“Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you & those who were before you so that you may become Al-Muttaqun” – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh As-Saleh [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Excellent Benefits from the Tafseer of the Verse 21 from Sooratul Baqarah

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become Al-Muttaqun.

[Surah al-Baqarah 2:21]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Posted fromTafseer – Explanation Surah Al-Baqarah – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio Series|En]. Explanation Based on Shaykh Uthaymeen’s Tafseer

Related Links:

Smoking: Is It Haraam (Unlawful)? – Dr. Saleh as Saleh

Bismillaah

Smoking: Is It Haraam (Unlawful)?
Author: Sheikh (Dr) Muhamad Bin Ahmad Bin Ismaa’eel
Translated by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullaah)

Many Muslims regard smoking as disliked by Sharee’ah but not forbidden. When an advice is given about smoking and its ruling you often hear a defensive response. People know the killing effects of smoking, but Satan wants them to keep on spending and burning their chests.

Certainly, cigarettes were not present in the lifetime of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). However, what was present and will continue to be present is the Revelation in its forms, the Qur’aan and authentic Sunnah. The Qur’aan formulated the prohibition of everything that is evil:

He allows them all that is good and lawful, and prohibits them as unlawful all that is evil.” (Qur’aan 7: 157)

Evil manifests itself in things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, drinks, etc. Let us see whether smoking is evil or not?

1-Smoking is a killer:

It causes lung cancer, tuberculosis, and heart diseases, to mention a few. We know that Allaah forbids us from killing ourselves. He says:

وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا

وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ عُدْوَانًا وَظُلْمًا فَسَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِ نَارًا ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرًا

“And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allaah is Most Merciful to you. And whoever commits that through aggression and injustice, We shall cast him into the Fire, and that is easy for Allaah.” (Qur’aan 4: 29-30)

Allaah also says:

“And do not throw yourselves into destruction” (Qur’aan 2: 195)

The above ‘Ayaat are sufficient to prove the Tahreem of smoking.

2-Smoking burns wealth:

Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

 وَلَا تُبَذِّرْ تَبْذِيرًا

إِنَّ الْمُبَذِّرِينَ كَانُوا إِخْوَانَ الشَّيَاطِينِ

“But spend not wastefully (your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift. Verily, spendthrifts are brothers of the devils.” (Qur’aan 17: 26-27)

You see some Muslim smokers, may Allaah guide them to the truth, reserving their cash to buy a pack or a twelve-pack carton of cigarettes, or for the “pipe stuff”, etc. wasting their money and their chests: waste on top of waste.

3-Smoking inflicts harm on non-smokers:

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“There should be neither harming, nor reciprocating harm”

[An authentic hadeeth reported in Saheeh Al-Jaam’, # 7517.]

a-Smoking harms the body.

b-It is harmful to others. Many people encounter breathing problems when they smell a pipe or a cigarette, especially people suffering from bronchial asthma.

c-It is the cause of many devastating fires, etc.

4-Smokers cause the spread of evil: They smoke openly and thus encourage others to smoke.

5-Smoking effects worship: Many smokers dislike fasting and praying because they become impatient. They want to go for the next “round”. The smoker becomes like an addict.

6-Smoking makes people smell bad: His car, clothes, home, etc. Carry the bad smell too! He hurts others with his smell while in prayer. In fact the angels also get affected by the smell, because the Prophet ρ said:

“Whoever has eaten from such greens: garlic, onions, or leek should keep away from our mosque. Truly, the angels are harmed by that which harms the offspring of Adam.”

[Al-Bukaree, Muslim, At-Tirmithee, and An-Nassaa’ee from the hadeeth of Jaabir. See Saheeh AlJaami’ # 6089.]

The above points are clear evidences that smoking is evil, and thus it is Haraam (unlawful). If the Muslim is under any kind of stress, then he must turn to Allaah for help. The Book of Allaah, the Qur’aan is a healing. When the urge for smoking arise, resort to the Qur’aan and strive to comply with Allaah’s commands:

وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمَعَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

“Those who strive hard in Us (Our Cause), We will surely guide them to Our Paths.” (Qur’aan 29: 69)

You may want to take by some of the following means while depending upon Allaah, seeking His help and guidance:

1-Try to minimize drinking the drinks that became “mentally related” to smoking:coffee, tea, etc.
2-Whenever there is an urge for smoking, try to make yourself busy with something else.
3-Minimize contact with smokers.
4-Try not to accept a cigerette from anyone.
5-Try not to finish smoking the whole cigarette. Go to two thirds, then half, etc.
6-Try not to deeply inhale the smoke.
7-Try to drink a lot of water one you quit smoking.
8-Try to remember that you want to gain the pleasure of Allaah.

Source: Pages 54 – 56 in the below PDF Document
The Three Letters – The Beard, Isbaal , Smoking – Dr Saleh as Saleh [PDF]

Source: Understand-islam.net

Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/category/islam/smoking

Names of the Messengers Mentioned in Qur’an and Authentic Sunnah – Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Some of the Messengers whose names we know of by Textual Proofs from the Qur’an and (or) Authentic Sunnah are:

[Download PDF]

Source: The Message of the Messengers – Dr Saleh As-Saleh [PDF]

Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/prophets-messengers

The Virtues of Hijab – Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

[Download MP3] [30 min Duration]

INTRODUCTION

ALL praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, the Most Merciful, the Beneficent, and the Master of the Day of Judgment. O Allah! Have Your Salat (1) and Salam (peace) and blessing upon Your slave and Messenger Muhammad and upon all of his companions.

Extraordinary consideration has been given by the Islamic Law to women’s affairs, all meant to protect her chastity, to honor her and to secure her position in life. The so called “restrictions” placed upon her regarding her dress and the display of her beauty and ornament is only to guard against all ways of corruption arising from such dazzling displays. What Islam has established is not a restriction on the freedom of women but is a firm protection for her from falling down to the lowest levels of humiliation.

One of the means of this protection is the HIJAB. The characteristics of the Hijab are discussed, bringing the glad tidings promised (by Allah) to those women adhering to it. We also point out the danger of dazzling displays of ornaments and beauty as well as the terrible repercussions in this life and in the hereafter for those who practice Tabar’ruj (display of beauty).

It comes at a time when more women are throwing away their revealing clothes, and wearing the Hijab. This comes at a time when Muslim women wearing Hijab are attacked in “civilized” Europe (2)! and inFrance (3) Muslim women are prevented from wearing the head scarf / Hijab at school. These are times of trials for Muslims and particularly for Muslim women. We all have to remember the path of the Prophets: endurance, patience, holding on, and aiming high by keeping the way of Allah above everything.

(1) The Salat of Allah upon prophet Muhammad is His Praise and mentioning of the Prophet to the angels in the Most High place in Paradise
(2) Bosnia is a testimony against the “civility” of Europe and the West. Civility stops at the word: Muslim or Islam!
(3) The country that raises the banner of: equality, brotherhood, and freedom.!!!

THE VIRTUES OF HIJAAB

(1) AN ACT OF OBEDIENCE

The Hijab is an act of obedience to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) (4) and to His Messenger Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم (5)

He (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ ۗ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا

“It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have an option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, has indeed strayed in a plain error.” (Qur’an 33:36)

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) also says:

فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا

“But no by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) a judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.” (Qur’an 4:65)

Indeed,, Allah ordered that women must put on the Hijab (6).

He (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

وَقُل لِّلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا ۖ وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَىٰ جُيُوبِهِنَّ

“And tell the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things) and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts, etc.) and not to show off their adornment except what must (ordinarily) appear thereof, that they should draw their veils over their Juyubihinna (7).” (Qur’an 24:31).

Allah considered the dazzling display of beauty an act of ignorance:

وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَىٰ

“And stay in your houses and do not display yourselves like that of the times of Jahiliyeeyah(8) (ignorance). “ (Qur’an 33:33)

He, Most Glorified, says:

 وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَاعًا فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ مِن وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّ

“And when you ask the Prophet’s wives for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen.” (Qur’an 33:53)

The above Ayah (verse) does not apply only to the Prophet’s wives but to all of the believing women. Carefully read the following saying of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى):

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَن يُعْرَفْنَ فَلَا يُؤْذَيْنَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies (i.e. screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way). That will be better, that they should be known (as free respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. (9) (Qur’an 33:59)

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“The woman (i.e. any woman) is A’wrah (10)”, that is she must be covered.

(4) Subhanahu Wata’ala, Most Glorified and Most High is He.

(5) صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم: Salla Allahu Alaihi Wassalam: May the Salat and Salaam (Peace) of Allah be upon His Prophet Muhammad

(6)This is not something cultural. It is Allah’s order. Its conditions are not Arabian, Egyptian, Pakistani, Black or White American, etc. Its conditions are specified in the Qur’an and Sunnah to provide a protection and safeguarding of women. No one knows about what is good for men and women more than their Creator, Allah. His laws are Wise as it is the case with all of His actions.

(7) Juyubihinna: The respected scholars from As-Salaf As-Saleh (righteous predecessors) differed whether the veil cover of the body must include the hands and face or not. Today, respected scholars say that the hands and face must be covered. Other respected scholars say it is preferable for women to cover their whole bodies.

(8) Jahilyeeyah: The days of ignorance prior to the Revelation of the Qur’an.

(9) No one can ignore the molestation of women that exists in the so called “open” societies. The question is: why it is happening? The answer begins to shape up when people think about the purpose behind creation. Allah created us for the single purpose of worshipping Him alone. He detailed all the ways to fulfill this purpose in the Last Revelation to all mankind, the Qur’an. In it we can find how women and men can safeguard their dignity, honor, and morality. The worship of Allah is manifested in the following of His orders. Allah orders that men and women must avoid all the roads that lead to animalistic ways of living. The Hijab is one of Allah’s commands. It is an honor and protection for women as well as a true freedom for her body from the hands and eyes of aggressors and molesters.

(10) This hadeeth is narrated by Abdullah bin Masoud and collected by At-Tirmidhi who said it is Hassan-Ghareeb i.e. good and Ghareeb (The Ghareeb is a narration by one narrator either in each level of the levels of the chain of narrators or in some levels of the chain). Also As-Suyouti hinted that it is authentic.

(2) THE HIJAB IS IFFAH (MODESTY):

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) made the adherence to the Hijab a manifestation for chastity and modesty:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَن يُعْرَفْنَ فَلَا يُؤْذَيْنَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies (i.e. screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way). That will be better, that they should be known (as free respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. (Qur’an 33:59)

In the above Ayah there is an evidence that the recognition of the apparent beauty of the woman is harmful to her. When the cause of attraction ends, the restriction is removed. This is illustrated in the case of elderly women who may have lost every aspect of attraction. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) made it permissible for them to lay aside their outer garments and expose their faces and hands reminding, however, that it is still better for them to keep their modesty:

وَالْقَوَاعِدُ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ اللَّاتِي لَا يَرْجُونَ نِكَاحًا فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِنَّ جُنَاحٌ أَن يَضَعْنَ ثِيَابَهُنَّ غَيْرَ مُتَبَرِّجَاتٍ بِزِينَةٍ ۖ وَأَن يَسْتَعْفِفْنَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُنَّ ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

“And as for women past child-bearing who do not expect wed-lock, it is no sin for them if they discard their (outer) in such a way as not to show their adornment; but it is best to be modest and Allah knows and sees all things provided they do not make a display of their beauty; but it is best to be modest and Allah knows and sees all things.” (Qur’an 24:60)

So how about young women? Clearly they must stay modest find not display their beauty.

(3) THE HIJAB IS TAHARA (PURITY)

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) had shown us the Hikma (Wisdom) behind the legislation of the Hijab:

 وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَاعًا فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ مِن وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّ

“And when you ask them (the Prophet’s wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen, that is purer for your hearts and their hearts.” (Qur’an 33:53)

The Hijab makes for greater purity for the hearts of believing men and women because it screens against the desire of the heart. Without the Hijab, the heart may or may not desire. That is why the heart is more pure when the sight is blocked (by Hijab) and thus the prevention of fitna (evil actions) is very much manifested. The Hijab cuts off the ill thoughts and the greed of the sick hearts:

 تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا

“Be not soft in speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease (of hypocrisy or evil desire for adultery, etc.) should be moved with desire, but speak in an honorable manner.” (Qur’an 33:32)

(4) THE HIJAB IS A SHIELD

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Allah, Most High, is Ha’yeii (11), Sit’teer (12), He loves Haya’ (Bashfulness) and Sitr (Shielding; Covering)”(13).

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) also said:

“Any woman who takes off her clothes in other than her husband’s home (to show off for unlawful purposes). has broken Allah’s shield upon her” (14)

The hadeeth demonstrates that depending upon the kind of action committed there will be either reward (if good) or punishment (if bad).

(11) Ha’yeii: Allah is Bashful: He does not unravel the acts of disobedience by His slaves. They openly disobey Allah while they are in need of Him, yet He (being Ha’yeii) is ashamed of humiliating them leaving the door of repentance opened for them. If, however, they become arrogant and persist on the spread of evil, and disobedience, Allah certainly is All-Just in His infliction of punishment.

(12) Sit’teer: Allah is Sit’teer: He provides means that shield against the uncovering of disobedient acts. The slaves commit acts of disobedience while Allah is providing them with many of His favors. He (سبحانه و تعالى) gives the opportunity for each one of us to return to Him in repentance and to seek His forgiveness. He loves those who do not like the spread of sin. He dislikes the Muslim who publicizes his acts of sin and disobedience. He loves the Muslim who does not unravel the sins of his brother in Islam while at the same time calls him to repent. The Hijab is something beloved by Allaah because it is a shield against the spread of evil manifested in the display of beauty to strangers.

(l3) Collected by Abu Dawoud, An-Nissa’ee, AI-Baihaqee, Ahmed, and in Saheeh An-Nissa’ee.

(14) Collected by Abu Dawoud and At-Tirmidhi who said: it is a good hadeeth” .

(5) THE HIJAB IS TAQWAH (RIGHTEOUSNESS)

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

يَا بَنِي آدَمَ قَدْ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمْ لِبَاسًا يُوَارِي سَوْآتِكُمْ وَرِيشًا ۖ وَلِبَاسُ التَّقْوَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ

“O Children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover yourselves (screen your private parts, etc.) and as an adornment. But the raiment of righteousness, that is better.” (Qur’an 7:26)

The widespread forms of dresses in the world today are mostly for show off and hardly taken as a cover and shield of the woman’s body. To the believing women, however, the purpose is to safeguard their bodies and cover their private parts as a manifestation of the order of Allah. It is an act of Taqwah (righteousness ).

(6) THE HIJAB IS EEMAN(BELIEF OR FAITH)

Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) did not address His Words about the Hijab except to the believing women, Al-Mu’minat:

وَقُل لِّلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ

“And say (O Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) to the believing women.” (Qur’an 24: 31)

In another Ayah Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) also says:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَن يُعْرَفْنَ فَلَا يُؤْذَيْنَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

“And the believing women” (Qur’an 33: 59).

A’isha (Radiya Allahu anha)(15)) the wife of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), addressed some women from the tribe of Banu Tameem who came visiting her and had light clothes on them:

“If indeed you are believing women, then truly this is not the dress of the believing women, and if you are not believing women, then enjoy it.”(16)

(15) Radiya Allahu anhu (anha or anhum): May Allah be pleased with him (her or them)
(16) Reported in “Ma’alim As-Sunnan” by Abu Suleiman Al-Khitabi in his explanation of Sunnan An-Nissa’ee V 4, p.376

(7) THE HIJAB IS HAYA‘ (BASHFULNESS)

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Each religion has a morality and the morality of Islam is haya’ (bashfulness).” (17)

He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) also said:

“Bashfulness is from belief and belief is in Al-Jannah (Paradise).”(18)

Furthermore, he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Bashfulness and belief are fully associated together if one is lifted the other follows suit.” (19)

The mother of the believers, A’isha said: “I used to enter the room where the Messenger of Allah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and my father were later buried in without having my garment on me, saying it is only my husband and my father”. But when Umar (radi Allaahu anhu) was later buried in (the same place), I did not enter the room except that I had my garment on being shy from Umar (radi Allaahu anhu).”(20) The Hijab fits the natural bashfulness which is a part of the nature of women.

(17) Related by Imam Malik in his “Mu’wata” (2: 905-Arabic). The hadeeth chain is Mursal i.e. the chain of narrators is disconnected at one point or another. For example to say: “On the authority of A, on the authority of B, on the authority of C that the Prophet said “….” . The hadeeth is Mursal if for example C did not hear directly from the Prophet. In the case of the above hadeeth, Ibin Habban connected the chain by two ways of narrators, both of them are weak.

(18) collected by At-Tirmidhi who said it is: “a good and authentic hadeeth”.

(19) Narrated by Abdul’lah bin Umar as Related by Al-Hakim in his “Mustadrak” (1/22-Arabic) who said: “it is a good and authentic Hadeeth…..” and Al-Thahabi confirmed Al-Hakim on this.

(20) As-Simt Ath’ameeen Fee Maniqib Ummahat Ul-Mu’mineen, p.91:A Book by Ibn As-Sakir that represents a collection of the great attributes of the Mothers of Believers (The wives of the Prophet-صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). AlHakim reported a similar narration and said that it is “good according to the conditions of Imam Bukhari and Imam Mulslim”, noting that both Imams did not discuss the chain of narration itself. Al- Thahabi had no comment about Al-Hakim’s narration.

(8) THE HIJAB IS GHEERAH

The Hijab fits the natural feeling of Gheerah which is intrinsic in the straight man who does not like people to look at his wife or daughters. Gheerah is a driving emotion that drives the straight man to safeguard women who are related to him from strangers. The straight Muslim man has Gheerah for all Muslim women. Many in the world had lost this great moral aspect. In response to lust and desire men look (with desire) at other women while they do not mind that other men do the same to their wives or daughters! In “free” societies you see men sitting with strange women who are half-naked “enjoying” the scene! They introduce their wives to other strange men. Mutual looks here and there! Affairs develop and phone calls are exchanged. “Love affairs” destroys many families and children suffer most. What kind of “love” is this? The mixing of sexes and absence of Hijab kills the Gheerah in men. The eyes “eat up” other men and women! The inner “justification” is: since I can look they can look. It’s a ” free choice”!! Few are those who feel anything when they discover their wives have “affairs”. They become numb!! No dignity ! No honor! The bottom line is that in many societies of this modern World the animalistic behaviors are becoming very apparent.

Ali (radi Allaahu anhu) said: “It was related to me that you women used to crowd the Kuffar (disbelieving men) from the non-Arabs in the markets; don’t you have Gheerah? There is no good in the one who does not have Gheerah.”

Islam considers Gheerah an integral part of faith .The dignity of the wife or daughter or any other Muslim woman must be highly respected and defended.

Source: Posted from the e-Book: The Hijab .. Why? by Muhammad Bin Ahmad Bin Ismail Al-Mokadam| Dr. Saleh As-Saleh [PDF] & Audio Series

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/women

The Obligatory Conditions for an Islamic Hijab – Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

[Download Mp3]

(1) COVERING ALL OF THE BODY

This respected author is in agreement with the position that the face and hands of the woman must be covered as he has detailed this in discussions of the Hijab issues in his book: “The Return of the Hijab, Part 3”. Some scholars say it is permissible to uncover the face and the hands of the woman as long as there is no fitna (infatuation) caused by her or inflicted upon her. They see that if: a) she is beautiful and beautifies her face and hands with external substances, and b) the society around her is corrupt where men do not lower their gaze, then it is prohibited for her to uncover her face and hands.

(2) THE HIJAB MUST NOT BE A DISPLAY

The Hijab itself must not be a display. Allah ordained it so as to cover the beauty of women and not for show off. He (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

“And not to show of their adornment except only that which is apparent.” (Qur’an 24: 31)

وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَىٰ

“And stay in your houses and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance.” (Qur’an 33:33)

It is not logical that the Hijab itself be a source of display.(41)

(41) Some women put on attractive covers on their heads. This is against the purity of the Hijab and its essence.

(3) THE HIJAB MUST NOT BE TRANSPARENT

The purpose must be achieved. In order for the Hijab to be a cover, it must not be made of transparent material making the woman covered only by name(!) while in reality she is naked.

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“In the latest part of my Ummah (nation of Muslims) there shall be women who would be naked in spite of being dressed, they have hair high like the humps of the Bukht camel, curse them, for they are cursed”(42).

He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) added in another hadeeth:

“They will not enter Al-Jannah and would not perceive its odor, although its fragrance can be perceived from such and such distance.(43)

This indicates that a woman could cause herself a grave and destructive sin if she puts on a garment that is thin and transparent and which clearly shapes her body’s features.

(42) At-Tabarani reported it and Al-Albani in his book “Al-Hijab” said it is authentic.

(43) At-Tabarani related this hadeeth in “Al-Mu’jam As-Sagheer” p.232 and Al-Albani said it Saheeh as in his book “The Hijab” p.56. As-Suyouti related on behalf of Ibin Abdul’Barr that: “The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) intended women who put on light clothes that shows off and shapes the body descriptions. In reality they are naked although they have clothes on them! “.

(4) HIJAB MUST BE ROOMY, FLOWING AND NOT TIGHT

The Hijab is a safeguard against Fitna. If tight, it will be descriptive of the woman’s body and this violates the purpose of Hijab.

Usaama Bin Zaid (رضي الله عنه) said:

“The Messenger of Allah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) dressed me with a thick Qubtyeeyah (cotton dress from Egypt) which was a gift that he received from Duhia Al-Kalbi. So I gave it to my wife to wear. He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said : “What made you not to wear the Qubtyeeyah?” I said: “I dressed my wife with it. ” He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: ” Order her to put an undergarment (or gown) under it, because I am afraid it may describe the size of her bones.(44)

(44) Reported by Ad’Diya’ Al-Maqdissi, Imam Ahmed, At-Tabarani, AlBaihaqi, and Ibn Sa’d. It is also reported that Al-Haithami said: “amongst the chain of narrators is Abdullah Ibn Aqeel whose narrations are good; yet according to some scholars there is Da’eef (weakness) associated with him, and that the rest of narrators are Thuqat (men of confidence regarding reporting). Ad-Dahabi said: ” the level of Abdullah Ibn Aqeel’s narration is not below the rating of “good” (In Meezan AlI’tidal: Measure of Balanced (verifications); Arabic).

(5) THE HIJAB MUST NOT BE PERFUMED WITH INCENSE

The Messenger of Allah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Any woman who perfumes herself and passes by some people that they smell her scent, then she is a Zaniyah (prostitute).”(45)

(45) Related by Imam Ahmed, An-Nissa’ee, and Al-Hakim who said: “it has an authentic chain of narration” and Ad-Dahabi agreed.

(6) THE HIJAB SHOULD NOT RESEMBLE MEN’S DRESS

The Messenger of Allah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Women who assume the manners of men are not from us and also those of men who assume the manners of women.”(46)

Abu-Huraira (رضي الله عنه) narrated that:

“The prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) cursed the man who wears the dress of a woman and the woman who wears the dress of a man.” (47)

(46) Reported by Imam Ahmed and Abu Na’eem. Al-Albani authenticated it in his book “Al-Hijab” (PP 66-67).

(47) Related by An-Nissa’ee, Imam Ahmed, Ibn Khuzayemah, Ibn Hab’ban and authenticated by the scholar Ahmed Shakir.

(7) THE HIJAB MUST NOT RESEMBLE THE GARMENTS OF THE KUFFAR

The Messenger of Allah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“The one who takes the similitude (manner) of a certain people becomes one of them.” (49)

Abdullah bin Umar (رضي الله عنه) said:

“The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) saw me wearing two clothes dyed in saffron, whereupon he said: these are the clothes (usually worn) by the Kuffar, so do not wear them.” (50)

(49) Related by Abu Dawoud, Ahmed (as part of a another hadeeth), Ibn Taymeeyah said that the hadeeth has a good chain of narration (i.e. that reported by Abu Dawoud) and that it is a “good hadeeth”; As-Suyouti said :”it is “Hassan: Good” and Ibn Hajar reported it in “Fath Al-Bari” and supported it with another evidence (a Murssal) with a good chain of narration.

(50) Saheeh Muslim, V. 3, hadeeth # 5173

(8) THE HIJAB IS NOT FOR FAME!

The Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“The one who wears a garment designed for a worldly fame, Allah will make him wear a garment of humiliation on the Day of Resurrection then he will be set ablaze.” (51)

The garment of fame is any garment a person wears to make him/her look famous. This applies whether the garment is highly precious and shows admiration to the life of this world or if it is chosen of a low quality to show lack of interest to this worldly life. The person may put on clothes with distinct colors so as to draw attention, act proudly and/or arrogantly.

(51) Related by Abu Dawoud, Ibn Majah, and Al-Munthari said that it is hassan (good) as well as Ibn Muflih. Imam As-Shawkani said: “The narrators of the chain are Thuqat” and Al-Alabni reported in his book “Al-Hijab” p. 110 that it is hassan .

(9) WATCH FOR “CONCEALED” WAYS OF DISPLAY

Examining the various conditions about the Hijab one can clearly recognize that many of the young Muslim women are not fulfilling these conditions. They consider what they put on now, wrongly as “Hijab”

The enemies of the Islamic revival wanted to destroy it in its infancy by oppression and cruelty. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) defeated their plots and held the believing men and women steadfast in their obedience of Him (سبحانه و تعالى). The enemies of Islam realized that they should deal with the Islamic revival in a wicked way in order to sway this revival away from its course towards Allah.

They started to spread innovated forms of “Hijab” as a “midway” solution by which the Muslim woman can “please” Allah (they claim so!) and at the same time “accommodate” her society and preserve her “beauty” and “glamour”.

The modern “boutique” stores were declining in their trade due to the widespread use of the true Islamic Hijab. Suddenly, the markets were flooded with altered forms of Tabar’ruj under the name ‘modern/contemporary Hijab’. In the beginning this was protested and women were cautious. A group of “displaying women” who were embarrassed with the Islamic Hijab rushed towards the “contemporary Hijab” to “relief’ themselves from the pressing social realities caused by the spread of Hijab. With time the phenomenon of “concealed display” became widespread and known as “contemporary Hijab”. Women friendly to this course think they are the best of girls and best of wives while in fact they are as one poet said:

If they relate to the Hijab
It is the relation of an intruder

So! O women of this kind be mindful to Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and His Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and do not be deceived by those who may “bless” this action of yours and conceal their true intentions. Do not be deceived and let your response be: ” I am better than those who are in a complete state of display!” There is no excuse to follow the evil. Know that the fire of Hell has different lower levels while Paradise has different higher levels. So it is proper to follow your sisters who truly adhere to the Islamic Hijab and its conditions. Aim high towards the highest levels of Al-Jannah.

It has been related that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Look at those who stand at lower levels than you (regarding worldly wealth) and those who stand at higher levels than you in religion (adherence to faith). for this would not make the favors (conferred upon you by Allah) insignificant (in your eyes).” (52)

Az-Zohri reported (53) that Ummar Ibn Al-Khatab (رضي الله عنه) recited the saying of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى):

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ ثُمَّ اسْتَقَامُوا تَتَنَزَّلُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ أَلَّا تَخَافُوا وَلَا تَحْزَنُوا وَأَبْشِرُوا بِالْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي كُنتُمْ تُوعَدُونَ

“Verily those who say: “Our Lord is Allah (Alone), and then they stood straight (i.e. they believed in the Oneness of Allah and worshipped none but Him (Alone) and obeyed Him for all that He ordered them) on them the angels will descend (at the time of their death) (saying); “Fear you not, nor grieve! But receive the glad tidings of Al-Jannah which you have been Promised!) (Qur’an 41:30).

He then said:

“They, by Allah, followed the straight path of Allah by obeying Him and did not dodge like wolves.”

Al-Hassan Al Basri, may Allah’s Mercy be upon him, said:

“If Shaytan (Devil) looks and finds you continuously adhering to the obedience of Allah he will seek you (i.e. check you) one time after the other. If he finds that you are still holding, he becomes weary of you and rejects you. But if you adhere one time and you do not another, then he becomes covetous: he wants to have you for himself.” (54)

So come on to a straight path that has no crookedness and a guidance that has no misleading ways in it, and to an honest repentance that has no disobedience in it:

وَتُوبُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا أَيُّهَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

“And turn you all together to Allah (and beg Him) to forgive you all, O believers, that you may be successful.” (Qur’an 24:31)

(52) The origin of this hadeeth was reported in Saheeh Al-Bukhari in the Book of Riqaq and Muslim in the Book of Az-Zuhd V.4, hadeeth # 7070, P 1530, and At-Tirmidhi in the Book of Qiyamah.

(53) Reported by Imam Ahmed and Ibn Al-Mubarak. Imam Ahmed reported it in the Book of Az-Zuhd p. 115 and 110, respectively.

(54) Reported by Ibn Al-Mubarak in his book “Az-Zuhd” p. 7 # 20

THE HONEST MUSLIM receives the order of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) and hastens to manifest his love to Islam into action and listens to and obeys the Sunnah of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). He does not give attention to the lost and misleading ways of the masses of human beings who do not realize their awaiting destiny. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) negated the existence of belief in those who turn away from Him and from His Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) saying:

وَيَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَبِالرَّسُولِ وَأَطَعْنَا ثُمَّ يَتَوَلَّىٰ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُم مِّن بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ ۚ وَمَا أُولَٰئِكَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ

وَإِذَا دُعُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَهُمْ إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُم مُّعْرِضُونَ

“They (hypocrites) say: “We have believed in Allah and in the Messenger (Muhammad-صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), and we obey”, then a party of them turn away thereafter, such are not believers. And when they are called to Allah (i.e. His Words-the Qur’an) and His Messenger to judge between them, lo! a party of them refuse to come and turn away.” (Qur’an 24: 47-48 )

On the other hand:

إِنَّمَا كَانَ قَوْلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذَا دُعُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَهُمْ أَن يَقُولُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَخْشَ اللَّهَ وَيَتَّقْهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ

“The saying of the faithful believers when they are called to Allah (His Words-the Qur’an) and His Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) to judge between them is only that they say: ‘We hear and we obey.’ And such are the successful (who will live for ever in Al-Jannah).” (Qur’an 24: 51-52)

Safiyyah, the daughter of Shayebah, said:

“While we were at A’isha’s (radi Allahu anha) we mentioned the women of Qureish and their good favors, then A’isha said: “indeed the women of Qureish have a good favor and by Allah I have not seen better than the women of Al-Ansar in their strength of acceptance of the Book of Allah and in the belief in the Revelation: At the time when Surat An-Nur was sent down (and in it Allah says): “Let them (believing women) draw their veils over Juyubihinna.” soon their husbands turned to them reciting what Allah had sent down to them (i.e. the above Ayah), the man recites to his wife, his daughter, his sister and to every female relative. Not a single woman of them except that she took up her engraved Mirt (55) (wrapper) and covered her head and face in acceptance and belief in what Allah had sent down from His Book. The next morning they were behind the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), covered as if black crows were on top of their heads.” (56)

Therefore, there is no choice but to submit the order of Allah and no hesitation should exist in following the ruling of Allah. So come for repentance, O My Muslim Sister, and watch for words like “I will repent, I will pray, I will cover with Hijab“, because delaying the repentance is a sin that you must repent from! Say as Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) said on the tongue of Moosa (May Allah’s peace be upon him) :

عَجِلْتُ إِلَيْكَ رَبِّ لِتَرْضَىٰ

“I HASTENED TO YOU, O MY LORD, TO PLEASE YOU” (Qur’an 20:84)

And say as the believing men and women said:

 سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۖ غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ

“WE HEAR AND WE OBEY. (WE SEEK) YOUR FORGIVENESS, OUR LORD, AND TO YOU IS THE RETURN” (Qur’an 2: 285)

(55) With pictures of houses and dwellings.
(56) Reported in The Tafseer of Al-Qur’an Al-Ath’eem by Ibn Katheer 5:90 (Arabic)

Source: Posted from the e-Book: The Hijab .. Why? by Muhammad Bin Ahmad Bin Ismail AL-Mokadam| Dr. Saleh As-Saleh [PDF] & Audio Series

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/women

The Disgrace Of Tabarruj (Display Of Woman’s Charm) – Dr. Saleh as Saleh

THE DISGRACE OF TABARRUJ [21] (DISPLAY OF WOMAN’S CHARM)

[Download MP3]

[Souncloud Audio Link

(1) TABARRUJ IS A DISOBEDIENCE TO ALLAH & HIS MESSENGER

The one who disobeys Allah and his Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) can only harm himself and cannot in any way harm Allah. The Messenger of Allah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“All of my followers will enter Al-Jannah except those who refuse.” They said, “O Allah’s Messenger! Who will refuse? ” He said, “Whoever obeys me will enter Al-Jannah, and whoever disobeys me is the one who refuses (to enter it).” (21)

It is reported that Mu’awiyah (رضي الله عنه) gave a sermon in Humss (Syria) and mentioned that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) prohibited seven things and that he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) named Tabarruj as one of them (22).

Abdullah bin Mas’oud (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) “Used to dislike ten kinds of behavior and he (Abdullah) mentioned amongst them: “Tabarruj by means of displaying beautification in an improper place.”(23). Imam As- Suyouti, may Allah’s mercy be upon him, said: “Tabarruj by displaying beautification is showing off to strangers and this is disliked. This is the explanation of “an improper place.” It is not so if the beautification is done for the husband.

(21) Saheeh Al-Bukhari (English-Arabic, Dar Al-Arabia, Publ. Beirut,Lebanon), V.9, hadeeth # 384, p.284
(22) Related by Imam Ahmed in his Mussnad 4/101-Arabic.
(23) Related by An-Nissa’ee in his ” Sunan “Arabic 8/141.

(2) TABARRUJ IS A GRAVE DESTRUCTIVE SIN

Umay’mah, the daughter of Ruqay’ah came to the Messenger of Allah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) to acknowledge the message of Islam and that he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) is the Messenger of Allah. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) told her:

“I give my acknowledgment that you must not set partners to worship besides Allah and that you don’t steal or commit fornication and adultery, that you don’t kill your child, that you don’t commit any falsehood before your hands and between your legs, that you don’t wail, and that you don’t make Tabarruj like that of Jaahiliyyah (24).

It is clear that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) associated Tabarruj with grave destructive sins.

(24) Related by Imam Ahmed in his “Mussnad” 2/196. The scholar Ahmed Shaker, may Allah’s Mercy be upon him, said : “Its chain of narration is good”. He also said that Ibn Katheer in his “Tafseer :Explanation of the Qur’an 8: 327-328″ mentioned this hadeeth saying, “its chain of narration is good” and he related it to At-Tirmidhi, An-Nissa’ee and Ibin Majah.

(3) TABARRUJ BRINGS THE CURSE AND EXPULSION FROM THE MERCY OF ALLAH

The Messenger of Allah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“There shall be, in the latter part of my nation, women who are dressed but (in fact) naked, on their heads are humps like those of Bukht (one kind of camel), curse them for they are surely cursed.”(25)

(25) At-Tabarani related this hadeeth in “Al-Mu’jam As-Sagheer” p.232 and Al-Albani said it Saheeh as in his book “The Hijab” p.56. As-Suyouti related on behalf of Ibn Abdul’Barr that: “The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) intended women who put on light clothes that shows off and shapes the body descriptions. In reality they are naked although they have clothes on them! “.

(4) TABARRUJ IS AN ATTRIBUTE OF THE PEOPLE OF HELL

The Messenger of Allah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Of the people of Hell there are two types whom I have never seen, the one possessing whips like the tail of an ox and they flog people with them. The second one, women who would be naked in spite of their being dressed, who are seduced (to wrong paths) and seduce others with their hair high like humps. These women would not get into Al-Jannah and they would not perceive its odor, although its fragrance can be perceived from such and such distance.” (26)

(26) Saheeh Muslim (English-Arabic, Published by Dar Al-Arabia, Beirut. Lebanon) V. 4 hadeeth # 6840 p. 1486.

(5) TABARRUJ IS DARKNESS ON THE DAY OF RESURRECTION

It is related that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“The parable of a woman who moves with slow sweeping motion, trailing her beautified clothes, performing not for her husband, is like darkness on the Day of Judgment; she has (or comes with) no light” (27)

(27) Related by Imam At-Tirmidhi in his “Sunan” # 1167. Al-Albani said it is a weak hadeeth (See Al-Albani’s collection “Ad-Da’eefah” (Collection of Weak Hadeeths) # 1800. Abu Bakr Bin Arabi, may Allah’s Mercy be upon him, said: “At-Tirmidhi related this hadeeth and said it is weak but its meaning is correct because the “enjoyment” in disobedience is in fact torture and suffering……”. The meaning indicates that this type of women will come on the Day of Judgment Blackened in darkness as if she physically originated from darkness. In contrast, what appears to be difficult and painful in performance of obedient acts, is a true enjoyment because of the reward awaiting those who obey Allah and His Messenger e.g. the odor of the mouth of a fasting Muslim may not be pleasant in this world. To Allah, however, it is better than the odor of Musk because the Muslim had obeyed Allah and performed what is due upon him from fasting. Similarly the woman wearing her Hijab may be looked upon as “reactionary, old fashioned, a walking tent! etc.” She is the winner on the Day of Judgment and those who mock her put themselves on a dangerous road. They may be subjected to the wrath of Allah.

(6) TABARRUJ IS NIFAQ (HYPOCRISY)

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“The best of your women is the affectionate , the fertile (in productivity), the propitious (favorable), the consultative if they fear Allah. The Most evil of your women are the Mutabar’rijat (those who do Tabarruj), the Mutakhayelat (who strut/swagger), and they are the hypocrite ones. Those who enter Al-Jannah are like the Cough Crow.” (28)

The Cough Crow has a red beak and red legs. This is an expression of metonymy indicating that few women enter Heaven because this kind of crow is rare.

(28) Reported by Al-Baihaqi in “As-Sunan” V.7 p.82. Also reported by Abu Na’eem in “Al-Hiliyah” V. 8, p. 376 with a reference to Abdullah bin Masoud (رضي الله عنه) as the narrator. See also Al-Albani’s “Chain of Authentic Hadeeths – Arabic” # 1849 and 632.

(7) TABARRUJ IS DISGRACEFUL

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Any woman who takes off her clothes in other than her husbands home (to show off for an unlawful purpose), has broken the shield between her and Allah.” (29)

Imam Al- Man’nawi, may Allah have Mercy upon him, said: “The saying of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) ‘ any woman who takes off her clothes in other than her husbands home’ means showing off her beauty to strangers by taking off her shield of clothes. She “has broken the shield between her and Allah” because Allah had said:

يَا بَنِي آدَمَ قَدْ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمْ لِبَاسًا يُوَارِي سَوْآتِكُمْ وَرِيشًا ۖ وَلِبَاسُ التَّقْوَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ

“O children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover yourselves (screen your private parts etc.) and as an adornment. But the raiment of righteousness, that is better.”(Qur’an 7:26)

So if a woman does not fear Allah and uncover her private parts then she is breaking the shield between her and Allah, Most High. And because she uncovered and dishonored herself and committed a treason with her husband, Allah will uncover her shield, she will be in a scandal… “

(29) Related by Imam Ahmed and Al-Hakim in his “Mustadrek” (Arabic) V.4, p.288 who said it is Saheeh (authentic) according to the conditions of Muslim and Al-Bukhari, and Ad-Dahabi agreed as well as Ibin Majah.

(8) TABARRUJ IS AN UNCHASTE AND DISGRACEFUL SIN

The woman is A’wrah, All of her body is not to be shown (30). To wear the clothes that show off and shapes her body features is disgraceful and Allah  orders His slaves to stay away from disgraceful sins:

وَإِذَا فَعَلُوا فَاحِشَةً قَالُوا وَجَدْنَا عَلَيْهَا آبَاءَنَا وَاللَّهُ أَمَرَنَا بِهَا
قُلْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَأْمُرُ بِالْفَحْشَاءِ ۖ أَتَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

“When they commit a Fahisha (evil deed, going round the Ka’ba in naked state as in the times of Jahilyeeyah, every kind of unlawful sexual intercourse etc.), they say: ‘We found our fathers doing it and Allah has commanded us of it.’ Say: “Nay, Allah never commands of Fahisha. Do you say of Allah what you know not?” (Qur’an 7:28)

It is Shaytan (Satan) who orders such disgraceful sins. Allah  says:

الشَّيْطَانُ يَعِدُكُمُ الْفَقْرَ وَيَأْمُرُكُم بِالْفَحْشَاءِ

Shaytan threatens you with poverty and orders you to commit sins.” (Qur’an 2: 268)

The Mutabar’rijah is a sinful virus that spreads disgraceful sins amongst the Muslim society. Allah, the Most High, says:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُحِبُّونَ أَن تَشِيعَ الْفَاحِشَةُ فِي الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

“Verily, those who like, that (the crime of) illegal sexual intercourse should be propagated among those who believe, they will have a painful torment in this world and in the Hereafter. And Allah knows and you know not.” (Qur’an 24:19)

Tabarruj is a leading cause for the spread of Zina (illegal sexual intercourse).

(30) See footnote # 7.

(9) TABARRUJ IS A SATANIC WAY

The story of Adam and his wife demonstrates how the enemy of Allah, Satan, was so covetous to incite them to show their private parts in order to spread evil and disgraceful sins. It also shows that the Tabarruj of women is a primary goal for Shaytan to achieve. Allah says:

يَا بَنِي آدَمَ قَدْ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمْ لِبَاسًا يُوَارِي سَوْآتِكُمْ وَرِيشًا ۖ وَلِبَاسُ التَّقْوَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ

“O children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover yourselves (screen your private parts etc.) and as an adornment. But the raiment of righteousness, that is better.” (Qur’an 7:26)

It is clear that Satan is the one who established the call for Tabarruj and show off and that he is the leader of those “leaders” who call for the “liberation of women”. Satan is the “Imam” of everyone who obeys and follows him in disobedience to Allah (The Most Merciful), especially those Mutabar’rijat who harm the Muslims and deceive their youth. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“I have not left after me any (chance) of turmoil more harmful to men than the harm done to the men because of women.(31)

Adam forgot, made a mistake, repented and asked forgiveness from Allah and Allah the Oft-Forgiving accepted Adam’s repentance. The struggle between Adam’s off-springs and Shaytan continues. The devil still whispers to drive us , men and women, to disobey Allah and follow sin. There is no safeguard except in the return to Allah in good faith and repentance, remembering Allah, asking His help to overcome lust and desire.

(31) Saheeh Muslim (English translation; published by Dar Al-Arabia) V. 4, hadeeth # 6603, p. 1431

(10) TABARRUJ IS THE WAY OF JEWS

Jews have an important role in the destruction of nations through the Fitna. (seduction/temptation) of women. The spread of Tabarruj is an effective weapon of their widespread establishments. They have an extensive experience in this field. One should look around only to see who runs Hollywood and famous Houses of “Fashions” and “Magazines” as well as the world of advertisement!. R-rated, X-rated movies and clothes are widespread. In fact the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Watch out for this worldly life (safeguard yourselves from its temptations); avoid the allurement of women: verily, the first trial for the people of Israel was caused by women. (32)

Their Books also testify to this fact. In the Third Chapter of Isaiah ( 16, 17):

“The Lord said: “Because the daughters of Zion are haughty and walk with necks outstretched ogling and mincing as they go, their anklets tinkling with every step. The Lord shall cover the scalps of Zion’s daughters with scabs, and the Lord shall bare their heads.” Furthermore, “On that day the Lord will do away with the finery of the anklets, sunbursts, and crescents; the pendants, bracelets, and veils; the headdresses, bangles, cinctures, perfume boxes, and amulets; the signet rings, and the rose rings; the court dresses, wraps, cloaks, and purses; the mirrors,..” (Isaiah, 3, 18-23; The New American Bible).

Although the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) warned against mimicking the Kuffar (non-believers) and their ways, especially the ways of women. Many Muslims do not abide by this warning (33). This is a testimony for the prophecy of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) who said:

“You would tread the same path as was trodden by those before you inch by inch and step by step so that if they had entered into the hole of a Dhab (a desert lizard), you would follow them in this also. We said: Allah’s Messenger, do you mean Jews and Christians (by your words)” those before you”? he said: Who else (than those two religious groups). (34)

The similarity of those women who disobey Allah and his Messenger to the Jews is very evident because their response to Allah’s commands was similar to that of the Jews:

قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا

“We have heard and disobeyed” (Qur’an 2: 93)

This is unlike the response of the believing women:

َقَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا

“We hear and we obey.” (Qur’an 2: 285)

They remember the saying of Allah:

وَمَن يُشَاقِقِ الرَّسُولَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ الْهُدَىٰ وَيَتَّبِعْ غَيْرَ سَبِيلِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ نُوَلِّهِ مَا تَوَلَّىٰ وَنُصْلِهِ جَهَنَّمَ ۖ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا

“And whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger (Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) after the right path has been shown clearly to him, and follows other than the believers’ way, We shall keep him in the path he has chosen and burn him in Hell; what an evil destination!” (Qur’an 4: 115)

(32) Ibid, footnote # 31; Hadeeth # 6606, p.1432

(33) It is sad to see many who dislike the Kuffar in certain ways imitate them in their ways of living thinking that their materialistic progress could not be achieved except in acting, dressing, eating, jogging, sleeping ..like them. The true Muslim, however, remembers that any progress must meet the purpose for our presence on earth: all action must be related to the worship of Allah. The Kuffar have taken some of the means which Allah had created and used it for worldly gains. We are ordered to make the means adhere to the purpose of our creation: the worship of Allah Alone and thus uses the means to defend Islam and Muslims and secure the needs of life as well. Why should some of us dress the way Allah ordered and some does not? Should we choose Allah’s way or the Kuffar way? All the success is measured by one criterion: does it meet the pleasure of Allah or not?

(34) A famous and Saheeh hadeeth reported by Al-Bukhari, Muslim and others. The text here is as reported in Saheeh Muslim V. 4, hadeeth # 6448, p.1403

(11) TABARRUJ IS A FILTHY JAHILYEEYAH (IGNORANCE)

Allah says:

وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَىٰ

“And stay in your houses and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance” (Qur’an 33:33)

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) described the times of ignorance as filthy and wicked and ordered us to reject it. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) described the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) as :

يُحِلُّ لَهُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْخَبَائِثَ

“He allows them as lawful At-Tayyibat (all i.e. good and lawful as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.), and prohibits them as unlawful Al-Khaba’ith (all i.e. evil and unlawful as regard things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.)” (Qur’an 7: 157)

The call to bring about the times of Jahilyeeyah is similar to the call for Tabarruj, both of which are wicked ways that the Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) made unlawful. He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Verily! every matter of Jahilyeeyah is under my feet!” (35)

Tabarruj and all forms of Jahilyeeyah such as false pride and haughtiness, ill thoughts about Allah, call for falsehood, setting up rivals with Allah, ruling by other than the laws of Islam, usury, etc., are all included.

(35) Related by Abu Dawoud, At-Tirmidhi, Ibin Majah, and Ad-Darime’i and Imam Ahmed.

(12) TABARRUJ IS AN ANIMAL ACT, RETARDATION (DECADENCE) AND DECLINE

To reveal and expose are natural behaviors of animals. Whenever man inclines towards such behaviors he starts his decline to a level lower than the level of manhood which Allah had bestowed upon him. Allah bestowed a natural inclination (Fitrah) towards covering, preservation, and safeguarding modesty. To consider the acts of display, exposition, and uncovering as acts of beauty reflects a corruption to the Fitrah and a degeneration in taste and a sign of decadence and decline.

The progress of man’s civility is linked to his/her covering of the body. The Hijab cover is fitting to the instinct of Gheerah which draws its strength from the soul. The so called “liberation from the chains of covering” is an instinct that draws its strength from lust which incites Tabarruj and mixing of the sexes. The one who is satisfied with this latter instinct must sacrifice the first one in order to silence the voice of the innate Gheerah in his heart in return for the “enjoyment” of Tabarruj and mixing. From this we understand that the Tabarruj is a sign of corruption of Fitrah, lack of bashfulness, Gheerah, and insensitivity.

(13) TABARRUJ IS A DOOR TO WIDESPREAD EVIL

Anyone who carefully examines the Islamic Texts (Qur’an and Sunnah) and the lessons of history, becomes convinced about the evils of Tabarruj and its harm, both on religious and worldly matters especially when it is associated with the mixing of sexes. Some of its underlying consequences are:

  • The Competition amongst the Displaying Women in Showing Off their Beauty. This is seduction, and it leads to the spoiling of morality and leaves women as merchandise articles exhibited for anyone to look at.
  • The Corruption of the Morality of Men, Especially the Youth and Those in Adolescence. It pushes them to commit various kinds of sins (36).
  • The Destruction of Family Ties and Causing a Lack of Trust Between Family Members and the Spread of Divorce.
  • The Commercial Abuse of Women In The World of Advertisement, Entertainment And Other Areas As Well.
  • Doing Harm to Women by Declaring Their Ill Intentions and Evil Conscience Thus Rendering Her Venerable To Harm By The Wicked And The Insolent.
  • The Spread of Diseases.

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Sins didn’t spread in any particular nation until they openly conduct it and as a result, plague and other illnesses that were not present among their predecessors became widespread amongst them.” (37)

  • Facilitates The Sin of Zina (Fornication) By The Eye.

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“The adultery of the eyes is the lustful look. .” (38)

  • Tabarruj Makes it Difficult to Lower The Gaze.
  • Justifiably Brings Down Allah’s Punishment

The punishment of Allah is more severe than atomic bombs and earthquakes. Allah  says:

وَإِذَا أَرَدْنَا أَن نُّهْلِكَ قَرْيَةً أَمَرْنَا مُتْرَفِيهَا فَفَسَقُوا فِيهَا فَحَقَّ عَلَيْهَا الْقَوْلُ فَدَمَّرْنَاهَا تَدْمِيرًا

“And when We (39) decide to destroy a town (population), We (first) send a definite order (to obey Allah and be righteous) to those among them [or We (first) increase in number those of its Population] who are given the good things in this life. Then, they transgress therein, and thus the word (of torment) is justified against it (them). Then We destroy it with complete destruction.” (Qur’an 17: 16)

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“When people see wrong (or evil) and they don’t change it, then it is imminent that the punishment of Allah will fall upon them. (40)

(36) You may have seen teen-age kids on the corners of many streets in Europe and in North America rooming around, smoking to get high, half naked, and on drugs looking to engage in sex. Why? What happened? Many try to hide from the hard facts! The drive for lust and materialistic life became the “god” of the new generations: the Pepsi-Michael-MTV- Jackson generations. The result: AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.

(37) Part of a lengthy hadeeth related by Ibin Majah, Abu Na’eem, and Al- Hakim who said: “it has a good chain of narrators”. Ad-Dahabi agreed to Al-Hakim’s report.

(38) Saheeh Muslim V.4, hadeeth # 6421 p. 1397

(39) “We” Plural Pronoun: Is used to stress the Greatness and Power of Allah Who is One. It is common with Semitic languages for any Monarch to use Plural Pronoun. It is also used by members of the Royal Family in England. To Allah, however, belong the Highest and most Perfect Example.

(40) Related by Abu Dawoud, At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Imam Ahmed

Source: Posted from the e-Book: The Hijab .. Why? by Muhammad Bin Ahmad Bin Ismail AL-Mokadam| Dr. Saleh As-Saleh [PDF] & Audio Series

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/women

Mu’aawiyah did not seek to take over the Khilaafah from ‘Ali – Dr Saleh as-Saleh

Mu’aawiyah (رضي الله عنه) is the Sahaabee Sakhr Bin Harb Bin Umayyah Bin ‘Abd Shams Bin ‘Abd Manaaf Bin Qusay Bin Kilaab, Abu’Abdur Rahmaan. The Ameer of Al-Mu’mineen, and the King of Islaam. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“O Allaah! Bestow upon him the knowledge of the Book (i.e. the Qur’aan) and save him from torment.”

[Reported by Imaam Ahmad in Fadaa ‘il As-Sahaabah, V. 2, p. 913.]

The checker said its Isnaad is hasan because of other narrations]. He also invoked Allaah saying:

“O Allaah! Make of him (i.e. Mu’aawiyah) a guide (to the truth), cause him to be rightly directed, and cause others to be rightly directed by him.”

[Reported by Imaam Ahmad, V. 5 #17438, and by At-Tirmithee. Al-A!baanee said it is saheeh (see Saheeh Sunan At-Tirmithee, #3018).]

He was one of the Sahaabah who recorded the Revelation.

Contrary to many false reports, Mu’aawiyah (رضي الله عنه) did not seek to take over the Khilaafah from ‘Ali (رضي الله عنه).

Shaykh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah, Imaam Ath-Thahabee, At-Tabaree, and many other scholars from the Salaf asserted that Mu’aawiyah (رضي الله عنه) used to acknowledge that ‘Ali is better than him and that he [Mu’aawiyah] does not deserve the Khilaafah. His position, however, was that he wanted ‘Ali to punish the assassins of ‘Uthmaan (رضي الله عنه) before he would give his loyalty to him. He thought that he was on the truth regarding this matter. ‘Ali on the other hand, conditioned that Mu’aawiyah must give the pledge of loyalty to him because he was the Khaalefah and that he thought it is wise to wait until he consolidates his power and then seek ‘Uthmaan’s assassins. ‘Ali had nothing to do with the killing of ‘Uthmaan. Based upon many authentic narrations and prophecies from the Prophet Ahlus-Sunnah consider to be on the side of the truth.

The fitnah was ignited by a group of dissidents known as As-Saba’iyyah whose leader, ‘Abdullah Bin Saba’, was a Jew who considered ‘Ali to be Allaah incarnate! Most of the Sahaabah kept themselves away from the fitnah and only a few, not exceeding thirty, shared in the fighting between the army of ‘Ali and Mu’aawiyah.

The Islamic rule at the time of Mu’aawiyah’s Kingdom was very strong whereby the Muslims ruled a vast area extending from Khurasaan in the East to the West African coast, and from Cyprus in the Mediterranean to the Yemen in the South. [See Tahqeeq Mawaaqif AsSahaabah Fee Al-Fitnah; Establishing the (True) Position of the Sahaabah During the Fitnah (i.e. Between ‘Ali and Mu’aawiyahby Dr. Muhammad Amakhzoon, V. 2, pp. 93-130, published by Daar Tayebah and Maktabat Al-Khawthar, Riyaadh, KSA, 1415/1994.]

The reason why that I have highlighted some of these important facts is that most of what had been written about this fitnah is either

a) fully historical and not authenticated,
b) compiled by orientalists, or
c) promoting baseless accounts by the Raafidhah (the rejectionists of the Shee ‘ah).

The fully documented and authenticated reports from the Muhadditheen regarding the fitnah gave us the true positions of the Sahaabah regarding this matter. An excellent source is Al- ‘Awaasim Minal Qawaasim by Abu Bakr Bin ‘Al-Arabi AI-Maalikee (not the infamous mystic Sufi Ibn ‘Arabi) with commentary by Muhib-ed-Deen AI-Khateeb, 5th edition, Maktabat AsSunnah, Cairo, 1408. See also Tahtheeb Siyar ‘Alaam An-Nubalaa’, V. 1, #257. And Allaah knows best.

Source: By Dr. Saleh as-Saleh in a footnote #66 in  Al-Hawaa (Lowly Desires): 50 Matters to free Oneself from it – Imam Ibn al Qayyim

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/sahaba

Al-Hawaa (Lowly Desires): 50 Matters to free Oneself from it – Imam Ibn al Qayyim

Bismillaah

It is said that Al-Hawaa is a hidden trap that one must not feel secure from. Ash-Sha’bee [34] said: “It is called Hawaa because it throws down its’ adherent.” In its general and unrestricted meaning, it demands ready pleasure without thinking about the outcome. It incites the immediate obtainment of lusts even though it is, sooner or later, the cause of greater sufferings. This life has an outcome before that of the Hereafter, and Al-Hawaa blinds its follower from giving notice to this.

Man’s Muroo’ah, [35] religion, and rationalism all forbid the pleasure whose outcome will be painful and prohibit lust whose legacy is sorrow and regret, each telling the self when it desires [pleasure and lust], “Don’t do it!” The self would obey the winner.[36] Don’t you see because of the weakness of the rationalistic restraint in a child, he prefers what he desires even though it may lead to his own destruction. On the other hand, the one who does not abide by the Deen prefers and likes what he desires even if it would lead to his destruction in the Hereafter because of the weakness in compliance to the Deen’s prohibitive code. The one who does not respect his Muroo’ah prefers what he likes even if he injures [or shatters] or even loses his Muroo’ah because of the weakness in adhering to its prohibitive code. What place does this hold in comparison with the saying of Ash-Shaafi’ee [37]: “If I knew that cold water would injure my Muroo’ah, I would not drink it.”

Since man has been distinguished from other forms of creation by being subjected to the trials of Al-Hawaa, and because at all times he encounters all kinds of events and occurrences, two references of judgment have been established in order to deal with him: The Deen and reasoning. He is always commanded to refer all of Al-Hawaa related incidents to these judges [Deen and reasoning] and to submit to their ruling. He should train himself to ward off Al-Hawaa whose consequences are safe in order to train himself to abandon Al-Hawaa, which have harmful consequences.

Let the reasonable person know that lust addicts reach a state in which they do not find pleasure therein. Yet, they are unable to give it up, because it becomes to them like an indispensable form of living.

That is why you see the alcoholic and Al-Jimaa’ [38] addict does not reach one tenth of the enjoyment achieved by those who sometimes infrequently drink [39] or engage in Al-Jimaa‘. However, it is the habit which requires that of him. Consequently, he drives himself into destructive paths to attain what is demanded by the habit. Had he been relieved from the Rayn [40] of Al-Hawaa, he would have known that he was miserable wherefore he anticipated happiness, depressed wherefore he thought he was glad, and in pain where from he sought pleasure. He is like a bird that was deceived by a grain of wheat, neither he was able to get it, nor he was able to free himself from the trap he got caught in.

So, if it is asked: “How could a person who fell in Al-Hawaa free himself from it?

The response is: “By the help and success granted by Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى), he will be able to liberate himself from Al-Hawaa by holding to the following matters:

1. A determined free will: having a vigilant care and sense of honor for himself, jealously protecting it.

2. A dose of patience making himself endure the bitter taste of the moment (i.e. the time his Hawaa is active).

3. Strength and self-determination that encourages him to drink that dose [of patience]. His courage is a moment of forbearance, and the best of living attained by an ‘Abd is through his perseverance.

4. Being aware of the splendid impression of the outcome and the cure achieved by that dose [of perseverance].

5. Being aware of the pain that exceeds the pleasure arising from following his Hawaa.

6. Keeping his good standing before Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) and in the hearts of Allaah’s ‘Ibaad. Certainly this is better and more beneficial to this than taking pleasure in following his Hawaa.

7. Preferring the joy of ‘Iffaah [41] and its honor and sweetness over the pleasure of disobedience and wrong-doing.

8. Having delight in overcoming his enemy and driving him away disgraced in his rage, grief, and worry, being unable to get hold of him as he wishes. In fact, Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) loves for His ‘Abd to abandon and enrage his enemy as He has said in his noble Book:

 وَلَا يَطَئُونَ مَوْطِئًا يَغِيظُ الْكُفَّارَ وَلَا يَنَالُونَ مِنْ عَدُوٍّ نَّيْلًا إِلَّا كُتِبَ لَهُم بِهِ عَمَلٌ صَالِحٌ

Nor they take any step to raise the anger of disbelievers nor inflict any injury upon an enemy but is written to their credit as a deed of righteousness. [Qur’aan,SooratAt-Tawbah. 9:120].

لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّار

That He may enrage the disbelievers with them (i.e. the Sahaabah). [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Falh, 48:29].

وَمَن يُهَاجِرْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ يَجِدْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُرَاغَمًا كَثِيرًا وَسَعَةً

He who emigrates [from his home] in the Cause of Allaah, will find on earth many dwelling places and plenty to live by. [Qur’aan, Soorat An-Nisaa’. 4:100],

Which means, “A place where he abandons and assails the enemies of Allaah.” The sign of true love is to enrage the enemies of the Beloved and to forsake them.

9. Contemplating the fact that he has not been created to [be a slave of] Al-Hawaa, but that he has been prepared for a great task that will not be achieved unless he disobeys his Hawaa, as it was said:

“Indeed they have prepared you for a task such that if you are aware of it (i.e. its importance and great outcome);

Then you would hold yourself above giving respect to the negligent.”

10. That he should not choose for himself a state such that the unintelligible animal is better than him. Indeed the animal is able by means of his natural instincts to distinguish between beneficial and harmful situations, preferring the beneficial above the harmful. For the same purpose, man has been endowed with the faculty of reason. If he does not differentiate between what hurts or benefits him, or, in the case he realizes this but prefers what is harmful to him, then the status of an unintelligible animal is better than his. The evidence for this lies in the fact that an animal takes a share of enjoyment in the taste of food, drinks, and sexual relations that is not attainable by man, and that it lives a comfortable life free from thought and worry. Hence it is driven to its slaughtering place preoccupied with its lusts [42] due to the lack of knowledge about the consequences. Man will not procure the same damage done to the animal because of the intensity of the preoccupying thought, and the weakness of the used male organ, and so forth. Had the attainment of what is desired been a virtue, the right of man, who is the pure extract of the world, to it would have not been diminished while making it abundant to the animals. In the augmentation of man’s share of reasoning, knowledge, and cognition is a substitute for that (i.e. animalistic lust).

11. Let him lead his heart through the consequences of Al-Hawaa and contemplate:

  • How many virtues were missed because of his disobedience? And how much Ratheelah (vices) did it make him commit?
  • How many meals became inaccessible because of few meals?
  • How often a pleasure caused the loss of many?
  • How often did a desire break a rank, lower a head, [43] render a good reputation bad, inherit blame, leave behind it humiliation and dishonor that water cannot wash away. Yet, the eye of the follower of Hawaa is blind!

12. The intelligent person should imagine the attainment of his desire, his condition after his wish was fulfilled, what did he miss, and what occurred to him?

“The most excellent of people is the one who does not embark upon a means to accomplish something [44]
Until he distinguishes (the evil,harms) that may be incurred by its consequences.”

13. The intelligent person should really imagine what would the situation of another person be after he fulfills his desire then think of himself as being in the same standing. Indeed, the judgment respect of a thing is the same as respecting the like.

14. He should give a thought as to what his self really demands from him regarding the thing he desires. He should then question his Deen and rationale about it, they will inform him that it is nothing.

‘Abdullaah Ibn Mas’oud [45] said:

If anyone of you admires a woman, let him remember Manatinaha…” [46]

15. He should keep himself far from the humiliation of Al-Hawaa because whenever someone obeys his Hawaa he will sense disgrace within himself. He should not be deceived by the force, assault, and pride of the followers of Al-Hawaa, for they have the most lowly internal character of men; they have mustered both arrogance and humiliation.

16. He should compare the safety of Deen, honor, and property, and rank to the attainment of the desired pleasure. He will not find any suitability whatsoever between them. Thus he should be aware that he is from the most ignorant of men if he would trade this (Deen, honor, property, rank, etc..) for that (i.e. Hawaa).

17. He should keep himself far from being under the subdual of his enemy, the Shaytaan, who, if he sees the ‘Abd in a state of weak determination and motivation and having an inclination towards his Hawaa, he would eagerly hope to overcome and possess him and control him with the bridle of Al-Hawaa leading him wherever he wants. And whenever he senses in him a strong determination, self-honor, and high motivation, he would not hope to get hold of him except secretly and by the way of deceit or circumvention. [47]

18. He should realize that Al-Hawaa does not associate with any affair except that it corrupts it. If it gets to the knowledge, it causes him to go to Bid’ah and Dhalaalah [48] and its follower will become from amongst Ahlul Ahwaa’ [49] If it affects Al-Zuhd [50], it will lead its adherent to Ar-Riyaa’ [51] and to stand in opposition to As-Sunnah.[52] If it gets in a legal judgment, it leads its follower to injustice and hinders him from the truth. If it gets to the division of Al-Qismah,[53] it changes from a just into an unjust division. If it gets to the decisions of Wilaayah [54] and ‘Azl [55] it leads its adherent to commit treason against Allaah  (سبحانه و تعالى) and against the Muslims whereby he puts in charge or removes from duty according to his Hawaa. If it enters into worship it will deviate him from obedience and means of closeness [to Allaah]. Thus it associates not with anything but renders it corrupt.

19. He should realize that there is no way for the Shaytaan to come in upon the son of Adam except from the gate of his Hawaa. He goes around him trying to find how to invade him so that he renders his heart and deeds corrupt. The only means of entrance he finds is that of Al-Hawaa, and so he creeps along with it like poison creeping in the body.

20. Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) has made Al-Hawaa an opposite to what He has revealed to His Messenger. He has made its following directly opposite to the following of His Messengers, and He classified mankind into two groups: The followers of Revelation and the followers of Al-Hawaa, And this is found in many places in the Qur’aan, as in His saying:

فَإِن لَّمْ يَسْتَجِيبُوا لَكَ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يَتَّبِعُونَ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ

And if they answer you not (i.e. do not follow the doctrine of Tawheed, nor follow you), then know that they only follow Ahwaa’ahum (i.e. their evil inclinations: lust, desire, etc.) [Qur’aan, Soorat AI-Qasas, 28:50].

وَلَن تَرْضَىٰ عَنكَ الْيَهُودُ وَلَا النَّصَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَتَّبِعَ مِلَّتَهُمْ ۗ قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللَّهِ هُوَ الْهُدَىٰ

And if you [O Muhammad] were to follow their [Jews and Christians] desires after what you have received of Knowledge (i.e. Qur’aan), then you would find neither a Waliy [protector or guardian] nor any helper against Allaah. [Qur’aan, Soorat Ai-Baqarah. 2-120].

And there are other Aayaat of similar meaning.

21. Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) likened the followers of Al-Hawaa to the most contemptible animals in form and in concept. Sometimes He compared them to a dog, as in His saying:

وَلَٰكِنَّهُ أَخْلَدَ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ ۚ فَمَثَلُهُ كَمَثَلِ الْكَلْبِ إِن تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْهِ يَلْهَثْ أَوْ تَتْرُكْهُ يَلْهَث

But he clung to the earth and followed his own vain desires. So his description is the description of a dog: If you drive him away, he lolls his tongue out, or if you leave him alone, he [still] lolls his tongue out. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-‘Araaf, 7:176].

Sometimes He compared them to wild donkeys:

كَأَنَّهُمْ حُمُرٌ مُّسْتَنفِرَةٌ
فَرَّتْ مِن قَسْوَرَةٍ

As if they were frightened [wild] donkeys. Fleeing from a hunter, or a lion, Or a beast Of prey. [Qur’aan, Soorat At-Muddaththir, 74:50-51].

Sometimes He changed their forms into that of monkeys and pigs.

22. The one who follows Al-Hawaa neither deserves to be obeyed, nor to be an Imaam or to be followed, because Allaah removed him away from Imaamah (leading as an Imaam) and forbade obedience to him. As to his removal, it is because Allaah said to His Khaleel [56] Ibraaheem:

إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا ۖ قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۖ قَالَ لَا يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ

“Verily, I am going to make you a leader [Prophet] of mankind.” [Ibraaheem] said: “And of my offspring [to make leaders].” [Allaah] said: “My Covenant includes not Ath-Thaalimeen (polythe’ists and wrong-doers).” [Qur’aan Soorat Al-Baqarah, 2:124).

Which means that “My Covenant regarding Imaamah (Prophethood, leadership, etc.) does not include a Thaalim (polytheist and wrongdoer}.” Anyone who follows his Hawaa is a Thaalim as Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) said:

بَلِ اتَّبَعَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا أَهْوَاءَهُم بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ

Nay, but those who do wrong follow their own Ahwaa’ahum Without knowledge. [Qur’aan, Soorat Ar-Room, 30:29].

The prohibition to obey the follower of Al-Hawaa because of Allaah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) saying:

وَلَا تُطِعْ مَنْ أَغْفَلْنَا قَلْبَهُ عَن ذِكْرِنَا وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ وَكَانَ أَمْرُهُ فُرُطًا

And obey not him whose heart We have made heedless of Our Remembrance, one who followed his Hawaa and whose affair [deeds] has been lost. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Kahf, 18:28],

23. Allaah has made the one who follows Al-Hawaa at the same rank as that of the image-worshipper. He said in two places of His Book:

أَرَأَيْتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ إِلَٰهَهُ هَوَاهُ

Have you [O Muhammad] seen him who has taken as his Ilaah [god] his own Hawaa? [57] {Qur’aan,Soorat Al-Furqaan, 25:43].

Al-Hasan [58] commented: “He is the hypocrite; there is nothing that he desires except that he follows it.”

He also said: “The hypocrite is a slave of his Hawaa: there is nothing that he desires except that he commits it.”

24. Verily, Al-Hawaa is the Hithaar [59] of Hell-Fire which surrounds it, he who walks across it will fall in Hell, just as the Prophet  (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said in the hadeeth reported in As-Saheehain:

“Al-Jannah is surrounded by all kinds of disliked and undesirable things, while the Fire (Hell) is surrounded by all kinds of desires and passions.” [60]

And in the “Sunan” of At-Tirmithee in the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah which he attributed to the Prophet  (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) [he said]:

“When Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) created Al-Jannah and An-Naar [the (Hell) Fire], He send Jibreel to Al-Jannah and said: Go and look at it and at what I have prepared therein for its people. He went and looked at it and at what Allaah has prepared therein for its people, then came to Him and said: By Your Might, no one who hears of it will fail to enter it. He gave an order respecting it, and accordingly it was surrounded with undesirable things, and said [to Jibreel]: Go and look at it and at [the things] which I have prepared therein for its people. He went and looked at it, and found that it was surrounded with disliked and undesirable things, then came to Him and said: By Your Might, I am afraid that no one will enter it.

He, [Allaah] then said: Go to An-Naar and look at it and at [the things] which I have prepared therein for its people. [He went] and found that it was heaped up, one part upon another, then he came to Him and said: By Your Might, no one who hears of it will enter it. He gave a command respecting it, and it was surrounded with desirable things and passions and then said: Go back to it. He went and said: By Your Might, I am afraid that no one will remain who does not enter it.” [61]

25. It is feared that he who follows Al-Hawaa may become altogether detached from Eemaan (Faith) while being unaware. In fact, it has been confirmed that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

None of you is a true believer until his Hawaa is in accordance with what I have brought forth. ” [62]

The most dreadful thing I fear in regard to you is the seductive lusts in your bellies and in your private parts, and the misleading ways of Al-Hawaa” [63]

26. The following of Al-Hawaa is from the destructive sins. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Three [things} lead to safety and three cause destruction. Those that lead to safety are: fearing Allaah in secrecy and in the open, uttering the truth at times of satisfaction and anger, and moderation at times of poverty and wealth. As to the [three] that cause destruction, they are: the Hawaa being followed, niggardliness being obeyed, and conceitedness.” [64]

27. The opposing of Al-Hawaa inherits strength in the heart, tongue and body of [Allaah’s] ‘Abd. Some of As-Salaf (righteous predecessors) said: “The one who overcomes his Hawaa is like him who conquers a city by himself.” And in the authentic hadeeth attributed to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) :

“The strong is not the one who overcomes the people by his strength, but the strong is the one who controls himself-while in anger.” [65]

Whenever he trains himself on opposing his Hawaa, he would gain additional strength to his own.

28. The most enriched in Al-Muroo’ah of the people is him who has the strongest opposition to his Hawaa. Mu’aawiyah [66] said:

Al-Muroo’ah is the abandonment of desires and passions, and the disobedience of Al-Hawaa. The following of Al-Hawaa weakens the Al-Muroo’ah, and its opposition strengthen it.”

29. There isn’t a day that passes except that Al-Hawaa and the mind fight within its follower. Whoever of them overpowers its master, it will expel the other and take full control; and the decision will be its. Abu Ad-Dardaa’ [67] said:

“When a man wakes up, both his Hawaa and deeds meet; if his deeds are in accordance with his Hawaa, then his day is an evil one; and if his Hawaa is pursuant to his deeds, then his day is a good one.”

30. Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) has made the wrong and the following of Al-Hawaa .associates of each other, and has made the right and the opposition of Al-Hawaa as associates. As some of As-Salaf said:

“If two affairs were dubious to you and you don’t know which one is right, then oppose the one close to your Hawaa for it is more likely that error is committed when Al-Hawaa is being pursued.”

31. Al-Hawaa is a disease and its remedy is in opposing it. Some learned men said:

“If you wish, I will inform you of your illness, and if you wish I will tell you of your remedy: Your disease is your Hawaa, and your treatment is to abandon and oppose it.” Bishr Al-Haafee, [68]  “All kinds of affliction are manifested in your Hawaa, and the complete healing is in your opposition of it.”

32. The Jihaad against Al-Hawaa, if it is not more important than the Jihaad against the Kuffaar, certainly it is not less in importance. A man told Al-Hasan Al Basree “O Abaa Sa’eed! What kind of Jihaad is the best? He said: “It is the Jihaad of your Hawaa” I heard my Shaykh [69] saying: “The Jihaad against one’s self and against Al-Hawaa constitutes the basis for the Jihaad against the Kuffaar and the Munaafiqeen (hypocrites), because one is unable to make Jihaad against them until he makes Jihaad against himself and his Hawaa first, so that he can go out to [confront] them.”

33. Al-Hawaa is Takhleel (disorder and confusion of the intellect) and opposing it is Himiyyah [70] It is feared for the one who became excessive in Takhleet and retired himself from Al-Himiyyah, that his disease [mental sickness] may cause him to fall in a state of Sara’.[71] ‘Abdul Malik Ibn Quraib [72] said: “I passed by a bedouin who was suffering from an intensive inflammation in his eyes and his tears were shedding on his cheeks. I said: “Why don’t you wipe off your eyes?”

He said: “The doctor prevented me from doing this, and there is no good in him who if urged to refrain [from doing something wrong] does not abstain, and if he is being commanded [to do something good] does not comply.” I said then: “Would you like something?” He said: “Yes! But I am in a state of Hitniyyah; the lusts of the people of [Hell] Fire overcame their Himiyyah, and thus they were destroyed.”

34. The pursuing of Al-Hawaa renders the doors of success closed for the ‘Abd, and opens for him the doors of failure. So you see him often repeating the [following statement]: “Had Allaah bestowed His success, then it [the affair] would have been as such and such,” while in fact he barred himself from the ways of success by pursuing his Hawaa. Al-Fudayyl Bin ‘lyaad [73] said; “Whoever has been overtaken by his Hawaa and by the following of lusts, the sources of success will be severed from him.”

One of the scholars said: “Al-Kufr [74] originates from four things: anger, lust, hope, and fear.” He then added, “I have seen two of them manifested: a man who got angry and then killed his mother, and another who fell in love and became a Christian…”

35. The one who stands by his Hawaa, his intelligence and mental perception will become corrupt because he acted unfaithfully towards Allaah in his mind and, consequently, Allaah perverted it for him. This is the way He deals with anyone who betrays Him in any affair: He renders it in a bad state for him.

36. The one who broadens for his self the scope of pursuing Al-Hawaa, will put it under restriction in his grave and on the Day of his Return, The one who restrains it by opposing Al-Hawaa, brings ease upon it in his grave and on the Day of his Return. Allaah pointed to this in His saying:

And their recompense shall be Al-Jannah and silken garments, because they were patient. [Qur’aan: Soorat Al-lnsaan, 76:12],

Since patience, which is holding oneself from pursuing Al-Hawaa, includes harshness and restrictions, accordingly Allaah will recompense them with the smoothness of silk and the wideness of Al-Jannah, Abu Sulaimaan Ad Daaraanee [75] commented on the above Aayah:

“Allaah shall recompense them for taking patience against lusts.”

37. The following of Al-Hawaa throws down the ‘Abd preventing him to stand up and walk with those saved on the Day of Resurrection, just like when his heart fell [in a state of Sara’] in this life which kept him from their company. Muhammad Bin Abee Al-Ward said:

“There is one of Allaah’s days when no one who pursues his Hawaa shall be saved of its evil. The slowest in his ability to stand up amongst those thrown down on the Day of the Resurrection is the one whose thrown in a state of Sara’ by his lusts…”

38. The pursuing of Al-Hawaa breaks up and weakens one’s resolution, and opposing [Al-Hawaa] solidifies and strengthens it. Resolution is the thing upon which one rides upon in his journey to Allaah and the Last Day. If that which is ridden became inactive, the traveler would almost be disabled to proceed in his journey.

Yahyaa Bin Mu’aath [77] was asked: “Who is most sound in resolution of men?” He answered: “The one who overcomes his Hawaa”

39. The parable of the one who follows his own whim is like that who rides on a tough, strong-tempered, Jamooh [78] horse without a bridle, about to be thrown down by his horse during its run or it would lead him to his death. A learned man said: “The most rapid means to ride onto Al-Jannnah is the Zuhd respecting this life, and the most rapid means to get on to An-Naar is the love of lusts. And him who boards his Hawaa, it will hastily take him to the valley of perdition.” Another said: “The most endowed with honor of the scholars is the one who flees with his Deen from this Dunya [79] and who is hard to be led to follow Al-Hawaa.” ‘Ataa’ [80] said: “The one whose Hawaa overtakes his rationale causing him to become affected with grief and agitation because of lacking the strength to be patient, would be put to shame.”

40. The Tawheed and the following of Al-Hawaa are two contrary matters: because Al-Hawaa is an idol, and each ‘Abd has an idol in his heart, the magnitude of which depends upon his Hawaa; Rather, Allaah sent His Messengers to destroy the idols and to call for His worship Alone, having no partners or associates. Nay, Allaah’s intent is not just to demolish the corporeal images and leave the images imbedded in the heart, but rather to destroy those in the heart first.

Al-Hasan Bin ‘AH Al-Muttawwi’ee [81] said:

“The idol of each person is his Hawaa, he who breaks it by the way of opposition deserves the title of honourableness.”

Just contemplate about the saying of AlKhaleel (Ibraaheem to his people [as Allaah said]:

مَا هَٰذِهِ التَّمَاثِيلُ الَّتِي أَنتُمْ لَهَا عَاكِفُونَ

What Are these images, to which you are devoted? [Qur’aan,Soorat Al-Anbiyaa’, 21:52],

and you will certainly find it identical to those images which the heart likes and devotes itself to and worships it besides Allaah. He, Allaah, said:

أَرَأَيْتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ إِلَٰهَهُ هَوَاهُ أَفَأَنتَ تَكُونُ عَلَيْهِ وَكِيلًا
أَمْ تَحْسَبُ أَنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ يَسْمَعُونَ أَوْ يَعْقِلُونَ ۚ إِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا كَالْأَنْعَامِ ۖ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ سَبِيلًا

Have you [O Muhammad] seen him who has taken his illaah (god) as his own desire? Would you be then a Wakeel [a protecting guide] over him? Or do you think that most of them hear or understand? They are only like cattle. Nay, they are even farther astray from the Path [i.e. even worst than Cattle] [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Furqaan, 25:43-44].

41. Opposing Al-Hawaa is the means to drive away diseases from the heart and from the body, and its following brings forth diseases to the heart and to the body. Heart diseases are all from following of Al-Hawaa. If you search for the causes behind diseases of the body, you will find that most of it are because of preferring Al-Hawaa over what should be abandoned.

42. The origin for the enmity, evil, and envy that occurs between people is from the following of Al-Hawaa. The one who opposes his Hawaa relieves his heart, body, and limbs, putting himself to ease and thus relieves others. Abu Bakr Al-Warraaq [83] said:

“When the Hawaa prevails, the heart turns dark and when it does so, the breast becomes straitened and when that happens, the moral character deteriorates and consequently people will hate him and he will hate them. Then think of the evil, enmity, neglect of rights, etc. that arise from this mutual hatred!”

43. Allaah has created in man an intellect and a Hawaa; whichever of the two becomes manifest, the other will hide, as Abu ‘Ali Ath- Thaqafee said;

“Whoever is overcome by his Hawaa, his intellect will be hidden from him. So, look at the end of him whose intellect is masked from him and became overpowered by something else.”

‘Ali Bin Sahl [84] said:

“The intellect and Al-Hawaa are in conflict. Success is the associate of the intellect and defeat is the associate of Al-Hawaa. The self stands between both; whichever of the two prevails, the self will side with it.”

44. Allaah has made the heart the king of the limbs and the place of the origination of knowledge, love, and ‘Uboodiyyah of Him. He tested him with two kinds of authority, two armies, two aids, and two sets of preparations. The truth, Zuhd, and guidance is one authority. Its aids are the angels, and its army is truthfulness and sincerity, and its preparation is in avoiding Al-Hawaa. The other authority is falsehood. Its aids are the Shayaateen and its troops and the preparation is the following of Al-Hawaa. The self stands between the two armies. The army of falsehood will have access to the heart only from its direction and frontier breaches, for it pervades the heart and aligns itself with its enemy against it (the heart) and thus the calamity will overtake it. It is the self, therefore, that offers its enemy from its own preparations, and opens for him the gate of the city and thus he enters and takes full control, and the heart takes the defeat.

45. The worst of enemies to man is his Shaytaan and his Hawaa, and the best friend he has is his intellect and his associate angel who gives him advice. If he follows his Hawaa, he gives his hand in surrender to his enemy, submitting himself as a captive to him, making him [the enemy] rejoice at his affliction, and causing displeasure to his friends and supporters. These are precisely the difficult moments of a calamity, wretchedness, the manifested divine decree of an evil ending, and the malicious joy of enemies. [86]

46. Each ‘Abd has a beginning and an end. He whose start is the following of AlHawaa, shall end up in a state of disgrace, humiliation, bereavement, and trials. What is being followed commensurate with the [‘Abd’s] degree of dependency upon his Hawaa. Rather, at the end, the followed turns to a suffering that agonizes him in his heart as one poet put it:

“Desires that were, at the age of youthfulness, sweet to those who wished
then, became a suffering at Al-Masheeb (an old age)” [87]

If you contemplate about the case of everyone who is in a bad and miserable state, you would find that it began with him embracing his Hawaa and giving it preference over his intellect. Anyone who begins by opposing his Hawaa and obeying the call of his Rushd,[88] his end will be that of honor, might, richness, and high rank before Allaah and before the people. Abu ‘Ali Ad-Daqqaaq89 said: “The one who controls his lust in his youthfulness, Allaah will honor him when he is in his age of maturity.” AlMuhallab Bin Abee Sufrah90 was asked: “How did you attain this status of yours? He said: “Through firm obedience and rebellion against Al-Hawaa.”

So these are the situations regarding the stand against Al-Hawaa in the beginning and in the end of one’s life in this world. With respect to the Hereafter, however, Allaah has made Al-Jannah the end for him who opposed his Hawaa and An-Naar the end for the one who followed his Hawaa [91]

47. Al-Hawaa is slavery to the heart, an iron chain round the neck, and a fetter to the leg. Its follower is a captive to everyone with a bad character. Thus whoever opposes it, liberates himself from slavery and becomes free, and takes off the chain round his neck and becomes in a state similar to that of a man belonging entirely to one master after belonging to many partners disputing one another.[92]

48. Opposing Al-Hawaa puts the ‘Abd in the rank of the one whose oath Allaah fulfills. The goals that He will accomplish for him will be many-fold that which he was unable to attain as a result of neglecting his Hawaa. He is like the one who relinquished a Ba’arah and was given a pearl as a compensation for it.

Whatever he is able to gain from the way of following Al-Hawaa is incomparable with what he looses from present and future benefits and from good living. So try to comprehend the stretching forth of the hand of Yoosuf, theSiddeeq95 in expenditure, the unconstriction with his tongue, the establishment of his feet [in power], and the rejoice that touched him after he came out of the jail because he restrained himself from the Haraam [unlawful].

49. Opposing Al-Hawaa entitles the honor in this world and in the Hereafter and self-esteem, outwardly and inwardly. Following it, however, lowers the rank of the ‘Abd in this life and in the Hereafter and humiliates him, outwardly and inwardly. When Allaah gathers mankind on one plane [on the Day of Resurrection], an announcer will call, “This day the people of generosity will be distinguished from those who amassed wealth. Now let the pious stand.” [97] They will stand and walk toward the place of honor while the followers of Al-Hawaa bending their heads down before Allaah] in the Mawqif [98] amidst the “heat of AI-Hawaa” its sweat and its suffering. The others [the pious] will be in the shade of the ‘Arsh. [99]

50. If you contemplate about the seven whom Allaah will shade in the shade of His ‘Arsh wherein there is no shade but His,[100] you will find that they deserved that shade because of their opposition to Al-Hawaa. Indeed the Imaam having authority and power will not be able to establish justice except by opposing his Hawaa. And with respect to the youth who prefers the sincere worship of Allaah over the urge of his youthfulness, had it not been for the opposition of his Hawaa, he would not be able to accomplish this state of worship. As to the person whose heart is attached to the mosques, the thing that drove him to this condition is the opposition of Al-Hawaa which invites him to the places of lusts. Concerning the person who gives charitable gifts secretly so that his left hand does not know what his right hand has given, had it not been for his subduing of his Hawaa, he would have not been able to attain this state.

And the person who was invited by a charming woman of noble birth [to have illegal sexual intercourse with her], feared Allaah and opposed his Hawaa. As to the one who remembers Allaah in seclusion and his eyes becomes flooded with tears for fearing Him, the thing that made him reach this state is the opposing of his Hawaa. Consequently, they were saved from being affected by the intense heat of the Al-Mawqif on the Day of Resurrection and the sweating therein. The people [adhering to] Al-Hawaa will experience the utmost degree of intense heat and sweating while they are still waiting to enter the “Prison of Al-Hawaa” Allaah is the One to be petitioned to grant us protection from the Ahwaa’ (Sing. Hawaa) of ourselves which are inclined to evil, and that He makes our Hawaa in accordance with what He loves and is acceptable to Him. He has power over all things, and He is most worthy of answering our petition.

Footnotes:

[34] Ash-Sha’bee, ‘Aamir Bin Sharaaheel, Abu ‘Amr Al-Hamadaanee (21 (or 28)-105/642(650)- 724), the Imaam, trustworthy, and renowned Faqeeh (jurist). He met Ali Ibn Abee Taalib & and prayed behind him. He reported Ahaadeeth from Sa’d Ali Abee Waqaas, Abu Hurairah, Abee Sa’eed, ‘Aa’ishah, Ibn ‘Umar and others from the Sahaabah (radi Allaahu anhum)

[35] Muroo’ah: Moral goodness, comprising all virtues, especially manliness, valor, generosity, sense of honor, etc.

[36] The winner in the struggle between the call for prohibition by Muroo’ah, religion, or rationalism and the self’s inclination

[37] Imaam Ash-Shaafl’ee: (150/767-204/820): Muhammad Ibn Idrees Ash-Shaaf’ee, was born in Ghazza, Palestine, and traveled to Al-Madeenah in his youth to study under Imaam Maalik. He also studied in ‘Iraaq under Imaam Muhammad Ibn al-Hassan, the famous student of Imaam Abu Haneefah. Imaam Ash-Shaafi’ee holds the distinction of being the first Imaam to systematize the principles of Islaamic Law or Fiqh (Jurisprudence).

[38] Al-Jimaa‘: Legal sexual intercourse between a man and his wife.

[39] Islaam prohibits all forms of intoxication. The evil associated with alcoholic drinks is much greater than the little enjoyment that may be felt by few drinks. In fact the few drinks demand more of it until the person feels high. Then the demand grows to reach a state higher than with his first one. Addiction slowly creeps to destroy the drinker’s life and in many cases his family. Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) said:

They ask you [O Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم] concerning alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: “In them is a great sin, and [some] benefit for men, but the sin of them is greater than their benefit.” [Qur’aan,SooratAl-Baqarah, 2:219].

[40] Rayn: Much dirtiness from rust, or simply, dirt, filth, etc.

[41] ‘Iffah: Abstinence from what is unlawful and base, virtuousness and decency.

[42] Eating, drinking, etc

[43] By reason of abasement

[44] And then regrets it.

[45] ‘Abdullaah Bin Mas’oud, the honorable companion who accepted Islaam early when Faatimah (the daughter of ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab radiAllaahu anhu) and her husband became Muslims. He was the first to openly recite the Qur’aan in Makkah. The Mushrikeen harmed him for his recitation. He prayed to the first Qiblah (Al-Quds, Jerusalem) and to the second and last Qiblah (Makkah). He migrated twice, once to Abyssinia (the first migration) and the second to Al-Madeenah. He attended the battle of Badr, Uhud and all the other confrontations with the Mushrikeen. The Khaleefah ‘Umar Ibn AI-Khattaab assigned him to teach Islaam to the people of Al-Khoofah in ‘Iraaq. Later ‘Uthmaan (radiAllaahu anhu) called him to Al-Madeenah where he died in the year 32/654. He was known for his great knowledge in Qur’aan and its Tafseer. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) attested to ‘Abdullaah’s knowledge.

[46] That is when he is inclined by his desire and lust to indulge in an unlawful act with her, let him remember something that may turn off his desire, like manatinaha: all forms of her menses and the odor associated with that. [I asked Shaykh Muhammad Bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaymeen about this explanation of Ibn Mas’oud’s saying and, alhamdulilaah, he affirmed it.]

[47] Especially at times of unawareness. ‘Abdullaah Bin Mas’oud said: “You are at a time when the truth leads Al-Hawaa and there shall come a time when Al-Hawaa will lead the truth. So, we seek refuge in Allaah from that time to come.” [See Al-Jaami’ li Ahkaam Al-Qur ‘aan by Al-Qurtubee (Beirut, Lebanon: Daarul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, 1413/1993), V. 19, p. 135.]

[48] Deviation from the right path.

[49] Ahlul-Ahwaa’ (The People of Corrupt Desires): The people who follow concepts of belief and methodologies of understanding and practices deviating from the right path, or from the truth, thus following their [corrupt] desires. [Some of their qualities are presented in the Appendix],

[50] Zuhd: To lead a pious life devoted to Allaah taking the least that is sufficient of the lawful things of life. It does not mean to abandon lawful means of earning, property, children, etc., nor exaggerating in performing acts of worship. [See a discussion on this subject in the Appendix],

[51] Ar-Riyaa’: Showing off, and not doing an action solely for the sake of Allaah.

[52] Mystic Sufism adopted ways of Zuhd that stand in direct opposition to the guidance of the Prophet’s Sunnah. [See the Appendix under Zuhd]

[53] Al-Qismah: Generally it refers to the division of property, shares, booties, profits, etc. In the Qur’aan it refers to the division of the deceased’s property in accordance with the laws of inheritance.

[54] Wilaayah: Appointing a person in charge of an office or an authority over a thing (town, district, country, province or the like).

[55] ‘Azl: Removal of someone from his office or exercise of authority.

[56] Khaleel, i.e. Allaah’s Khaleel: The one whom Allaah has distinguished by love and honor. Ibraaheem Al-Khaleel is Prophet Ibraaheem whom, like Prophet Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) Allaah has distinguished by love and honor.

[57] The other place is in Soorat Al-Jaathiyah 45, Aayah 23.

[58] Al-Hasan Al-Basree is Al-Hasan Bin Abee Al-Hasan and his name is Abee Al-Hasan Yisaar Al-Basree Al-Ansaaree, born in Al-Madeenah (21/642). A learned Faqeeh, devout, and respected scholar. He died in Basra in 110/728.

[59] Hithaar: Anything forming a barrier, an obstruction, a partition, or a fence.

[60] An agreed upon hadeeth. [See Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V. 8, Hadeeth #494.]

[61] Reported by At-Tirmithee who said that it is “hasan-saheeh”.- It is also reported by An-Nasaa’ee and Abu Daawood. Shaykh Al-Albaanee concluded that it is authentic in Saheeh Al-Jaami’ #5210 and in Mishkaatul Masaabeeh #5696. The terminology “hasan-saheeh ” used by At-Tirmithee refers to one of two situations regarding the hadeeth:

1-That it is reported through one way of narration and there is a disagreement regarding the status of one narrator in the chain: Some consider him sound while others consider him “hasan,”

2-It is reported via two chains of narration, one “Hasan” and the other “saheeh”. (See Al-Haafith Ibn Hajar’s An-Nukal ‘Alaa Nuzhatin-Nalhar fee Tawdeeh Nukhbatul-Fikar (Dammaam, KSA: Daar Ibnul-Jawzee, 1414/1994)], pp. 93-94.

The “hasan” (fine) is itself authentic but does not reach the level of authenticity of the “saheeh”.

[62] Shaykh Muhammad Naasir-ud-Deen Al-Albaanee, may Allaah protect him, said: The Isnaad (chain of narration) of this hadeeth is weak because of the status of weakness of Nu’aim Bin Hammaad (a narrator). See Shaykh Al-Albaanee’s comments on Al-Tabreezee’s Mishkaatul Masaabeeh [Beirut, Lebanon: AI-Maktab Al-Islaamee, 1405/1985], V. l,p. 59. Al-Haafith Ibn Rajab observed another cause of weakness of this hadeeth in his commentary on An-Nawawee’s authentication of the same hadeeth. [See Ibn Rajab’s Jaami’ Al-‘Uloom wal Hikam (Beirut, Lebanon; Muassasatur-Risaalah, checked by Shu’ayeb Al-Ama’out and Ibraaheem Baajis, 1412/1991], V. 2, p. 394.

[63] Reported by Imaam Ahmad, and Al-Haithamee said: “It was reported by Ahmad, Al-Bazzaar, and At-Tabaraanee in his  Ma’aajim: As-Sagheer, Al-Awsat. and Al-Kabeer, and its narrators are ‘men of Saheeh1 [i.e. generally classified in the category of sound, reliable, or even less. This does not necessarily mean that the rest of conditions required to authenticate the Isnaad (chain of narration), not to mention the hadeeth itself, are usually met.] [See Shaykh Al-Albaanee’s introduction to Saheeh At-Targheeb war Tarheeb by AlMunthiree, pp. 43-50.]

[64] Al-Muhaddith Shaykh Muhammad Naasir-ud-Deen Al-Albaanee said that the hadeeth is hasan. See As~Silsi!ah As-Saheehah, #1802, and Saheeh Al-Jaami’, #3045.

[65] An agreed upon hadeeth, [See Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V. 8, Hadeeth #135.]

[66] Mu’aawiyah is the Sahaabee Sakhr Bin Harb Bin Umayyah Bin ‘Abd Shams Bin ‘Abd Manaaf Bin Qusay Bin Kilaab, Abu’Abdur Rahmaan. The Ameer of Al-Mu’mineen, and the King of Islaam. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“O Allaah! Bestow upon him the knowledge of the Book (i.e. the Qur’aan) and save him from torment.”

[Reported by Imaam Ahmad in Fadaa ‘il As-Sahaabah, V. 2, p. 913.]

The checker said its Isnaad is hasan because of other narrations]. He also invoked Allaah saying:

“O Allaah! Make of him (i.e. Mu’aawiyah) a guide (to the truth), cause him to be rightly directed, and cause others to be rightly directed by him.”

[Reported by Imaam Ahmad, V. 5 #17438, and by At-Tirmithee. Al-A!baanee said it is saheeh (see Saheeh Sunan At-Tirmithee, #3018).] He was one of the Sahaabah who recorded the Revelation.

Contrary to many false reports, Mu’aawiyah did not seek to take over the Khilaafah from ‘Ali Shaykh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah, Imaam Ath-Thahabee, AtTabaree, and many other scholars from the Salaf asserted that Mu’aawiyah used to acknowledge that ‘Ali is better than him and that he [Mu’aawiyah] does not deserve the Khilaafah. His position, however, was that he wanted ‘Ali to punish the assassins of ‘Uthmaan^ before he would give his loyalty to him. He thought that he was on the truth regarding this matter. ‘Ali on the other hand, conditioned that Mu’aawiyah must give the pledge of loyalty to him because he was the Khaalefah and that he thought it is wise to wait until he consolidates his power and then seek ‘Uthmaan’s assassins. ‘Ali had nothing to do with the killing of ‘Uthmaan Based upon many authentic narrations and prophecies from the Prophet Ahlus-Sunnah consider to be on the side of the truth.

The fitnah was ignited by a group of dissidents known as As-Saba’iyyah whose leader, ‘Abdullah Bin Saba’, was a Jew who considered ‘Ali to be Allaah incarnate! Most of the Sahaabah kept themselves away from the fitnah and only a few, not exceeding thirty, shared in the fighting between the army of ‘Ali and Mu’aawiyah.

The Islamic rule at the time of Mu’aawiyah’s Kingdom was very strong whereby the Muslims ruled a vast area extending from Khurasaan in the East to the West African coast, and from Cyprus in the Mediterranean to the Yemen in the South. [See Tahqeeq Mawaaqif AsSahaabah Fee Al-Fitnah; Establishing the (True) Position of the Sahaabah During the Fitnah (i.e. Between ‘Ali and Mu’aawiyahby Dr. Muhammad Amakhzoon, V. 2, pp. 93-130, published by Daar Tayebah and Maktabat Al-Khawthar, Riyaadh, KSA, 1415/1994.]

The reason why that I have highlighted some of these important facts is that most of what had been written about this fitnah is either a) fully historical and not authenticated, b) compiled by orientalists, or c) promoting baseless accounts by the Raafidhah (the rejectionists of the Shee ‘ah). The fully documented and authenticated reports from the Muhadditheen regarding the fitnah gave us the true positions of the Sahaabah regarding this matter. An excellent source is Al- ‘Awaasim Minal Qawaasim by Abu Bakr Bin ‘Al-Arabi AI-Maalikee (not the infamous mystic Sufi Ibn ‘Arabi) with commentary by Muhib-ed-Deen AI-Khateeb, 5th edition, Maktabat AsSunnah, Cairo, 1408. See also Tahtheeb Siyar ‘Alaam An-Nubalaa’, V. 1, #257. And Allaah knows best.

[67] Abu Ad-Dardaa’ is ‘Uwaymir Bin Zayed (or Bin ‘Aamir, or Bin ‘Abdullaah) Bin Qays, the Judge of Damascus, and one of the Sahaabah; the master of Qur’aanic recitation in Damascus before and during the Khilaafah of Uthmaan . He is known as the Hakeem (the wise man) of this Ummah. He was from the few amongst the Sahaabah who collected the Noble Qur’aan. He reported one hundred and ninety seven Ahaadeeth. It is reported that he died in the year 32 of Hijrah/652. [See Tahtheeb Siyar ‘Alaam An-Nubalaa’, V. 1, #172.]

[68] Bishr Al-Haafee is Bishr Bin Al-Haarith Bin ‘Abdur Rahmaan Bin ‘Ataa’ Bin Hilaal AI-Marwazee, the renowned, righteous, and trustworthy. A resident of Baghdaad. He died in 227/840 at an age of seventy six. [See Taqreeb At-Tahtheeb by Al-Haqfith Ibn Hajar, p. 168, checked by Abul Ashbaal Sagheer Ahmad Shaaghif AlPakistani, Daar AI-‘Aasimah, Riyaadh, KSA, I416.]

[69] Referring to Shaykh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah.

[70] Himiyyah: Guarding, prelecting, and absenting from what is harmful. In case of sickness it means, abstaining from things [including food] that are injurious.

[71] Sara‘: A well known state arising, in some cases, from mental disorder whereby the person falls to the ground in a state that resembles madness.

[72] ‘Abdul Maalik Bin Quraib Bin ‘Abdul Maalik Bin ‘Ali Bin Asmaa’, Abu Sa’eed Al-Baahilee, Al-Asma’ee, Al-Basree. A truthful Sim-nee; died in the 16th year of Hijrah and others said differently. He lived close to ninety years of age. [See Taqreeb At-Tahtheeb, p. 626.]

[73] AI-Fudayyl Bin ‘lyaad Bin Mas’oud At-Tameemee, Abu ‘All, the renowned, trustworthy, and an Imaam who devoted himself to the worship of Allaah. Originally from Khurasaan (a province in NE Iran). He became a resident of Makkaah and died in 187/803, or earlier. [See Taqreeb At-Tahlheeb, p. 786.]

[74] Al-Kufr here includes disbelief and Kufr which means ingratitude, being ungrateful for Allaah’s Ni ‘mah (Favour or Blessing).

[75] Abu Sulaimaan Ad-Daaraanee is ‘Abdur Rahmaan Bin Ahmad (or it is said ‘Abdur Rahmaan Bin ‘Atiyyah) born around 140/758. A great Imaam and the great Zaahid (see below) of his times. He related the hadeeth from Suiyaan Ath-Thawree and others. As safa (see below) who died in the year 215/831 or 205/821. [See Tahtheeb Siyar ‘AlaamAn-Nubalaa’by Imaam Ath-Thahabee, V. 1, #1592.]

[76] Muhammad Bin Abee Al-Ward, is Muhammad Bin Muhammad Bin’Eesa Bin ‘Abdur Rahmaan Bin ‘Abdus Samad Abul Hasan, known as Ibn Abee Al-Ward. He died in 263/847. See Ibnul Jawzee’s Safwat As-Sajwah [Cairo, Egypt: Daar As-Safa(lst edition) 1411/1990], V. 1, #281, p. 570.

[77] Yahya Bin Mu’aath Ar-Raazi, the Zaahid, the wise and the admonisher of his times. He died in Naisapoor in the year 258/872.

[See Tahiheeb Siyar ‘AlaamAn-Nubalaa’, V. 1, #2247 and Ath-Thahabbe’s Al-‘Ibar Fee Khabar Man Ghabar, V.I, p. 371, published by DaarAl-Kutub Al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon.]

Note:

He is considered a Sufi in the context of the early practice of sufism in which some of its followers were mostly interested in leading a pious life of Zuhd (an abstemious way of life), patience, clemency, sincerity, truthfulness, etc.. Overall they were close to the teachings of the Qur’aan and Sunnah, although some of them exaggerated and (or) introduced innovated forms of worship and concepts. [See Majmoo’ Fataawaa Shaykh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah, 10:366-367, and Ibnul Jawzee in Talbees Iblees, p. 156.]

Historically the process started in Basra, ‘Iraaq by the time when the majority of Taabi’ee (the followers of) At-Taabi’een passed away (Ibid, 10:358). Many of them used to wear woollen (suf) clothing a sign of disassociation from the wordly life. The first to establish a “house for the sufiyyah” was a man by the name of ‘Abdul Waahid Bin Zayed (Ibid, 10:359). In their works there is a blend of truth and falsehood. The majority of the scholars, including Imaam Shaafi’ee, Ahmad, Maalik, and others from Ahl-ul-Hadeeth, criticized their ways especially their so-called Samoa‘ [singing aimed to stimulating a state of Wajd (ecstasy)] and excessive worship. Whatever opposes the Qur’aan and Sunnah and the way of the Salafis to be rejected and whatever is in agreement is accepted because it is not innovated. The acceptance is not an approval of the terminology or the essence of Sufism in any of its stages. It remains to be remembered that it is not true that every pious and Zaahid Muslim is necessarily a Sufi. The Zuhaad (Sing. Zaahid) of the later times were more influenced by scholastic theology (Ilm Al-Kalaam) which began to creep into the Ummah following the translations of many of the philosophical concepts of the Hindus, Greeks, Romans, and Persians (Ibid, 10:367). Consequently, they deviated from the way of the Sahaabah and their followers from At-Taabi’een (Ibid, 10:358;366-367). It is known that Zuhd practices developed into organized forms of hunger, poverty, self-strive, seclusion, sleeplessness, wandering, handclapping, dancing, going to the markets in strange ways, abandoning the interest in hadeeth knowledge, and other extremes. Sufism further developed into a school of mysticism and corrupt creed and methodology. [See Talbees Iblees, pp. 156-165, published by Maktabat-ul Qur’aan, Cairo, Egypt.]

[78] Jamooh: A horse is called Jamooh when it overcomes its rider and runs away so as to be ungovernable by him.

[79] The life of this world with its temptations and means of seduction.

[80] ‘Ataa’ Bin Yasaar Al-Hilaalee, Abu Muhammad Al-Mudanee. A trustworthy and honourable Taab ‘iee known for his worship and admonitions. He died in the year 94/713 (or after). See Taqreeb At-Tahtheeb, p. 679, #4638.

[8l] AI-Hasan Bin ‘Ali Al-Muttawwi’ee: Within my resources, I didn’t find a biographical history for him.

[82] Abu Bakr Muhammad Bin ‘Umar Bin’Ali Bin Khalaf Bin Zanboor, known as AI-Hakeem (The wise man). Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdaadee said: “He was weak (in terms of Hadeeth transmission)”. He died in Baghdaad in 396/1006. [See Ibnul Jawzee’s Safawt AsSafwah, V.2, pp.351-352, #707. See also Al-‘/barbyAth-Thahabee, V.2, p. 189.]

[83] Abu ‘Ali Ath-Thaqafee is Muhammad Bin ‘Abd Al-Wahaab An-Naisapoori. He was an Imaam in most of the Islaamic disciplines, Muhaddith, Faqeeh, and an admonisher. According to Ash-Sha’raanee, he abandoned most of his knowledge and engaged in the “Sufi knowledge”! (Tabaqaat-M(Ftn.l6Q), 1:107). He died in 328/940. [See Al- ‘Ibar, V. 2, p. 3, and Tahtheeb Siyar ‘Alaam An-Nubalaa’, V. 2, #2996.]

[84] ‘Ali Bin Sahl Bin Al-‘Abbaas, the Imaam, Mufassir (scholar of Tafseer), the Zaahid, known for his devotion in worship. He died in 491/1098. [See Al-Muntakhab min Kitaab As-Siyaaq litaareekh Naisapoor, by Al-Haafith Taqyee-ed Deen As-Sayyzafeenee, p. 431, #1337. Published by Al-Maktabah At-Tijaariyyah, Makkah.]

“The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“There is none amongst you with whom is not an companion from amongst the jinn [devils]. They [the Sahaabah] said: “Allaah’s Messenger, with you too?” Thereupon he said: “Yes, but Allaah helps me against him and as such he surrendered [to Allaah in Islaam] and commands me not except for good. “

[Reported by Muslim. See Saheeh Muslim, V. 4, Hadeeth #6757.] In another narration by Muslim and Ahmad, the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم)  said:

“There is none amongst you with whom there is not an companion from amongst the jinn [devils] and an attache from amongst the angels.”

This companion from the angels may be different from those assigned by Allaah to write the record of deeds of the children of Adam. [See Al-Ashqar’s book ‘Aalam Al-Malaa’ikah AlAbraar (Kuwait, State of Kuwait: Maktabat Al-Falaah and Daar An-Nafaa’is, 1411/1991), p. 44.]

[86] These are the moments of difficulty which the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) used to seek refuge with Allaah from: Abu Huraira narrated that:

“he Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) used to seek refuge with Allaah from the difficult moments of calamity and from being overtaken by Ash-Shaqaa’ (wretchedness in the Hereafter or destruction etc.) and from being destined to an evil end, and from the malicious joy of enemies.”

Sufyaan (Bin ‘Uyainah) said: “This narration contained three items only, but I added one. I do not know which one that was.”[Reported by Al-Bukhaaree, Muslim, and An-Nasaa’ee. See Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V. 8, Hadeeth #358.]

[87] Al-Masheeb: The period of whiteness of the hair, or hoariness.

[88] Rushd: Maturity of intellect enabling the person lo follow a right course of action and providing a good management of affairs.

[89] Abu ‘Ali Ad-Daqqaaq is Al-Hasan Bin ‘Ali Bin Muhammad Bin Ishaaq Bin ‘Abdur Raheem Bin Ahmad, a Zaahid Sufi who excelled in fiqh, Islaamic Fundamentals, and Arabic language. According to some reports, he died around 406/1016. See Al-‘Ibar, V. 2, p. 212, and ShatharaatAth-Thahab,V.3,p. 180. Daar Ihyaa’ At-Turaath Al-‘Arabi.

[90] Al-Muhallab Bin Abee Sufrah is Thaalim Ibn Saariq Al-‘Aatakee Al-Azdee, Abu Sa’eed AI-Basree, One of the trustworthy leaders and heroes who was knowledgeable about war plans and strategies. He reported Hadeeth transmissions from ‘Abdullaah Bin ‘Amr Bin Al-‘Aas, Samrah Bin Jundhub, Ibn ‘Umar, Al-Baraa’ Bin ‘Aazib, and others from the Sahaabah [See Tahtheeb Siyar ‘AlaamAn-Nubalaa‘, V. 1, #532, and Taqreeb At-Tahtheeb, #6986.]

[91] Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) said:

فَأَمَّا مَن طَغَىٰ
وَآثَرَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا
فَإِنَّ الْجَحِيمَ هِيَ الْمَأْوَىٰ

Then, for him who Taghaa [transgressed all bounds, in disbelief, oppression, and evil deeds of disobedience to Allaah], and preferred the life of this world [by following his evil desires and lusts], verily, his abode will be Hell-Fire. [Qur’aan, Soorat An-Naazi’aal, 79:37-39).

He also said:

وَأَمَّا مَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ وَنَهَى النَّفْسَ عَنِ الْهَوَىٰ
فَإِنَّ الْجَنَّةَ هِيَ الْمَأْوَىٰ

But as for him who feared standing before his Rabb [Allaah], and restrained himself from impure evil desires and lusts, verily, Al-Jannah will be his abode. [Qur’aan, Soorat An-Naazi ‘aat, 79:40-41].

[92] Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) said:

ضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا رَّجُلًا فِيهِ شُرَكَاءُ مُتَشَاكِسُونَ وَرَجُلًا سَلَمًا لِّرَجُلٍ هَلْ يَسْتَوِيَانِ مَثَلًا ۚ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Allaah puts forth a similitude: A [slave] man belonging to many partners [like those who worship others along with Allaah] disputing with one another, and a [slave] man belonging entirely to one master [like those who worship Allaah Alone], Are those two equal in comparison? All the praises and thanks are due to Allaah! But most of them know not. [Qur’aan, Soorat Az-Zumar (39:29)].

[93] Ba’rah(Pl. Ba’r) A piece of animal dung. This signifies what is low.

[94] Signifying what is precious.

[95] The man of truth.

[96] In his eloquent and clear speech with the people.

[97] “This is from the Ghaybiyaat ( matters of Al-Ghayb) and it is not confirmed by an authentic evidence.”

[98] The standing before Allaah on the Day of Resurrection awaiting His Judgment.

[99] Know, may Allaah’s Mercy be upon you, that the shade sometimes is mentioned in relation to Allaah and sometimes in relation to His ‘Arsh. Many authentic narrations reported by Imaam Ahmad, Ad-Daarimee, Al-Baghawee, At-Tirmithee, Al-Haakira, At-Tabaraanee and others state that the shade is that of the ‘Arsh. As Al-Haafith Ibn Hajar explained, these narrations when related to the context of the agreed upon hadeeth: “Allaah will give shade to seven, on the Day when there would be no shade but His…” preponderates that the shade is that of the ‘Arsh.

Shaykh Muhammad Al-‘Uthaymeen commented that the Prophet’s statement: “On the Day when there would be no shade but His…” means that there would be no shade except that which He creates and that the belief that the shade is that of Allaah’s Essence is false, because this would imply that the sun is above Allaah the Most Majestic and Most High.

[See Fathul Baaree V. 2, p. 144, and Sifaatullaah Al-Waaridah Fil Kitaabi-wasSunnah, by ‘Alawee Bin ‘Abdul QaadirAs-Saqqaaf pp. 171-174, and Sharhul ‘Aqeedah Al-Waasitiyyah by Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Saalih Al-‘Uthaymeen, V. 2, p. 136.]

[100] The seven were mentioned in the hadeeth in which the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Allaah will give shade to seven, on the Day when there will be no shade but His. [These seven persons are]:

  • (1) a just ruler,
  • (2) a youth who has been brought up in the worship of Allaah [i.e. worships Allaah sincerely from his childhood},
  • (3) a man whose heart is attached to the mosques [i.e. he offers the five compulsory Salaat (prayers) in the mosques],
  • (4) two persons who love each other only for Allaah’s sake and they meet and part in Allaah’s Cause only.
  • (5) a man who refuses the call of a charming women of noble birth for illegal sexual intercourse with her and says: I am afraid of Allaah.
  • (6) a man who gives charitable gifts so secretly that his left hand does not know what his right hand has given [i. e. nobody knows how much he has given in charity}, and
  • (7) a person who remembers Allaah in seclusion and his eyes become flooded with tears, “

[Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim. The text is that of Al-Bukhaaree: Saheeh AI-Bukhaaree, V. 1, Hadeeth #629.]

SourceThe Dispraise of Al-Hawaa (Lowly Desire) – Imaam Ibn al Qayyim | Dr Saleh as Saleh

القَاهِر Al-Qaahir (The Invincible Subduer) : One of the Names of Allaah

القَاهِر Al-Qaahir (the Invincible Subduer), the One Who subdues His creation from above to Whom everything submits, none can repel what He ordains or depart from what He decrees.

[SourceThe Ninety-Nine Names of Allaah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En] & Transcribed PDF]

وَهُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ
And He [Allaah] is al-Qaahir  above His slaves.
[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-An’aam (6:18)].

Allaah is al-Qaahir: The Most Mighty and the Magnificent, is dominant over all his slaves being Himself above creation, the Ever-living, the Mighty, and the AllPowerful. He is the One who subdued all of his creatures; everything in the upper and lower worlds is subservient to His Will, and Authority; whatever He willed to happen will certainly occur and as He wanted it to be, and whatever He willed not to occur will never take place; All creatures are in need of Him, they have no control of good or harm to themselves; nor can they control death nor life nor Resurrection. The most powerful creature is nothing before the domination and power of Allaah, the AllMighty; the creatures which people have taken as “gods” besides Allaah, cannot protect themselves let alone to dominate others. Allaah, the perfect is His domination deserves to be worshipped alone.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

الله Allaah: The ‘alam (identifying name or title) of the majestic, sole, and true God

Allaah is the ‘alam (identifying name or title) of the majestic, sole, and true God. This noun, which is the name of Allaah, applies to none other than Him. He, Most Majestic and High, has other names all of which follow on from His name Allaah. The meaning of the name “Allaah” is the ma’looh (that which is worshipped out of love, magnification, deification, and longing).

[See Shaykh Muhammad Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Sharhul ‘Aqeedah Al-Waasitiyyah (Dammaam, KSA: Daar Ibnul Jawzi, 2d. ed. 1415/1994], p. 38, and Sharh Lum’at Al-’Itiqaad (Ismaa’eeliyyah, Egypt: MaktabatulImaam al-Bukhaari (checked by Ashraf Maqsood), 1412/1992)], p. 29.]

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Concerning the name Allaah, Ibn ul-Qayyim said in Midaarij us-Saalikeen:

“The name Allaah indicates all of the perfect names and lofty attributes in all three ways of indication since it indicates His Divinity, which indicates affirmation of all the characteristics of divinity for Him along with negation of their opposites for Him. So, the attributes of divinity are the attributes of perfection being free from any likeness with the creation and free of any deficiency or imperfection.”

And the author of the explainer of Kitaab at-Tawheed in Tayseer ul-`Azeez al-Hameed, brings a quote from Ibn ul-Qayyim also with regard to the excellent qualities of the name Allaah that Ibn ul-Qayyim rahimahullaah said:

As for the particular virtues of the meaning of this name Allaah then in this regard the most knowledgeable of the creation sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam himself said:

“I could not praise You enough as You deserve, You are as You have praised Yourself.”

[Reported by Muslim from the hadeeth of A’ishah radiyAllaahu `anha.]

He said, so how could we enumerate the special virtues of the name of the One Who comprises every perfection unrestrictedly and every praise and commendation and every laudation and exaltation and all splendour and all perfection and all glory and all beauty and all good and all eminence and all generosity, excellence and goodness is for Him and is from Him.

So, this name Allaah is not mentioned upon a small amount of something except that it causes it to increase. Nor is it mentioned in a state of fear except that it removes it. Nor is it mentioned upon any misfortune except that it relieves it. Nor in any state of anxiety and distress except that it brings relief. Nor upon any state of difficulty except that it brings ease to it. None who is weak resorts to it except that it brings strength to him. Nor anyone in a state of humiliation except that it brings honour to him. Nor anyone in poverty except that he is enriched. Nor anyone who feels estranged and uneasy except that it causes him to feel at ease. Nor is it mentioned by one who has been overcome except that it brings aid and victory for him. Nor by one who is in straitened circumstances except that his difficulty is removed. Nor is it mentioned by a fugitive except that he finds refuge.

So, it is the name, meaning Allaah’s name Allaah, it is the name through which distress is removed through which the descent of blessings is sought and through which supplications are answered. Through it slips are corrected, sins are warded away and good deeds are brought closer.

It is the name with which the earth and heavens were established and with which the revealed books were sent down and with which the messengers were sent. With it the legislated laws were prescribed, through it the prescribed punishments were established and with it jihaad was prescribed.

Through this name the creation will become divided into the fortunate and the wretched. With it the true and tremendous day is established and with it, the scales of justice are set up, the bridge laid down and the Paradise and the Fire established. With it, the Lord of all creation is worshipped and praised, for its right the messengers were sent and it will be asked about in the grave and for it, there will be the resurrection. Dispute is regarding it and judgement is to it and alliance and enmity are for it. Through it those who know it and establish its rights will be the fortunate ones and through it those who are ignorant of it and leave its rights will be the wretched ones.

So, it is the reason for creation and command and through it, they are established and confirmed and to it they arrive at a conclusion. So, the creation comes about through it, returns to it and exists because of it. So, there is nothing in creation and no command nor reward and no punishment except that it starts from it and ends with it. That is what brings it about and its reason. Then he quotes the aayah:

رَبَّنَا مَا خَلَقْتَ هَٰذَا بَاطِلًا سُبْحَانَكَ فَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ

O our Lord, You have not created all of this without purpose, free and far removed are You from that. So save us from the punishment of the Fire.  (Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 191)

Then with regard to the name الله  Allaah, brief indication of the meaning which is – the One Who is truly venerated and worshipped, the One deserving that He be singled out with all worship because of His perfect attributes of divinity.

[SourceThe Ninety-Nine Names of Allaah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En] & Transcribed PDF]

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

البَرّ al-Barr (The Most Benign and Kind): One of the Names of Allaah

One of the Names of Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) is  البَرّ al-Barr:

البَرّ al-Barr: The One Who is Most Subtle, Kind, Courteous, and Generous; the One Who is ample in goodness and beneficence; Who gives manifold increase of reward to the righteous, and Who overlooks many of the faults of the wrong-doers with gracious forgiveness; whoever brings a good deed, Allaah, al-Barr, rewards him ten times the like thereof to his credit, and whoever brings an evil deed He (تعالى) decrees for him only the recompense of the like thereof, and they will not be wronged. If somebody intends to do a good deed and he does not do it, then Allaah, al-Barr, will write for him a full good deed in his account with Him; and if he intends to do a bad deed and he does not do it, then Allaah will write a full good deed in his account with Him. He loves piety towards Him, goodness, justice, righteousness, honesty, truthfulness, benevolent regard or conduct to parents and others, as well as every incumbent duty.

[Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)]

البَرّ  Al-Barr with a baa and a raa and a shaddah on the raaAl-Barr (the Most Benign and Kind), the One Who treats the creation in an excellent and kind manner, Who does not interrupt His fine treatment of them and Who rectifies their affairs for them.

[SourceThe Ninety-Nine Names of Allaah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En] & Transcribed PDF]

Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

They will never compass anything of Allaah’s Knowledge except that which He wills – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

[Six]: In the sixth statement, Allaah (تعالى) said:

وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ
And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills.
[Qur’aan, Aayatul-Kursi , Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255]

The pronoun of the verb { يُحِيطُونَ } “compass” refers to either all that is in the heavens and the earth or to the letter haa’ (ـهـ) in Allaah’s saying:

{ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ] “What happens to them [the creatures] in the future and what happened to them in the past.” In the latter case, the meaning would be “Those who Allaah knows what happens to them in the future and what happened to them in the past, will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He Wills.”

In this statement, Allaah (تعالى) makes clear the perfection of His knowledge and the imperfection of the creature’s knowledge.

And thus, He (تعالى) compares His Attributes to that of His ‘ibaad in order that His perfection and the imperfection of the creatures become clearly evident. This is also clear in His saying:

كُلُّ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ
وَيَبْقَىٰ وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ

Whatsoever on it (the earth) will perish. And the Face of your Rabb, full of Majesty and Honour will abide forever. [Qur’aan, Soorat Ar-Rahmaan (55:26-27)].

As far as the word ‘ilm (knowledge) in His saying:

عِلْمِهِ ]
His Knowledge,”

it is an infinitive (verbal noun) denoting either

(a) the ‘ilm of His thaat (Essence) and sifaat (Attributes), or
(b) His ma’loom (What Allaah Knows).

Accordingly, the meaning of the aayah: {وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ} “And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills“, means either

(a) that we do not know anything about Allaah, His thaat, and His sifaat except that which He willed for us to know, or

(b) that we do not know of what Allaah knows except that which He willed to be known.

The aayah implies both meanings, and both are correct since we do not know of Allaah’s thaat or sifaat except that which He willed for us to know. Indeed, He is the One Who made it known to us that He ascended upon the ‘arsh (Throne); and He is the One Who taught us on the tongue of His Messenger [Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم] that He descends to the lowest heaven [in the last third of the night]; and this is the case with the rest of His sifaat: We have no knowledge of them except that He wills. Similarly, what Allaah knows regarding what is in the heavens and what is on the earth, our knowledge thereof is restricted to that which He willed for us to know. After all, He is the One Who informed us of the existence of the angels in the heavens and that there are seven heavens. So it is with respect to the rest of what Allaah knows, we are aware of that which He willed for us to know.

Even that which He has made known, many of us are unaware of it; the knowledge thereof are attained only if He wills. In the human being, there are many things which people [i.e. scientists] are not yet fully aware of. They gradually attained the knowledge that they knew not before. So, the aayah comprises both of the meanings discussed above.

Thus we do not know anything of what Allaah knows even that which concerns ourselves except that which He wills, and that we do not compass anything about Allaah’s thaat and sifaat except that which He wills. Therefore, whatever Allaah wills for His creatures to know, whether in relation to His thaat, sifaat, asmaa’ (Names), or Actions; or with respect to His creation or His legal ways which He revealed to His Messengers, then He (تعالى) will make it known for them.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

Allaah Knows what happens to His creatures in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

[Five]: Then Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى ) said in the Fifth Statement:

 يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ
And Allaah Knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter.
[Qur’aan, Aayatul-Kursi , Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255]

Knowledge, according to the scholars of usool (the fundamental principles of deen), is the definitive comprehension of a thing in conformity with its true nature.Thus, the lack of comprehension is ignorance, the indecisive comprehension is doubt, and the assertive comprehension that does not concur with reality is compounded ignorance.

For example, if you were asked, “When did the expedition of Badr [59] take place?” And you say, “I do not know,” then this is ignorance. If you were asked the same question and you said, “It happened in the second or the third year of hijrah,” then this is doubt.[60] And if your answer to the same question was, “The fifth year,” then this is compounded ignorance.[61]

Allaah, the Most Mighty and Most Majestic, knows things comprehensively and with perfection, overall and in detail. His knowledge is unlike the knowledge of ‘ibaad. That is why He said:

 يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ
And Allaah knows what happens to them [the creatures] in the future and what happened to them in the past.[62]

The conjunctive noun {ما} is a form of generalization (gram.) This comprises everything be it small or great, or whether it is from the actions of Allaah or from the creatures’ deeds.

Knowing what happens to them in the future implies that Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) is not unaware of the future, and that His knowledge of the past necessitates that He does not forget the past. That is why when Fir’awn said to Mûsa (alaihissalam):

قَالَ فَمَا بَالُ الْقُرُونِ الْأُولَىٰ
“What about the generations of the old?” [Qur’aan, Soorat Taha (20:51)].

Mûsa (alaihissalam) replied:

قَالَ عِلْمُهَا عِندَ رَبِّي فِي كِتَابٍ ۖ لَّا يَضِلُّ رَبِّي وَلَا يَنسَى

The knowledge thereof is with my Rabb, in a Record. My Rabb is neither unaware nor He forgets. [Qur’aan, Soorat Taha (20:52)].

This means that Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) is neither unaware of the future nor does He forget the past.

Footnotes:

[59] The Battle of Badr occurred between the army of the believers lead by Prophet Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and the polytheists of Quarysh and it took place on the 17th of Ramadaan of the second year of Hijrah.

[60] Because you give another answer, which you think has the same possibility of being the truth.

[61] This is known as al-jahlul-murakkab, which is to comprehend something in a way contrary to its true reality. [See Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Sharh Thalaathat Al-Usool (Burmingham, UK: Al-Hidaayah Publication, 1st. ed. 1418/1997)], p. 37.

[62] This is one of the meanings of this great aayah. It signifies that Allaah’s knowledge encompasses everything in the past, present, and the future; nothing escapes Allaah’s knowledge.

Note: One of the Names of Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) is العليم al-‘Aleem:

The One Who knows what has been and what will be; Who ever has known, and ever will know, what has been and what will be; His knowledge comprehends all things, the covert and the overt, the small thereof and the great, the possible and the impossible, the lofty and lower spheres, etc. in the most complete manner. Nothing is concealed from Him in the earth or in the heavens.

[See Shaykh as-Sa’dee’s Tayseer Al-Kareem Ar-Rahmaan fee Tafseeri Kalaamil-Mannaan [‘Unayzah, Saudi Arabia: Saalih bin Saalih Center Publish. 1412/1992)], vol. 5, p. 299.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Links:
https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

Allaah’s kursi extends over the heavens and the earth encompassing them all – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

[Seven]: Then Allaah, the Most High, said:

وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ ۖ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ

His kursi extends over the heavens and the earth encompassing them all, He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.

The kursi [literally: footstool] is mawdi’ul qadamayn (place of the Feet) of Allaah, Most Mighty and Most Majestic, and it is before the ‘arsh like a front to it. This was authentically related by ibn ‘Abbaas (رضي االله عنهما) in a mawqoof [63] type of narration. This is agreed upon by the majority of ahlussunnah wal jamaa’ah. In fact, this is asserted by Shaykh-ulIslam Ibn Taymeeyah, [Imaam] Ibnul Qayyim, and others from the people of knowledge and from the verifying scholars.

Some have said that al-kursi is the ‘arsh itself. However, this is not true because the ‘arsh is greater, more spacious, and more profound in its extent of encompassing than al-kursi. It has also been narrated on the authority of ibn ‘Abbaas (رضي االله عنهما) that al-kursi represents Allaah’s Knowledge. But I do not think that this narration is authentic because this meaning (i.e. knowledge) is not the true meaning for the word al-kursi in the classical Arabic language nor in the common (‘urfi) language. In fact, it is very unlikely that this transmission from ibn ‘Abbaas (رضي االله عنهما) is an authentic one [64]. Hence, al-kursi is mawdi’ul qadamayan.

The greatness of al-kursi is clearly stated in the hadeeth in which the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“The seven heavens and the seven earths by the side of al-kursi are naught but as a ring thrown down in a desert land, and such is al-kursi with respect to al-’Arsh (the Throne).” [65]

This hadeeth indicates the vastness of these immense creations and which are, with respect to us, from the world of al-ghayb. That is why Allaah سبحانه و تعالى says:

أَفَلَمْ يَنظُرُوا إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَوْقَهُمْ كَيْفَ بَنَيْنَاهَا وَزَيَّنَّاهَا وَمَا لَهَا مِن فُرُوجٍ

Have they not looked at the heavens above them, how We have made it and adorned it, and there are no rifts in it. [Qur’aan, Soorat Qaaf (50:6)].

He سبحانه و تعالى did not say: “Have they not looked at al-kursi (or al- ‘arsh)…,” because this is something that is not seen by us.

Had it not been that Allaah had informed us about it (al-kursi or al-‘arsh), we would not have known of it.

Allaah’s saying: “His kursi extends over and encompasses the heavens and the earth”, supports the opinion held by Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymeeyah and by other verifying scholars that the heavens and the earths all have a spherical shape, because this is a matter acknowledged by sensory perception, and through information, though the latter method may have been hidden from many of the preceding people. The proof for this from the Qur’aan is in the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

إِذَا السَّمَاءُ انشَقَّتْ
وَأَذِنَتْ لِرَبِّهَا وَحُقَّتْ
وَإِذَا الْأَرْضُ مُدَّتْ 

When the heaven is split asunder [on the Day of Resurrection], and listens and obeys its Rabb,—and it must do so; And when the earth is stretched forth…[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Inshiqaaq (84:1-3)].

Allaah’s saying: “And when the earth is stretched forth,” necessitates that it is now unstretched. In addition, the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said that on the Day of Resurrection, the earth will be stretched forth like stretched leather, the example of which is drawn for emphasis. [66]

Another proof is the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

يُكَوِّرُ اللَّيْلَ عَلَى النَّهَارِ وَيُكَوِّرُ النَّهَارَ عَلَى اللَّيْلِ

Yukawwiru the night around the day [making it to be a covering upon the day] and Yukawwiru the day around the night. [Qur’aan, Soorat Az-Zumar (39:5)].

Yukawiru means: “to wind round,”[67] like in our saying, “the akwaar (singl. kawr) of the turban,” meaning the turns of the turban upon the head.

We know that the day and night succeed each other upon earth and in doing so, this entails that the earth is spherical, because a thing would not be wound around in a round form except upon something ball-shaped. Nowadays, it is witnessed that the earth is spherical in form.

The fact that al-kursi extends over and encompasses the heavens and the earth is evidence that it is wound round in a round form.

Regarding al-‘arsh, it has been reported that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) described it as being like a dome above the heavens.[68] The dome-shape being round but neither fully spherical nor flat, and its middle is high like that of a tent. [69]

Then, Allaah, the Most High, said:

وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا

And He [Allaah سبحانه و تعالى] feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them [i.e. the heavens and the earths].

This attribute of Allaah [feeling no fatigue] is an Attribute of negation. So, what are the Attributes required for guarding and preserving [the heavens and the earths] such that we know that this negation [of fatigue] is in fact an affirmation of their perfection? It is essential that the guarding and preserving require Life, Knowledge, Ability, Might, Mercy, and possibly other attributes. What is important is that the negation implies the perfection of Allaah’s Knowledge, Ability, Might, and Mercy as well as the other related Attributes that are entailed by His (سبحانه و تعالى) preserving and guarding.

Footnotes:

[63] Mawqoof: lit. “stopped”. It is a narration from a companion only. The hadeeth attributed to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) is called marfoo’. Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) commented, “Had it not been that Ibn ‘Abbaas (رضي االله عنهما) is one whom it is said that he takes from the Israelite transmissions (israa’eeliyyaat: narrations from the traditions of the People of the Book), we would have said that this transmission (regarding al-kursi) takes the form of marfoo’ tradition, because it deals with knowledge of al-ghayb (the world of unperceived realities). When it comes to this kind of knowledge, there is no room for ijtihaad (scholarly deductions). When a sahaabi (companion) says or does something which is not within the scope of ijtihaad, then it takes the marfoo’ type of tradition. The exception, however, is that if the narration from the sahaabi is of the form of akhbaar (news telling, relating information), then, if it is known that a sahaabi narrates from Bani Israa’eel, his transmission would not be marfoo’ because of the possibility that its source may be from Bani Israa’eel (an Israelite transmission). Knowing that the scholars are scrupulous in their inspection of what is attributed to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), they do not rule that a particular transmission is marfoo’ except when all of the possibilities that may hinder this ruling are ruled out.” Tafseer Aayat Al-Kursi, pp. 19-20.

Note: This report from Ibn ‘Abbaas is related by ‘Abdullaah Ibn al-Imaam Ahmad (As-Sunnah: 586), Ibn Abee Shaybah (al-‘Arsh: 61), Ibn Khuzaymah (At-Tawheed: 248), and by alHaakim (Al-Mustadrak: 2:282) who said it is saheeh according to the conditions of alBukhaari and Muslim. Imaam ath-Thahabi agreed to the authentication of al-Haakim. Ad-Daaraqutni reported it in his book As-Sifaat (36) as mawqoof from Ibn ‘Abbaas.

Shaykh al-Albaani said: “Its isnaad is saheeh, and its narrators are all reliable.” (Mukhtasar Al-’Uluw: 45).

[64] Shaykeh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymeeyah (Al-Fataawaa, 6:584), and Shaykh al-Albaani (AsSilsilah As-Saheehah, no. 109), stated the weakness of this narration from Ibn ‘Abbaas (رضي االله عنهما).

[65] Reported by Ibn Abee Shaybah (Al-‘Arsh, 58), and by Al-Baihaqi (Al-Asmaa’ wasSifaat, 862) with both narrations being from the way of Abee Thar (radhi Allaahu anhu). Shaykh al-Albaani (As-Silsilah As-Saheehah, no. 109) stated that there is no single authentic hadeeth attributed to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) regarding al-kursi except this one.

[66] Reported by Ibn Jareer at-Tabari (Tafseer at-Tabari, 30:115-116) on the authority of ‘Ali Ibn al-Hussain. The transmission, however, is mursal.

Note: A hadeeth is categorized as mursal when the link between the taabi’ee (successor of the sahaabah) and the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) is missing.

[67] The infinitive noun is takweer, which means to round a thing in a round form.

[68] This has been reported in Sunan Abee Daawood (English Translation), no. 4708 and in the Sunnah by Ibn Abee ‘Aasim, no. 575, and by others. There is disagreement regarding the authenticity of its isnaad. Imaam ath-Thahabai and other scholars of hadeeth including al-Albaani graded its isnaad as weak. Imaam Ibn al-Aye supported its authenticity. The text describing al-‘Arsh as a dome over the heavens is supported by the context of an authentic narration reported by Imaam al-Bukhaari in his Saheeh (Arabic/English), vol. 9, no. 519 and in which the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“There are one-hundred degrees in al-Jannah which Allaah has prepared for those who carry on jihaad in His Cause. The distance between every two degrees is like the distance between the sky and the earth, so if you ask Allaah for anything, ask Him for the Firdaws for it is the middle and highest part of al-Jannah and at its top is al-‘Arsh of ar-Rahmaan (Allaah), and from it gush forth the rivers of al-Jannah.”

The ‘Arsh being the roof of the Firdaws, which is the middle and highest part of alJannah, indicates that it has a dome-shape because a thing cannot be at the middle and at its highest point (peak) unless it is round. [See Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymeeyah’s Al-Fataawaa, vol. 5, pp. 150-155, and the book of Al-‘Arsh by Muhammad Ibn ‘Uthmaan Ibn Abee Shaybah (Riyadh, KSA: Maktabat ar-Rushd (checked by Dr. Muhammad Ibn Khaleefah at-Tameemi), 1418/1998), p. 333].

[69] This is based upon additional explanation of the translated text which the author, Shaykh Ibn ’Uthaymeen, may Allaah’s Mercy be upon him, directly related to me on Wednesday the 16th of Safar 1419Hj, corresponding to the 10th of June 1998. He stated that this explanation fits with that of the hadeeth on the Firdaws as mentioned above. And Allaah knows best.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Links:
https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

Aayatul-Kursi contains Ismullaahi al-Aa’tham (Allaah’s Most Greatest Name) – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

The aayah contains ismullaahi al-aa’tham (Allaah’s Most Greatest Name) affirmed in His Saying:

[ الحيُّ الَقيُّوم ]

Allaah, there is no god worthy of worship except He, the one who possesses the perfect living, and Who is established on His Own, Self-subsisting, and by Whom all things subsist.[88]

These two Names were mentioned in three places in the Qur’aan, in the two soorahs known as az-zahraawayn [89] (AlBaqarah and Aal-’Imran), and in Soorat Taha.[90]

The people of ‘ilm (ahlul-‘ilm) said: The Most Great Name of Allaah is only in these two Names since they comprise the Most Beautiful Names in their entirety, and hence the attribute of Perfection is implied in the Name [ الحيُّ ]and the attribute of ihsaan (beauty) is entailed in the Name: [ الَقيُّوم]

Footnotes:

[88] Allaah is the one who sustains, protects, prepares, and runs the affairs of all things as He wills in accordance with His Knowledge, Wisdom, and Justice.

[89] Zahraawayn (dual form of zahra): The bright ones. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said,

“Recite the Qur’aan, for on the Day of Resurrection it will come as an intercessor for those who recite it. Recite the two bright ones, Al-Baqarah and Soorat Aal-’Imraan, for on the Day of Resurrection they will come as two clouds or two shades, or two flocks of birds in ranks, pleading for those who recite them. Recite Soorat Al-Baqarah, for to take recourse to it is a blessing and to give it up is a cause of grief, and the magicians cannot confront it.”

Reported in Saheeh Muslim (English Translation), vol. 2, no. 1757.

[90] In Al-Baqarah (2:255), in Aal-’Imraan (3:2), and in Taha (20:111).

Abu Umaamah (رضي االله عنه) reported that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said,

“Allaah’s Most Great Name is in three soorahs in the Qur’aan, in Soorat Al-Baqarah and in Aal-’Imraan and in Soorat Taha.”

Al-Qaasim bin ‘Abdur-Rahmaan, one of the narrators of this hadeeth, searched the Qur’aan and found

Aaytul-Kursi in Soorat Al-Baqarah (2:255):
[ االلهُ لا إله إلاَّ ُ هوَ الحَيُّ القَيُّوم ]

And in Soorat Aal-’Imraan (3:2):
[ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ ]

And in Soorat Taha (20:111)
[ وَعَنَتِ الْوُجُوهُ لِلْحَيِّ الْقَيُّومِ ]

Reported by al-Haakim, Ibn Maajah, at-Tabarani, at-Tahaawi, and others. Shaykh al-Albaani authenticated its isnaad (As-Silsilah As-Saheeha), vol. 2, no. 746.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen. With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Read the below excellent article:

Al Hayy, Al-Qayyoum: Two of Allaah’s names which comprise the perfection of Attributes and Actions – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Who is it that can intercede with Allaah except with His Permission? – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

[FOURTH]: In the fourth statement, Allaah, the Most High, said:

مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ
Who is it that can intercede with Him except with His Permission?

[Qur’aan, Aayatul-Kursi , Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255]

The word { ْمَن } “Who” is an interrogative noun [46] and the intended use of the interrogation in the sentence is to assert the negation [that there is none who can intercede] as evident in the affirmation phrase which followed it: { ِ إإِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ  } “Except with His Permission.” Whenever a negation takes the form of an interrogative construct, then the statement is infused with the meaning of challenge.

The Intercession (Ash-Shafaa’ah):

Regarding the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

يَشْفَعُ  }
Intercedes,”

know that:

1 . Linguistically, the term “shafaa’ah” means to make an odd number an even one.[47]

2 . Traditionally, it refers to the laying of a petition (interceding, mediating) with someone in favor of another, in procuring a benefit or warding off harm. Thus the shafaa’ah of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) for ahlul-mawqif [48] after the worry and distress which befalls them and which they are unable to bear is an intercession to ward off a harm. On the other hand, the Prophet’s shafaa’ah for ahlul-Jannah [49] to enter al-Jannah is aimed at procuring a benefit.

3. None can intercede except by Allaah’s Permission: { إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ } His Leave is kawni. [50] Even Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) who has the greatest rank with Allaah cannot intercede except with the prior leave from Allaah. He will be granted this permission after he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) prostrates before Allaah and praises Him with the great praises and glorifications which Allaah guides him to it on that day. Then it will be said:

“ارفع رأسك وقل يُسمَع واشفَعْ تُشَف َّع.”
“Raise your head and speak; you will be listened to, intercede and your intercession will be accepted.” [51]

[It is known] that no one have a rank with Allaah greater than that of the Messenger [Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم], nevertheless, he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) cannot intercede except with the prior leave of Allaah. It is so because of Allaah, Most Majestic and Most High’s, perfection of Authority and hayybah.[52] The more a king’s authority becomes fully established, the more reverent and respected he becomes. People would not even speak in his court unless he speaks. Consider the Prophet’s (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) relation with his companions and which Quraysh’s [53] emissary [‘Urwah bin Mas’oud] described [after finalizing the treaty of AlHudaybiyah]: “And when they spoke to him they would lower their voices.” [54]

All of this is out of respect. You find that if a king is revered by his flock, then no one can speak in his court and in his presence because of the might of his authority. [55]

[The Conditions of Confirmed Intercession]: [56]

Allaah, (تعالى ), has made it clear that He does not permit intercession except for the one whom He approves of and whose word is acceptable to Him, and for the one He is pleased with and on whose behalf intercession shall be made. It is inevitable that Allaah is pleased with ash-shaafi’, the intercessor, and al-mashfoo’i lahu, the one on whose behalf intercession is sought.[57] Consequently, the idols of the polytheists could not intercede on their behalf with Allaah because Allaah does not approve of them. The Prophets and the righteous do not intercede on behalf of the polytheists because the latter are not approved with Allaah.

Accordingly, the conditions for the confirmed shafaa’ah are three:

1. Allaah’s permission of it.
2. Allaah being pleased with the shaafi’.
3. His approval of the one on whose behalf intercession is sought (al-mashfoo’i lahu).[58]

Footnotes:

[46] In the grammatical sense, the noun { ْمَن ] is the subject, and the term { ذَا ] is omitted for being redundant. The term { الَّذِي } “he that” is a relative pronoun standing as the predicate of the subject {مَن } “Who.” [Author’s note].

[47] Allaah (تعالى) said: { وَالشَّفْعِ وَالْوَتْرِ  }, [which means], And by the shaf’a (even) and the witr (odd) [of all the creations of Allaah]. [Qur’aan Soorat Al-Fajr (89:3)].

[48] Ahlul-Mawqif: All human beings gathered on one plane on the Day of Resurrection awaiting their accounts to be taken by Allaah. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said, “The sun will come so close to the people that they will suffer such distress and trouble as they will not be able to tolerate it or to bear it.” The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) intercedes with Allaah to pronounce His Judgment among the people of al-Mawqif. They will be relieved from their long standing by virtue of his interceding with Allaah on their behalf. [See Saheeh alBukhaari (Arabic/English)], vol. 6, no. 236.

[49] Ahlul-Jannah: The believers who will be admitted to reside forever in al-Jannah.

[50] Kawni: Pertaining to the Universal Will of Allaah, the Most Majestic and Most Magnificent, and which is in accordance with His Foreknowledge and Wisdom. Creation, provisions, life, death, permission to intercede, and so forth exists by the Will of Allaah. Everything that Allaah Wills is certain to occur. He Willed that eemaan (belief in Allaah) and kufr (disbelief) occur, although He Loves eemaan and Hates kufr. On the other hand, the Legislative Decree (al-hukm ash-shar’i) comprises the Revealed Laws (sharee’ah) which the Messengers came with and what is stated in the Revealed Scriptures. Under this Decree, Allaah Loves that mankind believe in Him (eemaan) and does not Love for them to commit kufr. Mankind, however, may or may not believe in Allaah. In short, under His Universal Will, everything Allaah Wills is certain to pass while under the Legislative Will, what is beloved to Allaah may or may not take place.

[51] Part of a long and agreed upon hadeeth. [See Saheeh al-Bukhaari (Arabic/ English)], vol. 6, no. 3 and no. 236.

[52] Hayybah: An attribute inspiring reverence, or veneration.

[53] Quraysh is the tribe of the Prophet Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم).

[54]This is part of a long hadeeth detailing the story of the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah. [See Saheeh al-Bukhaari, vol. 3, hadeeth 891 (English/Arabic).

[55] Kings are in need of intercessors because of the imperfection of their knowledge, might and authority. Allaah, Most Perfect in His Might, Knowledge, and Authority, is in no need for intercessors. That is why intercession with Allaah takes place only if He permits it. With kings, however, intercession is permitted with or without a king’s permission. Those close to the king, for example, may intercede without permission. [See Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Al-Qawlul Mufeed ‘Alaa Kitaabit-Tawheed (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Daarul ‘Aasimah, 1st ed. 1415/1994)], vol. 1, p. 330, 332.

[56]The intercessions permitted by Allaah تعالى are six. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) will have the privilege of making three of these intercessions. They are:

1. The Prophet’s intercession for ahlul-mawqif. This is known as the Prophet’s greatest shafaa’ah and it is part of the highest station of praise and honour (almaqaam al-mahmood) with which the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) is distinguished, and for which he will be praised by all creatures. It is mentioned in the Qur’aan [17:78].

2. The Prophet’s intercession for ahlul-Jannah to enter al-Jannah.

3. The Prophet’s (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) intercession with Allaah تعالى to reduce the punishment of his uncle, Abu Taalib because of his protection and support of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). He will be placed in a shallow part of Hell-Fire.

The other intercessions are not restricted to the Prophet Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). They include:

4. The Prophet’s intercession with Allaah تعالى that He does not cast into Hell the one who deserves it.

5. His intercession of taking out from Hell those admitted to it because of their sins.

6. The intercession to raise the ranks of the believers. This is the du’aa of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) to believers and by the believers for each other.

[See (1) Shaykh bin Baaz’s commentary on Ibn Taymeeyah’s Al-’Aqeedah Al-Waasitiyyah which Shaykh ‘Ali Hasan ‘Abdul Hameed compiled in his verification of Shaykh ‘AbdurRahmaan As-Sa’di’s book At-Tanbeehaat Al-lateefah ‘Ala Al-Waasitiyyah (Dammaam, Saudi Arabia: Daar Ibnul Qayyim, 1409/1989), p. 73, and (2) Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Al-Qawlul-Mufeed, pp. 332-335].

The intercessions mentioned above are the ones approved by Allaah (تعالى). The annulled intercession is any intercession not approved by Allaah(تعالى ).

[57] The conditions are stated in the following aayaat:

1. Allaah (تعالى) says:

مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ
Who is he that will intercede with Him except by His permission.
[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Baqarah (2:255)].

2. Allaah (تعالى) says:

يَوْمَئِذٍ لَّا تَنفَعُ الشَّفَاعَةُ إِلَّا مَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ الرَّحْمَٰنُ وَرَضِيَ لَهُ قَوْلًا
On that day, no intercession shall avail, except the one for whom ar-Rahmaan has given permission and whose word is acceptable to Him. [Qur’aan, Soorat Taha (20:109)].

3. Allaah (تعالى) says:

 وَلَا يَشْفَعُونَ إِلَّا لِمَنِ ارْتَضَىٰ
And they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. [Qur’aan,Soorat Al-Anbiyaa’ (21:28)].

[58] The case of intercession on behalf of the Prophet’s uncle, Abu Taalib, is excluded and in a very limited sense from the ruling stated in Allaah’s saying:

فَمَا تَنفَعُهُمْ شَفَاعَةُ الشَّافِعِينَ
No intercession of intercessors will be of any use to them [unbelievers, polytheists].[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Muddathir (74:48)].

Abu Taalib stood in support of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and protected him from his enemies of Quraysh. The intercession on behalf of Abu Taalib is special for the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). Other than this special intercession, none is allowed to intercede for a kaafir. Even Abu Taalib is not saved from the Fire of Hell. Had it not been for the intercession of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), Abu Taalib “would have been in the bottom of the (Hell) Fire,” as the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said. “Perhaps my intercession will be helpful to him on the Day of Resurrection so that he may be put in a shallow fire reaching only up to his ankles with which his brain will boil,” he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) added. [See Saheeh al-Bukhaari, vol. 5, no. 222 and no. 224, and Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Al-Qawlul Mufeed, vol. 1, p. 334].

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Links:
https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/
https://abdurrahman.org/category/islam/intercession/

To Allaah belongs whatever is in the Heavens and the Earth – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

[THIRD]: In the Third statement, Allaah (تعالى) said:

لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ

To Him belongs whatever (maa) is in the heavens [44] and whatever is on the earth. [Qur’aan, Aayatul-Kursi , Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255]

The name {ما} “maa” here is a conjunctive noun (gram. ism mawsool) taking a form of generalization. The term is used in this form in order to indicate that it comprises both the beings and their states. The meaning, therefore, is that Allaah is the One Who masters the affairs of everything in existence in the heavens and the earth: creating, sovereignty-kingship, and management.

The sentence لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ” “To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth” is a declarative clause in which the predicate (gram. khabar) { له } “To Him” has preceded the subject (gram. mubtada’) which is the conjunctive noun {ما} “Whatever”. In this way, there is a grammatical state of hasr (exclusivity, restriction) which signifies that to Him (Allaah) alone belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. Accordingly, since creating, sovereignty-kingship, and management of affairs belong to Allaah alone, it is incumbent that we should surrender to Him alone because we are His slaves, and a slave must surrender to the One Who Owns and Masters him, Allaah, the One free of all imperfection, the Most High.

In addition, we must stand to persevere Allaah’s pre-decree because we are His possession and anything that is owned by Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, then it follows that is His right to administer its affairs as He Wills. This right is the same whether His pre-decree applies to the person himself, his family, wealth, friends, country, or the rest of mankind. The important thing is that since the dominion belongs to Allaah, then it is His exclusive right to do whatever He Wills.

In the saying of Allaah (which means), “To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth,” the term “heavens” came in the plural form [45] while the word “earth” was stated in the singular though what is meant is the plural. In this regard, the intended usage of the term “earth” refers to the jins (kind).

Footnotes:

[44] From the angels, jinn, and all that which exists, including which we have no knowledge of.

[45] The Qur’aan has stated that there are seven heavens:

قُلْ مَن رَّبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ
Say: Who is the Rabb of the seven heavens and the Rabb of the great ‘Arsh?
[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Mu’minoon (23:86)].

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

“Verily Allaah does not sleep and it does not befit Him to sleep” – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Bismillaah

The following is excerpted from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s explanation of Aayatul-Kursi, Translated by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh rahimahullaah

[ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ]
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him,
[Qur’aan, Aayatul-Kursi , Surah Al-Baqarah 2:255]

Allaah did not say (what means): “He does not sleep,” instead He said:{ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ } (which means) “does not overtake Him” in order to comprise the sleep that overcomes and that arising by choice. If you say, “Does not sleep,” it would imply that He does not sleep by choice. However, Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, does not sleep neither by ghalabah (overcoming) nor by choice, because sleep is an imperfect attribute which contradicts both the perfection of the Self and the perfection in relation to others.

The person who is given to sleep misses a lot of his work because of His sleeping. Consider, for example, the case of a person who has many people working for him and he sleeps a lot. He is unable to neither reckon with nor manage the business or other related matters. This is an imperfection with respect to others.

As regard to self-perfection, sleep is a deficiency because it indicates that the person’s body got tired and thus he needed the sleep as a rest from what has passed, as well as a means to renew his activity to engage in what will come ahead. That is the why the people of al-Jannah do not sleep—because of the perfection of their lives and bodies. No illness or the like touches them.

If someone says, “We know that the person who does not sleep is unable to do so because of some kind of sickness or a defect, while you say that the lack of sleep is perfection. Explain.”

We say, “This applies to the creature, and in this case perfection is a relative matter [with respect to Allaah it is perfection]. There is no doubt that the person who does not sleep because of an illness has a defect, and that is why he stays always in a state of languor and exhaustion. Thus, his welfare will not be established. This is evident from the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

[ وَجَعَلْنَا نَوْمَكُمْ سُبَاتًا ]
And have made your sleep as a thing for rest
[Qur’aan, Soorat An-Naba’ (78:9)],

meaning that sleep is something that will discontinue the hardship and tiredness. If Allaah would sleep, and far is He above such imperfection, then this would necessitate that He needs to rest. In addition, the creation will be ruined because they are in need of Him; even the sleeping person is in need of Allaah. In fact, the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) used to invoke Allaah at night when he was about to sleep:

فَإِنْ أَمْسَكْتَ نَفْسِي فَارْحَمْهَا، وَإِنْ أَرْسَلْتَهَا فَاحْفَظْهَا، بِمَا تَحْفَظُ بِهِ عِبَادَكَ الصَّالِحِين

“If You take my soul, bestow mercy on it [and forgive it, as in another narration], and if You release it then protect it as You protect your righteous slaves.” [38]

In short, it is impossible that Allaah, the One free of all imperfections and the Most High, sleeps. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَنَامُ وَلاَ يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يَنَامَ
“Verily Allaah does not sleep and it does not befit Him to sleep.” [39]

The word [ ”لا يَنبَغِي “] does not befit] when used in the Qur’aan and sunnah means “the thing which is absolutely impossible to be,” as Allaah (تعالى ) said:

[ وَمَا يَنبَغِي لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ وَلَدًا ]

But it is not befitting for (the Majesty of) ar-Rahmaan (Allaah) that He should beget a son (or offspring or children). [Qur’aan, Soorat Maryam (19:92)].

[It should be noted] that Allaah’s saying:

[ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ]
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him,

signifies as-sifaat as-salbiyyah (attributes of negation: negating any imperfection and implying perfection). The rule with respect to the Names and Attributes of Allaah, the Most High, is that there is no such thing as a pure attribute of negation.[40] Indeed, when as-sifaat as-salbiyyah are mentioned, it is because they imply the perfection of the attributes that are in contradiction to those of negation.[41] So, because of the Perfection of Allaah’s Life and qayyoumiyyah,[42] then neither slumber nor sleep overtake Him.[43]

Footnotes:

[38] Saheeh al-Bukhaari (Arabic/English), vol. 8, no. 332.

[39] Saheeh Muslim (English Translation), vol. 1, no. 343.

[40] This is because mere negation does not denote any attribute, and therefore it is not considered praise. In addition, the attributes of negation are of two kinds:

1. General, and
2. Specific.

The meaning of generality in negation is that Allaah, Most High, negates all imperfections implicitly denoting that all Perfection is His. For example: Allaah, the Exalted, says:

[ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ ], [which means], “There is nothing like unto Him.” So, there is nothing unto Him in His Knowledge, Ability, Hearing, Seeing, Might, Wisdom, Mercy, and so forth. In this general negation, Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) did not specify the negation. Accordingly, all imperfections are denied and all perfections are denoted, and it is stated that there is nothing like unto Him in all of His Perfection.

On the other hand, the specificity in negation is to negate specific allegations of imperfection. For example to deny that defects and drawbacks like forgetfulness, sleep, ignorance, having son or partner, etc. are associated with Allaah, the Exalted. Again, the Perfection is implied as against the negation. [See Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Sharhul Waasitiyyah], vol. 1, pp. 145-146.

[41] For example, the negation of ignorance stands for the affirmation of Allaah’s unlimited knowledge. The negation of death, which is in contradiction of life, implies the perfection of Allaah’s attribute of Life.

[42] Qayyoumiyyah: The Attribute denoted by Allaah’s Name al-Qayyoum.

[43] The Perfection of His Life negates that Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) needs to sleep and the same is due to the Perfection of His qayyoumiyyah, as the created living creatures due to their imperfection need sleep. Although sleeping and eating may be considered as attributes of perfection with respect to man, as a person who does not sleep or eat is considered ill, they are perfection from one angle and defects from another. They are perfection in the sense that they indicate that the body is sound and healthy, and are defects because the body needs them to function. In reality, therefore, they are defects. Accordingly, the “perfection” in the created is only relevant, i.e. particular to the created, not shared by the Most Perfect, i.e. Allaah. Eating, drinking and sleeping are relative “perfections” with respect to the created and negated defects with respect to Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى).

That is why Allaah, the Most High, said about Himself:

[ وَهُوَ يُطْعِمُ وَلَا يُطْعَمُ ]
And it is He (Allaah) Who feeds and is not fed.
[Qur’aan, Soorat Al-An’aam (6:14)].

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen (rahimahullah). With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

Brief Overview of the Khaarijites (Khawaarij) الخوارج – Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Historically, the Khawaarij are those who rebelled against ‘Ali ibn Abee Taalib (رضي االله عنه) in the 37th year of Hijrah (657 C.E.) and imputed kufr upon ‘Ali (رضي االله عنه) upon the arbitration that followed the Battle of Siffeen. They hated ‘Ali’s decision to end the fitnah which occurred with Mu’aawiyah (رضي االله عنه), calling ‘Ali’s acceptance of the arbitration a compromise. They also imputed kufr upon many of the sahaabah who accepted the arbitration. They did not even accept the whole of ‘Uthman’s (رضي االله عنه) Caliphate. This position stems from their misunderstanding of the Qur’aan. They deduced, wrongly, that major sins are kufr and thus forfeit salvation. Sin is a contradiction that nullifies faith! ‘Ali and the other sahaabah sinned in the eyes of the Khawaarij and that sufficed to nullify their state of belief! Their doctrine became famous in their rebellions against any Muslim leader who, in their eyes, committed a sin or a mistake.

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) informed us before his death of the emergence of this sect and that,

They will kill the Muslims and leave the idolaters. Should I live until they appear, I would kill them as the killing of the nation of ‘Aad.”[103]

He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) also said:

The Khawaarij are the dogs of the Fire.”[104]

‘Ali (رضي االله عنه) delegated ibn ‘Abbaas ( رضي االله عنهما) to call them to the truth. He succeeded in convincing several thousands of them. Those who rejected continued to spread mischief even after ‘Ali (رضي االله عنه) warned them against it. He finally fought them in the battle of an-Nahrawaan (38Hj/658) and only few of them escaped and continued the secession. ‘Ali (رضي االله عنه) was himself killed by a Kharijite by the name of Ibn Muljam. They split into many groups and today they survive in ‘Oman, Tunisia, Libya, Algeria, and in Tanzania and they are known as the Ibaadiyyah (ibadi Kharijism).

The Khawaarij sect was later influenced by scholastic theology and its principles became very close to those of the Jahmite and Mu’tazilite sects. They center upon the following matters:

(1) Imputing kufr upon ‘Ali, ‘Uthmaan and other sahaabah  (رضي االله عنهم أجمعين)

(2) The right to rebel and fight the Muslim rulers who may err or sin.

(3) Justifying the rebellion and fight against disobedient Muslims (rulers and/or ruled) and that it is permissible for them to secede from the general body of the Muslims.

(4) They believe that the Qur’aan is created.

However, the Qur’aan is the literal Word of Allaah Who uttered it in letter and sound and which He Spoke to Jibreel (alaihissalam), directly without a mediator, and who then brought it down to the Prophet Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). The Qur’aan is neither the word of Jib reel nor the word of Prophet Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم).

(5) They distort the meanings of Allaah’s Attributes by resorting to figurative interpretation.

(6) Like the twelver Shee’ites and other deviant sects, they deny that the believers will see Allaah on the Day of Resurrection. This contradicts what is asserted in the Qur’aan and authentic sunnah.

(7) Imputing kufr on the Muslims who commit major sins.

(8) The majority of the Khawaarij deny the actual punishment in the grave that Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى ) inflicts upon those who deserve it.

The aforementioned are some of the major characteristics of the Khawaarij. I intended to give the reader some background about this very dangerous sect and which has influenced many Muslim groups and parties in our times leading to bloodshed in many parts of the Muslim World. The bloody confrontations are hard to stop in some places and that has distorted the view of Islam in many parts of the world.

The truth, however, is emerging and will inshaa’ Allaah completely emerge on the hands of the true followers of Islam who are working hard to correct this problem with the good word without compromising the ‘aqeedah nor the manhaj.

We should be able to present the truth without imitating the kuffaar and their ways. In this respect, the words of Imaam Maalik (رحمه االله) are remembered:

“Nothing will benefit this ummah to come except that which benefited its early generations.” [105]

This refers to the correct creed, methodology and righteous deeds.

Another point of benefit is that the Muslim should be aware that the principles of many of these sects are still alive and propagated by certain individuals and/or groups, and accordingly the believer must be cautious. [106]

Footnotes:

[103] An agreed upon hadeeth [i.e. reported by al-Bukhaari and Muslim]. [See Saheeh alBukhaari (Arabic/English)], vol. 9, no. 527.

[104] Reported by Ahmad, Ibn Maajah, Ibn Abee ‘Aaasim, and others. Shaykh al-Albaani authenticated the isnaad of the narration reported by Ibn Maajah and Ibn Abee ‘Aasim. He also said that the isnnad of Ahmad’s report is hasan. [See As-Sunnah by Ibn Abee ‘Aasim, no. 904, and 905], p. 424.

[105] Related by Imaam Ibn ‘Abdil-Barr in At-Tamheed (23:1).

[106] See Fathul-Baari by al-Haafith Ibn Hajar, vol. 12, pp. 282-284, 287,289 and Wasatiyyat Ahlus-Sunnah Baynal Firaq (“The Distinguished Medium Path of AhlusSunnah vis-à-vis the Sects), by Dr. Muhammad ba-Kareem ba-‘Abdullaah [Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Daarur-Raayah, 1415/1994,], pp. 290-291.

Source : Appendix B from the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi. Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Points of Benefit Deduced from Aayatul Kursi – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

Related Points of Benefit from the Shaykh Uthaymeen’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

1. Affirming Five Names of the Names of Allaah.

Allaah, al-Hayy, al-Qayyoum, al-’Aliyy, al-’Atheem. [85]

2. Affirming that Allaah is singled out with all worship (al-uloohiyyah): He is the One Who alone has the right to be worshipped, or that He is the One who is worshipped rightfully and deservingly:

{ لا إلهَ إلاَّ ُ هوَ }
None has the right to be worshipped but He [Allaah].

3. Refuting the claim of the polytheists who affirm other gods beside Allaah.

4. Affirming the sifah (attribute) of hayaat (Life) for Allaah, and that His life is one of perfection, neither preceded by ‘adam nor coming come to naught nor characterized by imperfection. On the contrary, our life originates in ‘adam and will come to an end, and it is accompanied by imperfection. If fact, all of our life is imperfect, and that is why Allaah described it by ad-dunya. [86] The Life of Allaah, however, is perfection from all angles because of His saying: {الْحَيُّ}The Living, where the particle ال is for al-istighraaq, which comprises all the meanings of the qualities of the perfect life, as if He says, “There is no one who is truly living except He.” In fact, this is the case because there is none qualified with the life of perfection except Allaah, the Most Mighty and most Majestic.

5. Affirming the al-qayyoumiyyah [87] for Allaah (عزَّوجَلََّّ) because He said: { القَيُّوم }. Such a description does not apply to the human being. There is not any person who is established on his own nor is there anyone who takes full charge of others by whom they subsist, because there is no human being except that he is in need of others. We need workers, and they need us. We need [our] women and they need us. We need our sons and daughters and they need us. There is no one who is absolutely in full charge (giving them care, maintenance, providing for them, etc.) of others. I may be able to take charge of someone else, but in a limited sense. That is why Allaah تعالى said:

[ أَفَمَنْ هُوَ قَائِمٌ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ ]

Is He [Allaah] Who takes charge (guards, maintains, provides, etc.) of every person and knows all that he has earned (like any other deities who know nothing)? [Qur’aan, Soorat Ar-Ra’d (13:33)].

6. The aayah contains ismullaahi al-aa’tham (Allaah’s Most Greatest Name) affirmed in His Saying:

[ الحيُّ الَقيُّوم ]

Allaah, there is no god worthy of worship except He, the one who possesses the perfect living, and Who is established on His Own, Self-subsisting, and by Whom all things subsist.[88]

These two Names were mentioned in three places in the Qur’aan, in the two soorahs known as az-zahraawayn [89] (AlBaqarah and Aal-’Imran), and in Soorat Taha.[90]

The people of ‘ilm (ahlul-‘ilm) said: The Most Great Name of Allaah is only in these two Names since they comprise the Most Beautiful Names in their entirety, and hence the attribute of Perfection is implied in the Name [ الحيُّ ]and the attribute of ihsaan (beauty) is entailed in the Name: [ الَقيُّوم]

7. The perfection of Allaah’s Life and qayyoumiyyah such that they are free from the slightest imperfection. The evidence is in His Saying:

[ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ]
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him.

Perfection may be generalized considering what is predominant or more numerous although it may be deficient in certain aspects. However, negation of imperfection means that the perfection is absolute and in every respect is free from deficiency. In this sense, the negation occurred in His Saying:

[ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ]
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him.

8. Affirming as-sifaat as-salbiyyah for Allaah because of His saying:

[ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ]
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him.

and His saying:

[ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ]
He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them.

The sifaat as-salbiyyah are those attributes that Allaah has denied for His Self and which imply affirming the perfection of their opposites.

9. Affirming that Sovereignty of Allaah comprehends everything. The evidence is in His Saying:

[ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ]
To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.

10. This Sovereignty is exclusively His. The evidence lies in the same aayah:

[ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ]

To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth, in which the predicate (gram. khabar) { له } “To Him” has preceded the subject (gram. mubtada’) which is the conjunctive noun { ما } “Whatever”. In this way, there is a grammatical state of hasr (exclusivity, restriction) which signifies that: “To Him (Allaah) alone belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.”

11. Affirming the heavens and the earth, as in His Saying:

[ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ]
To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.

The “heavens” is a number. They are seven in number and similarly is the number of the earths as proven from other texts.[91]

12. The Perfection of the Kingship of Allaah, as evident in His saying:

[ مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ]
Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission?

This Kingship of Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى ) is not the same as His all comprehensive Sovereignty. In fact, power and full kingship are more perfect than just all-comprehensive sovereignty.

13. Affirming the intercession that is approved by Allaah as evident in His saying:

[ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ]

[None can intercede] except by Allaah’s Permission, otherwise, the exception would not be correct. Hence, had the approved intercession been not affirmed, the exception would not be correct.

14. Affirming the “Permission” which is His Command:

[ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ]
[None can intercede] except by Allaah’s Permission.

15. Affirming the ‘ilm (Knowledge) for Allaah and that His Knowledge comprehends the past, the present, and the future. The evidence is in His Saying:

[ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ]

And Allaah Knows what happens to them (His creatures) in the future and what happened to them in the past.

16. Refuting the claims of the extremists from the Qadariyyah[92] by affirming Allaah’s all-encompassing Knowledge as in the statement. This constitutes a rebuttal of the extremist from the Qadariyyah who say that Allaah knows the actions of His salves only after they are carried out, denying that Allaah knowledge comprehends everything.

17. The rebuttal of the two sects, the Khawaarij [93] and the Mu’tazilah [94] by affirming the shafaa’ah. Both sects deny the general intercession approved for the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and for others and which applies to the people who committed sin. This negation is based upon their doctrine that the person who commits a major sin and die without repenting from it will be punished in the Fire forever. The two sects differed, however, as to whether such a person is considered a kaafir, or neither a believer nor a kaafir.

The Kharijites, courageous against the truth and for it, said, “The one who commits a major sin is kaafir and no longer belongs to the fold of Islam.” The Mu’tazilites were fearful to oppose the people of ahlus-sunnah and the kharijites. They took a cowardly position and said, “We will sit in the middle of the road and say that the one who has committed a grave sin is in a position somewhere between the two; we neither say he is a believer nor a kaafir!” Both sects, however, agreed that in the hereafter he would be in the Fire of Hell forever.

That is why they denied the shafaa’ah (intercession). The generality of the aayah refutes the position held by both sects:

[ مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِه ]
Who is he that can interceded with Him except with His Permission?

18. None will ever encompass anything of Allaah’s knowledge nor of His Hearing or His Sight:

[ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ ]
And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills.

19. We comprehend no knowledge about Allaah or about His creation except that which He wills for us to know.[95]

20. Forbidding the takyeef (assigning a manner or a “how”) to the Attributes of Allaah, because He did not inform us of the how they are. So if we claim the knowledge of the kayfiyyah (i.e. the condition or the “how”) of His Attributes, then we are lying.

21. Rebutting the Mu’attilah, due to His saying:

[ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ ]
And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge

This is evidence against the Mu’attilah because they say, for example, that Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) has no real Hand. This necessitates that they encompass the negation of one of His Attributes. In this respect, both sects, the Mu’attilah and the people of takyeef (Mukayyifah) lied because Allaah affirmed this Attribute (i.e. the Hand) to Himself. Accordingly, their claim that the true and real Attributes like the Hand, the Face, the Eyes, and so forth do not befit Allaah is false and void. The basis for this fact is that knowledge is of two kinds: (a) Affirmation, and (b) Negation.

Therefore, you cannot negate anything as being a quality of someone (something) except with knowledge, just like you cannot affirm anything for someone (something) except with knowledge. So if those sects would deny the realities of the aforementioned Attributes of Allaah then they must bring forth their proofs, if they are truthful. For example, Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) did not negate that the Attribute of the Hand from His Self, not even in one single aayah in the Qur’aan, nor did the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) negate this Attribute in any hadeeth, nor did the righteous predecessors (as-salaf-us-saalih). Those sects, however, utter the negation of Allaah’s true and real Hand.

22. Rebutting the position of the Mumathilah (those who liken Allaah to His creation). Since the aayah:

[ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ ]
And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge.

implies a rebuttal of the Mukayyifah, then by all reason it is a rebuttal of the Mumathilah.

23. Affirming the mashee’ah (Will) for Allaah because of His saying:

[ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ ]
Except that which he Wills.

24. Rebutting the Qadariyyah and the Mu’tazilah who say that Allaah, the Most High, does not Will anything as far as man is concerned.[96] This is evident in Allaah’s saying:

[ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ ]
And they will never compass…

Knowing that man’s compassing of something is from his qualities and his qualities are a creation of Allaah, [and hence man’s will is not independent from the Will of Allaah].

25. The greatness of the kursi, for His saying:

[ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ ]
His kursi extends over and encompasses the heavens and the earth.

26. The Greatness of the Creator of the kursi because the greatness of the created implies the Greatness of the Creator.

27. The kufr of the person who denies the heavens and the earth because this necessitates accusing Allaah of lying. As far as the earth is concerned, I believe that no one denies it [its existence]. However, as regard to the heavens, there are those who deny them saying that what is above us is boundless and limitless space, and that there is only stars and diffused dust (sadoom) or the like. There is no doubt that the one who holds to this belief is a kaafir, whether he himself believes in this or he imitates those whom he reveres from the people who hold to this belief—while knowing the truth implied from the proofs of the Qur’aan and the sunnah.

28. Affirming the Strength of Allaah, and the proof is His saying:

[ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ]
He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them.

29. Denying the mashaqah (fatigue) from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, because of His saying:

[ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ ]
He feels no fatigue.

This is one of the sifaat as-salbiyyah just like saying of Allaah:

[ وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ وَمَا مَسَّنَا مِن لُّغُوبٍ ]

And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in six Days and nothing of fatigue touched us. [Qur’aan, Soorat Qaaf (50:38)].

30. Affirming what is implied by the above statement:

[ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ]
He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them,

from the attributes of Knowledge, Ability, Life, Mercy, Wisdom, and Strength.

31. Affirming that the heavens and the earth are in need for someone who guards them, as stated in Allaah’s saying (which means): He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. Had it not been for the guarding and preserving of Allaah, they would have been ruined. Allaah Says:

وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللَّهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُم بِبَعْضٍ لَّهُدِّمَتْ صَوَامِعُ وَبِيَعٌ وَصَلَوَاتٌ وَمَسَاجِدُ يُذْكَرُ فِيهَا اسْمُ اللَّهِ كَثِيرًا

Had it not been that Allaah checks one set of people by means of another, monasteries, churches, synagogues, and masaajid (mosques), wherein the Name of Allaah is mentioned much would surely have been pulled down. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Hajj (22:40)].[97]

And His Saying:

وَيُمْسِكُ السَّمَاءَ أَن تَقَعَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ
He withholds the heavens from falling on the earth except by His Leave.
[Qur’aan, Sooart Al-Hajj (22:65)].

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُمْسِكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ أَن تَزُولَا ۚ وَلَئِن زَالَتَا إِنْ أَمْسَكَهُمَا مِنْ أَحَدٍ مِّن بَعْدِهِ

Verily! Allaah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they move away from their places, and if they were to move away from their places, there is not one that can grasp them after Him. [Qur’aan, Sooart Faatir (35:41)].

32. Affirming al-’uluw ath-thaati (the Transcendence of Allaah in His Essence) and al-’uluw as-sifaati (the Transcendence of Allaah’s Attributes) because of His saying:

[ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ ]
And He [Allaah] is the Most High, above everything.

33. Rebutting both the Hulooliyyah [98] and the Mu’atilah who negate this Attribute of Allaah تعالى. The Hulooliyyah say, “Allaah is not above everything but rather He is everywhere.” And the Mu’attilah, the people who deny Allaah’s Attributes, say, “He cannot be described as being High or low, to the left or the right, or as being separated from or associated with His creation.”

34. Warning against transgression upon others because of His saying:

[ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ ]
And He is the Most High, above everything, and He is the Most Great.

That is why Allaah (تعالى) said in Soorat An-Nisaa’ [(4:34)]:

فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا

And if they [women] return to obedience [to their husbands], then seek not against them means [of annoyance]. Surely, Allaah is ever Most High, above everything, Most Great.

So if you think proudly of yourself, then remember the Highness of Allaah above everything, the Most Mighty and Majestic. And if you think of yourself as being great, then remember the Greatness of Allaah.

35. Affirming the Greatness of Allaah because of His saying:

[ الْعَظِيمُ ]
The Most Great.

36. Affirming the Attribute of Perfection that is implied in the combined Attribute of Transcendence and Greatness.

37. Knowing that the mulk (Sovereignty) belongs to Allaah then:

We must not behave or act in His kingdom except in accordance with that which He is pleased, because of His saying:

[ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ]
To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.

The judicial rulings and decreeing amongst the people must be based upon the Judgment of Allaah. Indeed the reliance of man upon the judicial decrees laid by the created and the system of laws laid down by man is one kind of setting up rivals with Allaah (shirk billaah)[99], the Most Mighty and Most Majestic.

Contentment with the Pre-decree of Allaah, the Most Mighty and Most Majestic, because if you know that the Sovereignty exclusively belongs to Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى ) then you would say, “This is the disposal of affairs by a Sovereign in His Kingdom, and He has the right to do whatever He wants.”

[ لَا يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْأَلُونَ ]

He cannot be questioned as to what He does, while they [the creation] will be asked. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Anbiyaa’ (21:23)].

Accordingly, this understanding was part of the condolence of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) to his daughter [following the death of her child] when he said:

“Whatever Allaah takes belongs to Him, and to Him belongs what He grants, and everything with Him has an appointed fixed term [in this world].” [100]

Man should not act conceitedly upon accomplishing something because this accomplishment is from Allaah and the Sovereignty is exclusively His.

Footnotes:

[85]The Shaykh Uthaymeen also stated that he is in doubt whether the word إله is a Name of Allaah because it is an indefinite noun (gram. nakirah).

[86] Ad-Dunya (fem. of adna): Denoting what is low or inferior.

[87] Qayyoumiyyah: One of Allaah’s Attributes implied in His Name Al-Qayyoum.

[88]Allaah is the one who sustains, protects, prepares, and runs the affairs of all things as He wills in accordance with His Knowledge, Wisdom, and Justice.

[89] Zahraawayn (dual form of zahra): The bright ones. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said,

“Recite the Qur’aan, for on the Day of Resurrection it will come as an intercessor for those who recite it. Recite the two bright ones, Al-Baqarah and Soorat Aal-’Imraan, for on the Day of Resurrection they will come as two clouds or two shades, or two flocks of birds in ranks, pleading for those who recite them. Recite Soorat Al-Baqarah, for to take recourse to it is a blessing and to give it up is a cause of grief, and the magicians cannot confront it.”

Reported in Saheeh Muslim (English Translation), vol. 2, no. 1757.

[90] In Al-Baqarah (2:255), in Aal-’Imraan (3:2), and in Taha (20:111).

Abu Umaamah (رضي االله عنه) reported that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said,

“Allaah’s Most Great Name is in three soorahs in the Qur’aan, in Soorat Al-Baqarah and in Aal-’Imraan and in Soorat Taha.”

Al-Qaasim bin ‘Abdur-Rahmaan, one of the narrators of this hadeeth, searched the Qur’aan and found

Aaytul-Kursi in Soorat Al-Baqarah (2:255):
[ االلهُ لا إله إلاَّ ُ هوَ الحَيُّ القَيُّوم ]

And in Soorat Aal-’Imraan (3:2):
[ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ ]

And in Soorat Taha (20:111)
[ وَعَنَتِ الْوُجُوهُ لِلْحَيِّ الْقَيُّومِ ]

Reported by al-Haakim, Ibn Maajah, at-Tabarani, at-Tahaawi, and others. Shaykh al-Albaani authenticated its isnaad (As-Silsilah As-Saheeha), vol. 2, no. 746.

[91] The Shaykh (رحمه االله) made the above statement in his explanation of Soorat Al-Kahf, in the month of Rabee’ al-Awwal,1419. Evidence from the Qur’aan is in Soorat AtTalaaq (65:12) and from the sunnah as in the agreed upon hadeeth, “Whoever usurps the land of somebody unjustly, his neck will be encircled with seven earths [on the Day of Resurrection].” [See Saheeh Al-Bukhaari (Arabic/English)], vol. 3, no. 632.

[92] Those who say that whatever man does it is entirely of his own ability and free will, and that Allaah’s mashee’ah (Will) and qudrah (Ability) have no influence whatsoever on what man does. They also claim that the knowledge of Allaah does not comprehend the actions of the creation until after they are executed.

[93] Khaarijites (Ar.Khawaarij, sing. Khaariji). See Appendix B.

[94] The Mu’tazilah (from i’tazala: “to remove oneself” or “to withdraw”). See Appendix C.

[95] See both interpretations of this aayah (which means): And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills, pp. 60-61.

[96] Meaning that man has a totally independent free will and that Allaah’s Will and Power has no effect in this.

[97] See Appendix D.

[98] Hulooliyyah [from hulool (lit. “settling,” “alighting,” “lodging,” “descent,” and by extension “incarnation”]. The most common definition is that it refers to the doctrine of Divine incarnation in the human form. In mystic sufism, it refers to the Divine incarnation in the sufi saints.

Imaam Ibn Taymeeyah classified the Hulooliyyah into two kinds. The first is the specific hulool like the claim of the Christians that Allaah is incarnated in ‘Eesa (alaihissalam) and like that of the extremist raafidah and sufi mystics who claim that Allaah is incarnated in ‘Ali Ibn Abee Taalib (رضي االله عنه) and in special sufi saints, respectively. The second kind is the general hulool and it is the saying that “Allaah, in His Essence, is everywhere.” [See Al-Fataawaa], vol. 2, pp. 171-172.

[99] It could be a major or a minor form of shirk depending upon the motive behind his reliance. Al-Hamdullilaah, the author, Shaykh Muhammad bin ‘Uthaymeen (رحمه االله ) personally affirmed this explanation to me in Jamaada Al-Aakhirah, 1419Hj.

[100] An agreed upon hadeeth. [See Saheeh al-Bukhaari (Arabic/English)], vol .2, no .237.

Source : From the eBook: Tafseer Ayatul-Kursi – By Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen. With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah, Prepared by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)