Clarification of types of Sorcery (As-Sihr) – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh As-Saelh [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

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Posted from: The Beneficial Saying on The Book of Tawheed
Book by Shaykh Muhammaad bin AbdulWahhaab at-Tamimi rahimahullaah,
Explanation is based upon that of Shaykh Ibn Al-‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah

CHAPTER No: 25

بيان شيء من أنواع السحر

Clarification of types of Sorcery (As-Sihr)

Imam Ahmad (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Muhammad bin Ja’far narrated from Auf, from Haiyan bin Al- `Ala’, from Qatan bin Qabisah, from his father that he heard the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) say:

إن العيافة والطرق والطيرة من الجبت

“Verily, Al-Iyafah (letting birds fly to foretell events) and At-Tarq (drawing lines on earth to predict events) and At-Tiyarah (taking sight on some object as a bad omen) are Al-Jibt (sorceries/magic).”

`Auf (رضي الله عنه) said,

العيافة: زجر الطير، والطرق: الخط يخط بالأرض والجبت

“Al-‘Iyafah is letting a bird’s flight foretell events while At-Tarq is drawing line on earth.”

Hasan Basri (May Allah be pleased with him) said,

والجبت رنة الشيطان

“Al- Jibt is the scream of Satan (devil).”

The above Hadith has been narrated through good chain of narrators and collected by Abu Dawud, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Hibban.

Abu Dawud reported in his book with Sahih lsnad that Ibn Abbas (رضي الله عنه) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) said:

من اقتبس شعبة من النجوم، فقد اقتبس شعبة من السحر، زاد ما زاد

“Whoever learns a part of astrology (drawing knowledge from stars) has learned a part of sorcery (magic). Those who learn more are getting that much more (sin to their credit).”

In An-Nasa’i, Abu Hurairah (رضي الله عنه) is reported to have said:

من عقد عقدة ثم نفث فيها فقد سحر، ومن سحر فقد أشرك، ومن تعلق شيئاً وكل إليه

“Whoever tied a knot and blew on it, has committed sorcery and whoever committed sorcery has committed Shirk. Whoever wears an amulet or talisman will be subjected to its control.”

Ibn Mas’ud (رضي الله عنه) is reported to have heard Allah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) saying:

ألا هل أنبئكم ما الغضة؟ هي النميمة، القالة بين الناس

“Shall I not tell you what Al-‘Adh (literally: lying, sorcery etc.) is? It is conveying false rumors for the purpose of causing disputes between people.” (Muslim)

Both Sahih collectors reported from Ibn Umar (رضي الله عنه) that Allah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) said:

إن من البيان لسحراً

“Some eloquence can be (so beautiful that it constitutes) sorcery.”

Important issues of the Chapter

1) Al-‘Iyafah, At-Tarq, At-Tiyarah are three kinds of Al-Jibt (sorcery/magic).
2) Al-‘Iyafah, and At-Tarq are explained.
3) Astrology too is a kind of sorcery.
4) Tying knots and blowing over them is also sorcery.
5) An-Namimah (tale bearing, backbiting) is also a form of sorcery.
6) Talking sometimes superfluously and eloquently can too be sorcery.

Source of the above Text: Darussalam English publication of Kitab at-Tawheed

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“ihdinā aṣ-Ṣirāṭ al-Mustaqīm” (Guide us to the straight path) – Explained by Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

The Explanation of Verse 5 of Sooratul Faatiha

اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ

ihdinā aṣ-Ṣirāṭ al-Mustaqīm
Guide us to the straight path.

“the path” (aṣ-Ṣirāṭ): Regarding this word, there are two permissible recitations, one with the Arabic letter س (sīn) as in السِّرَاط and another with the letter ص (ṣād) as it is here in the verse: الصِّرَاط . The meaning of aṣ-Ṣirāṭ is the way or path. The meaning of “Guide us” refers to the guidance of showing and directing to the right path as well as the guidance of granting success. So, by reciting, “Guide us to the straight path”, you are asking Allah for beneficial knowledge (which is the guidance of direction) and righteous action (which is the guidance of success in following the knowledge).

“straight” (al-Mustaqīm): This means the correct path with no crookedness or deviation.

Points of Benefit of al-Fātiḥah, Verse 5:

1. From the benefits we gain from this verse is the concept of mankind’s resorting back to Allah. After requesting Allah’s help in fulfilling his worship in the previous verse, mankind now asks Allah to guide them to the straight path. There must be sincerity solely to Allah in worship as indicated by the verse, “You alone we worship” and help must be sought in fulfilling and strengthening this worship as indicated by the verse, “and from you alone we seek help“. Also, one must follow the Islamic legislation and this is indicated by the verse, “Guide us to the straight path” because the straight path is none other than the complete legislation with which the messenger ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) has come with.

2. Another point from this verse is that the eloquence of the Qur’an is shown in that there is no preposition after “Guide us” in the Arabic text.

[TN: The author here refers to the original Arabic text. The verse would literally be translated as “Guide us the straight path” without the added English preposition “to.”]

This point is made so that the verse would contain both types of seeking guidance: the guidance of knowledge and direction, and the guidance of success and action.

This first type is only the directing to and showing the straight path, and Allah guides all of mankind with this meaning of guidance as in his statement:

شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنْزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِلنَّاسِ 

The month of Ramadan in which the Qur’an was revealed (as) guidance for mankind. [Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:185]

The second type of guidance is the granting of success along with the first type of guidance and the following of the Islamic legislation as Allah ( سبحانه وتعالى ) says:

ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لا رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِلْمُتَّقِينَ

That is the book, wherein there is no doubt, a means of guidance for the Muttaqīn (those who are constantly and fearfully conscious of Allah). [Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:2]

This second type of guidance may not be achieved by some people as Allah says:

وَأَمَّا ثَمُودُ فَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ فَاسْتَحَبُّوا الْعَمَى عَلَى الْهُدَى

And as for (the people of) Thamūd, we guided them (i.e. showed them the right way), but they preferred blindness over guidance. [Sūrah al-Fuṣṣilat, 41:17)

Here, “we guided them” means: We made clear to them the truth and directed them to follow it but they chose not to accept the guidance.

3. Another benefit we get from this verse is that the “path” is of two types: one straight and all others crooked.

Whatever is in accordance with the truth, it is the straight path as Allah tells the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) to say:

وَأَنَّ هَذَا صِرَاطِي مُسْتَقِيمًا فَاتَّبِعُوهُ وَلا تَتَّبِعُوا السُّبُلَ فَتَفَرَّقَ بِكُمْ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ

And this is my straight path so follow it and do not follow (other) paths for they will separate you away from his (Allah’s) path. [Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:153]

And anything that opposes the truth is a crooked path.

The Explanation of Verses 6 & 7  of Sooratul Faatiha

صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ

Ṣirāṭ al-ladhīna an’amta ‘alayhim
The path of those you bestowed grace upon

غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلا الضَّالِّينَ

ghayri al-Maghḍūbi ‘alayhim wa lā aḍ-Ḍālīn
Not of those who earned anger upon themselves, nor of those who are astray.

“The path of those you bestowed grace upon” (Ṣirāṭ al-ladhīna An’amta ‘alayhim):

This verse is connected to the previous verse and provides further clarification of “the straight path”.

“those you bestowed grace upon” (al-ladhīna an’amta ‘alayhim):

They are the same ones mentioned in the statement of Allah in another part of the Qur’an:

وَمَنْ يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ فَأُولَئِكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنَ النَّبِيِّينَ  وَالصِّدِّيقِينَ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَالصَّالِحِينَ وَحَسُنَ أُولَئِكَ رَفِيقًا

And whoever obeys Allah and the messenger, then they will be with those Allah bestowed grace upon of the prophets, the truthful, the martyrs, and the righteous. And what excellent companions they are! [Sūrah an-Nisā, 4:69]

“Not of those who earned anger upon themselves” (ghayri al-Maghḍūbi ‘alayhim): Such as the followers of Judaism and anyone else who knows the truth yet refuses to act according to it.

“nor of those who are astray” (wa lā aḍ-Ḍālīn): Such as the Christians before the mission of the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) began. It also refers to anyone who works contrary to the truth, choosing to remain ignorant of it.

Regarding the word “upon them” (‘alayhim), it has two acceptable recitations from the seven forms: one is with a (ḍammah) on the letter هُ (hā) making the reading عَلَيْهُم (‘alayhum) and the other reading is the common one with a (kasrah) on the هِ (hā) which is read as عَلَيْهِم (‘alayhim).

It is important to know that any different form of recitation that is not within the copies of the Qur’an that most people have, this different recitation, even though it is permissible, should not be read among common people who may not be aware of the different ways of reciting. This is due to three reasons:

1. Even the common people, although unaware of the different forms of recitation, consider this Qur’an to be something amazing and honorable. Their hearts are filled with its greatness and respect for it. If they began to hear it read sometimes one way and then other times a different way, then this may result in the Qur’an being lower with them from the high status it was once given. This is only because they are not aware of the various recitations and therefore cannot distinguish between them.

2. If someone recites with the different forms of recitation, he may be accused of making mistakes and not knowing how to recite. This is because he recites in a way that is unknown to most people. So, this reader, even though may be correct, is then spoken about in a negative way amongst the majority of the people.

3. Even if a common person gives someone reciting in a different way the benefit of the doubt and believes that he knows what he recites, then such a person may begin to blindly follow the one reciting in the various ways of reading. So, perhaps he, the common person, may then mistakenly recite a way different from any of the permissible ways believing it to be one of the seven allowable recitations of the Qur’an. This would then be a form of distortion and corruption. For this reason, ‘Alī (رضي الله عنه), one of the prophet’s companions, said, “Speak to people according to what they know, (otherwise) would you like that they (unknowingly) deny what Allah and his messenger say (because you confuse them)?” [Recorded by al-Bukhārī as notes to another ḥadīth (no. 127)]

And Ibn Mas’ūd ( رضي الله عنه ), another companion of Prophet Muhammad ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم), said, “You will never speak to any people with something that they cannot comprehend except that it will become a Fitnah (negative trial or tribulation) for some of them.” [Recorded by Muslim (no. 14)]

And whenever ‘Umar Ibn al-Khaṭṭāb heard Hishām Ibn Ḥakīm recite a verse that he had never heard recited in that way before, he (‘Umar) dragged him to the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and informed him of this. The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said to Hishām:

اِقْرَأ

Recite.

When he finished reading, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

هَكَذَا أُنْزِلَتْ

It was revealed in this way.

Then the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) told ‘Umar to recite and afterwards again said:

هَكَذَا أُنْزِلَتْ

It was (also) revealed in this way.

[Recorded by al-Bukhārī (no. 4992) and Muslim (no. 818)]

The Qur’an was revealed in seven different dialects and the people used to recite in all of them until ‘Uthmān gathered the people together upon one common recitation because they were beginning to differ and dispute over each other’s recitations. He feared that the differences would become severe, dividing the people. So, he gathered them all together upon one recitation which was the dialect of the Quraysh tribe because the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ), upon whom the Qur’an was revealed, was sent from and among them. The other forms of recitation were somewhat forgotten by most people. So, if ‘Umar ( رضي الله عنه ) did what he did to another companion, then what about an ordinary person who hears you recite in a way different from the familiar copy of the Qur’an he has?

And thanks to Allah, the scholars have always been in agreement that it is not compulsory for people to recite in all the different permissible ways. If a person remains reciting upon one particular recitation, there is no problem with this. So, avoid problems and what could lead to them.

Points of Benefit of al-Fātiḥah, Verses 6 and 7:

1. From the benefits we gain from these two verses is the mentioning of specific descriptive details after a general description. This is from the verse, “Guide us to the straight path” – this is a general description and “The path of those you bestowed grace upon” is a more specific and detailed description of the path.

The benefit in mentioning something general and then afterwards more relevant details is that when a person hears of something general that could benefit him, he might eagerly anticipate more details and a clearer explanation. Then, after becoming aware of the detailed descriptions, he is ready to accept them and anxiously hopes to obtain what is mentioned.

Another benefit is the explanation that the people upon whom Allah has bestowed his favors and grace, they are the same ones who are upon the straight path as a result of this grace.

2. Another point we learn from this verse is that the blessing of guidance, with which some people have been favored, is directly from Allah alone; it is a pure favor from Allah.

3. From the verse, we understand that all of mankind is of either one of three categories: those upon whom Allah has bestowed his grace, those who have earned anger upon themselves, or those who are astray. Each of these categories has already been explained previously.

The ways leading away from the straight path are either ignorance or arrogant disobedience.The ones who were taken away from the straight path due to arrogance and disobedience, they are those who earned anger upon themselves and the head of this group are the followers of Judaism. The other group, those who have deviated from the straight path due to ignorance, they are any people who do not know the truth, the main ones among these being the Christians. However, this was their (the Christian’s) situation before the advent of the last prophet, Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم). Now that the prophet’s mission has been established and completed, they have known the truth but in spite of that, opposed it. So, they and the Jews both have become the same – all of them are those who have earned anger upon themselves (if they do not repent and accept Allah’s religion).

4. These last two verses also illustrate the eloquence of the Qur’an in that the expression used to refer to those who have earned anger upon themselves, مَغْضُوْب (Maghḍūb), is in the Arabic form (according to Arabic morphology) known as the مَفْعُوْل (maf’ūl) – an Arabic conjugal form that indicates that the anger upon them has already begun and is continuously occurring from Allah and from his close allies.

5. Another point we learn from these verses is that the severest type of misguided group is placed first, then the next in severity. Allah mentioned those who earned anger upon themselves before those who are astray because the first are more severe in opposition to the truth than the ones astray and misguided. Opposing something while being fully aware of it is much harder to return from than opposing something simply because of being ignorant of it.

Posted from the article : Explaining Surah al-Fatihah – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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The Religion of Islam is appropriate for every time, place, and condition – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

Allah says:

لِمَن شَاءَ مِنكُمْ أَن يَسْتَقِيمَ

For whoever wills among you to take the straight path (Surah al-Takwir Verse 28)

Here, the Arabic noun for the verb used is اِسْتِقَامَة (istiqāmah) which means “moderation.” And there is nothing more moderate or just than the justice found within Allah’s legislated religion. Previous legislations were suitable for earlier nations, appropriate for their time, place, and circumstances. Likewise, after the mission of the messenger Muhammad ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ), the legislation he brought is suitable and applicable to those to whom he was sent – everyone from the beginning of his mission until the end of this world.

There is a well-known saying in our religion: The religion of Islam is suitable and ensures the well-being of every time, place, and circumstance. When people stick to it, Allah corrects the affairs of creation.

Consider that a person is instructed to pray standing. If he is unable to stand, then sitting, and if unable to sit, he may pray lying down. In this way, the religion is suitable and easily applied—and progressive—according to the circumstances of each individual. This religion is appropriate for every time, place, and condition. Similarly, someone who washes for prayer may use water if he is able or has it. Otherwise, he may use clean sand or even pray without washing at all. This is because Allah’s religious legislation, all of it, is based on moderation and justice. There is no unfairness, discrimination, oppression, strictness or hardship in it. For this reason, Allah refers to it as “ the straight path ” .

The opposite of this istiqāmah, this moderation or “straightness,” is deviation – deviation to the side of extremism and intolerance or deviation to the side of negligence and slackness. So people follow three different paths regarding the religion of Allah: 1) the path of extremism, intolerance, or extravagance; 2) the path of negligence and carelessness, and 3) the path of moderation between the two extremes. This third path is the ” the straight path ” , the praiseworthy manner of following the religion of Allah.

As for the first and second paths, extremism and negligence, both lead to destruction. They destroy their followers with excessiveness or negligence. For example, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) forbade people from going to the extreme of intolerance and harshness; he said:

هَلَكَ الْمُتَنَطِّعُونَ ، هَلَكَ الْمُتَنَطِّعُونَ ، هَلَكَ الْمُتَنَطِّعُونَ

The harsh ones are destroyed, the harsh ones are destroyed, the harsh ones are destroyed.[54]

Harshness brings about hardship and causes people to leave the religion of Allah ( عزّ وجلّ ). The other extreme, that of negligence and carelessness, has also been criticized. Allah says, describing the hypocrites:

وَإِذَا قَامُوا إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ قَامُوا كُسَالَىٰ يُرَاءُونَ النَّاسَ وَلَا يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

And when they stand up for prayer, they stand with laziness and (only) to be seen of men, and they do not remember Allah but little. [Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:142]

The religion of Allah is one of moderation, between extremism and negligence, and this is why Allah says:

“For whoever wills among you to take the straight path”.

Whoever wills to take this path, let him not deviate right or left. He should constantly remain straight on his religion.

As for this “straightness” as it relates to behaving with the creator—which is to worship him alone—it also relates to one’s behavior with his creation. So your character toward people should be between these two extremes. Neither be harsh, intolerant, and overly strict; nor be careless, or behave as inferior or feeble. Rather, behave with seriousness though with leniency toward others.

Some scholars used to advise judges to be lenient yet without weakness, strong yet without harshness. One’s leniency and gentleness should not lead him to become weak, yet one’s strength should not lead him to behave harshly with others. Instead, a person should be lenient but not weak, strong without harshness so that he achieves moderation in all his affairs. You find some people always acting rough, inflexible, or confrontational as if he is above everyone else. This is wrong. Others you see them among people as if they were worthless, so humble that they belittle themselves. They behave totally indifferent or as if they have no dignity. This is also wrong.

People should be between the two extremes as was the guidance and character of the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ). He was tough in situations which called for that, gentle when gentleness was appropriate. So we should try to behave with others with seriousness and determination yet also with leniency and mercy.

Footnotes:

[54] Collected by Muslim. Imam al-Nawawī, in his explanation of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, explained the Arabic word in the ḥadīth المُتَنَطِّعُوْن (al-Mutanaṭṭi’ūn), to mean, “The extremists who go beyond the limits in their statements and actions.” In another ḥadīth collected by Muslim, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ رَفِيقٌ يُحِبُّ الرِّفْقَ ، وَيُعْطِي عَلَى الرِّفْقِ مَا لا يُعْطِي عَلَى الْعُنْفِ

Indeed, Allah is gentle and loves gentleness. He gives due to gentleness that which he does not give due to harshness.

Source:  Explaining Sūrah al-Takwīr – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison

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The Issue of Freewill & Allaah’s statement “You do not will unless Allah wills” – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

لِمَن شَاءَ مِنكُمْ أَن يَسْتَقِيمَ

For whoever wills among you to take the straight path (Surah al-Takwir Verse 28)

For whoever wills” is connected to what came before it, “It is only a reminder to the worlds, for whoever among you wills to take the straight path“. As for those who choose not to take the straight path, they neither accept the reminder, nor do they gain any benefit from it. Allah says about those who do accept the reminder:

إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَذِكْر َ لِمَن كَانَ لَهُ قَلْبٌ أَوْ أَلْقَى السَّمْعَ وَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ

In that is surely a reminder for whoever has a heart or listens while he is heedful. [Sūrah Qāf, 50:37]

For anyone who does not want to take this straight path, there is no way to benefit such a person with this Qur’an.

The Issue of Freewill:

Here is a question: Do people actually have freewill to do as they choose? Yes, people have the freedom to choose as they will. Allah (عزّ وجل) has allowed each person the freedom of choice and freewill; if he wants, he does something, if not he does not do it.

If this were not the case—if people had no freewill—then anyone to whom the messengers were sent would have an excuse against Allah to plead (because they disbelieved): “We had no choice in the matter.”

So yes, people certainly have the freedom to act on their choices. Each individual knows that if he decides, for example, to visit Mecca, Medina, or some other place, it is by his choice. Anytime a person makes a choice, it is by his own decision. He neither feels others force his choice on him or force him to prefer one thing over another.

Similarly, if an individual chooses to obey Allah, it is by his own choice. And should someone choose to commit a sin, it is also by his own choice. So people do have freewill yet we know with total certainty that people will never “will,” or actually make something happen (including his own actions), unless Allah has willed it to happen before it happens. For this reason, after “For whoever wills among you to take the straight path” Allah then clarifies: “And you do not will unless Allah wills“.

We do not will for anything to happen unless Allah has already allowed it to happen. So when anything happens, we know Allah has obviously allowed it to take place. If Allah had not allowed it to happen, we could not have willed it to occur ourselves as Allah  (تعالى) says:

وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا اقْتَتَلَ الَّذِينَ مِن بَعْدِهِم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ وَلَكِنِ اخْتَلَفُوا فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ آمَنَ وَمِنْهُم مَّن كَفَرَ ۖ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا اقْتَتَلُوا

If Allah had willed, those (generations) succeeding them would not have fought each other after the clear proofs had come to them. But they differed, so some of them believed and some of them disbelieved. And if Allah had willed, they would not have fought each other. [Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:253]

So after we have done anything, we know we chose to do it based on our will and choice, but we also know that this occurred by the will of Allah (عزّ وجل), If he had not willed it, we would not have accomplished it.

Now we come to another question: Based on the points above, we then have an excuse to commit sins because whatever happens, Allah allows it and has willed it. We say no, we have no justification for sinning because we have no way of knowing whether Allah has willed something or not until after we have done the deed – after we have chosen to do it. We cannot say, “Allah has willed this for me,” until the sin has already taken place. So once the sin does take place, once it is committed, why was it committed? Because of our freewill and our choice to do it. Therefore, sinners have no justification or excuse before Allah. He nullifies this claim by saying:

سَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا أَشْرَكْنَا وَلا آبَاؤُنَا وَلا حَرَّمْنَا مِن شَيْءٍ ۖ كَذَلِكَ كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ حَتَّى ذَاقُوا بَأْسَنَا 

Those who associated others (in worship) with Allah will say, “If Allah had willed, we would not have associated partners with him, nor would our fathers, and we would not have forbidden anything (against his will).” Likewise, those before them denied until they tasted our punishment. [Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:148]

If they had any justification for making their Shirk (worshipping others with Allah), then they would not have been punished by Allah; they would have been spared the punishment. But they had no right or excuse to worship others, so they were punished. As another example, consider that if someone were informed about a land, safe and peaceful, with sufficient provision and affluence for everyone, everywhere and with successful commerce and a strong economy not found in another land. At the same time, the person is also told of a land where people constantly fear for their lives, live in chaos, having no reliable economy, no law and order, no guaranteed safety for anyone. To which land would he choose to travel? Of course, he travels to the first land and he does not imagine someone, somewhere has forced him to make his decision. He chose the first land based on his own determination and freewill.

We have before us now a similar choice: a path to good and a path leading to evil. Allah has already clearly simplified the two for us: this is the path to Paradise, this one to Hell.

In addition, he explained some of what is waiting for us in Paradise of blessings and enjoyment and some punishments that await us in the fire. Which path do we take? Clearly, we would choose the path to Paradise just like we would choose to move to the peaceful land over the land in turmoil. Had we chosen the path to the fire, we alone would have justifiably been to blame. We would have made the worst, most foolish choice just as if we had decided to move to the land of fear and instability. Everyone would understandably hold us responsible for our own choice.

Therefore, in Allah’s statement “For whoever wills among you“, he confirms that each individual has the choice and will to decide his actions; he has freewill. Still, we know that even before we do or will anything, once it has happened, we know full well that Allah willed it to happen. Otherwise, it would not have occurred.

Many times, people become determined to do something, yet at the last minute they find themselves unable to do it for whatever reason. This is because Allah did not will such an action to take place. For example, we may decide to go to the mosque to attend a lecture, yet on our way there, we may then remember we have some other obligations which prevent us from attending.

As a final example, it is said that a common Bedouin, knowing little about the details of religion, was asked, “How do you know you have a Lord?” he answered, “By unfulfilled determination and changes in plans.” In other words, a person may be fully determined to do something, completely resolved and able to do it. Yet, something totally contradictory to his intentions occurs. Who changed his resolve? He does not think someone made him prefer something over his original decision. Instead, Allah simply did not will it to happen.

Similarly, a person may plan to do something and sets out to accomplish his plans, but he then finds within himself some reason not to carry out his plans. It may be something physically preventing him or simply a change of mind; he decides to do something else instead. All of this is from Allah (عزّ وجل).

Source : Explaining Sūrah al-Takwīr  – Shaykh Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn. Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison

Related Links:

Explaining Sūrah al-Takwīr – Shaykh Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn

Bismillaah

Title: Explaining Sūrah al-Takwīr
Original Title: تفسير جزء عمّ
Original Author: Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn
Translator : Abu az-Zubayr Harrison – authentic-translations.com

Click on the below link to read or download the full article PDF:

Explaining Surah al-Takwir – Shaykh Uthaymeen [PDF] [45 Pages]

The following posts are extracted from this e-book:

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When does the first hour of the Friday prayer begin? – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

Q.316. When does the first hour of the Friday prayer begin?

A. The hours which the Messenger (صلّى الله عليه و سلّم) has mentioned are five in number; he said:

Whoever bathed on Friday, performing the Ghusl of major ritual impurity (Janabah), then went (to the Masjid) in the first hour, he is like one who offers a camel as a sacrifice, and he who comes at the second hour is like one who offers a cow, and he who comes at the third hour is like one who offers a ram with horns, and he who comes at the fourth hour is like one who offers a hen, and he who comes at the fifth hour is like one who offers an egg.” [01]

So, he has divided the time from sunrise until the arrival of the Imam into five parts. Each part might be equivalent to the well known hour (i.e. 60 minutes), or the hour might be more or less, because the time changes, so the hours are five between the sunrise and the arrival of the Imam for the prayer. It begins from sunrise, although it has been said that it is from the start of Fajr, but the former is more likely, because before sunrise is the time for the Fajr prayer.

[01] Reported by Al-Bukhari in the Book of the Friday Prayer, in the Chapter: The Virtue of the Friday Prayer (881); and by Muslim in the Book of the Friday Prayer, in the Chapter: Perfume and Siwak on Friday (850).

Source: Fatwa Arkanul Islam, Volume 2 – Shaykh Uthaymeen, Dar-us-Salam English Publication

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“al-Ḥamdu lillāhi Rabbil-‘Ālamīn” – Explained by Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

The Explanation of Verse 1 of Sooratul Faatiha

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

(al-Ḥamdu lillāhi Rabbil-‘Ālamīn)
All praise and thanks are for Allah, the lord of all creations.

“All praise and thanks” (al-Ḥamd): This word الْحَمْدُ (al-Ḥamd) is used only to describe someone, out of love and honor, with complete perfection of self, attributes, and actions. So, Allah is perfect in his self, his attributes, and his actions. This praising, however, must be with a condition, it must be made with love and honor. The people of knowledge say that simply describing someone with perfection yet not out of real love and honor for the praised one is not called حَمْدُ (Ḥamd). Rather, in that case it would only be called مَدْح (Madḥ) (a lesser degree of praise or admiration). Therefore, this (second) type of praising occurs often from people while they may not really love the one they are praising. Often, they only want to gain something from them. For example, some poets stand before their government leaders and recite poetry of amazing praiseworthy descriptions of them yet void of any real love for them. The poets’ love is for the wealth they are given or they do this out of fear of the leaders. On the contrary, our praise for our lord is a form of praise out of love and honor. So, “All praise and thanks” is to praise the one described with total perfection out of love and honor for him.

The ال (al-) in الْحَمْدُ (al-Ḥamd) is inclusive, meaning that it includes all forms of praise and thanks.

“are for Allah” (lillāhi): The لِ (li) is to show possession and a sense of deserving. The name “Allah” is the proper name of our lord ( عزّ وجلّ ) and no one else is given this name; it means the one god that is worshipped out of love and honor.

“the lord” (Rabb): The word “lord” here includes three main descriptions: the creator, the owner, and the controller of all affairs. So, he is the creator of all that exists, the owner of all that exists, and the controller of everything.

“of all creations” (al-‘Ālamīn): As for the word “‘Ālamīn”, the scholars say it refers to anything and everything other than Allah. Everything else besides Allah is described with this word because the very existence of everything is a sign or indication (in Arabic: Ālam) that they have a creator (سبحانه وتعالى) In every form of creation there is a sign indicating the existence of its creator, his capability, wisdom, mercy, power, and the rest of his attributes of lordship.

Points of Benefit of al-Fātiḥah, Verse 1:

1. One of the beneficial points we gain from this verse is the affirmation of praise of perfection to Allah ( عزّ وجلّ ). This is shown by the “al-” in the word “al-Ḥamd” because this definite article in Arabic grammar is inclusive to include all forms or praise and gratitude.

2. It also shows that Allah alone deserves all forms of praise and gratitude. For this reason, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) used to say whenever something happened he was happy with:

الحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي بِنِعْمَتِهِ تُتِمُّ الصَّالِحَات

All praise and thanks are for Allah by whose favor righteous deeds are fulfilled.

And he would say when if something did not please him:

الحَمْدُ للهِ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ

All praise and thanks are for Allah in all situations.[18]

3. Another point of benefit from the verse is the description of Allah with his sole right to worship first before describing him with his lordship. This is either indicated because the name “Allah” is his proper name, specific to him and the source of all the rest of His names; or it is due to the fact that the people the messengers were sent to used to only deny Allah’s sole right to worship. Most of the people did not deny Allah’s lordship (that he is the creator, owner, and controller of everything).

4. This verse also proves Allah’s complete lordship over all of the creations due to his statement: “The lord of all creations.”

Footnotes:

[18] Recorded by Ibn Mājah (no. 3803) and al-Ḥākim in his “Mustadrak” (1/449) and he said, “This ḥadīth has an authentic chain of narrators.” adh-Dhahabī agreed with him. The famous ḥadīth scholar, al-Albānī, said it is “ḥasan” in “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Ibn Mājah” (no. 3066).

Posted from the article : Explaining Surah al-Fatihah – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

Related Links:

Drawing Near To Allaah: The One Allaah Loves – Shaykh Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh As-Saleh [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Hadeeth No:38 from Imam Nawawi’s Forth Hadeeth

The explanation is based upon that of Shaykh Ibn Al-‘Uthaymeen rahimahullah

[Souncloud Audio Link]Attaining Nearness to Allah and His Love

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (radi Allaahu anhu) who said: The Messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said,  “Verily Allah ta’ala has said:

‘Whosoever shows enmity to a wali (friend) of Mine, then I have declared war against him. And My servant does not draw near to Me with anything more loved to Me than the religious duties I have obligated upon him. And My servant continues to draw near to me with nafil (supererogatory) deeds until I Love him. When I Love him, I am his hearing with which he hears, and his sight with which he sees, and his hand with which he strikes, and his foot with which he walks. Were he to ask [something] of Me, I would surely give it to him; and were he to seek refuge with Me, I would surely grant him refuge.’

[Bukhari]

Posted from: Hadeeth – An Nawawi 40 Hadeeth – Dr. Saleh as-Saleh [Audio Series|En]

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Explaining Shirk: The Greatest Sin – Shaikh al-Uthaymeen & al-Fawzan

Title: Explaining Shirk: The Greatest Sin
Original Title: شرح ثلاثة الأصول، كتاب التوحيد، الإرشاد إلى صحيح الإعتقاد
Original Authors: Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn, Ṣāliḥ al-Fawzān
Translator : Abu az-Zubayr Harrison – authentic-translations.com

This article was compiled by Authentic-Translations.com, adapted from several books, the most notable: Sharḥ Thalāthah al-Uṣūl by Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn, Kitāb al-Tawḥīd and al-Irshād ilá Ṣaḥīḥ al-‘Itiqād, both by Ṣāliḥ al-Fawzān.

Table of contents

  • What Is shirk ?
  • Shirk in tawḥīd of lordship
  • Shirk in tawḥīd of names and descriptions
  • Describing Allah with descriptions of his creation
  • Describing creation with Allah’s descriptions
  • Shirk in tawḥīd of worship
  • Major shirk
  • Minor shirk
  • Reviewing shirk
  • Conclusion
  • A prayer for protection from shirk
  • Memorization chart

What is Shirk?

You may have already studied Tawḥīd. However, to truly understand Tawḥīd, its opposite, Shirk, must also be understood. The greatest thing Allah has commanded us to do is worship him alone, and the greatest sin he has forbidden is Shirk as He says:

وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئً

Worship Allah and do not make Shirk with anything along with him. [2]

So what is Shirk? Shirk (شِرْك) is an Arabic word which means sharing something with others that only Allah deserves. Worshipping others along with Allah is the main type of Shirk. The verse above means we must worship Allah and only him.

So whoever worships someone or something instead of Allah, he is a disbeliever in Allah who has refused to worship him alone. If someone worships Him but also worships someone else along with Allah, he is still a disbeliever in Allah, and it is this person who makes Shirk. As for someone who worships Allah alone, he is a Muslim who sincerely believes in Tawḥīd.

Shirk is the greatest sin against Allah and he says about it:

وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَى إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا

And whoever makes Shirk with Allah has certainly made up a great sin.[3]

Shirk is also the worst of all major sins. Prophet Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) once asked his companions:

أَلا أُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِأَكْبَرِ الْكَبَائِرِ

Should I tell you the greatest of all major sins?

His companions said, “Of course, messenger of Allah.” He then said:

الإِشْرَاكُ بِاللَّهِ وَعُقُوقُ الْوَالِدَيْنِ وَشَهَادَةُ الزُّورِ أَوْ قَوْلُ الزُّورِ

Making Shirk with Allah, disobeying parents, and lying.

He was laying back when he said that, but then he sat up and began repeating that over and over because of how serious Shirk and those other major sins are in Islam. [4]

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) was also asked, “What is the greatest sin?” He answered:

أَنْ تَجْعَلَ لِلَّهِ نِدًّا وَهُوَ خَلَقَكَ

That you make something equal to Allah while he is the (only) one who created you. [5]

Making someone or something equal to Allah is Shirk. It is to belittle Allah, believing him to be less than He is while believing others are equal to Him. About this, Allah says:

الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِرَبِّهِمْ يَعْدِلُونَ

Those who disbelieve think others are equal to their Lord.[6]

Even though Allah lets people choose to make Shirk and believe others are equal to Him, He does not like it and forbids us from doing so:

فَلا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَندَادًا وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

So do not make anything equal with Allah while you know (that he alone should be worshipped).[7]

Shirk is also to deny the very reason Allah created us which was to worship him alone as he says:

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالإِنسَ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ

I only created Jinn and people to worship me.[8]

So whoever worships others along with Allah, believing they deserve to be worshipped, they have made the creation equal to its creator. This is the worse comparison because it is to believe that people who are helpless and in need are equal to Allah, the one who is able to do anything and who needs nothing from any of his creation.

Shirk is the greatest crime of injustice and unfairness. This is because the greatest rights are the rights Allah deserves. Yet when people make Shirk, they are refusing to give him what he deserves most – Tawḥīd. This is the greatest form of injustice and unfairness just like Allah says:

إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ

Shirk is certainly a great crime of injustice.[9]

Shirk is also the greatest form of misguidance and straying from the right way of believing in Allah:

وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلالاً بَعِيدًا

And whoever makes Shirk with Allah has certainly gone far astray.[10]

In short, Shirk is to share something that only Allah deserves with others such as worshipping others or describing others with Allah’s descriptions. It is the greatest sin against Allah.

Review

1. What is Allah’s greatest command to us?
2. What is the greatest sin against Allah?
3. Explain in your own words the meaning of Shirk.

SHIRK IN TAWḤĪD OF LORDSHIP

If you learned about Tawḥīd, you may remember there are three main categories. Let us review the categories of Tawḥīd before moving on.

1. Tawḥīd of Lordship: Allah is the only one who creates, owns, and controls everything.
2. Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions: Allah is the only one who is described with his perfect names and descriptions.
3. Tawḥīd of Worship: Allah is the only one who deserves worship.

Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship is to believe that others besides Allah create or share control over his creation. This belief means that someone other than Allah can make good things happen or keep bad things from happening.

One example of this type of Shirk is to believe something brings good luck. People often have “good luck” rings or similar items they believe will help good things happen to them. Others tie special strings around them or their children, believing that if they recite the Qur’aan over the strings, they will protect from bad things happening. However, only Allah can protect us from bad things and we should only seek his protection in ways he mentions in the Qur’aan or the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) taught us in the ḥadīth.

Another common example of Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship today is when people believe others like themselves who are created and have no control in Allah’s universe can control what happens. Such people even wait until the ones they believe in are dead before worshipping them by praying to them. The act of praying to dead people is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Worship (which we will cover shortly), but the belief itself is also Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship because when people pray to dead people, they believe the souls of humans can control things in this life even after their death. This is completely wrong because the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) told us:

When a person dies, his actions come to an end except for (receiving rewards for) three things

When a person dies, his actions come to an end except for (receiving rewards for) three things: continuous charity, beneficial knowledge, or a righteous child who prays for him. [11]

While a person may still receive rewards from Allah for things he left behind after he died, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) clearly told us that after death, a human being’s actions stop. So how can dead people control whether good and bad things happen in life when they are not even in life anymore? Still, some people continue to pray to the dead, asking for their help in changing events in this life although only Allah can do this.

Even if a dead person was a righteous worshipper of Allah, believing that dead people or anyone else controls things in this life is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship.

Review

1. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship?
2. Give an example of Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship.

SHIRK IN TAWḤĪD OF NAMES AND DESCRIPTIONS

Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions is to believe that Allah is the only one who deserves to be described with perfect names and descriptions. Shirk in this category of Tawḥīd is to believe that Allah can be described with descriptions of the creation, or to believe that others besides Allah share in his descriptions. So believing that Allah is like his creation or that his creation is like Allah is Shirk.

Describing Allah with Descriptions of His Creation

When people describe Allah with the descriptions of creation or they believe Allah is similar to people, they have made Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions. There are several ways this type of Shirk is made. One example is when people make statues or paintings of God, claiming they are images of Allah. By doing so, they have described Allah in the image or form of people although Allah says:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ

There is nothing like him. [12]

Today, Christians fall into this type of Shirk when they believe Allah has a son. They believe the Messiah, Prophet Jesus the son of Mary, is his son. Allah knows they believe this and he says about this statement of Shirk and disbelief:

وَقَالُوا اتَّخَذَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ وَلَدًا لَّقَدْ جِئْتُمْ شَيْئًا إِدًّا تَكَادُ السَّمَاوَاتُ يَتَفَطَّرْنَ مِنْهُ وَتَنشَقُّ الْأَرْضُ وَتَخِرُّ الْجِبَالُ هَدًّا أَن دَعَوْا لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ وَلَدًا  وَمَا يَنبَغِي لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ وَلَدًا  إِن كُلُّ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ إِلَّا آتِي الرَّحْمَٰنِ عَبْدًا

And they say, “The Most-Merciful has a son.” You have said a terrible thing. The heavens are almost torn, the earth is split open, and the mountains almost fall in ruin because they claim the Most-Merciful has a son. But it is not suitable that the Most-Merciful has a son. There is no one in the heavens and earth except that will come to the Most-Merciful as a servant. [13]

Allah explains who Prophet Jesus truly is:

إِنَّمَا الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ

The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, was only a messenger of Allah. [14]

Another example of Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions is when many Jewish people claim that Allah likes the Jews more than all other people – just because they were born to a Jewish parent. This belief of theirs means that Allah is prejudice and unfair just like some people are, and this is describing Allah with descriptions of people.

Our belief in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions is that Allah is not like his creation. He alone deserves the highest descriptions. When someone believes that Allah is like his creation, they have made Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions by giving Allah the descriptions of his creation.

Describing Creation with Allah’s Descriptions

The belief that created beings or things share Allah’s names or descriptions is also Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions. This type of Shirk is when people raise other humans up to the level of Allah.

Today, some Christians describe people with Allah’s descriptions. They believe Prophet Jesus or saints can hear their prayers while Allah alone is the All-Hearing. Some Christians even believe Jesus was Allah in the form of a man. This is a form of describing Allah with descriptions of people as well as describing the creation with the descriptions of Allah. About this statement of Shirk and disbelief, Allah says:

لَقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ

They have surely disbelieved who say, “Allah is the Messiah, the son of Mary.” [15]

By believing that someone is nicer than Allah, more merciful, more forgiving, or treats others more fairly than Allah, this is giving created people Allah’s descriptions and this is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions.

Review

1. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions?
2. Give an example of Shirk by describing Allah with the descriptions of his creation.
3. Give an example of Shirk by describing the creation with the descriptions only Allah deserves.

SHIRK IN TAWḤĪD OF WORSHIP

Tawḥīd of Worship means we believe Allah is the only one who deserves worship. Since Shirk is the opposite of Tawḥīd, Shirk in Tawḥīd of Worship is worshipping others along with Allah. We must never share our worship with other than Allah. There are two types of Shirk in this category: Major Shirk and Minor Shirk.

It is important to remember that both types of Shirk, major and minor, may be in other categories of Tawḥīd as well as Tawḥīd of Worship. We should not become overwhelmed or confused deciding if a statement or action is Shirk in this category of Tawḥīd or that one. Instead, we simply should concentrate on believing in, describing, and worshipping Allah alone as Islam instructs us. Still, we will discuss some differences between Major Shirk and Minor Shirk.

Major Shirk

Major Shirk is any type of Shirk the Qur’aan or the ḥadīth explains that whoever does it is not considered a Muslim, not within the religion of Islam, and is not a true believer in Allah. Major Shirk dooms the person to live in Hell forever if he does not stop making Major Shirk before he dies. Any form of worship that is done for other than Allah is Major Shirk, such as praying to others besides Allah or hoping for things from others that only Allah can give (e.g. forgiveness, Paradise, etc.).

A common example of Major Shirk is when people pray to other people such as prophets or visit the graves of saints, believing those people hear or answer prayers.

This form of Shirk is the greatest sin and the most unfair way to behave toward the Lord of all creation. We will mention some of the results of Major Shirk if a person dies while believing in it and doing acts of Major Shirk in worship.

Major Shirk Removes Hope of Entering Paradise

Allah says about the punishment for someone who dies while making Major Shirk:

إِنَّهُ مَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَمَأْوَاهُ النَّارُ

Surely, whoever makes Shirk with Allah, Allah will make Paradise forbidden to him and his final home will be the fire. [16]

Major Shirk Guarantees Entrance into the Fire

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said about someone who meets Allah while making Shirk:

مَنْ لَقِيَ اللهَ لا يُشْرِكُ بِهِ شَيْئاً دَخَلَ الجَنَّةَ ، وَمَنْ لَقِيَهُ يُشْرِكُ بِهِ شَيْئاً دَخَلَ النَّار

Whoever meets Allah without making Shirk with him will enter Paradise, and whoever meets him making Shirk with him will enter the fire. [17]

We will meet Allah when we die, and one of the most common ways people make Major Shirk is by praying to and calling upon someone other than Allah. For this reason, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) clearly said:

مَنْ مَاتَ وَهْوَ يَدْعُو مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ نِدًّا دَخَلَ النَّارَ

Whoever dies while calling upon anything other than Allah, making them equal to Allah (in worship), he will enter the fire. [18]

Major Shirk Ruins All Good Deeds

If someone makes Major Shirk, all their good deeds may be ruined and lost. Allah says:

وَلَوْ أَشْرَكُوا لَحَبِطَ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

And if they had made Shirk, whatever (good) they used to do would be ruined. [19]

And he also says:

وَلَقَدْ أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ وَإِلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكَ لَئِنْ أَشْرَكْتَ لَيَحْبَطَنَّ عَمَلُكَ وَلَتَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

It has been revealed to you and to those before you, if you make Shirk, your deeds will be ruined and you will certainly be among the losers.[20]

Minor Shirk

Minor Shirk is any type of saying or action that the Qur’aan or ḥadīth describes as being Shirk but that the person who says or does it could still be considered a Muslim, still inIslam, and is still a believer in Allah. However, Minor Shirk does mean that the person’s belief in Tawḥīd may be incorrect.

Some actions or statements are considered Minor Shirk. For example, saying something like, “If it was not for Allah and you, something bad would have happened!” Someone once said to Prophet Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم), “Whatever Allah wants and you want (to happen will happen).” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) explained that such things are not correct to say; he said:

أَجَعَلْتَنِي مَعَ اللهِ عَدْلاً ؟ لا بَلْ : مَا شَاءَ اللهُ وَحْدَهُ

Have you made me an equal with Allah? No, instead say: “Whatever Allah alone wants (to happen will happen).” [21]

Some common superstitions are also Minor Shirk. For example, if someone believes Allah will allow bad things to happen if he does not wear a certain ring or hang verses from the Qur’aan in his car, this is a form of Minor Shirk because Allah has not made those things ways to prevent bad things from happening. However, if someone believes those things themselves actually prevent bad things from happening instead of Allah, then this becomes Major Shirk. Such a wrong belief would then mean there are other things besides Allah that control creation.

Another form of Minor Shirk is harder to recognize. This type of “hidden Shirk” is in a person’s intention, or the reason he does something. When someone does a good deed—which he should do for only Allah—yet he does his good deed just for people to think he is a good worshipper, this is a form of Minor Shirk. Examples of this may be if someone prays very well, raises his voice while remembering Allah or reading the Qur’aan, or gives charity but he does so only for people to think and say good things about him. About this type of showing off, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

إنَّ أَخْوَفَ مَا أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ الشِّرْكَ الأَصْغَرَ

The thing I fear for you the most is Minor Shirk.

His companions asked, “What is Minor Shirk, messenger of Allah?” He (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) answered:

الرِّيَاء ، يَقُوْلُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ : اِذْهَبُوْا إِلَى الَّذِيْنَ كُنْتُمْ تُرَاؤُوْنَ فِي الدُّنْيَا ،فَانْظُرُوْا هَلْ تَجِدُوْنَ عِنْدَهُمْ جَزَاءً

Showing off (riyā). Allah ( عزّ وجلّ ) will say, “Go to those you were showing off for during life and see if you can find any reward with them.” [22]

Minor Shirk Ruins Good Deeds Done for Showing Off

Good deeds will not be accepted if they are done for anyone other than Allah. While Major Shirk ruins all a person’s good deeds, Minor Shirk ruins only the deeds that were done for showing off. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) says about this Shirk in intention:

قَالَ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى : أَنَا أَغْنَى الشُّرَكَاءِ عَنْ الشِّرْكِ ، مَنْ عَمِلَ عَمَلاً أَشْرَكَ فِيهِ مَعِي غَيْرِي تَرَكْتُهُ وَشِرْكَهُ

Allah ( تبارك وتعالى ) said, “I am in no need of Shirk. Whoever does a deed but does so for someone else besides me, I will reject him and his Shirk”. [23]

One of the prophet’s companions named Abū Mūsá al-‘Ash’arī ( رضي الله عنه ) said: The messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) once gave us a talk and said:

أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ ، اتَّقُوا هَذَا الشِّرْكَ فَإِنَّهُ أَخْفَى مِنْ دَبِيبِ النَّمْلِ

Oh people, be afraid of this Shirk because it is more hidden than a creeping ant.

While Major Shirk is much worse than Minor Shirk, both are sins against Allah. For this reason, we should stay away from all forms of Shirk because Allah says:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ

Allah will not forgive that Shirk is made with him. [24]

Review

1. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Worship?
2. What is Major Shirk?
3. Give an example of Major Shirk.
4. How do we know Major Shirk removes hope of entering Paradise?
5. How do we know Major Shirk guarantees entrance into the fire?
6. How do we know Major Shirk ruins all good deeds?
7. What is Minor Shirk?
8. Give an example of Minor Shirk?
9. How do we know Minor Shirk ruins any good deed that is done for showing off?

REVIEWING SHIRK

1. What is Shirk?
2. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship?
3. Give an example of Shirk in Tawḥīd of Lordship.
4. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Names and Descriptions?
5. Give an example of Shirk by describing Allah with the descriptions of his creation.
6. Give an example of Shirk by describing the creation with the descriptions only Allah deserves.
7. What is Shirk in Tawḥīd of Worship?
8. What is Major Shirk?
9. Give an example of Major Shirk.
10. What are some results for someone who dies making Major Shirk?
11. What is Minor Shirk?
12. Give an example of Minor Shirk?

CONCLUSION

We do not study Tawḥīd and Shirk simply to memorize detailed categories and types of Shirk. We learn Tawḥīd for the purpose of getting closer to Allah by believing in and worshipping him in the way he wants. And we do so only to make him happy with the hope of achieving his forgiveness and entering his Paradise. Similarly, we learn Shirk so we know what beliefs, statements, and actions make Allah unhappy. Remember, while learning the details of Tawḥīd and Shirk may help us know what Allah wants from us, he did not make our religion difficult upon us, he simply instructed us to:

وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئً

Worship Allah and do not make Shirk with anything along with him. [25]

The important thing to remember is that Allah is the only Lord, the only creator, owner, and controller of everything and everyone in the universe. He is the only one who we describe with the names and descriptions of perfection and we truly believe Allah is not like his creation and his creation is not like him. Allah tells us:

وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ

There is nothing equal or comparable to him. [26]

Because we believe Allah is the only Lord and only he deserves the highest descriptions, it only makes sense that we worship him and no one else. So do not let your study of Tawḥīd and Shirk become difficult or confusing. By simply reading about this knowledge, you have taken steps to get closer to Allah. Read what Allah says about those who try to come closer to Allah and those who avoid Shirk:

وَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ مِنِّي شِبْرًا تَقَرَّبْتُ مِنْهُ ذِرَاعًا ، وَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ مِنِّي ذِرَاعًا تَقَرَّبْتُ مِنْهُ بَاعًا ، وَمَنْ أتَانِي يَمْشِي أتَيْتُهُ هَرْوَلَةً ، وَمَنْ لَقِيني بِقُرَابِ الأرْض خَطِيئةً لا يُشْرِكُ بِي شَيئاً ، لَقِيتُهُ بِمِثْلِهَا مَغفِرَةً

“Whoever comes close to me a hand-span, I will come close to him an arm’s length; and whoever comes close to me an arm’s length, I will come close to him the distance of two outstretched arms. Whoever comes to me walking, I will come to him running. And whoever meets me with the earth full of sins but does not make Shirk in anything with me, I will meet him with as much forgiveness.” [27]

A PRAYER FOR PROTECTION FROM SHIRK

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) once said:

الشِّرْكُ فِيكُمْ أَخْفَى مِنْ دَبِيْبِ النَّمْلِ ، وَسَأَدُلُّكَ عَلَى شَيْ ء إِذَا فَعَلْتَهُ أَذْهَبَ عَنْكَ صِغَارَ الشِّرْكِ وَكِبَارَهُ ، تَقُولُ : اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوْذُ بِكَ أَنْ أُشْرِكَ بِكَ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ ، وَأَسْتَغْفِرُكَ لِمَا لا أَعْلَمُ

Shirk among you is more hidden than a creeping ant, but I will guide you to something that, if you do it, will remove from you Minor Shirk and its Major type. You should say, “Oh Allah, I ask for your protection from making Shirk with you while I know, and I ask your forgiveness for what I do not know.” [28]

Because our belief in Tawḥīd is that Allah is the only one who can help us and we only pray to him, we understand that only he can help us stay away from Shirk completely.

Because of this, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) taught us to ask his protection from knowingly making Shirk in belief, statement, or action. We must also ask for his forgiveness if we happen to make a mistake by believing, saying, or doing anything that is Shirk that we may not know.

To help memorize this very important prayer our messenger gave us, use the memorization chart on the next page.

A PRAYER FOR PROTECTION FROM SHIRK : Memorization Chart

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوْذُ بِكَ

Allāhumma innī, aū’dhu bika
Oh Allah, I ask for your protection

أَنْ أُشْرِكَ بِكَ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ

an ushrika bika wa ana ‘alam
from making Shirk with you while I know,

وَأَسْتَغْفِرُكَ لِمَا لا أَعْلَمُ

wa astaghfiruka limā lā ‘alam
and I ask your forgiveness for what I do not know.

Footnotes:

[2] The Qur’aan, Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:36
[3] Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:48
[4] Recorded by Muslim
[5] Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim
[6] Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:1
[7] Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:22
[8] Sūrah al-Dhāriyāt, 51:56
[9] Sūrah Luqmān, 31:13
[10] Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:116
[11] Recorded by Muslim
[12] Sūrah al-Shūrá, 42:11
[13] Sūrah Maryam, 19:88-93
[14] Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:171
[15] Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:72
[16] Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:72
[17] Recorded by Muslim
[18] Recorded by al-Bukhārī
[19] Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:88
[20] Sūrah al-Zumar, 39:65
[21] Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah (no. 139) by al-Albānī
[22] Recorded by Aḥmad, al-Ṭabarānī, and al-Bayhaqī. al-Albānī said it is ḥasan in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Targhīb wal-Tarhīb (no. 36)
[23] Recorded by Muslim
[24] Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:48
[25] Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:36
[26] Sūrah al-Ikhlāṣ, 112:4
[27] Recorded by Muslim
[28] al-Albānī said it is authentic in al-Jāmi’ al-Ṣaghīr wa Ziyādah (no. 6044)

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Explaining Shirk: The Greatest Sin – Shaikh al-Uthaymeen & al-Fawzan [PDF]

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Is the Basmalah an actual verse of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah or Not? – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

Question: Is the Basmalah (بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ) an actual verse of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah or Not?

Shaykh al-Uthaymeen:

The scholars hold differing opinions about this issue. Some say that it is definitely a verse from al-Fātiḥah and it should be recited aloud in those prayers which are recited out-loud. They believe it is not correct unless the Basmalah is recited since it is part of the entire chapter of al-Fātiḥah. Other scholars say that it is not a verse of al-Fātiḥah, but it is a separate verse from the book of Allah. This latter opinion is the correct one and is proven by other texts as well as the context of the chapter itself.

As for the textual proof, Abū Hurayrah ( رضي الله عنه ) narrated a ḥadīth in which the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

I have divided the prayer in two parts between myself and my servant

Allah ( تَعَالَى ) says,

“I have divided the prayer in two parts between myself and my servant.” When the servant recites, “All praise and thanks are to Allah, the lord of all creations”, Allah says, “My servant has praised me.” And when he recites, “The Most-Merciful, the Bestower of all mercy”, Allah says, “My servant has honored me.” When he recites, “The owner of the Day of Recompense”, Allah says, “My servant has glorified me.” When he recites, “You alone we worship and from you alone we seek help”, Allah replies, “This is two parts between my servant and I.” When he recites, “Guide us to the straight path…” until the end of the chapter, Allah replies, “This is for My servant and he will have what he asks for.”

[Recorded by Muslim (no. 395)]

This is a textual proof that the Basmalah is not an actual verse of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah (because it was not the first statement the servant says as mentioned in this ḥadīth).

There is another authentic statement of Anas ibn Mālik ( رضي الله عنه ) in “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim” in which he said:

I prayed behind the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ), Abū Bakr, and ‘Umar and none of them used to mention “In the name of Allah, the Most-Merciful, the Bestower of all mercy” at the beginning of their recitations (of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah) nor at the end of it.

[Recorded by Muslim (no. 399)]

What is meant is that each of them used not to mention it aloud. The fact that there is a distinction between it not being recited aloud as the rest of al-Fātiḥah is recited indicates that it is not actually a part of the chapter.

As for the proof from the context of the other verses’ meanings, Sūrah al-Fātiḥah consists of seven verses as is unanimously agreed upon. If you wanted to measure out seven verses as they pertain to the topics of the chapter, you will find that the middle verse is:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You alone we worship and from you alone we seek help. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:4]

This is the same verse about which Allah says, “This is two parts between my servant and I” in the previous ḥadīth. This is because the first verse is:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

All praise and thanks are for Allah, the Lord of all creations. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:1]

The second verse is:

الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيم

The Most Merciful, the Bestower of all mercy. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:2]

The third verse:

مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ

The owner of the Day of Recompense. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:3]

These three previous verses are all about the rights of Allah (his attribute, actions, etc.).

As for the verse:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

You alone we worship, and from you alone we seek help.[Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:4]

This is the fourth verse and the half-way point and it too is even divided into two parts, one part for Allah (“You alone we worship…”) and one part for the servant (“…from you alone we seek help.”).

The following verses are:

اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ

Guide us to the straight path. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:5]

This is for the servant.

صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ

The path of those upon whom You bestowed Your grace. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:6]

This is also for the servant.

غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلا الضَّالِّينَ

Not of those who earned anger upon themselves, nor of those who are astray. [Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:7]

And finally, this last verse is also for the servant.

So, three verses are for Allah ( عزّ وجلّ ) and they are the first three. And three verses are for the servant and they are the last three. One verse is between both the servant and his lord and it is the fourth and middle verse.

As for the proof from the context of the wordings, if we say that the Basmalah is a verse of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, then the seventh verse would be very long – as long as two of the other verses (thus making the last and incomparably long verse, “The path of those upon whom you bestowed your grace, not of those who earned anger, nor of those who are astray.”). But it is known that the principle of the verses being similar to each other is also regarding their length.

So, the correct opinion no doubt is that the Basmalah is not a verse of Sūrah al-Fātiḥah just as it is not a verse (at the beginning) of every other chapter in the Qur’an.

Posted from the article : Explaining Surah al-Fatihah – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Day of Resurrection: Allāh Judges the Creation – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

The Eight Event

Allāh Judges Creation

The Arabic word commonly used here, مُحَاسَبَة (muḥāsabah) or حِسَاب (ḥisāb), “judging,” “reckoning,” or “taking to account” is when people will be called to recollect, admit, and be judged on the Day of Resurrection for the actions they did in this life.

As far religious evidence for this event, it is confirmed by the Qur’aan, the Sunnah, the consensus of mainstream Muslims, and even suggested by one’s intellect.


In the Qur’aan, Allah (تعالى) says:

إِنَّ إِلَيْنَا إِيَابَهُمْ  ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا حِسَابَهُم

Certainly, to us is their return, then certainly upon us is their reckoning.[Sūrah al-Ghāshiyah, 88:25-26]

And:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابًا يَسِيرًا

Then as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will be judged with an easy reckoning. [Sūrah al-Inshiqāq, 84:7-8]


As for the Sunnah, numerous ḥadīth have been authentically reported from the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) that Allah will judge his creations. For example, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) used to say in some of his prayers:

اللَّهُمَّ حَاسِبْنِي حِسَابًا يَسِيْرًا 

Oh Allah, call me to account with an easy reckoning.

Upon hearing this, ‘Āishah (رضي الله عنها) asked, “What is an easy reckoning?” He answered:

أَنْ يَنْظُرَ فِي كِتَابِهِ فَيَتَجَاوَزُ عَنْهُ

That he looks into his book but pardons him (or finds in his book that he has been pardoned).[86]


As for the consensus among mainstream Muslims, the entire nation of believers has always agreed that Allah will judge creation.

And as for the intellect, it is understood that Allah will judge us because we have been made responsible for actions: obligated to do some, obligated to avoid some, and obligated to hold certain beliefs. Intellect and wisdom dictates that anyone made responsible for something will be held accountable for it and judged for it.

There are, however, some people who will be exempt from being judged; they will be allowed to enter Paradise without judgment or punishment. This has been confirmed in “Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī” and “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim.” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

عُرِضَتْ عَلَيَّ الأُمَمُ فَأَخَذَ النَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّ مَعَهُ الأُمَّةُ وَالنَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّ مَعَهُ النَّفَرُ وَالنَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّمَعَهُ الْعَشَرَةُ وَالنَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّ مَعَهُ الْخَمْسَةُ وَالنَّبِيُّ يَمُرُّ وَحْدَهُ ، فَنَظَرْتُ فَإِذَا سَوَادٌ كَثِيرٌ قُلْتُ : يَا جِبْرِيلُ هَؤُلاءِ أُمَّتِي ؟ قَالَ : لا وَلَكِنْ انْظُرْ إِلَى الأُفُقِ ، فَنَظَرْتُ فَإِذَا سَوَادٌ كَثِيرٌ ، قَالَ : هَؤُلاءِ أُمَّتُكَ وَهَؤُلاءِ سَبْعُونَ أَلْفًا قُدَّامَهُمْ لا حِسَابَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلا عَذَابَ ، قُلْتُ : وَلِمَ ؟ قَالَ : كَانُوا لا يَكْتَوُونَ وَلا يَسْتَرْقُونَ وَلا يَتَطَيَّرُونَ وَعَلَى رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ

I was shown the nations (of prophets) and I saw a prophet with an entire nation with him, a prophet with only a single follower, a prophet with ten followers, a prophet with five, and a prophet with none. I then saw a huge crowd and asked, “Oh (Angel) Gabriel, is this my nation?” to which he replied, “No, but look to the horizon.” I then looked and saw a huge nation (of followers). Gabriel said, “This is your nation and in front of them are seventy thousand who will have no judgment and no punishment.” I asked, “Why?” He answered, “They did not practice cauterization, did not seek ruqyá (incantations, healings with Qur’aan recitations), did not believe in good or bad omens, and they relied exclusively on their Lord.”

After hearing this, a companion named ‘Ukkāshah Ibn Miḥṣan stood and said to the prophet, “Pray to Allah to make me one of those.” So the prophet said:

اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْهُ مِنْهُمْ

Oh Allah, make him one of them.

Then another man stood and he too asked, “Pray to Allah to make me one of them,” but the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) replied:

سَبَقَكَ بِهَا عُكَّاشَةُ

‘Ukkāshah beat you to it. [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

There is even a narration recorded by Imam Aḥmad (5/280, 281) in which these seventy thousand will each have with them an additional seventy thousand, and all of them (70,000 x 70,000) will enter Paradise without judgment or punishment.

The creations to be judged will also include the Jinn, the creatures created by Allah that are unseen by mankind, because they too are held accountable for their beliefs and actions. So like a human, a disbelieving Jinn will enter the fire:

قَالَ ادْخُلُوا فِي أُمَمٍ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِكُم مِّنَ الْجِنِّ وَالإِنسِ فِي النَّارِ

(Allah) will say, “Enter among nations which had passed on before you of Jinn and mankind into the fire.” [Sūrah al-A’rāf, 7:38]

…and a believing Jinn will enter Paradise according to the opinion of most scholars, and this position is correct as indicated by the statement of Allah about two particular gardens given to those who will enter paradise:

فِيهِنَّ قَاصِرَاتُ الطَّرْفِ لَمْ يَطْمِثْهُنَّ إِنسٌ قَبْلَهُمْ وَلا جَانٌّ

In them are women limiting (their) glances, untouched before them by man or Jinn. [Sūrah al-Raḥmān, 55:56]

Here is a question: Will animals be judged and held accountable?

The answer is as far as judging between them to establish justice and fairness for what occurred between them, then yes, they will be judged because the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

لَتُؤَدُّنَّ الْحُقُوقَ إِلَى أَهْلِهَا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ حَتَّى يُقَادَ لِلشَّاةِ الْجَلْحَاءِ مِنْ الشَّاةِ الْقَرْنَاءِ 

The rights of justice will be established among those who deserve them on the Day of Resurrection so much so that a ram without horns will be given its rights taken from it by a ram with horns. [Recorded by Muslim.]

But again, this is only for ensuring that complete fairness and justice is finally established. As far as being judged for actions they were responsible for carrying out, then no, animals will not be held accountable as they are not responsible for such actions. They will have neither reward nor punishment.

A Believer’s Judgment

Describing the manner in which Allah will judge a believer and take him to account, Ibn ‘Umar (رضي الله عنهما) narrated that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) described the private counsel to be held between a true believer and his Lord:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُدْنِي الْمُؤْمِنَ فَيَضَعُ عَلَيْهِ كَنَفَهُ وَيَسْتُرُهُ ، فَيَقُولُ : أَتَعْرِفُ ذَنْبَ كَذَا أَتَعْرِفُ ذَنْبَ كَذَا ؟ فَيَقُولُ : نَعَمْ أَيْ رَبِّ ، حَتَّى إِذَا قَرَّرَهُ بِذُنُوبِهِ وَرَأَى فِي نَفْسِهِ أَنَّهُ هَلَكَ قَالَ : سَتَرْتُهَا عَلَيْكَ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَأَنَا أَغْفِرُهَا لَكَ الْيَوْمَ

Allah will draw a believer close, placing him under his care and screening him. Allah will say to him, “Do you remember this sin and that sin?” The person will answer, “Yes, my Lord.” After he is made to confess all of his sins and he sincerely believes he is ruined, Allah will say, “I concealed them for you in life and I forgive you for them today.” [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

While speaking with his servant, Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) will screen him so that no one will see or hear him during their private conversation. This is a way of Allah (عزّ وجلّ) favoring and showing kindness to a true believer in him. When people make someone confess their crimes publicly in front of everyone, even if they pardon the individual for them, there is still an aspect of scandal and humiliation that remains. Yet if such proceedings were held privately, then this would be a better way of concealing and protecting people from that.

A Disbeliever’s Judgment

Describing a disbeliever’s judgment, Ibn Taymiyyah, said:

“As for a disbeliever, they will not be judged in the same manner as someone who has his good and bad deeds weighed. This is because those who disbelieve in Allah have no good deeds at all. Still, their deeds will be counted and they will be held responsible for them; they will be made to confess them and will be humiliated.”

The meaning of this has come in the same ḥadīth of Ibn ‘Umar previously mentioned in which the prophet spoke about how Allah will conceal a believer and speak privately with him. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then said:

وَأَمَّا الْكُفَّارُ وَالْمُنَافِقُونَ فَيُنَادَى بِهِمْ عَلَى رُءُوسِ الْخَلائِقِ : هَؤُلاءِ الَّذِينَ كَذَبُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ

But as for the disbelievers and hypocrites, they will be publicly called out in front of all creation and it will be announced, “These are the ones who lied against Allah.” [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

Also in “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim,” Abū Hurayrah narrated that the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَيَلْقَى الْعَبْدَ فَيَقُولُ : أَيْ فُلْ أَلَمْ أُكْرِمْكَ وَأُسَوِّدْكَ وَأُزَوِّجْكَ وَأُسَخِّرْ لَكَ الْخَيْلَ وَالإِبِلَ وَأَذَرْكَ تَرْأَسُ وَتَرْبَعُ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : بَلَى ، قَالَ : فَيَقُولُ : أَفَظَنَنْتَ أَنَّكَ مُلاقِيَّ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : لا ، فَيَقُولُ : فَإِنِّي أَنْسَاكَ كَمَا نَسِيتَنِي ،

 ثُمَّ يَلْقَى الثَّانِيَ فَيَقُولُ : أَيْ فُلْ أَلَمْ أُكْرِمْكَ وَأُسَوِّدْكَ وَأُزَوِّجْكَ وَأُسَخِّرْ لَكَ الْخَيْلَ وَالإِبِلَ وَأَذَرْكَ تَرْأَسُ وَتَرْبَعُ ؟ فَيَقُولُ.: بَلَى أَيْ رَبِّ ، فَيَقُولُ : أَفَظَنَنْتَ أَنَّكَ مُلاقِيَّ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : لا ، فَيَقُولُ : فَإِنِّي أَنْسَاكَ كَمَا نَسِيتَنِي ، 

ثُمَّ يَلْقَى الثَّالِثَ ، فَيَقُولُ لَهُ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ ، فَيَقُولُ : يَا رَبِّ آمَنْتُ بِكَ وَبِكِتَابِكَ وَبِرُسُلِكَ وَصَلَّيْتُ وَصُمْتُ وَتَصَدَّقْتُ وَيُثْنِي بِخَيْرٍ مَا اسْتَطَاعَ ، فَيَقُولُ : هَاهُنَا إِذًا ،قَالَ : ثُمَّ : يُقَالُ لَهُ : الآنَ نَبْعَثُ شَاهِدَنَا عَلَيْكَ ، وَيَتَفَكَّرُ فِي نَفْسِهِ مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَشْهَدُ عَلَيَّ ، فَيُخْتَمُ عَلَى فِيهِ ، وَيُقَالُ لِفَخِذِهِ وَلَحْمِهِ وَعِظَامِهِ : انْطِقِي ، فَتَنْطِقُ فَخِذُهُ وَلَحْمُهُ وَعِظَامُهُ بِعَمَلِهِ ، وَذَلِكَ لِيُعْذِرَ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ وَذَلِكَ الْمُنَافِقُ وَذَلِكَ الَّذِي يَسْخَطُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ

Allah will meet with a servant, asking, “Oh so-and-so, did I not honor you, give you authority, give you a spouse, give you control over horses and camels, and made you a leader (or allowed you to live a comfortable life)?” The person will reply, “You did.” Allah will ask him, “Did you think you would ever meet me?” and he will answer, “No.” So Allah will say, “Then I will forget you as you forgot me.”

Then Allah will meet with a second person and ask, “Oh so-and-so, did I not honor you, give you authority, give you a spouse, give you control over horses and camels, and made you a leader (or allowed you to live a comfortable life)?” The person will reply, “You did, my Lord.” Allah will ask him, “Did you think you would ever meet me?” and he will answer, “No.” So Allah will say, “Then I will forget you as you forgot me.”

Allah will then meet with a third person and will ask him similarly as he did with the others, but this person will say, “My Lord, I believed in you, in your book, and in your messengers. I prayed, fasted, and gave charity.” And he will continue praising the good (he did) as much as he can. Allah will say, “(Stop) then. Now we will bring forth our witness against you.” The person will think to himself about who this witness could be to testify against him. His mouth will then be sealed and his legs, his flesh and bones will be told, “Speak.” His legs, flesh, and bones will then speak about what he did. That is the person who will have no excuse for himself; that is the hypocrite, and that is the one with whom Allah is angry. [Recorded by Muslim.]

On the Day of Judgment, the first people to be judged will be this nation, the Muslims who followed Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم), based on the prophet’s statement:

نَحْنُ الآخِرُوْنَ السَّابِقُوْنَ يَوْمَ القِيَامَةِ المَقْضِيُّ بَيْنَهُمْ قَبْلَ الخَلائِقِ

We are the last ones (in this life) but the first ones on the Day of Resurrection to have their accounts settled before the rest of creation. [94]

Similarly, Ibn ‘Abbās (رضي الله عنهما) narrated that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

نَحْنُ آخِرُ الأُمَمِ وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ يُحَاسَبُ ، يُقَالُ : أَيْنَ الأُمَّةُ الأُمِّيَّةُ وَنَبِيُّهَا ؟ فَنَحْنُ الآخِرُونَ الأَوَّلُونَ

We are the last religious nation (in this life) but the first to be judged. It will be said, “Where is the illiterate nation and its prophet?” So we are the last ones yet the first ones.[95]

The first thing for which a worshipper of Allah will be judged and called to account regarding the rights of Allah will be his prayer based on the statement of the prophet :(صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)

أَوَّلُ مَا يُحَاسَبُ بِهِ الْعَبْدُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ الصَلاة ، فَإِنْ صَلُحَتْ صَلُحَ سَائِرُ عَمَلِهِ ،  وَإِنْ فَسَدَتْ فَسَدَ سَائِرُ عَمَلِهِ

The first thing for which a worshipper will be judged on the Day of Resurrection will be prayer. If it is sound, the rest of his deeds will be sound, but if it is bad, the rest of his deeds will be bad. [96]

However, the first crimes to be judged regarding the rights of other people will be those pertaining to bloodshed as he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

أَوَّلَ مَا يُقْضَى بَيْنَ النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِي الدِّمَاءِ 

The first thing to be settled between people on the Day of Resurrection will be (crimes of) bloodshed.[97]

This is because prayer is the best bodily act of worship related to the rights of Allah, and bloodshed is the greatest violation of communal rights related to mankind.

Footnotes:

[86] Recorded by Aḥmad (6/48) and Ibn Abī ‘Āṣim in “Kitāb al-Sunnah” (no. 885). al-Albānī said it is authentic in his checking of “Kitāb al-Sunnah” (2/429).

[94] Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim. In a similar ḥadīth, also recorded by them both, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

نَحْنُ الآخِرُونَ السَّابِقُونَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِنَا وَأُوتِينَاهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ ، فَهَذَا الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ فَهَدَانَا اللَّهُ فَغَدًا لِلْيَهُودِ وَبَعْدَ غَدٍ لِلنَّصَارَى

We are the last ones but the first ones on the Day of Resurrection. They were given the scripture before us and we were given it after them. So this is the day they differed about, but Allah has guided us. So tomorrow is for the Jews, and the day after is for the Christians.

[95] Recorded by Ibn Mājah, Aḥmad, and al-Bayhaqī. al-Albānī said it is authentic in “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Ibn Mājah” (no. 3463).

[96] Recorded by al-Tirmidhī, al-Nasāī, Ibn Mājah, and al-Ṭabarānī. The text is from al-Ṭabarānī and al-Albānī said it is authentic in “Ṣaḥīḥ al-Targhīb wal-Tarhīb” (1/185).

[97] Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Day of Resurrection: The Books of Deeds are Distributed – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

Bismillaah

The Seventh Event

The Books of Deeds are Distributed

People’s books of deeds will be distributed, open for them to read. An individual’s book of deeds is the register with every action he did in life written inside. These deeds are being written now by the angels entrusted with recording the actions of all the children of Adam. Allah (تعالى) says:

وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَافِظِينَ كِرَامًا كَاتِبِينَ يَعْلَمُونَ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ

And indeed, (appointed) over you are keepers, honorable recorders. They know whatever you do. [Surah al-Isrā, 82:10-12][69]

These angels record in a book everything a person does because they are always with him. And on the Day of Resurrection, Allah will bring forth this book, making it known to the person as he says:

وَكُلَّ إِنسَانٍ أَلْزَمْنَاهُ طَائِرَهُ فِي عُنُقِهِ وَنُخْرِجُ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كِتَابًا يَلْقَاهُ مَنشُورًا اقْرَأْ كِتَابَكَ كَفَى بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا

Every person, we have imposed his fate upon his neck. And we will produce for him, on the Day of Resurrection, a record which he will find spread open. (It will be said to him,) “Read your book. You are sufficient today as a reckoner against yourself. [Surah al-Isrā, 17:13-14.]

The Recording of Good Deeds

Both good deeds and bad deeds are written in these books. As for the good deeds, the actions a person actually does are recorded, as are his good intentions and even those deeds he intends to do but may not have actually done them. So there are three types of rewarded behavior: 1) good deeds performed, 2) good intentions, and 3) good deeds intended but not performed.

1. Good Deeds: It is clear that a person’s good deeds are written.

2. Good Intentions: Intending to do a good deed is also recorded in a person’s favor.

But a reward is given for only the intention and not necessarily the action intended. This is based on the hadith of a rich man who spends his wealth in charity and a poor man who says, “If I had wealth, I would do what he does.” About these two, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَأَجْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ

He is rewarded for his intention, and the reward is the same for both.[71]

So both the rich and poor are equally rewarded in intention but not in action. This is also confirmed by the narration in which the poor immigrants of Medina complained to the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) saying, “Oh messenger of Allah, the wealthy have overtaken us (in reward).” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said (as a way to catch up with the wealthy in rewards):

تُسَبِّحُونَ وَتُكَبِّرُونَ وَتَحْمَدُونَ دُبُرَ كُلِّ صَلاةٍ ثَلاثًا وَثَلاثِينَ مَرَّة

Glorify Allah, declare his greatness, and thank him after each prayer thirty-three times.

But when this advice reached the wealthy, they too did likewise. So the poor returned, complaining to the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) again that the rich are now doing both— giving charity and praising Allah after the prayers. He (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then said:

ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ

That is the favor of Allah he gives to whom he wishes. [Recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim]

The prophet did not reply the second time that the poor, despite their sincere intentions, would have the same reward as the rich in deed. And this is fair because a man who does not perform a certain deed is not the same as the one who actually does it, yet he may still get a similar reward for the intention alone.

3. Good Deeds Intended but Not Performed: The third type of rewarded behavior which a person may find written in his book of deeds is the actions he may sincerely intend to do but did not actually do them. The difference between this type and the second is that for these intentions, he does receive a reward for the action itself. These are the deeds that an individual may intend to do and perhaps he does as much as he is able to of such deed. Then something prevents him from completing the deed. In such case, a full good deed will be recorded based on the statement of Allah:

وَمَن يَخْرُجْ مِن بَيْتِهِ مُهَاجِرًا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ يُدْرِكْهُ الْمَوْتُ فَقَدْ وَقَعَ أَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ

And whoever leaves his home as an emigrant to Allah and his messenger and then death overtakes him, his reward has already become incumbent upon Allah.[Surah al-Nisa, 4:100]

In this is also good news for students of religious knowledge. For example, if someone intends to study religious knowledge for the purpose of benefiting others with such information, defending the Sunnah of the messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and spreading Allah’s religion throughout the earth, yet he is unable to complete his studies—perhaps he dies in the process, for example—he will still have those good deeds recorded for him and he will achieve its rewards.

Even if a person has a habit of performing a particular good deed but for some reason he is unable to do it under certain circumstances, he still has the good deed recorded for him. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

إِذَا مَرِضَ الْعَبْدُ أَوْ سَافَرَ كُتِبَ لَهُ مِثْلُ مَا كَانَ يَعْمَلُ مُقِيمًا صَحِيحًا

When a servant becomes sick or travels, whatever he used to do while residing at home or healthy will still be recorded for him. [Recorded by al-Bukhari]

The Recording of Bad Deeds

As for bad deeds, they are written against a person if: 1) he actually does a bad deed, 2) he intends and hopes to do the bad deed, and 3) he intends to do the bad deed and tries to commit it but for some reason he is unable to.

1. Bad Deeds: This is clear; if someone does a bad deed, he has it recorded against him.

2. Bad Intentions: Sins an individual intends or hopes to do are also written against him. But like good intentions, he has a bad deed recorded for the intention and not a full bad deed for the action intended. The proof of this is in the same hadith mentioned about good intentions. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) spoke about a person Allah had provided wealth but no knowledge so that he aimlessly wasted his wealth. A person Allah had given neither wealth nor knowledge then said, “If I had wealth, I would do what he does,” admiring the former’s wasteful spending. So the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَوِزْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ

He is recorded for his intention, and the sin is the same for both of them. [75]

As for an individual intending to do a bad deed but refrains from it, this is of three types:

  • 1) If the person does not do the deed because he was unable though he tried to do it, he is just like a person who actually did the bad deed,
  • 2) If he refrains from doing the deed for the sake of Allah, he is rewarded, and
  • 3) If he simply decides not to do it (but not for the sake of Allah) or even if committing the deed did not seriously cross his mind, then he has neither sin nor reward written for him.

3. Bad Deeds Intended but Not Performed: These are also recorded against a person as complete bad deeds if the person tried his utmost to do them based on the statement (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) of the prophet:

ذَا تَوَاجَهَ الْمُسْلِمَانِ بِسَيْفَيْهِمَا فَكِلاهُمَا مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ

If two Muslims face off with their swords (i.e. if they fight to the death), both of them are people of the fire.

After hearing this, the companions asked, “Messenger of Allah, we understand about the killer, but why the one killed too?” He replied:

إِنَّهُ أَرَادَ قَتْلَ صَاحِبِهِ

He also wanted to kill his opponent.[Recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim.]

Similarly, if someone wanted to drink alcohol but something happened so that he was unable to do it, it is still recorded against him as a bad deed because he tried as much as he could to commit it.

To conclude this topic we must know that Allah rewards good deeds with rewards greater than the original good deed, but He recompenses a bad deed only equivalent to the original sin; He says (تعالى) :

مَن جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أَمْثَالِهَا وَمَن جَاءَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ فَلا يُجْزَى إِلاَّ مِثْلَهَا وَهُمْ لا يُظْلَمُونَ

Whoever comes (on the Day of Judgment) with a good deed will have ten times the like thereof, and whoever comes with an evil deed will not be recompensed except the like thereof, and they will not be wronged. [77]

Receiving the Books of Deeds

About the distribution of these books and the ways in which people will receive them, Allah (تعالى) says:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابًا يَسِيرًا وَيَنقَلِبُ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ مَسْرُورًا وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ وَرَاءَ ظَهْرِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَدْعُو ثُبُورًا وَيَصْلَى سَعِيرًا

Then as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will be judged with an easy reckoning, and he will return to his people in happiness. But as for he who is given his record behind his back, he will cry out for destruction, and he will burn in a blaze.[Surah al-Inshiqaq, 84:7-12]

And he says:

وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِشِمَالِهِ فَيَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي لَمْ أُوتَ كِتَابِيَهْ

But as for he who is given his record in his left hand, he will say, “Oh, I wish I had never been given my record.” [Surah al-Haqqah, 69:25]

On the Day of Judgment, people will receive their books of deeds in different ways. Some will be given their books in their right hands – these are the believers. In this is also an indication that the right hand is more honorable and so a believer is given his book in his right hand. When the believer receives his book of deeds, he will take it with his right hand, rejoice, then cry out:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَيَقُولُ هَاؤُمُ اقْرَءُوا كِتَابِيَهْ

So as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will say, “Here,read my record!” [Surah al-Haqqah, 69:19]

But as for a disbeliever in Allah, he receives his book of deeds in his left hand or from behind his back. He will then cry out for destruction:

وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِشِمَالِهِ فَيَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي لَمْ أُوتَ كِتَابِيَهْ وَلَمْ أَدْرِ مَا حِسَابِيَهْ

But as for he who is given his record in his left hand, he will say, “Oh, I wish I had never been given my record and had never known what my account was.[Surah al-Haqqah, 69:25-26.]

So the manner in which people receive their books of deeds is of three types: in the right hand, in the left hand, and behind the back. But these three types are only different in description and are not three separate ways books will be distributed. This is because if an individual receives his book of deeds from behind his back, he is at the same time given his book in his left hand—he takes it with his left hand, reaching his hand behind him. And since he receives his book with his left hand, he is known as one of the “People of the Left.” [82] He receives his book behind his back because during his life, he turned his back on the book of Allah. So it is only befitting that in return, he is given his book of deeds from behind his back, and Allah knows best.

To conclude, Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) says:

وَكُلَّ إِنسَانٍ أَلْزَمْنَاهُ طَائِرَهُ فِي عُنُقِهِ وَنُخْرِجُ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كِتَابًا يَلْقَاهُ مَنشُورًا اقْرَأْ كِتَابَكَ كَفَى بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا

Every person, we have imposed his fate upon his neck. And we will produce for him, on the Day of Resurrection, a record which he will find spread open. (It will be said to him,) “Read your book. You are sufficient today as a reckoner against yourself. [Surah al-Isra, 17:13-14.]

As for his fate (i.e. his deeds) imposed on his neck, this is the most befitting attachment for a person’s deeds – bound to his neck – because he will never be separated from them until he dies. He will find his book open; he neither expends effort nor does he find difficulty in opening it. “Read your book” Read what has been written for or against you. “Your own self is sufficient as a reckoner against you today“. This is the perfection of justice and fairness – that the individual will be responsible for taking himself to account.

We have in front of us now a door we may close on every bad deed, every sin: repentance. Regardless of how great a sin may be, when someone repents to Allah, he will forgive him. Even if a person continuously repeated the same sin but he repents, Allah will forgive him. The matter is still within our hands, so we must ensure that nothing is written in this book except righteous deeds before Allah judges creation.

Footnotes:

[69] Surah al-Isrā, 82:10-12.

In Surah Qaf, 50:17-18, Allah informs us that the angels are seated on the right and left of us:

إِذْ يَتَلَقَّى الْمُتَلَقِّيَانِ عَنِ الْيَمِينِ وَعَنِ الشِّمَالِ قَعِيدٌ مَّا يَلْفِظُ مِن قَوْلٍ إِلاَّ لَدَيْهِ رَقِيبٌ عَتِيدٌ

When the two receivers receive, seated on the right and on the left. Not a word does he utter but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it).

[71] Recorded by al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah and al-Albani said it is authentic in “Sahih Sunan al-Tirmidhi” (no. 1894).

The full text of the hadith is:

ثَلاثَةٌ أُقْسِمُ عَلَيْهِنَّ وَأُحَدِّثُكُمْ حَدِيثًا فَاحْفَظُوهُ ، قَالَ : مَا نَقَصَ مَالُ عَبْدٍ مِنْ صَدَقَةٍ ، وَلا ظُلِمَ عَبْدٌ مَظْلَمَةً فَصَبَرَ عَلَيْهَا إِلاَّ زَادَهُ اللَّهُ عِزًّا ، وَلا فَتَحَ عَبْدٌ بَابَ مَسْأَلَةٍ إِلاَّ فَتَحَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ بَابَ فَقْرٍ – أَوْ كَلِمَةً نَحْوَهَا – وَأُحَدِّثُكُمْ حَدِيثًا فَاحْفَظُوهُ ، قَالَ : إِنَّمَا الدُّنْيَا لأَرْبَعَةِ نَفَرٍ : عَبْدٍ رَزَقَهُ اللَّهُ مَالاً وَعِلْمًا فَهُوَ يَتَّقِي فِيهِ رَبَّهُ وَيَصِلُ فِيهِ رَحِمَهُ ، وَيَعْلَمُ لِلَّهِ فِيهِ حَقًّا فَهَذَا بِأَفْضَلِ الْمَنَازِلِ ، وَعَبْدٍ رَزَقَهُ اللَّهُ عِلْمًا وَلَمْ يَرْزُقْهُ مَالاً فَهُوَ صَادِقُ النِّيَّةِ يَقُولُ : لَوْ أَنَّ لِي مَالاً لَعَمِلْتُ بِعَمَلِ فُلانٍ ، فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَأَجْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ ، وَعَبْدٍ رَزَقَهُ اللَّهُ مَالاً وَلَمْ يَرْزُقْهُ عِلْمًا فَهُوَ يَخْبِطُ فِي مَالِهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ لا يَتَّقِي فِيهِ رَبَّهُ وَلا يَصِلُ فِيهِ رَحِمَهُ وَلا يَعْلَمُ لِلَّهِ فِيهِ حَقًّا فَهَذَا بِأَخْبَثِ الْمَنَازِلِ ، وَعَبْدٍ لَمْ يَرْزُقْهُ اللَّهُ مَالاً وَلا عِلْمًا فَهُوَ يَقُولُ : لَوْ أَنَّ لِي مَالاً لَعَمِلْتُ فِيهِ بِعَمَلِ فُلانٍ ، فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَوِزْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ 

There are three things that I attest to; I will mention them so remember them.

  • 1) Charity will never decrease a person’s wealth,
  • 2) no servant is wronged and patiently endures that except that Allah will increase him in honor, and
  • 3) no servant opens the door of begging except that Allah will open the door of poverty (or he said similarly).

And I will mention something else so remember it.

The world is for four types of people:

  • 1) a person Allah has provided with wealth and knowledge so he is conscientious of his Lord regarding them and thus gains his mercy therewith. He knows Allah has a right upon him with regards to them, and this is the best of the (four) types.
  • 2) A person Allah has provided with knowledge but not wealth, yet he is truthful in his intention when he says, “If I had wealth, I would do what so-and-so does (the first type of person).” So he is rewarded for his intention, and the reward is the same for both of them.
  • 3) A person Allah has provided wealth but no knowledge so that he aimlessly wastes his wealth without knowledge. He is neither conscientious of his Lord with it nor does he achieve his mercy. He does not even know that Allah has a right upon him regarding it, and this is the worst of the (four) types.
  • 4) A person Allah has provided no wealth and no knowledge. But he says, “If I had wealth, I would do what so-and-so does (the third type of person).” So he is also recorded for his intention, and the sin is the same for both of them.

[75] Recorded by al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah and al-Albani said it is authentic in “Sahih Sunan al-Tirmidhi” (no. 1894). See page 53 for the full hadith.

[77] Surah al-Anaam, 6:160.

Evidence from the Sunnah of a ten-fold reward for a good deed and only a single recompense for a bad deed is the hadith recorded by Muslim in which the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

يقول الله : مَنْ جَاء بالحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أمْثَالِهَا أَوْ أزْيَد ، وَمَنْ جَاءَ بالسَيِّئَةِ فَجَزاءُ سَيِّئَةٍ سَيِّئَةٌ مِثْلُهَا أَوْ أغْفِرُ . وَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ مِنِّي شِبْرًا تَقَرَّبْتُ مِنْهُ ذِرَاعًا ، وَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ مِنِّي ذِرَاعًا تَقَرَّبْتُ مِنْهُ بَاعًا ، وَمَنْ أتَانِي يَمْشِي أتَيْتُهُ هَرْوَلَةً ، وَمَنْ لَقِيني بِقُرَابِ الأرْض خَطِيئةً لا يُشْرِكُ بِي شَيئاً ، لَقِيتُهُ بِمِثْلِهَا مَغفِرَةً

Allah says, “Whoever does a good deed will have ten times reward for it or even more. And whoever does a bad deed will have a single bad deed for it or I will forgive it. Whoever comes close to me a hand-span, I will come close to him an arm’s length; and whoever comes close to me an arm’s length, I will come close to him the distance of two outstretched arms. Whoever comes to me walking, I will come to him running. And whoever meets me with the earth full of sins but associated nothing with me in worship, I will meet him with as much forgiveness.”

[82] A similar description is used in the Surah al-Waqi’ah, 56:8-9:

فَأَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ مَا أَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ وَأَصْحَابُ الْمَشْأَمَةِ مَا أَصْحَابُ الْمَشْأَمَةِ

The Companions of the Right – what are the Companions of the Right? And the Companions of the Left – what re the Companions of the Left?

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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“iyyāka na’budu wa iyyāka nasta’īn” – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

The Explanation of Verse 4 of Sooratul Faatiha

 إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ 

iyyāka na’budu wa iyyāka nasta’īn

You alone we worship, and from you alone we seek help.

“You alone” (iyyāka): This is a case in grammar when the direct object comes before the verb, “we worship” (na’budu). In Arabic grammar, when the direct object precedes the verb, it gives a sense of restriction, so the meaning would be, “We do not worship anyone or anything except you alone.”

“we worship” (na’budu): Meaning: We humble ourselves to you in complete humility.

In this way, you find the believers placing the most honorable part of their bodies (their faces) at the level of their feet in humility to Allah (عزّ وجلّ). They prostrate on the ground, covering their foreheads with dirt. This is from their humbleness before Allah. And if another person were to say, “I will give you the whole world and what it contains, just prostrate to me once,” you will never find true believers accepting this because this type of humility is a form of worship specifically for Allah alone.

The word “worship” includes doing everything Allah commands and avoiding everything he forbids. Whoever is not in accordance with this, not carrying out what he is commanded to do and avoiding what he is forbidden to do then he is not a true worshipper and servant. A worshipper is someone who obeys the one he worships in whatever he legislates. So, worship requires that mankind carry out everything they are commanded to do and avoid everything they are forbidden from doing. However, it is not possible to fulfill all of these duties without the help and assistance of Allah. Because of this, Allah ( سبحانه وتعالى ) then says:

“and from you alone we seek help” (wa iyyāka nasta’īn): Meaning, “We do not seek the help of anyone else in worship or in anything else.” This “seeking of help” is to request the help and assistance, and Allah combines between worship and the seeking of assistance or reliance in many places the noble Qur’an. This is because worship could not be completely established except with the help of Allah by entrusting one’s affairs to him, and relying on him.

Points of Benefit of al-Fātiḥah, Verse 4:

1. From the virtues of this verse is the sincerity in worship that is due to Allah alone as he says, “You alone we worship“. It shows that this worship is due only to Allah by the direct object (“You”) coming before the verb (“we worship”) according to the rules of Arabic grammar.

2. Another point is that seeking help is also sincerely and solely for Allah based on the statement, “and from you alone we seek help“. Likewise, the direct object precedes the verb indicating a sense of restriction just like in the first part of the verse.

Those points being said, what if someone asks:

How is it that seeking help is exclusively for Allah alone when there has come in another verse:

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى 

And help one another in righteousness and piety.[Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:2]

So, how do we understand the previous statements about seeking help only from Allah when, here in this verse, Allah confirms that seeking help from other than himself is permissible (rather it is a command here)? Also, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

 تُعِيْنُ الرَّجُلَ فِي دَابَّتِهِ، فَتَحْمِلُهُ عَلَيْهَا، أَوْ تَرْفَعُ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا مَتَاعَهُ صَدَقَةٌ 

Helping someone onto his riding animal, carrying him on it, or lifting his belongings up to him while he is on it – all of these are (considered) acts of charity. [Recorded by Al-Bukhaaree (no. 2891) and Muslim (no. 1009)]

The answer to this question is that the act of seeking help and assistance is of two types. The first type is to request help while entrusting all affairs to the one you ask from. For example, you rely completely on Allah and you realize that any result you seek will not come from your own power or capability. This type of seeking help is specific for Allah ( تعالى ); he alone deserves this type.

The second type is to request help or cooperation in something you want to accomplish. This type is permissible as long as the one being requested is living and capable of doing what is asked of him. This is not considered a form of worship. This is the type that Allah refers to when saying:

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى

And help one another in righteousness and piety. [Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:2]

If it is further asked, “Is seeking help from the creation permissible at all times and in all situations?

The answer is no. Requesting help from the creation is only allowed when the one being asked is fully capable of what he is being asked for, otherwise seeking his help is not permissible. An example would be asking help from someone dead in his grave; this is prohibited, rather it is major Shirk (the associating of partners with Allah in worship)! This is because the person in his grave does not even have the ability to help himself, so how could he help someone else? Similarly, if someone seeks the help of another person who is not present with him such as a person believing that someone else in the far eastern part of the world could help him with something in his (the one seeking help) land – this is also major Shirk because the person whose help is sought is not capable of helping the seeker while they are in different lands.

If it is now asked, “So, is it permissible to seek help from the creation if these conditions are met?

The answer is that it is better not to ask anyone for any help unless it is absolutely necessary or if it is known that the person would be happy to provide help. In this case, one could request his assistance in order to please him. The act that you seek another’s help in fulfilling must also not be something sinful and prohibited.

Posted from the article : Explaining Surah al-Fatihah – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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The Believers will see their Lord in the Hereafter – Shaykh ‘Uthaymīn

The Fifteenth Event

The Believers See Their Lord

وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَّاضِرَةٌ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ

(Some) faces that day will be radiant, looking at their Lord. [Sūrah al-Qiyāmah, 75:22-23]

To explain the verse, “faces that day” means on the last day, the Day of Resurrection. “radiant” here includes beauty because the word used in the verse comes from the Arabic word نَضَارَة (naḍārah) which means beauty. This meaning is also indicated in the statement of Allah (in which a similar form of the same word is used):

فَوَقَاهُمُ اللَّهُ شَرَّ ذَٰلِكَ الْيَوْمِ وَلَقَّاهُمْ نَضْرَةً وَسُرُورًا

So Allah will protect them from the evil of that day and give them radiance and happiness. [Sūrah al-Insān, 76:11]

In other words: beauty in their faces and happiness in their hearts.

As for “looking at their Lord“, it is real sight which occurs from the faces and by the eyes. This is different from insight that may occur within the heart (similar to the English usage, “I will look into it.”) which means thinking about or considering something. Here, however, the looking occurs from the faces and is directed toward the Lord (عزّ وجلّ) just as is explicitly indicated by “at their Lord“.

This noble verse means that these radiant, beautiful faces will be looking directly at their Lord (عزّ وجلّ) and, consequently, will increase in beauty. Look at how these faces were prepared, made ready to look at Allah (عزّ وجلّ) – they will have been made bright and beautiful in preparation to look upon the face of Allah.

This verse is a clear proof that Allah will actually be seen with actual eyes and this is the position of mainstream Muslims who follow the Sunnah (Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamā’ah).

They have proven this with the same verses mentioned herein and they also learn this from the numerous statements of the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) transmitted to the companions and to their followers and so on. So these texts are explicitly clear as evidence confirming this (the believers seeing Allah in the hereafter) because they are within the book of Allah (تعالى) and the Sunnah of his messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and they are reported by many different chains of narration.

So mainstream Muslims who follow the Sunnah hold the belief that the looking, the sight mentioned here, is real. It does not mean “perception” or “complete awareness” because Allah says:

لَّا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَبْصَارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الْأَبْصَارَ

Vision does not perceive him. [Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:103]

Just as knowing with one’s heart does not necessarily equate to perceiving his true reality. Allah (تعالى) says:

يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْمًا

But they do not encompass him with knowledge. [Sūrah ṬāHā, 20:110]

We know our Lord with our hearts yet we still do not know exactly how he is. Similarly, on the Day of Resurrection we will see our Lord with our own eyes, yet our sight will still not completely perceive him.

The second verse indicating that believers will see their Lord is the statement of Allah:

عَلَى الْأَرَائِكِ يَنظُرُونَ

On thrones, looking. [Sūrah al-Muṭaffifīn, 83:23]

Allah did not mention in this verse specifically what they are looking at so it is general, including anything that is pleasing to look at. The greatest and most pleasing sight is to look upon Allah (تعالى) as he says in the very next verse:

تَعْرِفُ فِي وُجُوهِهِمْ نَضْرَةَ النَّعِيمِ

You will recognize in their faces the radiance of pleasure. [Sūrah al-Muṭaffifīn, 83:24]

So the context of the verse is similar to the first one, “faces that day will be radiant, looking at their Lord” and they will be looking at everything that pleases them.

The third verse regarding the believers looking at Allah is:

لِّلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا الْحُسْنَىٰ وَزِيَادَةٌ

For those who have done good is the best (reward) and even more. [Sūrah Yūnus, 10:26]

As for “the best”, it is Paradise and “even more” is the believers looking at the face of Allah. This is how the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) explained this verse as is confirmed in the ḥadīth recorded by Muslim and others:

إِذَا دَخَلَ أَهْلُ الْجَنَّةِ الْجَنَّةَ ، قَالَ : يَقُولُ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى : تُرِيدُونَ شَيْئًا أَزِيدُكُمْ.؟ فَيَقُولُونَ : أَلَمْ تُبَيِّضْ وُجُوهَنَا ؟ أَلَمْ تُدْخِلْنَا الْجَنَّةَ وَتُنَجِّنَا مِنْ النَّارِ ؟ قَالَ : فَيَكْشِفُ الْحِجَابَ فَمَا أُعْطُوا شَيْئًا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْهِمْ مِنْ النَّظَرِ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ

When the people of Paradise have entered Paradise, Allah (تبارك وتعالى) will ask, “Do you want me to give you something more?” They will say, “Have you not brightened our faces? Have you not already admitted us into Paradise and saved us from the fire?” He will then remove the covering and they will not have been given anything more beloved to them than looking at their Lord (عزّ وجلّ) [Recorded by Muslim]

After saying that, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then recited the verse, “For those who have done good is the best (reward) and even more.” So this verse is evidence of seeing Allah as the messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) has explained, and no doubt, he is the most knowledgeable person of the Quran’s meanings. He explained that it means looking at the face of Allah and this is the “even more” reward the believers will be given in addition to the previous delights of Paradise.

Therefore, this blessing is not the same types of blessing as are well-known of Paradise. Many of the delights of Paradise are physical in nature: rivers to enjoy, physical rewards, fruits, pure spouses, etc. Then the blessings and pleasures of the heart follow. But looking at Allah is a direct delight pleasing to the heart. The people of Paradise will have never seen anything more enjoyable or satisfying than that. We ask Allah to make us those who see him.

This blessing is in no way comparable to anything else, not the fruits of Paradise, its rivers, or anything else. Because of this, Allah said “For those who have done good is the best (reward) and even more.” because it is in addition to even the best rewards of Paradise.

The fourth verse is:

لَهُم مَّا يَشَاءُونَ فِيهَا وَلَدَيْنَا مَزِيدٌ

There they will have all that they desire and with us is even more. [Sūrah Qāf, 50:35]

Many scholars have explained “but with us is even more” just how the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) explained it – that it is looking at the face of Allah.

So those are the four verses the author (Ibn Taymiyyah) mentions as proof of the believers seeing Allah. There is also a fifth verse from which Imam al-Shāfi’ī deduced that the believers will see Allah. It is the statement of Allah (تعالى) about the wicked sinners:

كَلَّا إِنَّهُمْ عَن رَّبِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لَّمَحْجُوبُونَ

No! Surely, they will be veiled from (seeing) their Lord that day. [Sūrah al-Muṭaffifīn, 83:15]

The point he makes from the verse is that since such people will be veiled from Allah due to his anger with them, then it can be understood that those with whom he is pleased will not be veiled. So if the people who gain his anger are veiled from Allah then the people who gain his pleasure will see Him (عزّ وجلّ)

This deduction of Imam al-Shāfi’ī is definitely very strong because if everyone was going to be veiled, prevented from seeing their Lord, then there would have been no reason to specifically mention only the wicked people in the verse.

We also believe that seeing Allah in this life is impossible. This is because the current nature and condition of humans is one that cannot bear looking at Allah (عزّ وجلّ). How could it when the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) told us about his Lord:

حِجَابُهُ النُّورُ ، لَوْ كَشَفَهُ لأَحْرَقَتْ سُبُحَاتُ وَجْهِهِ مَا انْتَهَى إِلَيْهِ بَصَرُهُ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ

His veil is light. If he were to remove it, the splendor of his face would burn his creation, consuming it as far as his sight reaches.[Recorded by Muslim]

But as for seeing Allah in the hereafter, it is certainly possible because people that day will be in a different world. Their nature and condition will be different than they are in this life. And this is known from all the texts of the Quran and Sunnah that tell about how people will be, what they will experience during the events of the resurrection and of their final abode in either the home of bliss or Hell.

About the believers seeing their Lord, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) was once with his companions on a night when the full moon was out. He looked up at the moon and said:

إِنَّكُمْ سَتَرَوْنَ رَبَّكُمْ كَمَا تَرَوْنَ هَذَا الْقَمَرَ ، لا تُضَامُونَ فِي رُؤْيَتِهِ ، فَإِنْ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَنْ  لا تُغْلَبُوا عَلَى صَلاةٍ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَصَلاةٍ قَبْلَ غُرُوبِ الشَّمْسِ فَافْعَلُوا

You will certainly see your Lord just as you can see this moon; you will have no trouble in seeing him. So if you can avoid missing a prayer before the sun rises and a prayer before it sets, then do so. [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

The statement, “You will certainly see your Lord” is addressed to the believers. As for “just as you can see this moon,” this is a real, actual seeing because when we see the moon, it is actual sight with our eyes. The comparison here is between the sight of the moon and the sight of Allah, and it is not a comparison between the moon and Allah because there is nothing like or comparable to Allah.

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) would sometimes try to bring the meaning of what he is talking about closer to people by mentioning what they understand of perceptible things.

For example, Abū Razīn al-‘Uqaylī, a companion of the messenger, once asked him, “Messenger of Allah, will each one of us see his Lord, individually on the Day of Resurrection? And what is a sign similar to that among his creation?” He ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم .) said:

يَا أَبَا رَزِينٍ ، أَلَيْسَ كُلُّكُمْ يَرَى الْقَمَرَ لَيْلَةَ الْبَدْرِ مُخْلِيًا بِهِ

Abū Razīn, do you not each individually see the full moon?

Abū Razīn answered, “Yes.” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then told him:

فَاللَّهُ أَعْظَمُ ، فَإِنَّمَا هُوَ خَلْقٌ مِنْ خَلْقِ اللَّهِ ، فَاللَّهُ أَجَلُّ وَأَعْظَمُ 

Allah is even greater. That (the moon) is only a single creation from Allah’s creation, but Allah is even more exalted and greater.

[Recorded by Imām Aḥmad (4/11) and Abū Dāwūd (no. 4731). al-Albānī said it is authentic in “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Abī Dāwūd” (3957)]

As for “you will have no trouble in seeing him” in the earlier ḥadīth, different wordings have come in similar narrations, but the point is that no one will prevent another from seeing Allah due to crowding or anything else. Each person will see him ( (سبحانه وتعالى while he is in the utmost state of tranquility and peace.

As for “So if you can avoid missing a prayer before the sun rises and a prayer before it sets, then do so,” the prayer before sunrise is Fajr, the morning prayer, and before sunset is ‘Aṣr, the afternoon prayer. ‘Aṣr is even better than Fajr because it is the middle prayer which Allah has specifically told us to safeguard after mentioning prayers in general.[167] But Fajr is better than ‘Aṣr from a different perspective in that it is the prayer that is specifically witnessed by the angels as Allah says:

أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا

Keep up prayer from the declining of the sun till the darkness of night and the morning recitation; surely the morning recitation is witnessed. [Sūrah al-Isrā, 17:78]

There also occurs in an authentic ḥadīth:

مَنْ صَلَّى الْبَرْدَيْنِ دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ 

Whoever prayers the two cool ones will enter Paradise.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

The two cool prayers are Fajr and ‘Aṣr.

What practical benefit do we gain from knowing these verses (and ḥadīth) about the believers seeing their Lord in Paradise? There is no greater effect on a person’s behavioral approach and direction in life than this. When anyone realizes that his main objective, the height of his reward is to look upon the face of his Lord, this life and everything in it then becomes almost worthless to him in comparison. Nothing else would compare or be as precious to him as reaching that moment of seeing Allah (عزّ وجلّ). It is the goal of every seeker; it is the final achievement.

If you know that you will one day see your Lord with your own eyes, then by Allah this life would not mean a thing to you.

Everything of this world is nothing in comparison because the sight of Allah’s face is the prize for which the competitors compete, the goal to which the racers race, and it is the greatest triumph of everything.

So if you know this, will you strive to reach it or not?

Footnotes:

[167] This occurs in Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:238:

حَافِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْوُسْطَىٰ وَقُومُوا لِلَّهِ قَانِتِينَ

Attend constantly to prayers and (in particular) to the middle prayer, and stand up truly obedient to Allah.

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Our Lord descends every night to the sky of this world when the last third of the night remains – Shaykh ‘Uthaymīn

Our Lord’s Descent

The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said in an authentic ḥadīth:

يَنْزِلُ رَبُّنَا تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا حِينَ يَبْقَى ثُلُثُ اللَّيْلِ الآخِرُ ، يَقُولُ : مَنْ يَدْعُونِي فَأَسْتَجِيبَ لَهُ ؟ مَنْ يَسْأَلُنِي فَأُعْطِيَهُ ؟ مَنْ يَسْتَغْفِرُنِي ؟ فَأَغْفِرَ لَهُ

Our Lord, the blessed and exalted, descends every night to the sky of this world when the last third of the night remains. He asks, “Who is calling on me so I can answer him? Who is asking me (for anything) so I can give (it to) him? Who is asking for my forgiveness so I can forgive him?”

[Recorded by al-Bukhārī (no. 1145) and Muslim (no. 758)]

This ḥadīth is a proof confirming the descent of Allah to the lowest heaven, the sky of this world.

Some people of knowledge said this ḥadīth has come with many different chains of narration, and the scholars have always agreed that it is one of the famous ḥadīth often mentioned by the scholars of the Sunnah.

The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) says,  “Our Lord descends every night to the sky of this world.” Allah’s descent is real and actual because, as we have mentioned before, anything mentioned with a pronoun that refers back to Allah, it must be attributed to him in a real, actual manner.

So we should believe in it and accept it as truth, saying just as the ḥadīth says, “Our Lord descends to the sky of this world,” to the lowest heaven closest to the earth. There are seven heavens, and Allah (عزّ وجلّ) descends at this time during the night to be near his worshippers just as he does during the afternoon on the Day of ‘Arafah (during the pilgrimage), praising and boasting to the angels about his worshippers. [41]

As for “every night” it is general to include every single night of the year. “when the last third of the night remains“. In Islamic legislation, the night begins at sunset and this is unanimously agreed upon. The difference (among scholars) however comes with regards to when the night ends. Does it end with the appearance of first light or the actual rising of the sun? Apparently, the night, according to legislation, ends with the appearance of first light, and the common, “astral” night ends with sunrise. Allah asks, ” “Who is calling on me…”. This is a question yet really intended as an encouragement and motivation rather than expecting an actual answer. It is like his statement (in the Qur’an):

هَلْ أَدُلُّكُمْ عَلَى تِجَارَةٍ تُنجِيكُم مِّنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ

Shall I guide you to a transaction that will save you from a painful punishment? [Sūrah al-Ṣaf, 61:10]

…calling on me…” saying, “Oh Lord…”

…so I can answer him?” This is the result and reward for doing the first part – calling on Allah.

 “Who is asking me (for anything) so I can give (it to) him?” such as saying, “I ask You for Paradise,” or similar things.

Who is asking for my forgiveness…” saying, “Oh Allah, forgive me,” or “I seek your forgiveness, Allah.”

…so I can forgive him?” Forgiveness means to conceal one’s sins and overlook them.

With this, it should be clear to every person who reads this ḥadīth that what is meant by “descends” here is that Allah Himself descends. We do not even need to say He descends “personally” because as long as the verb is associated with Him, then He himself does it. Still, some scholars did say, “He personally descends.” They resorted to saying that, compelled to adding “personally” only because there are those people who twist the meaning of ḥadīth, claiming that what really descends is the decision and decree of Allah. Others say it is Allah’s mercy that descends, and even others say it is one of his angels that descends.

All of these are incorrect. For one thing, Allah’s decision and decree are constantly descending, and not only during the last third of night as he ( تعالى ) says generally:

يُدَبِّرُ الأَمْرَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ إِلَى الأَرْضِ ثُمَّ يَعْرُجُ إِلَيْهِ

He arranges each matter from the heaven to the earth then it will ascend to him.[Sūrah al-Sajdah, 32:5]

And he says:

وَإِلَيْهِ يُرْجَعُ الأَمْرُ كُلُّهُ

And to him the matter will return, all of it.[Sūrah Hūd, 11:123]

As for their statement that it is really only the mercy of Allah that descends to the worldly sky when the last third of night remains, Allah is above such deficiencies and insults! Mercy does not descend except at that time?! Allah ( تعالى ) says:

وَمَا بِكُم مِّن نِّعْمَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ

And whatever you have of blessing, it is from Allah. [Sūrah al-Naḥl, 16:53]

Every blessing and favor is from Allah, and they are the results of his mercy; they can be witnessed at all times.

We could then ask: What good does it do for us if mercy descends only down to the sky (and no further)?

As for those who say it is really only an angel that descends, we ask: Does it make sense that an angel would say, “Who is calling on me so I can answer him? Who is asking me for anything…”?!

So it is clear that these claims are distorted meanings, they are incorrect and proven so by the ḥadīth itself.

By Allah, such people who claim these things do not know more about Allah than Allah’s messenger, they are certainly not more sincere in advising the servants of Allah than his messenger, and they are not more precise and eloquent in speech than the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم).

Some people also ask: How can you say Allah descends? If He does so, then what about His being high above everything? What about His being over the throne? If He descends, this would involve movement and relocation. Also, if He descends, this would be an action that happens and anything that happens must have a cause.

To this we say: This is baseless and pointless arguing. There is no reason not to say that Allah’s descent is real. Do you know what Allah deserves (of characteristics and descriptions) more than the companions of the messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)?

The companions never made any of these false assumptions and conjectures. Instead they listened, they believed, they accepted, and they trusted it as absolute truth. Yet now, you people come and challenge the meanings, arguing for the sake of falsehood, asking, “How? Why?”

We say Allah descends, and we do not delve into asking, “What about his throne? Does this mean he leaves it or not?”

As for his being above, we say he descends and yet he is still high above his creation because “descent” here does not necessarily mean that he is surrounded by the lowest heaven to which he descends while the other heavens are above him. Rather, he is not contained within anything of his creation.

So Allah actually descends in a real manner while he is actually high above in a real manner, and nothing is similar to him.

Rising over the throne is an action, not a permanent, personal characteristic. We should not, as far as I am concerned, begin asking whether he leaves the throne or not. Instead, we should keep silent about it just as the companions did, may Allah be pleased with them all.

However, the scholars of those who follow the Sunnah take one of three positions regarding the issue of whether Allah leaves his throne during his descent. Some say he leaves the throne, others say he does not leave it, and others say we should remain silent and not delve into the issue.

Ibn Taymiyyah says in his al-Risālah al-‘Arshiyyah that Allah does not leave the throne (during his descent) because the evidence confirming he is on the throne is strong and explicit just as this ḥadīth is also a strong, explicit proof of his descent. The actions and characteristics of Allah (عزّ وجلّ) are not to be measured by those of creation. So we should leave the texts of his being on the throne confirmed as they are just as we leave the text of his descent confirmed as it is. We say he is established on his throne and yet he still descends to the sky of this world; Allah alone knows the “how” of it. Our minds are too deficient and incomplete to know everything about Allah, the Most High.

The second position is that Allah leaves the throne during his descent and the third position is to remain silent – in other words, not to say whether he does or does not leave his throne.

Some people more recently bring up yet another point of confusion. Since the earth is round and revolves around the sun, they ask how Allah can descend during the last third of the night when the last third is a constant time. For example, when the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia leaves this time, Europe and surrounding countries enter it. So is Allah constantly and forever descending?

In reply, we say: First and foremost, you should simply believe and accept that Allah descends during this specific time. If you do believe in it, then there is nothing else required from you. Do not go into asking, “How?” Instead, accept that when the last third of night remains in Saudi Arabia, then Allah descends, and when it remains in America, Allah also descends. And His descent finishes when the light of morning appears in any place, respective to it.

To conclude, our position is that we believe and accept everything that has come to us from Allah’s messenger, Muhammad ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) in that Allah comes down to the sky of this world, the lowest heaven, when the last third of night remains and he asks, “Who is calling on me so I can answer him? Who is asking me (for anything) so I can give (it to) him? Who is asking for my forgiveness so I can forgive him?”

Beneficial Points We Learn from This Ḥadīth

This amazing ḥadīth:

  • Confirms that Allah is high above creation based on the words, “Our Lord descends.”
  • Confirms that Allah does actions by his choice and will—these are known as “action” characteristics (see footnote no. 7 of the main article)—based on the statement, “Our Lord descends…when the last third of the night remains..”
  • Confirms that Allah speaks based on the statement, “He asks…
  • Confirms Allah’s kindness and generosity based on his questions, “Who is calling on me…? Who is asking me…? Who is asking for my forgiveness…?”

People should take advantage of this part of the night, asking for whatever they need from Allah, calling upon him, and asking his forgiveness as he asks, “Who is calling on me…? Who is asking me…? Who is asking for my forgiveness…?” And again, the word “Who” here is presented in the form of a question but is actually intended to motivate rather than ask.

So we should take advantage of this chance because nothing that has passed of your life is in your favor except the times you spent in obedience to Allah. Perhaps more days may pass you by, but when death comes it will be as if you were only born that minute. At that time, everything of one’s past life will mean nothing to him.

Footnotes:

[41] The ḥadīth about this is recorded by Muslim (no. 1348). The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

مَا مِنْ يَوْمٍ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ أَنْ يُعْتِقَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ عَبْدًا مِنْ النَّارِ مِنْ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ وَإِنَّهُ لَيَدْنُو ثُمَّ يُبَاهِي بِهِمْ الْمَلائِكَةَ ، فَيَقُولُ :  مَا  أَرَادَ هَؤُلاءِ

There is no day on which Allah frees more servants from the fire than the Day of ‘Arafah. He comes near (them) and praises and boasts about them to the angels, saying, “What do these want?” (or “Anything they want!”)

Posted from the appendix of the article : In the Company of Allaah: Confirming Allaah is with His Creation – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Day of Resurrection: The Bridge (As-Ṣirāṭ) – Shaykh Uthaymeen

The Day of Resurrection: The Tenth Event

The Bridge

The Arabic word صِرَاط (Ṣirāṭ) is the bridge stretched over Hell over which people will cross to get to Paradise. About it, Allah ( تعالى ) says:

وَإِن مِّنكُمْ إِلَّا وَارِدُهَا ۚ كَانَ عَلَىٰ رَبِّكَ حَتْمًا مَّقْضِيًّا

And there is none of you except that he will pass over it. This is with your Lord a decree which must be accomplished.[Sūrah Maryam, 19:71]

‘Abdullāh Ibn Mas’ūd, Qatādah, and Zayd Ibn Aslam explained this verse to mean the crossing of the bridge. Others, including Ibn ‘Abbās, explained that it describes those who will enter the fire but will be saved from it.

The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

ثُمَّ يُضْرَبُ الْجِسْرُ عَلَى جَهَنَّمَ ، وَتَحِلُّ الشَّفَاعَةُ وَيَقُولُونَ : اللَّهُمَّ سَلِّمْ سَلِّمْ

Then the bridge will be placed over Hell and intercession will be permitted. They (the messengers) will say, “Oh Allah, save (us), save (us).” [113]

Scholars have differed as to the exact nature of this bridge. Some say it is a wide path over which people will cross according to the deeds they did in this life. They say it is wide because the word “bridge,” taken at face value, means just that and because Allah’s messenger ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) described it as being slippery and elusive. They understood that the bridge must be somewhat wide because a very narrow path would not be described with the specific Arabic words (slippery and elusive) that the prophet used. When asked about the bridge, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

مَدْحَضَةٌ مَزِلَّةٌ عَلَيْهِ خَطَاطِيفُ وَكَلالِيبُ وَحَسَكَةٌ مُفَلْطَحَةٌ لَهَا شَوْكَةٌ عُقَيْفَاءُ

It is slippery, elusive with hooks and grapples, and broad spikes and curved thorns.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

And in the ḥadīth narrated by Abū Hurayrah, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

وَبِهِ كَلالِيبُ مِثْلُ شَوْكِ السَّعْدَانِ غَيْرَ أَنَّهَا لا يَعْلَمُ قَدْرَ عِظَمِهَا إِلاَّ اللَّهُ فَتَخْطَفُ النَّاسَ بِأَعْمَالِهِمْ

It has hooks like the thorns of al-Sa’dān (a place in Najd) except that no one but Allah knows the huge size of them. They will seize people according to their deeds.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

Other scholars said no, it is actually a very narrow bridge just as has come in a ḥadīth narrated by Abū Sa’īd al-Khudrī ( رضي الله عنه ) in which he said:

بَلَغَنِي أَنَّ الصِّرَاطَ أَحَدُّ مِنَ السَّيْفِ وَأَدَقُّ مِنَ الشَّعْرَةِ

He informed (or: It has reached) me that the bridge is sharper that a sword and thinner than a hair.[116]

Here we come to a question: How is it possible for people to actually pass over a bridge like this? The answer is that the events and things to occur in the hereafter cannot be compared to or measured based solely on what we know of things of this life. Allah is capable of anything, and we do not know exactly how people will cross it. Will they cross in groups or one at a time? Allah knows best.

But regarding this issue—whether the bridge is wide or narrow—it is not incumbent on people to accept one position over the other because both groups of scholars have strong points.

Crossing the Bridge

No one will cross the bridge except the believers. As for the disbelievers, they will be taken straight to the fire. The believers will cross it according to their deeds based on the ḥadīth narrated by Abū Sa’īd al-Khudrī ( رضي الله عنه ) that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَيَمُرُّ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ كَطَرْفِ الْعَيْنِ وَكَالْبَرْقِ وَكَالرِّيحِ وَكَالطَّيْرِ وَكَأَجَاوِيدِ الْخَيْلِ  وَالرِّكَابِ فَنَاجٍ مُسَلَّمٌ وَمَخْدُوشٌ مُرْسَلٌ وَمَكْدُوسٌ فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ

The believers will cross: some as fast as the blink of an eye, some like lightning, some like the wind, some like a bird, some like horses, and some as fast as camels. Some people will be safe a secure, some will be scratched but delivered, and others will fall into the fire of Hell.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

The speed at which a person crosses is obviously not by his choice. If it were, naturally everyone would want to cross quickly. Rather, the passage across is according to the speed at which he used to accept religious teachings in this life. So whoever was always quick to accept the teachings of the messengers, he will pass quickly over the bridge. Whoever was slow to accept them will pass slowly over the bridge. It is a suitable reward and the reward is according to the deed.

Some people will be seized by hooks that are on the bridge and, again, this will only be according to their deeds. As for the prophet’s statement, “others will fall into the fire of Hell,” it is understood that the fire into which sinners will fall is the same fire the disbelievers will be in. However, these believing sinners will still not experience the same punishment as disbelievers will. Some scholars have even said that this fire will be cool and safe for them just as the fire was cool and peaceful on Prophet Abraham. [118]

However, what is more apparent is that this is not the case; the fire will likely be hot and painful but not as intense as the heat the disbelievers in Allah will experience. As a side note, the points on the body upon which believers prostrate during prayer will never be touched by the fire just as it has been reported by the prophet in “Ṣaḥīḥ al- Bukhārī” and “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim.” [119] The places of prostration are those that touch the ground: the forehead, nose, palms, knees, and the toes.

In a ḥadīth in “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim,” the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) also said:

تَجْرِي بِهِمْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ وَنَبِيُّكُمْ قَائِمٌ عَلَى الصِّرَاطِ يَقُولُ : رَبِّ سَلِّمْ سَلِّمْ حَتَّى تَعْجِزَ أَعْمَالُ الْعِبَادِ حَتَّى يَجِيءَ الرَّجُلُ فَلا يَسْتَطِيعُ السَّيْرَ إِلاَّ زَحْفًا

Their deeds will carry them (over the bridge) while your prophet is standing on the bridge saying, “My Lord, save (them), save (them).” Some servants’ deeds will hinder them so much that a man will be unable to pass over except while crawling. [Recorded by Muslim.]

And in “Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī:”

حَتَّى يَمُرَّ آخِرُهُمْ يُسْحَبُ سَحْبًا

…until the last of them crosses being dragged.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī]

The first of the prophets to cross the bridge will be Muhammad ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and the first of all religious nations will be his nation as the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

فَأَكُونُ أَنَا وَأُمَّتِي أَوَّلَ مَنْ يُجِيزُهَا ، وَلا يَتَكَلَّمُ يَوْمَئِذٍ إِلاَّ الرُّسُلُ ، وَدَعْوَى الرُّسُلِ يَوْمَئِذٍ : اللَّهُمَّ سَلِّمْ سَلِّمْ

I and my nation will be the first to be allowed to cross it. On that day, no one will speak except the messengers and the prayer of the messengers that day will be, “Oh Allah, save (us), save (us)! [Recorded by al-Bukhārī]

Ibn Taymiyyah says, “After they cross, they will stop at a bridge/platform between Paradise and the fire and they will settle any unresolved issues between themselves.”

This area is a small bridge or platform, and this settling of disagreements between them is not the major settling of affairs and retribution that occurs between people on the Day of Resurrection. Instead, this particular reconciliation is to resolve any bad feelings, grudges, or anger that may still remain in people’s hearts. So in a sense, this is a period of purification because the major settling of disagreements does not necessarily remove all feelings of resentment within people’s hearts.

So this bridge or platform between Paradise and Hell is to purify the hearts so that the believers enter Paradise having no bad feelings for one another as Allah ( تعالى ) says:

ادْخُلُوهَا بِسَلَامٍ آمِنِينَ وَنَزَعْنَا مَا فِي صُدُورِهِم مِّنْ غِلٍّ إِخْوَانًا عَلَىٰ سُرُرٍ مُّتَقَابِلِينَ

Enter it with peace, safe and secure. And we will remove whatever is in their breasts of resentment, (so they will become) brothers, on thrones facing each other.[Sūrah al-Ḥijr, 15:46-47]

About this bridge before Paradise, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

إِذَا خَلَصَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ مِنَ النَّارِ ، حُبِسُوا بِقَنْطَرَةٍ بَيْنَ الْجَنَّةِ وَالنَّارِ ، فَيَتَقَاصُّونَ مَظَالِمَ كَانَتْ بَيْنَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا ، حَتَّى إِذَا نُقُّوا وَهُذِّبُوا أُذِنَ لَهُمْ بِدُخُولِ الْجَنَّةِ ،فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ لأَحَدُهُمْ بِمَسْكَنِهِ فِي الْجَنَّةِ أَدَلُّ بِمَنْزِلِهِ كَانَ فِي الدُّنْيَا

When the believers are delivered from the fire, they will be detained at the bridge between Paradise and the fire to settle whatever injustices may have occurred between them in life. When they have all become refined and purified, entrance into Paradise will be granted. And I swear by the one in whose hand is Muhammad’s life, each individual will recognize his home in Paradise even more so than he does his home in this life. [Recorded by al-Bukhārī]

Footnotes

[113] Recorded by by al-Bukhārī and Muslim. The wording of Muslim is above; the wording of al-Bukhārī is:

يُضْرَبُ جِسْرُ جَهَنَّمَ ، فَأَكُونُ أَوَّلَ مَنْ يُجِيزُ ، وَدُعَاءُ الرُّسُلِ يَوْمَئِذٍ : اللَّهُمَّ سَلِّمْ سَلِّمْ

The bridge of Hell will be placed and I will be the first to be permitted. The supplication of the messengers that day will be, “Oh Allah, save (us), save (us).”

[116] Recorded by Imām Aḥmad in a marfū’ form meaning some ḥadīth scholars accept it as being “raised” to the status of an actual statement of the prophet himself ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ). Imam Muslim also mentioned it in his authentic collection as a comment to another ḥadīth.

[118] This is when the disbelieving people attempted to burn Abraham for destroying their idols. About this, Allah says in Sūrah al-Anbiyā, 21:68-69:

قَالُوا حَرِّقُوهُ وَانصُرُوا آلِهَتَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ فَاعِلِينَ قُلْنَا يَا نَارُ كُونِي بَرْدًا وَسَلَامًا عَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ

They said, “Burn him and support your gods if you are to act.” We (Allah) said, “Fire, be coolness and safety upon Abraham.”

[119] The ḥadīth, recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim, is:

إِذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ رَحْمَةَ مَنْ أَرَادَ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ أَمَرَ اللَّهُ الْمَلائِكَةَ أَنْ يُخْرِجُوا مَنْ كَانَ يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ فَيُخْرِجُونَهُمْ وَيَعْرِفُونَهُمْ بِآثَارِ السُّجُودِ وَحَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَلَى النَّارِ أَنْ تَأْكُلَ أَثَرَ السُّجُودِ

When Allah wants mercy for someone from the people of the fire, he commands the angels to take out whoever used to worship Allah. So they (the angels) will recognize them by the marks of prostration because Allah has forbidden the fire from destroying the marks of prostration.

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Day of Resurrection: The Scales are Placed & Deeds are Weighed – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

The Sixth Event

The Scales are Placed & Deeds are Weighed

In one of the verses that proves the scales will be setup on the Day of Resurrection, Allah says:

فَمَن ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

And those whose scales are heavy (with good deeds), it is they who will be successful.[Sūrah al-Muminūn, 23:102]

The verse contains a conditional clause; the condition is “those whose scales are heavy“, and if that condition is met, the consequence is “it is they who will be successful.” By “scales are heavy“, what is meant is that one’s good deeds outweigh his bad. “Successful” here describes an individual who achieves what he hopes for and is saved from what he fears. So he is given safety from what he hates and rewarded with what he loves. Allah also says:

وَمَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ فِي جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدُونَ

But those whose scales are light, it is they who have lost their souls. In Hell they will abide forever. [Sūrah al-Muminūn, 23:103]

Those who do not believe in Allah will “have lost their souls.” They will lose themselves, their families, and the possessions they hold dear:

قُلْ إِنَّ الْخَاسِرِينَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَهْلِيهِمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۖ أَلا ذَلِكَ هُوَ الْخُسْرَانُ الْمُبِينُ

Say: Indeed, the losers are the ones who will lose themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection. Unquestionably, that is the clear loss.[Sūrah al-Zumar, 39:15]

But as for a believer in Allah whose behavior was righteous, he will have succeeded, gaining his soul, his family, and his possessions, having benefited from all of them. People who do not believe in Allah (or disbelieve in Allah’s “oneness”) will lose themselves because they will have not benefited from their very existence in life. In fact such people, despite what they presumably achieve in life, actually achieve no true benefit and gain only harm (in the hereafter). In a sense, they even lose their wealth in life as they gain no real benefit from it. Even when they may share it with others among creation, such charity does not benefit the givers. Allah (تعالى) says:

وَمَا مَنَعَهُمْ أَن تُقْبَلَ مِنْهُمْ نَفَقَاتُهُمْ إِلَّا أَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِاللَّهِ وَبِرَسُولِهِ

And nothing prevents their spending from being accepted from them except that they disbelieved in Allah and in his messenger.[Sūrah al-Tawbah, 9:54]

They also lose their families because their families will either be in the fire with them, or if their families are in Paradise, such disbelievers will still have lost them because they themselves will be in the fire. Any individual who dies while disbelieving in Allah will never again enjoy the company of his family. Such enjoyment will be locked out from a disbeliever as soon as he is locked in his coffin, and each one will imagine no one else is receiving a harsher punishment than he.

As for “whose scales are light“, this means his bad deeds will outweigh his good or he will have no good deeds whatsoever. This is the meaning if we accept the position that disbelievers will have their deeds weighed which seems apparent from the verse in Sūrah al-Muminūn, 23:103 and others like it. And this position is one of the two held by religious scholars. The other opinion, that disbelievers will not have their deeds weighed, is the second position and it is based on the verses:

قُلْ هَلْ نُنَبِّئُكُم بِالْأَخْسَرِينَ أَعْمَالً الَّذِينَ ضَلَّ سَعْيُهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ يُحْسِنُونَ صُنْعًا أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ وَلِقَائِهِ فَحَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فَلَا نُقِيمُ لَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَزْنًا

Say: Shall we inform you of the greatest losers as to (their) deeds? Those whose effort is lost in the worldly life while they thought they were doing good work. Those are the ones who disbelieve in the verses of their Lord and in (their) meeting him. So their deeds have become worthless, and we will not assign to them on the Day of Resurrection any weight. [Sūrah al-Kahf, 18:103-105]

As for the two positions, whether disbelievers will have their deeds weighed or not, Allah knows best which is correct.

The Arabic word for scales used in some verses, ( مَوَازِيْن mawāzīn), has been reported in other texts in both the singular and plural forms. As for the plural form, Allah (تعالى) says:

وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَازِينَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فَلَا تُظْلَمُ نَفْسٌ شَيْئًا

And we place the scales of justice for the Day of Resurrection, so no soul will be treated unjustly in any way. [Sūrah al-Anbiyā, 21:47]

And:

وَالْوَزْنُ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْحَقُّ ۚ فَمَن ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ وَمَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُم بِمَا كَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يَظْلِمُونَ

And the weighing (of deeds) that day will be true. So those whose scales are heavy, it is they who will be successful. And those whose scales are light, they will lose themselves for what injustice they were doing toward our verses. [Sūrah al-‘Arāf, 7:8-9]

As for the singular form, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

كَلِمَتَانِ حَبِيبَتَانِ إِلَى الرَّحْمَنِ خَفِيفَتَانِ عَلَى اللِّسَانِ ثَقِيلَتَانِ فِي الْمِيزَانِ : سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ الْعَظِيمِ

There are two statements beloved to the Most Merciful, light on the tongue but heavy on the scale: “Glorified is Allah and all thanks are for him,” and “Glorified is Allah the greatest.” [59]

In this ḥadīth, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) mentioned the singular form, ( مِيْزَان mīzān), “scale.” So how do we understand the Quran verses which mention “scales” and this ḥadīth which mentions “scale?”

Perhaps it is mentioned in the plural form only as a way of speaking about what is weighed – deeds – which is plural. Then it is mentioned in the ḥadīth in singular form because the scale is actually one. It could also be because perhaps there is one scale for each nation or even that the prophet meant “heavy in weight” when he said, “heavy on the scale.”

However, what is apparent—and Allah knows best—is that the scale is actually one but is mentioned in plural form with regards to what is weighed (i.e., deeds). This linguistic usage can also be seen in the verse:

… فَمَن ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ

So those whose scales are heavy…[Sūrah al-A’rāf, 7:8]

In this verse, it is not actually the scales that are heavy, rather it is a form of Arabic speech in which one word (e.g. scales) is used to mean another word relating to the former (e.g. deeds).

There is a related issue but one into which people have not delved: Will there be a single scale setup for all nations, all mankind, or will there be one for each nation (e.g., one for Muhammad’s nation, one for Jesus’ nation, one for Moses’, etc.)? This question may be relevant because some texts indicate the rewards for deeds vary for different nations. [61]

These texts, taken at face value, are apparent in that the scale will be real and tangible as this is exactly how the word “scale” is commonly understood. This is because the principle of understanding religious texts reported in the Quran or Sunnah is that they are to be understood upon the commonly known, real and actual meanings of their words unless there is clear evidence that they should be understood differently (i.e. metaphorically). The commonly understood meaning to all Muslim teachers, writers, and lecturers ever since the Quran was revealed up until today is that the scale is real. However, some misguided sects have differed in understanding. For example, those who incorrectly believe any texts can be figurative, having metaphorical meanings instead of what the words actually mean, they claim that there will not be a real scale setup on the Day of Resurrection. They insist that there is really no need for an actual scale to weigh actions because Allah already knows the deeds of his servants and their worth. Instead, they claim that “scale” is allegorical and it really means Allah’s “fairness” or “justice.”

No doubt, the claim of such people is incorrect because it contradicts the outward, apparent meaning of the word and the consensus of all the righteous predecessors who understood the word to mean what the word actually means – scale. If we say the meaning is figurative and it really means fairness or justice, then there is little meaning in the several texts which mention “scale,” they would simply say “justice” (as other texts do) because the characteristics of fairness and justice are closer to and speak more directly to people’s souls than the word “scale” anyway. For this reason, Allah says:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالْإِحْسَانِ

Indeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct.[Sūrah al-Naḥl, 16:90]

The correct understanding is to take the word “scale” on its intended, actual meaning. We say that the correct understanding is the same one revealed – scale. The “Ḥadīth of the Card” (to be mentioned soon) also proves that it is a real, actual scale with weighing pans. This ḥadīth mentions that scrolls of bad deeds placed in one pan will be lighter than a single card placed in the other pan which will be heavier. So it is clear, what is correct is what was revealed – the scale is real.

The actions of the servants will then be weighed. And with that, there are two points of discussion.

The first point is this: How will deeds be weighed when it is known that a deed is simply a description or action of the one who performed it, and a deed has no physical form? The answer is that Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) will make these deeds into actual, physical forms. This should not be unbelievably strange when considering the capability of Allah (عزّ وجل). As an analogy, death will be made into the form of a ram on the Day of Judgment and it will be slaughtered between Paradise and Hell [63] while death now is simply a concept and not a physical form. And to clarify a side-note, the Angel of Death is not the one slaughtered here; it is actually death that Allah (تعالى) will make into a physical form everyone will witness and see. Similarly, Allah (عزّ وجل)جلwill turn deeds into actual forms that will be actually weighed with this actual scale.

The second point: Deeds will actually be weighed, both good and bad. This is the apparent understanding as Allah (تعالى) says in the Quran:

يَوْمَئِذٍ يَصْدُرُ النَّاسُ أَشْتَاتًا لِّيُرَوْا أَعْمَالَهُمْ  فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ

That day, people will depart, separated (into categories) to be shown their deeds. So whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it, and whoever does an atom’s weight of evil will see it. [Sūrah al-Zalzalah, 99:6-8]

So it is clear that deeds will really be weighed whether they are good or bad. Also, as has previously been mentioned, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)said, “There are two statements beloved to the Most Merciful, light on the tongue but heavy on the scale…” This ḥadīth is also clear, even explicit, in that actions will actually be given form and weight and then weighed, and there are several other texts that prove this.

However, there are other reliable texts that indicate that it may not be the actual deeds weighed but rather the records of deeds. An example of this type is the “Ḥadīth of the Card” in which the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

« إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَيُخَلِّصُ رَجُلاً مِنْ أُمَّتِي عَلَى رُءُوسِ الْخَلائِقِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فَيَنْشُرُ عَلَيْهِ تِسْعَةً وَتِسْعِينَ سِجِلاًّ كُلُّ سِجِلٍّ مِثْلُ مَدِّ الْبَصَرِ ثُمَّ يَقُولُ.: أَتُنْكِرُ مِنْ هَذَا شَيْئًا ؟ أَظَلَمَكَ كَتَبَتِي الْحَافِظُونَ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : لا يَا رَبِّ ، فَيَقُولُ : أَفَلَكَ عُذْرٌ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : لا يَا رَبِّ ، فَيَقُولُ : بَلَى إِنَّ لَكَ عِنْدَنَا حَسَنَةً فَإِنَّهُ لا ظُلْمَ عَلَيْكَ الْيَوْمَ ، فَتَخْرُجُ بِطَاقَةٌ فِيهَا أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ، فَيَقُولُ : احْضُرْ وَزْنَكَ ، فَيَقُولُ : يَا رَبِّ مَا هَذِهِ الْبِطَاقَةُ مَعَ هَذِهِ السِّجِلاَّتِ ؟ فَقَالَ : إِنَّكَ لا تُظْلَمُ ، قَالَ : فَتُوضَعُ السِّجِلاَّتُ فِي كَفَّةٍ وَالْبِطَاقَةُ فِي كَفَّةٍ فَطَاشَتْ السِّجِلاَّتُ وَثَقُلَتْ الْبِطَاقَةُ فَلا يَثْقُلُ مَعَ اسْمِ اللَّهِ شَيْءٌ »

Allah will single out a man from my nation at the head of all the creations on the Day of Resurrection. Ninety-nine scrolls (of bad deeds) will be spread out before him, each as far as the eye can see. He will be asked, “Do you deny doing any of this? Did my recording, guardian angels wrong you in any way?” The man will answer, “No, my Lord.” He will be asked, “Do you have any excuse?” to which he will again reply, “No, my Lord.” It will then be said, “Rather you certainly do have a good deed with us and there will be no injustice on you today.” A card will then be brought out, written on it: “I testify there is nothing deserving of worship but Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is his servant and messenger.” The man will be told, “Present yourself for your weighing.” He will ask, “My Lord, what is this card compared to all these scrolls (of bad deeds)?” He (Allah) will tell him, “You will certainly not be wronged.” So the scrolls will be placed in one pan (of the scale) and the card in the other, and the scrolls will be lighter and the card heavier as nothing is heavier than the name of Allah.

[Recorded by al-Tirmidhī, Ibn Mājah, and Aḥmad. al-Albānī said it is authentic in his “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan al-Tirmidhī” (no.2127)]

From this ḥadīth, it is apparent that it is the written records of deeds weighed instead of the deeds themselves.

There are other texts that indicate what is weighed is the person who does the deeds. For example, Allah says:

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ وَلِقَائِهِ فَحَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فَلَا نُقِيمُ لَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَزْنًا

Those are the ones who disbelieve in the verses of their Lord and in (their) meeting with him, so their deeds have become worthless. And we will not assign to them on the Day of Resurrection any weight.[Sūrah al-Kahf, 18:105]

But it has been said that the meaning of “weight” in the verse could mean “significance” or “importance” instead of weight. Another indication that it may be the person himself that is weighed is the ḥadīth of Abū Hurayrah ( رضي الله عنه)in which he narrated that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

« إِنَّهُ لَيَأْتِي الرَّجُلُ الْعَظِيمُ السَّمِينُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لا يَزِنُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ جَنَاحَ بَعُوضَةٍ »

A huge, fat man will be brought on the Day of Resurrection and he will not weigh in the sight of Allah even as much as a gnat’s wing [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

The understanding that it is the person who will be weighed is also indicated by the ḥadīth of Ibn Mas’ūd ( رضي الله عنه)when he was once trying to break a siwāk branch from a tree. He used to have thin legs and the wind blew and started to move him. Because of this, other companions ( رضي الله عنه)مbegan laughing at him. So the prophet ( صلّى الله ) عليه وسلّمasked them, “What are you laughing at?” They answered, “At the skinniness of his legs.”

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)then said:

« وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ ، لَهُمَا أَثْقَلُ فِي الْمِيزَانِ مِنْ أُحُدٍ »

I swear by the one in who hand is my soul (Allah), they (his legs) are both heavier in the scale than Mt. Uḥud. [Recorded by Aḥmad (1/421) and al-Albānī classed its chain of narrators as ḥasan in “Sharḥ al-A’qīdah al-Ṭaḥāwiyyah.]

So to conclude, we have texts indicating three things that will be weighed in the scale: the deeds, the records of deeds, and the person who performed the deeds.

Some scholars said the way to understand these together is simply that some people will have their deeds weighed, some will have their records of deeds weighed, and others will be weighed themselves. Other scholars said that when texts mention deeds being weighed, what is really meant is the records of deeds, and as for a person being weighed, this is specific to certain individuals.

Other scholars have combined these texts with the understanding that in reality only the records of deeds are weighed, but they will be heavy or light based on the merit and greatness of the deeds written in them. So in essence, it is as if the deeds are weighed. But after reflecting on the texts relevant to this issue, we find most of them indicate that it is the deeds that are weighed. Yet some people will be exclusively chosen to have their records of deeds weighed or even the individual himself. As far as the ḥadīth of Ibn Mas’ūd or the “Ḥadīth of the Card,” it could be that these are specific situations for which Allah chooses whomever he wants from his servants.

So the scales are placed, people’s deeds are weighed, then the books of deeds are distributed.

Footnotes:

[59] Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim. The transliteration of these two statements:

سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ الْعَظِيمِ

SubḥānAllahi al-‘Aẓīm SubḥānAllahi wa biḥamdihi
Glorified is Allah the greatest Glorified is Allah and all thanks are for him

Another ḥadīth which mentions “scale” in the singular form and indicates the greatness of this scale is classified as authentic by al-Albānī in “Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah” (no. 941). In it, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

« يُوْضَعُ المِيْزَانُ يَوْمَ القِيَامَةِ فَلَوْ وَزِنَ فِيْهِ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ لَوَسَعَتْ فَتَقُوْلُ المَلائِكَةُ : يَا رَبّ لِمَنْ يَزِنَ هَذَا ؟ فَيَقُوْلُ اللهُ تَعَالَى : لِمَنْ شِئْتُ مِنْ خَلْقِي . فَتَقُوْلُ المَلائِكَةُ : سُبْحَانَكَمَا عَبَدْنَاكَ حَقَّ عِبَادَتِكَ . وَيُوْضَعُ الصِّرَاطُ مِثْلَ حَدِّ المُوْسَى فَتَقُوْلُ المَلائِكَةُ : مَنْ تَجِيْزُ عَلَى هَذَا ؟ فَيَقُوْلُ : مَنْ شِئْتُ مِنْ خَلْقِيْ . فَيَقُوْلُوْنَ : سُبْحَانَكَمَا عَبَدْنَاكَ حَقَّ عِبَادَتِكَ »

The scale will be set up on the Day of Resurrection, and if the heavens and the earth were to be weighed in it, it would be sufficient to hold them. The angels will ask, “Oh Lord, who is this for?” Allah will reply, “For whomsoever I want among my creations.” The angels will then say, “Glory to you, we have not worshipped you as you rightfully deserve to be worshipped.” And the bridge will be placed (over Hell) and it will be like the edge of a razor. The angels will ask Allah, “Who will be saved from this?” to which Allah will again reply, “Whomsoever I want among my creations.” They will say, “Glory to you, we have not worshipped you as you rightfully deserve to be worshipped.”

[61] One example of such texts is the ḥadīth recorded by al-Bukhārī in which the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)said comparing Muslims to Jews and Christians:

« مَثَلُكُمْ وَمَثَلُ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابَيْنِ كَمَثَلِ رَجُلٍ اسْتَأْجَرَ أُجَرَاءَ فَقَالَ : مَنْ يَعْمَلُ لِي مِنْ غُدْوَةَ إِلَى نِصْفِ النَّهَارِ عَلَى قِيرَاطٍ ؟ فَعَمِلَتْ الْيَهُودُ ، ثُمَّ قَالَ : مَنْ يَعْمَلُ لِي مِنْ نِصْفِ النَّهَارِ إِلَى صَلاةِ الْعَصْرِ عَلَى قِيرَاطٍ ؟ فَعَمِلَتْ النَّصَارَى ، ثُمَّ قَالَ : مَنْ يَعْمَلُ لِي مِنْ الْعَصْرِ إِلَى أَنْ تَغِيبَ الشَّمْسُ عَلَى قِيرَاطَيْنِ ؟ فَأَنْتُمْ هُمْ ، فَغَضِبَتْ الْيَهُودُ وَالنَّصَارَى فَقَالُوا : مَا لَنَا أَكْثَرَ عَمَلاً وَأَقَلَّ عَطَاءً ؟ قَالَ : هَلْ نَقَصْتُكُمْ مِنْ حَقِّكُمْ ؟ قَالُوا : لا ، قَالَ : فَذَلِكَ فَضْلِي أُوتِيهِ مَنْ أَشَاءُ »

Your example compared to those of the two former scriptures can be likened to a man who hires a number of laborers. He asks, “Who will work for me from morning until midday for a certain sum?” The Jews are the ones to work at this time. Then he asks, “Who will work from midday to the late afternoon for the same sum?” The Christians are the ones to work at this time. Then he asks, “Who will work from the late afternoon until sunset for double that sum?” You (Muslims) are these people. This angers the Jews and Christians who ask, “Why did we have to work more only to receive less?” He answers, “Have you been cheated of any of your rights?” They answer, “No.” He then says, “This is my favor that I give to whom I please.”

[63] The proof is the ḥadīth recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim in which the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)said:

« يُؤْتَى بِالْمَوْتِ كَهَيْئَةِ كَبْشٍ أَمْلَحَ فَيُنَادِي مُنَادٍ : يَا أَهْلَ الْجَنَّةِ ، فَيَشْرَئِبُّونَ وَيَنْظُرُونَ ، فَيَقُولُ : هَلْ تَعْرِفُونَ هَذَا ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ : نَعَمْ هَذَا الْمَوْتُ ، وَكُلُّهُمْ قَدْ رَآهُ ، ثُمَّ يُنَادِي : يَا أَهْلَ النَّارِ ، فَيَشْرَئِبُّونَ وَيَنْظُرُونَ ، فَيَقُولُ : هَلْ تَعْرِفُونَ هَذَا ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ : نَعَمْ هَذَا الْمَوْتُ ، وَكُلُّهُمْ قَدْ رَآهُ ، فَيُذْبَحُ ، ثُمَّ يَقُولُ : يَا أَهْلَ الْجَنَّةِ خُلُودٌ فَلا مَوْتَ وَيَا أَهْلَ النَّارِ خُلُودٌ فَلا مَوْتَ ، ثُمَّ قَرَأَ : “وَأَنْذِرْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْحَسْرَةِ إِذْ قُضِيَ الأَمْرُ وَهُمْ فِي غَفْلَةٍ “وَهَؤُلاءِ فِي غَفْلَةٍ أَهْلُ الدُّنْيَا “وَهُمْ لا يُؤْمِنُونَ »”

Death will be brought in the form of a black and white ram and a caller will call out, “Oh people of Paradise!” and they will stretch their necks and look. They will be asked, “Do you know what this is?” to which they will answer, “Yes, that is death,” and each of them will be able to see it. Then it will be called out, “Oh people of Hell!” They will also stretch out their necks and look. They will be asked, “Do you know what this is?” and they too will say, “Yes, it is death,” and each of them will see it. It will then be slaughtered. Then it will be said, “Oh people of Paradise, eternity and no death. Oh people of Hell, eternity and no death.”

Then the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)recited:

وَأَنْذِرْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْحَسْرَةِ إِذْ قُضِيَ الأَمْرُ وَهُمْ فِي غَفْلَةٍ

And warn them of the Day of Regret, when the matter will be concluded. And yet they are in heedlessness.

He then said, “And these people are headless, people of this life,” and finished the verse:

وَهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

And they do not believe. [Sūrah Maryam, 19:39]

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Sunan an-Nasaaee & Imam an-Nasaaee – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

“Sunan an-Nasaaee”

an-Nasaaee authored a collection which he titled: “as-Sunan al-Kubraa” in which he gathered authentic Hadeeth as well as those with defects in their chains. He then summarized his collection which is known as “as-Sunan as-Sughraa” although he actually called it “al-Mujtabaa”.

In this summarized collection, he gathered only those Hadeeth which he considered to be authentic; it is this collection that is referred to when a Hadeeth is generally attributed to anNasaaee. “al-Mujtabaa” has the least number of weak Hadeeth out of the other four collections (excluding “Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” and “Saheeh Muslim”). It also contains the least amount of chains including narrators that have been criticized (regarding their Hadeeth narrating). It occupies a status right after “Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” and “Saheeh Muslim”. From the point of only relying upon narrators that are completely void of any criticism, this collection exceeds “Sunan Abu Daawood” and “Sunan at-Tirmithee” due to an-Nasaaee’s severe scrutiny of narrators within his writings. al-Haafith Ibn Hajar said, “How numerous are the narrators that Abu Daawood and atTirmithee relied on, yet an-Nasaaee shunned recording their Hadeeth. He even avoided recording Hadeeth from some of the narrators relied upon in the two authentic collections (“Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” and “Saheeh Muslim”).”

In summary, the conditions of an-Nasaaee in “al-Mujtabaa” are the strongest after the two authentic collections.

an-Nasaaee

He is ‘Abdur-Rahmaan Ahmad Ibn Shu’ayb Ibn ‘Alee an-Nasaaee, and it is said his name is anNaswee, referring to Nasa, a famous place in Khuraasaan. He was born in 215 Hijrah in Nasa. He then traveled in search of Hadeeth, eventually hearing from and studying from the people of the Hijaaz (lands such as Syria, Palestine, etc.), Khuraasaan, ash-Shaam, the Arabian Peninsula and other lands. He resided for a long time in Egypt and his writings spread throughout there. Later he journeyed to Damascus where he met with trials and tribulations. He died in 303 Hijrah in Ramlah, Palestine when he was eighty-three years old.

He left behind him many great works of Hadeeth and the study of their defects. May Allaah have mercy on him and reward him on behalf of his contribution to the Muslims.

Source: Biographies of the Famous Hadeeth Scholars and an Introduction to Their Collections – Shaykh Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) | Translated by: Abu az-Zubayr Harrison (rahimahullaah)

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The Sun will be brought near on the Day of Qiyaamah – Shaykh Uthaymeen

 

Bismillaah

Day of Resurrection
The Third Event

The Sun is Brought Near

The sun will be brought near to mankind, as close as a “mile,” the Arabic word used for mile here being مِيْل (mīl). Whether it is the mile we know to be the common unit of distance or the eye-pencil to apply kohl (as the word could imply in Arabic), whatever the case the sun will be very close to people.[29] If the sun’s heat is as we know it here in this life while there is such a great distance between it and us, then how will it be when it is a “mile” above our heads?

Here is a question: It is well-known that if the sun were to move even a hair from its position, it would burn the earth, incinerating it completely. So how is it possible on that day for the sun to be that close and not burn creation? The answer is that although people will be resurrected on that day with their previous bodies, they may not be recreated in the same exact state and with the same capability as they have now. Rather, they will be stronger and greater in what they can withstand.

For example, if people were to remain for fifty days in direct sunshine with no shade, no food, and no water, they would be unable to do so; they would die. But on the Day of Resurrection, they will remain in such a state for fifty thousand years [30] without food,water, or shade except those to whom Allah ( عزّ وجلّ ) shades. In addition, they will witness other terrifying events but they will be made to withstand them.

As an example of this greater capability to bear situations without dying, look at how the people of the fire will withstand such seemingly unbearable circumstances:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِنَا سَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِمْ نَارًا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتْ جُلُودُهُم بَدَّلْنَاهُمْ جُلُودًا غَيْرَهَا لِيَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ

Indeed, those who disbelieve in our verses, we will drive them into a fire. Every time their skins are roasted through, we will replace them with other skins so they may taste the punishment. [Surah An-Nisa 4:56]

Will anyone be saved from the heat of the sun on the Day of Resurrection? Yes, there are types of people whom Allah will shade from the sun. The prophet ( صلّى اللّه عليه وسلّم ) said:

There are seven (types of people) whom Allah will shade in his shade on a day when there will be no shade except his shade: a just ruler; a youth who grew up in the worship of Allah; a man whose heart is attached to the mosques; people who love each other for Allah’s sake, meeting for his sake and parting for his sake; a man who is called by a woman of beauty and position (for adultery), but he says: “(No) I fear Allah;” a man who gives in charity and hides it so much so that his left hand does not know what his right hand gives in charity; and a man who remembered Allah in private so much that his eyes shed tears. [Recorded by al-Bukhārī, Muslim, and al-Tirmidhī]

There are also other types of individuals Allah will shade on that day. And by, “when there will be no shade except his shade,” it means no shade except the shade Allah creates. And it is not as some people think that it is the shade of Allah himself because that would necessitate that the sun would be above Allah ( عزّ وجلّ)

In this life, we can take shelter in shade ourselves, but on the Day of Resurrection, there will be no shade except the shade Allah ( سبحانه وتعالى ) makes so that whoever he wills can take shelter in his shade when the sun is brought near.

Due to the closeness of the sun, people will sweat so much that it will rise.

The Fourth Event

The Sweat Rises

Because of the sun’s heat, people will sweat profusely in proportion to their deeds. For some, the sweat will rise to their ankles, some to their knees, some to their waists, and for some, the sweat will rise up to their mouths. So individuals will be at different levels regarding their sweat. They will sweat from the intense heat and the extremely uncomfortable situation: crowdedness, extreme hardships, and at close distance to the sun. Still, although people will sweat from the circumstances of that day, their sweat will only be according to their deeds in this life. [33]

Here is a question: How will they be of varying degrees in sweat if people are all together in one place? To answer, we must return to a basic principle of belief. It is that when dealing with affairs of the unseen, events that authentic texts confirm will take place in the future, it is incumbent upon us to believe in them, trusting them to be true without persisting in asking, “How? Why?” These are things beyond the extent of our own intellects; it is not yet possible for us to perceive or fully understand it.

Imagine two people buried in a single grave, one a believer and the other a disbeliever. The believer will still experience the enjoyment that he deserves, and the disbeliever will experience the punishment he deserves even though they are in the same grave. Likewise, we believe the sweat will rise on the Day of Judgment as foretold.

Now are we saying that Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) will gather together someone whose sweat will reach his mouth in a particular place, someone with sweat to his ankles in a different place, and others with sweat rising to their knees or waist in other places? No, not necessarily but Allah knows best. What we are saying is that it is possible for the individual with sweat reaching only to his ankles to be next to someone with his sweat up to his mouth because Allah is capable of doing anything. This is comparable to the fact that light will encompass believers all around them, yet at the same time, disbelievers in Allah will be surrounded by darkness.

So regarding the Day of Resurrection, we must believe in it and all that is to occur on that day. As for the “How?” and “Why?” of the exact nature, that is not our right to know. As people suffer on the Day of Resurrection, standing in their own sweat, they will anxiously wait for judgment to begin. And this will only occur by “The Greatest Intercession.”

Footnotes:

[29] The prophet ( صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ) said in the ḥadīth recorded by Muslim confirming this:

» تُدْنَى الشَّمْسُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مِنْ الْخَلْقِ حَتَّى تَكُونَ مِنْهُمْ كَمِقْدَارِ مِيلٍ «

On the Day of Resurrection, the sun will be brought close to creation so much that it will be a “mile” from them.

One of the narrators of the ḥadīth, Sulaym Ibn ‘Āmir, said, “By Allah, I do not know if he meant by mīl the distance of land or the mīl that is used to apply kohl to the eye.”

[30] The scholar is perhaps alluding to the verse in Sūrah al-Ma’ārij (70:4) in which Allah says,

تَعْرُجُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ

The angels and the spirit will ascend to him during a day the extent of which is fifty thousand years.

Also, the prophet ( صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) said in a ḥadīth recorded by Muslim:

مَا مِنْ صَاحِبِ كَنْزٍ لا يُؤَدِّي زَكَاتَهُ إِلاَّ أُحْمِيَ عَلَيْهِ فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ فَيُجْعَلُ صَفَائِحَ فَيُكْوَى بِهَا جَنْبَاهُ وَجَبِينُهُ حَتَّى يَحْكُمَ اللَّهُ بَيْنَ عِبَادِهِ فِي  يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ ثُمَّ يَرَى سَبِيلَهُ إِمَّا إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَإِمَّا إِلَى النَّارِ

There is no owner of treasure who does not pay its zakāh (obligated charity), but it will be heated in the fire of Hell and made into plates with which his sides and forehead will be branded until Allah passes judgment between his slaves on a day the length of which will be like fifty thousand years. Then he will be shown his path, whether it leads to Paradise or to Hell.

[33] This is established by the ḥadīth recorded by Muslim in which the prophet ( صلّى اللّه عليه وسلّم ) said:

فَيَكُونُ النَّاسُ عَلَى قَدْرِ أَعْمَالِهِمْ فِي الْعَرَقِ ، فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَكُونُ إِلَى كَعْبَيْهِ ، وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَكُونُ إِلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ ، وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَكُونُ إِلَى حَقْوَيْهِ ، وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يُلْجِمُهُ الْعَرَقُ إِلْجَامًا

The people will be in sweat in accordance with their deeds. For some, it will rise to their ankles, some to their knees, some to their waists, and for some of them, the sweat will reach their mouths.

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Two Points of Interest Regarding “Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” & “Saheeh Muslim” – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

The First Point:

It should not be understood that “Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” and “Saheeh Muslim” encompass every authentically reported statement of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم). Rather, there are many authentic Hadeeth collected by other scholars that neither one of them (al-Bukhaaree & Muslim) recorded in their collections.

an-Nawawee said:

“The intent of both al-Bukhaaree and Muslim was only to collect a large number of authentic Hadeeth just as a book of Fiqh [2] may collect texts pertaining to many different issues, not encompass every possible issue. However, if there is a Hadeeth having an authentic chain of narration that one of them may have left out, or even both of them, then they would have had a reason to do so or they may have recorded a similar Hadeeth in its place. From what is well-known from them, it may be assumed that perhaps they felt it better not to record it, or perhaps they even forgot. They also may have left certain Hadeeth out in order not to make their collections even longer than they are, or they felt what they have recorded was sufficient pertaining to a certain topic. They may have had other reasons as well.”

The Second Point:

Scholars unanimously agree and consider “Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” and “Saheeh Muslim” to be the most authentic written works of Hadeeth. Regarding this, the famous scholar, Ibn Taymiyyah, said, “There is no Hadeeth they both agree to be authentic except that it is undoubtedly authentic.” He also said, “The vast majority of their narrations, the scholars of Hadeeth know with certainty that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) actually said them.”

Footnotes:

[2] Fiqh: The knowledge of practical legislated Islaamic rulings by their related detailed proofs. – Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen, “al-Usool min ‘Ilm al-Usool” pg. 7. – T.N.

Source: Biographies of the Famous Hadeeth Scholars and an Introduction to Their Collections – Shaykh Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) | Translated by: Abu az-Zubayr Harrison (rahimahullaah)

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