorat-ul-Maa’idah 5:7]

Ibn Qudaamah says in ‘al-Mughnee’: Some of the people who claim that that which is ordered to be wiped is part of the head only – claim that the (Baa) [in the verse] means “part of” as if He had said: “Wipe part of your heads”.’ However, we say that in His saying wamsahoo bi ru'oosikum the (Baa) is as if He said regarding Tayammum wamsahoo bi wujoohikum [Allaah ta’ala orders us to wipe the faces].

Therefore their saying that the (Baa) means “part of” is incorrect and unknown to the scholars of the language. Ibn Burhaan says: ‘He who claims that the “baa” means “part of” has declared before the scholars of the language that of which they have no knowledge. [al-Mughnee, 1/112].

Ash-Shaukaanee (rahimahullah) says in Nail-ul-Autaar: It is not established that it means “part of” and Seebawaih (one of the foremost scholars of the Arabic language) has denied that in fifteen places in his book. (Nail-ul-Autaar, 1/193).

35. In the hadeeth of’Abdullaah ibn Zaid (radhiAllaahu’anhu) is a further proof of the incorrectness of the saying that it means “a part of” – in that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) wiped his head with his two hands, moving them forwards and backwards – beginning with the front of the head and (wiping) with them up to his nape then he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) returned them to the place from which he began. [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/251), Muslim (no.235), at-Tirmidhee (no.28) and others].

2. Wiping the ears: The ruling for the ears is the same as that for the head.

36. And it is authentically reported that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said The two ears are a part of the head. [Reported by at-Tirmidhee, no.37; Abu Dawood, no.l34 and Ibn Maajah, no.444]. (Declared by ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee to be saheeh – as-Saheehah, 1/36 – and Imam Ahmad was of the view that wiping the ears has the same ruling as that for wiping the head.)]

As for those who hold the view that it is a sunnah they do not have any evidence except their regarding this hadeeth as being da’eef – it is however authentic due to a chain of narration which they did not come across and so the proof is with our saying – and Allaah Knows best.

And of the scholars who hold that they are part of the head are Ibn al-Musayyib, ‘Ataa, al-Hasan, Ibn Seereen, Sa’eed ibn Jubair and an-Nakha’ee and it is the saying of ath-Thauree and Ahl ur-Ra’y and Imams Malik and Ahmad ibn Hanbal.

Taking Fresh Water for the Head and Ears

37. Ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee says in ‘ad-Da’eefah’, no.995: There is not to be found in the Sunnah anything which obligates taking fresh water for the ears – therefore he should wipe them along with the water for the head – just as it is also permissible to wipe the head with the water remaining from that of the arms after washing them according to the hadeeth of Ar-Rabee’ bint Mu’awwidh that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) “wiped his head with water remaining in his hand”. [Reported by Abu Dawood and others with hasan isnaad].

The Way of Wiping

38. From ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr – about the way of performing wudoo – he said: Then he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) wiped his head and entered his two forefingers into his ears and wiped the backs of his ears with his thumbs. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.135), an-Nasaa’ee (no.140), Ibn Maajah (no.422) and authenticated by Ibn Khuzairnah].

Wiping Over the ‘Imaamah (Turban) Only

39. ‘Amr ibn Umayyah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) wipe over his turban and leather socks. [Reported by al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, 1/266) and others].

40. Bilaal (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu’alaihi wa sallam) wiped over the leather socks and the head cover. [Reported by Muslim, 1/159].

Wiping Over the Turban and Forelock

41. Al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo and wiped over his forelock and over the turban and leather socks. [Reported by Muslim, 1/159].

Ibn Qudaamah says in ‘al-Mughnee’ (1/310); And if part of the head is uncovered and it is normally so, then it is preferable to wipe over that along with the turban – that is recorded from Ahmad: as the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) wiped over his turban and forelock – as occurs in the hadeeth of al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah.

As for caps/’prayer hats’, it is not permissible to wipe over them as Ahmad says for various reasons, from them: (1) They do not cover all of the head normally, nor are they tied around it. (2) There is no difficulty in their removal.

As for the woman’s head cover – it is permissible to wipe over it as Umm Salamah used to wipe over her head cover – as reported by Ibn al-Mundhir. (See’al-Mughnee’, 1/312).

Washing the Feet and Ankles

Allaah ta’ala says: ...wa arjulakum ilaal ka'bayn...: …and (wash) your feet to the ankles [Soorat-ul-Maa’idah 5:7] [thus ordering the washing of the feet and ankles].

42. Ibn ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu ‘anhumaa) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) fell behind us and then came upon us during a journey, then we found him and it was time for ‘Asr – so we began to make wudoo and wipe over our feet, so he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) called out at the top of his voice Woe to the ankles from the Fire. (two or three times) [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, 1/232) and Muslim, 3/128].

An-Nawawi says in his explanation of Sahih Muslim after mentioning the hadeeth: Muslim’s intention (rahimahullah) in quoting these hadeeth was to prove with it the obligation of washing the feet – and that wiping them is not sufficient.

43. In the hadeeth of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim from Humraan ibn Abaan that ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu’anhu) called for water for wudoo and then mentioned the wudoo of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) – then Humraan said: Then he washed his right foot to the ankle three times and then his left foot to the ankle three times.

44. As Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) did in Muslim’s narration: “Then he washed his right foot till he reached the shin, then he washed the left foot till he reached the shin” and in the end of the hadeeth said: This is what I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) do. [Muslim, 1/246].

From this hadeeth – O Brother Muslim – it becomes clear that the ankles enter into this washing as is clear from his saying ’till he reached the shin’.

45. Al-Mustaurad (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: When the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo he would enter the water between his toes with his little finger. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.148), at-Tinnidhee (no.40) and Ibn Maajah (no.446). Declared as ‘saheeh’ by al-Albaanee].

As-San’aanee says in ‘Subul-us-Salaam’ after quoting this hadeeth: It is a proof for the obligation of wiping between the toes – and this also occurs in the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas which we have indicated – which is reported by at-Tirmidhee, Ahmad, Ibn Maajah and al-Haakim – and authenticated by al-Bukhaaree. And it is done by using the little finger. (See ‘Subul-us-Salaam’, 1/48).

46. And Laqeet ibn Sabarah said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa salam) said Complete the wudoo and wipe between the Asaabi’ (fingers and/or toes). [Abu Dawood (no.142), at-Tirmidhee (no.37), an-Nasaa’ee (no.114), Ibn Maajah (no.407), al-Hakim (1/148). Al-Albaanee says: Saheeh.]. As-San’aanee says: It clearly means both the fingers and toes and is shown clearly in the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas. [Subul-us-Salaam, 1/47].

The Reply to Those who Follow Wiping of the Feet Without Washing

(1) Wiping the feet when not wearing anything on the foot is not established from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). As for their using as a proof the reading of the Aayah:wamsahoo bi ru'oosikum wa arjulakum ilaal ka'bayn: rub your heads and your feet to the ankles…[soorat-ul-Maaidah 5:7] reading (arjulikum) – and saying that the feet are thus connected to (the command to wipe) the heads – and this is not correct, rather they are connected to (the order to wash) the hands. As for the reading of the word (arjulikum) with Kasra of the laam – as-San’aanee says That is for wiping over the leather socks – as is shown by the Sunnah – and this is the best interpretation for this particular recital. (As-Subul, 1/58).

(2) The Qur’aan is not to be explained according to the human intellect – especially in the matters of worship such as Salaat and wudoo , etc. – but by the Sunnah which explains this Pillar. And there are many such examples in the Qur’an which the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) explained by his sayings – and from this is the washing of the feet – and its proof from the Sunnah has preceded.

(3) If they wish to use the intellect then we say to them: The bottom of the foot has more right to be wiped than the surface (their saying being the wiping of the surface), and if they say: Then what about the socks? we say: That is established from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) just as washing the foot is also established in the Sunnah.

(4) Leaving out one of two verbs and sufficing with one of them, as the Arabs, when two verbs come together having similar meaning and are followed by things related to them, makes it permissible to mention only one of the two verbs and attaching those things relating to the second to those relating to the first which is mentioned – according to what the wording demands, until it is as if the two are partners with regard to the verb, as the poet said: I fed it with hay and cold water. And what is meant is: I fed it with hay and gave it cold water to drink.

(5) The saying of az-Zajjaj (a great scholar of the language): It is permissible that the wording (arjulikum) has the meaning of ‘wash the feet’ as the wording (ilal Ka’bain) conveys that meaning – as the mentioning of a limit suggests washing just as Allaah ta’ala says ilaal maraafiq [that is the limit of the elbows is for washing] however, if wiping were intended then there would be no need for mention of a limit just as Allaah ta’ala says wamsahoo bi ru’oosikum not mentioning any limit (for wiping the head) and further the term wiping can be used to mean washing. (Al-Mirqaat, 1/400).

(6) And further, the great majority of scholars have agreed that it is obligatory to wash the feet and that is reported – and reaches the level of mutawaatir from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) as al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr says; and further it is not established that any of the Sahaabah differed regarding that – except what is reported from ‘Alee, Ibn ‘Abbas and Anas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhum) – and it is established that they went back on that. (Al-Mirqaat. 1/400~.

47. And Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) reports that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) came to the graveyard and said ...they will come on the Day of Judgement with their blazes shining from the wudoo (It has preceded, no.7). Meaning the Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) will know from the traces of the washing, as for those who do not wash then he will not know them on the Day of Judgement.

Ibn Hajr says: And it is established that this shining of the faces, hands and feet are particular to the Muslim Ummah.


Other Aspects of Wudoo

The Siwaak

The SIWAAK is that which the mouth is brushed with. And it is also called the MISWAAK, the plural being: SOOK. And the siwaak comes from the Araak tree and it is a well-known tree. Abu Hanifah said: It is the best of the trees whose twigs are used for brushing the teeth… smelling of milk. Abu Ziyaad said: From it is taken there tooth-sticks – from its twigs and roots – and the best part for that is its roots, and it is broadly spreading..And Ibn Shameel: The Araak is a tall fine-shoot green tree with many leaves and branches, having weak wood and growing in hollows – miswaaks are taken from it, being one of the citrus trees. Its singular is Araak and its plural Araa-ik. (Lisaan-ul-‘Arab, 268).

It is mustahabb (desirable) to use the siwaak at many different times as is established from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) that he used to use the siwaak at every Prayer, and before reading the Qur’an, and before sleeping and when waking, and when the breath changes – whether fasting or not – or whether at the start of the day or in the afternoon, and it is a form of worship which is easy therefore observe it, O my Muslim Brother.

48. And also when making wudoo , as Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) narrates that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said If I did not fear to cause hardship to my Ummah I would have ordered them to use the siwaak with every wudoo. [Reported by at-Tirrnidhee (no.22) who said: Hasan Saheeh, and Maalik (no.123), Ahmad (4/116), Abu Dawood (no.37) and others. Al-Albaanee declared it to be saheeh (Takhree; ul Mishkaat, no.390)].

49. And ‘Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu’ anhaa) narrates that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said The siwaak is a means of cleansing the mouth and pleasing the Lord. [Al-Bukhaaree reports it in mu’allaq form – connected by Ahmad, an-Nasaa’ee, Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibbaan].

Ad-Dalk (Rubbing the Water over the Body Parts):

This is part of the wudoo authentically reported from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). Al-Mustawrid ibn Shadad said: I saw Rasoolullah (sailallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) when he made wudoo rubbing his toes with his litle finger. [Saheeh as has preceded].

50. Abdullah ibn Zaid (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu’alaihiwasallam) made wudoo and said Rub in this way. [See Nail-ul-Autaar, 4/39].

51. He (radhiAllaahu’anhu) also narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo with two thirds of a mudd[3] (of water) and rubbed over his forearms. [Ibn Khuzaimah (no.118), and its isnaad is Saheeh – and al-Haakim (1/161) reports it by way of Yahyaa ibn Abi Zaa’idah].

Performing the Wudoo in the Order Mentioned in the Ayaah

As for what is narrated regarding the ‘order’ as mentioned in the Aayah, then there is nothing to contradict that – and this order is obligatory (waajib) and it is said: Sunnah. [See Fiqh al Imam Sa’eed ibn al Musayyib, 1/64].

As for what is related with regard to the Prophet’s wudoo (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) then it has been reported sometimes out of the regular order. And the proof is:

52. Al-Miqdaam ibn Ma’d Yakrib said: I came to the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) with water for wudoo , so he washed his hands three times, then washed his face three times, then washed his forearms three times, then washed his mouth and nose three times, then wiped his head and ears – their outsides and insides – and washed each of his feet three times. [Ahmad (4/132), Abu Dawood (1/19) with Saheeh isnaad. Ash-Shaukaanee (1/1~5) said: Its isnaad is good, and it is reported by ad-Diyaa in ‘al-Mukhtaarah’. And al-Albaanee records it in ‘as-Saheehah’, no.261] .

So this is a proof that he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) did not always stick to the regular order – and this is a proof that it is not obligatory – however, his sticking to it mostly shows that it is Sunnah. And Allaah Knows best.

As-Suyooti says as is reported from him in ‘Aun al Ma’bood’ ( 1/48): It is used as a proof – that is the aforementioned hadeeth – by him who says that sticking to the regular order in wudoo is not obligatory as he washed his mouth and nose after washing his arms.

The author of ‘Aun al Ma’bood’ says: This narration is ‘shaadh’[4] – and therefore not to be taken in contradiction to the established narrations which put the washing of the mouth and nose before the washing of the face.

I say: The difference of opinion between the scholars here is with regard to those parts of wudoo which are Sunnah. As for the obligatory duties – then they are according to the order mentioned in the noble Aayah, and the best thing is to perform all of the actions in the way mentioned in the majority of the ahaadeeth – and Allaah Knows best.

Al-Mawaalaat (Washing Each Part Directly After the Previous one – Leaving no Time Gap in Between)

Nothing other than this is established from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). It is however established that Ibn ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu’ anhu) urinated within the market, then made wudoo and so washed his face and hands and wiped his head, then he was called to pray over a Janazzah so he entered the mosque then wiped over his leather socks, then prayed over it. [Reported by Maalik (no.72) and al-Baihaqee (1/84). And ‘Ataa didn’t see anything wrong with leaving such gaps whilst making wudoo and it is the saying of al-Hasan, an-Nakha’ee and the better reported of the two sayings of ash-Shaafi’ee].

Beginning with the Right

That is washing the right hand before the left – and likewise the feet.

53. ‘Aaishah (radhiAllaahu ‘annaa) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to like to begin with the right in putting on shoes, combing his hair, in purification and in all of his affairs. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/235, Muslim (no.267) and others].

54. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said When you dress and when you make wudoo , then begin with the right. [Abu Dawood (4141), at-Tirmidhee (1766), an-Nasaa’ee (402). Al-Albaanee declares it to be saheeh].

Economizing in the Use of Water and not Being Wasteful

55. Anas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to make wudoo with a mudd (of water) and make ghusl with a saa’ or up to five mudds. [Muslim (1/156) and others]. A saa’ is equal to four mudds. ( A mudd is that amount of water which is held by the two hands cupped together.)

If you consider this hadeeth well, O my Muslim Brother, you would feel ashamed of what some people do these days – one of them opening the water tap and making wudoo and sometimes talking to his companion whilst the water is running out – what an excess in wastefulness! So he who does that should fear Allaah and remember this hadeeth and keep it in mind and follow the Sunnah with regard to using the water sparingly and not being wasteful – and here the true following of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is made clear and the true Muslim’s belief. It is from the Sunnah for the Muslim who wishes to make wudoo to have with him a container large enough for a mudd of water – in order to force himself to return to the following of the Sunnah.

The Du’aa After the Wudoo

56. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alahi wa sallam) said None of you makes wudoo and completes the wudoo then says:

Ashhadu anlaa ilaaha illallaahu wahdahu laa shareekalahu washhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasooluhu (I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His slave andMessenger) except that all eight Gates of Paradise are opened for him – so that he enters by whichever he pleases.[Reported by Muslim (no.234), Abu Dawood (no 169), at-Tirmidhee (no.55), an-Nasaa’ee (no.148), Ibn Maajah (no.470)].

And at-Tirmidhee adds an authentic addition to it:

Allaahumma aj’alnee minat-tawwabeen waj’alnee minal mutatahhireen (O Allaah, make me one of those who constantly repents toYou and of those who purify themselves.) [Declared as Sahih by al-Albaanee].

57. Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)said Whoever makes wudoo then says upon finishing the wudoo:

Subhaanakallaahumma wa bihamdika ashhadu anlaa ilaaha illa anta astaghfiruka wa atoobu ilaika (I declare You free from all defects my Lord and all praise belongs to you and I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except You. I seek Your forgiveness and I turn to You) It is written in a parchment, then sealed and is not opened till Judgement Day. [Reported by Ibn ar-Sunnee in ‘Amal al Yaurn wal-l~ilah, no.30. Declared as Saheeh by al-Albaanee].

Washing Each Body-Part Once

68. Ibn ‘Abbaas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo (washing each part) once. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/226].

Washing Each Body-Part Twice

59. ‘Abdullaah ibn Zaid narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo (washing each part) twice. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/226].

Washing Each Body-Part Twice

60. In the hadeeth of’Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) recorded by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) washed each of the parts three times.

So from these ahaadeeth it becomes clear to us that, as is well-known to the large majority of scholars, washing each body-part once is obligatory – and the second and third washings are Sunnah – and it is better to do likewise following the Sunnah of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) [‘al-Majmoo’ of an-Nawawi, 1/229].

The Desirability of Making Wudoo for Each Prayer

Al-Haafiz says in ‘al Fath’ (1/172) in the question ‘Making wudoo without having broken it’:

61. Anas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) says: The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to make wudoo for every prayer. I said: What had you (the Sahaabah) used to do? He said: One wudoo was sufficient for us till such time as we broke it.

This hadeeth is an evidence that what is meant generally is the obligatory Prayer.

Al-Tahaawee says: It may be that that was obligatory upon him (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) particularly – then was abrogated on the Day of Fath by the hadeeth of Buraidah – meaning that which Muslim reports – that he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) prayed all the Prayers on the Day of Fath with one wudoo and that ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) asked him about that so he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said I did it deliberately. Or it may be that he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to do it out of desirability only, then feared that it might be thought to be obligatory and so left it to show the permissibility of that.

I say: The result is that making wudoo for every Prayer is mustahabb and praying all of the Prayers with one wudoo is permissible – and Allaah Knows best.

The One who is not Sure if he has Broken the Wudoo or not Relies upon that which he is Certain of

If he who knows that he has made wudoo then is not sure that he has broken it – then his wudoo remains. And he who knows that he has done that which breaks wudoo and doubts when he has made wudoo thereafter then he does not have wudoo . In each case he relies upon that which he is certain of before that which he has doubt about – and he throws the doubt away. And this is the saying of the great majority of scholars – and it is the saying of Abu Hanifah, ash-Shaafi’ee and Ahmad. [‘Al-Mughnee’, 1/193, and ~iqh ul Awaaa’ee, 1/56].

62. And the proof for this is what is established from Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said If one of you feels something in his stomach and he isn’t sure did anything (wind) come out of it or not – then let him not leave the mosque until he hears a sound or finds a smell. [Muslim (Sharh an-Nawawi, 4/51), ‘Aaridat-ul-Ahwadhee Sharh ut-Tirmidhee, 1/79].

So the hadeeth is a proof that things remain upon their original state until there is a certainty of a change in that, and doubt does not harm that – so he who is sure of having made wudoo and thinks that he may have broken it, then he remains upon wudoo .

A Man and Woman’s Washing from a Single Vessel

63. Ibn ‘Abbaas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhumaa) narrates that one of the wives of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) took a ghusl from Janaabah then saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) about to take a ghusl from the water remaining – so she informed him that she had made ghusl therefrom – so Rasoolulah said Nothing makes the water impure.[Reported by Abu Dawood (no.67), and an-Nasaa’ee (no.326), and at-Tirmidhee who declared it to be hasan saheeh, and Ibn Maajah (no.370)].

Ibn ‘Abd ul-Barr says: There is nothing in the Sharee’ah to prevent each of them washing with the water remaining from the other – either together or one after the other, and this is the saying of the scholars of the different lands and the great majority of scholars – and the ahaadeeth about it are Mutawaatir. (Al-Istidhkaar, 1/373).

Making Wudoo after Eating Camel Meat

64. Jaabir ibn Samurah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) narrates that a man asked Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam): Should I make wudoo because of the meat of sheep? He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said If you wish make wudoo and if you wish then do not make wudoo. He said: Should I make wudoo from the meat of the camel? He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Yes, make wudoo from the meat of the camel. He asked: May I pray in sheep-pens? He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Yes. He asked: May I pray in the stalls of camels? He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said No. [Reported by Muslim, 1/189].

Drying the Body Parts after Purification

‘Uthman ibn ‘Affaan, al- Hasan ibn ‘Alee, Anas ibn Maalik, al-Hasan al-Basree, Ibn Seereen, ‘Alqamah, al-Aswad, Masrooq, ad-Dahhaak, ‘Abdullaah ibn al Haarith, Abu Ya’laa, Abul Ahwas, Ash-Sha’bee, Ath-Thawree, Ishaaq, Ibn ‘Umar in a narration, and Abu Hanifah, Maalik, Ahmad, and the Shafi’ee Madhhab in one saying, all say that it is permissible after both wudoo and ghusl to dry the body-parts. And their evidence is what ‘Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) reports – she said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) had a cloth which he used to dry himself with after making wudoo . [Reported by at-Tirmidhee who declared it to be da’eef]. Then al Ainee states that an-Nasaa’ee records it in ‘al-Kunaa’ with saheeh isnaad.

I say: And it has other narrations which support and strengthen it. (See Fiqh al-Imam Sa’eed, 1/70). Al-Albaanee declares the hadeeth to be hasan. (Saheeh ul Jaami’, 4706).

65. Salmaan al-Faarsee narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo , then turned up a woollen cloak he had and wiped his face with it. [Reported by Ibn Maajah (no.468)]. In az-Zawaa’id it is said: Its isnaad is saheeh.

I say: In its isnaad is al-Wadeen ibn ‘Ataa who is sadooq but has a bad memory as al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr says in ‘Taqreeb ut-Tahdheeb’, so its isnaad is da’eef!! – but it is strengthened by the previous hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah to the level of hasan – and Allaah Knows best.

Some others hold it to be makrooh to dry the body-parts after Purification and their proof is:

66. What is established from Maimoonah (radhiAllaahu’anhaa) who described the Prophet’s (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) ghusl from Janaabah and said: Then I brought him a cloth but he refused it. [Al-Bukhaaree, and Muslim – and the word is his].

The Final word: Is that drying the body-parts is one of the desirable actions as shown by the hadeeth of Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) – as for the saying that it is makrooh then that is not acceptable as the saying of Maimoonah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) “but he refused it” does not amount to the fact that it is makrooh – and Allaah Knows best.


Those Things which Break Wudoo

(1) That Which Comes Out from the Two Private Parts (Front And Back):

Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Allaah does not accept the prayer of any one of you having committed hadath until he makes wudoo. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, 1/206) and Muslim (no.245)].

67. An-Nawawi says in ‘al-Majmoo’ (2/3) as for that which comes out of the two private parts – then it breaks wudoo according to Allaah ta’alas saying: Aw jaa'a ahadukum min al ghaa'it...: or one of you comes from offices of nature…[Soorat-ul-Maa’idah 5:7] along with his (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) saying There is no wudoo except from a sound or a smell. [Saheeh and has preceded (Saheeh ul Jaarni’ (7443)].

He adds: So that which comes out of the front or back part of a man or woman breaks the wudoo – whether excretion or urine or wind – or a worm or pus or blood or stones or anything else and there is no difference in that for something which happens normally or rarely.

(2) Sound Sleep[5]

68. ‘Alee ibn Abi Taalib (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said The eye is the drawstring for the anus, so he who sleeps then let him make wudoo. [Abu Dawood (no.203), Ibn Maajah (no.477), Ahmad. Declared as Saheeh by al-Albaanee].

In the hadeeth is an evidence that sleep does not in itself something that breaks wudoo , however the Purification is broken if it is possible for something to come out from the anus – however if that is restricted, e.g. by sitting flat on the earth, then that is not the case.

(3) Becoming Unconscious – Other than Sleep

That is the ‘intellect’ going away by any means because of insanirt or fainting or intoxication – as in this condition he does not know whether his wudoo is broken or not. This is the saying of the great majority of scholars. (Sharh Saheeh Muslim (4/74) and al-Mughnee (1/164)).

(4) Touching the Uncovered Private Parts

69. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said If one of you touches his penis and there is no veil between him and it nor any cover, then wudoo has become obligatory for him. [al-Haakim (1/138) and others]. (Al-Albaanee says: hadeeth Saheeh.)

(5) Touching the Penis

70. Busrah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said If one of you touches his penis then let him make wudoo. [At-Tirmidhee (1/18) who said it is hasan saheeh. And also declared as Saheeh by Ahmad, al-Bukhaaree and Ibn Ma’een (Lum’aat ut-Tanqeeh Sharh Mishkaat ul Masaabeeh, no.319). Others also narrate it as authentic].

71. Talq ibn ‘Alee (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu’alaihi wa sallam) was asked about a man’s touching his penis. Should he make wudoo ? He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said And is it except a part of him? [At-Tirmidhee (no.85) and he said: And this is the best of what is reported in this regard]. Al-Albaanee says: Its isnaad is Saheeh, and this (the view that it doesn’t break the wudoo) is established as being that of a group of the Sahaabah, from them: Ibn Mas’ood, ‘Ammaar ibn Yaasir, and because of these Imam Ahmad gave the choice between this and the one before it. Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah harmonized the two carrying the first to mean if he touched it with desire and this upon the touching without desire – and there is in this hadeeth that which gives that impression and it is his (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) saying ‘a part of him’. [Al-Mishkaat al Masaabeeh, notes on nos.3 19 and 320].

(6) Touching a Woman with Desire:

72. A man’s touching a woman without desire does not break the wudoo . ‘Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) says: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) prayed and I was lying in front of him as in front of a Janaazah, so when he wished to prostrate I pulled up my leg. [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim].

73. And in the same way a woman’s touching a man without desire does not break wudoo as is established from ‘Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa): I didn’t find the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) one night so I tried to find him with my hand – and my hand fell upon his feet which were raised up as he was making prostration. [Muslim (3/203) and an-Nasaa’ee (l/101)].

So we see from these two hadeeth that merely touching does not break the wudoo – and Allaah Knows best.

The author of’at-Ta’leeqaat us-Salafiyyah’ upon Sunan of an-Nasaa’ee (1/23) says concerning “he pushed me with his foot”: It is well-known that that is a touching without desire. And so the author uses it as a proof that touching without desire does not break the wudoo . As for the touching with desire – its proof is that the wudoo is not broken until a proof is established that it does indeed break it – and this is enough of a proof to show that it doesn’t break the wudoo for the one who holds that view – and above and beyond that is a further proof that it doesn’t break the wudoo is the hadeeth of kissing – as normally kissing is not free from touching with desire.

The author of ‘Aun al Ma’bood’ (1/69) says regarding her saying “he kissed me and did not make wudoo“‘ – It contains a proof that touching a woman does not break the wudoo as kissing is part of touching and the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) did not make wudoo (before praying). And this (that touching a woman even with desire doesn’t break the wudoo ) is the saying of ‘Alee and Ibn ‘Abbaas and ‘Ataa ibn Taawoos, and Abu Hanifah and Sufyaan ath-Thawree. And this hadeeth is (in itself) da’eef but is supported by other narrations. And it is mursal – however ad-Daaraqutnee joins it – and it is (therefore) an authentic (saheeh) hadeeth inshaaAllaah. (See Nasb ur Raayah, l/70).

The author of ‘al-Mughnee’ (1/190) says: The touching is not in itself something which breaks wudoo but breaks wudoo as it leads to prostratic fluid or semen being emitted – so the condition which leads to breaking of the wudoo is considered – and that is when there is desire.

Summary: That when a man and woman are safe from anything being emitted which breaks wudoo – then their wudoo is not broken; and it is preferable to be on the safe side, as they may not be safe from such emissions in the condition of desire – and Allaah Knows best.


Conclusion:

This is what Allaah ta’ala has made easy for us to gather together about the wudoo and its rulings, so we hope from Allaah the Most High, the All-Powerful, that we have been able to do justice to the subject – and we hope that any scholarly solicitous brother who comes across anything in our booklet which is incorrect to cover up and give sincere advice. And it is Allaah who grants success.

REFERENCES:

  1. Al Qur’an al Kareem.
  2. Fathul Baaree – Explanation of Saheeh ul Bukhaaree – by Ibn Hajr.
  3. Saheeh Muslim with an-Nawawi’s explanation.
  4. Sunan Abi Dawood.
  5. Sunan an-Nasaa’ee.
  6. Jaami’ ut-Tirmidhee.
  7. Sunan Ibn Maajah.
  8. Al-Musnad of Imam Ahmad.
  9. As-Sunan al Kubraa of aI-Baihaqee.
  10. Al-Mustadrak ‘alas-Saheehain by al-Haakim.
  11. Al-Muwatta with az-Zarqaanees explanation.
  12. Majma’ az-Zawaa’id by al-Haitumee.
  13. Nasb ur-Raayah of az-Zaila’ee.
  14. Kanz ul Ummaal.
  15. Al Mughnee wash-Sharh ul Kabeer- Ibn Qudaamah.
  16. Sharh us-Sunnah al Baghawee.
  17. Al-Majmoo’ of an-Nawawee.
  18. Al-Isbidhkaar of Ibn ‘Abd il Barr.
  19. Mirqaat ul Mafaateeh Sharh of Mishkaat ul Masaabeeh.
  20. Saheeh ul-Jaami’ us-Sagheer by Al-Albaanee.
  21. Da’eef ul Jaami’ us-Sagheer by al-Albaanee.
  22. Nail ul Autaar of ash-Shaukaanee.
  23. Subul us-Salaam of as-San’aanee.
  24. Fiqh us-Sunnah of Sayyid Saabiq.
  25. Minhaaj us-Sunnah of Ibn Taimiyyah.
  26. Tahdheeb-ut-Tahdheeb of Ibn Hajr.
  27. Fiqh of al Imam Sa’eed ibn al Musayyib.
  28. Fiqh of al Imam al Auzaa’ee.
  29. Lisaan ul ‘Arab of Ibn Manzoor.
  30. Mashaariq ul Anwaar.
  31. ‘Aun al Ma’bood explana~ion of Abi Dawood.
  32. ‘Aaridat-ul-Ahwadhee explanahon of at-Tirmidhee.
  33. Tafseer Ibn Katheer.
  34. Fath-ul-Qadeer by ash-Shaukaanee.
  35. Kitaab-ul-Imaan by Ibn Taimiyyah.
  36. Majmoo’at-ur-Rasaa’il il-Kubraa by Ibn Taimiyyah.
  37. At Tafseer ul Kabeer of Al Fakhr-ur-Raazee.
  38. Lum’aat ut-Tanqeeh – explanation of Mishkaat ul-Masaabeeh.
  39. At-Ta’leeqaat us-Salafiyyah upon Sunan of an-Nasaa’ee.

Footnotes

[1]That which makes normal actions, such as eating and talking, forbidden therein. again

[2]That which renders normal actions permissible

[3]The amount held by the two hands placed together.

[4]A narration whose isnaad is authentic but contradicts that which is better established.

[5]Khilaaf (difference) of Scholars – That sleep is in itself something which breaks wudoo. hadeeth “except from urine or excretion or sleep” … and further, thus hadeeth itself is a proof for this saying.