Day of Resurrection: The Books of Deeds are Distributed – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

Bismillaah

The Seventh Event

The Books of Deeds are Distributed

People’s books of deeds will be distributed, open for them to read. An individual’s book of deeds is the register with every action he did in life written inside. These deeds are being written now by the angels entrusted with recording the actions of all the children of Adam. Allah (تعالى) says:

وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَافِظِينَ كِرَامًا كَاتِبِينَ يَعْلَمُونَ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ

And indeed, (appointed) over you are keepers, honorable recorders. They know whatever you do. [Surah al-Isrā, 82:10-12][69]

These angels record in a book everything a person does because they are always with him. And on the Day of Resurrection, Allah will bring forth this book, making it known to the person as he says:

وَكُلَّ إِنسَانٍ أَلْزَمْنَاهُ طَائِرَهُ فِي عُنُقِهِ وَنُخْرِجُ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كِتَابًا يَلْقَاهُ مَنشُورًا اقْرَأْ كِتَابَكَ كَفَى بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا

Every person, we have imposed his fate upon his neck. And we will produce for him, on the Day of Resurrection, a record which he will find spread open. (It will be said to him,) “Read your book. You are sufficient today as a reckoner against yourself. [Surah al-Isrā, 17:13-14.]

The Recording of Good Deeds

Both good deeds and bad deeds are written in these books. As for the good deeds, the actions a person actually does are recorded, as are his good intentions and even those deeds he intends to do but may not have actually done them. So there are three types of rewarded behavior: 1) good deeds performed, 2) good intentions, and 3) good deeds intended but not performed.

1. Good Deeds: It is clear that a person’s good deeds are written.

2. Good Intentions: Intending to do a good deed is also recorded in a person’s favor.

But a reward is given for only the intention and not necessarily the action intended. This is based on the hadith of a rich man who spends his wealth in charity and a poor man who says, “If I had wealth, I would do what he does.” About these two, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَأَجْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ

He is rewarded for his intention, and the reward is the same for both.[71]

So both the rich and poor are equally rewarded in intention but not in action. This is also confirmed by the narration in which the poor immigrants of Medina complained to the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) saying, “Oh messenger of Allah, the wealthy have overtaken us (in reward).” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said (as a way to catch up with the wealthy in rewards):

تُسَبِّحُونَ وَتُكَبِّرُونَ وَتَحْمَدُونَ دُبُرَ كُلِّ صَلاةٍ ثَلاثًا وَثَلاثِينَ مَرَّة

Glorify Allah, declare his greatness, and thank him after each prayer thirty-three times.

But when this advice reached the wealthy, they too did likewise. So the poor returned, complaining to the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) again that the rich are now doing both— giving charity and praising Allah after the prayers. He (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then said:

ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ

That is the favor of Allah he gives to whom he wishes. [Recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim]

The prophet did not reply the second time that the poor, despite their sincere intentions, would have the same reward as the rich in deed. And this is fair because a man who does not perform a certain deed is not the same as the one who actually does it, yet he may still get a similar reward for the intention alone.

3. Good Deeds Intended but Not Performed: The third type of rewarded behavior which a person may find written in his book of deeds is the actions he may sincerely intend to do but did not actually do them. The difference between this type and the second is that for these intentions, he does receive a reward for the action itself. These are the deeds that an individual may intend to do and perhaps he does as much as he is able to of such deed. Then something prevents him from completing the deed. In such case, a full good deed will be recorded based on the statement of Allah:

وَمَن يَخْرُجْ مِن بَيْتِهِ مُهَاجِرًا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ يُدْرِكْهُ الْمَوْتُ فَقَدْ وَقَعَ أَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ

And whoever leaves his home as an emigrant to Allah and his messenger and then death overtakes him, his reward has already become incumbent upon Allah.[Surah al-Nisa, 4:100]

In this is also good news for students of religious knowledge. For example, if someone intends to study religious knowledge for the purpose of benefiting others with such information, defending the Sunnah of the messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and spreading Allah’s religion throughout the earth, yet he is unable to complete his studies—perhaps he dies in the process, for example—he will still have those good deeds recorded for him and he will achieve its rewards.

Even if a person has a habit of performing a particular good deed but for some reason he is unable to do it under certain circumstances, he still has the good deed recorded for him. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

إِذَا مَرِضَ الْعَبْدُ أَوْ سَافَرَ كُتِبَ لَهُ مِثْلُ مَا كَانَ يَعْمَلُ مُقِيمًا صَحِيحًا

When a servant becomes sick or travels, whatever he used to do while residing at home or healthy will still be recorded for him. [Recorded by al-Bukhari]

The Recording of Bad Deeds

As for bad deeds, they are written against a person if: 1) he actually does a bad deed, 2) he intends and hopes to do the bad deed, and 3) he intends to do the bad deed and tries to commit it but for some reason he is unable to.

1. Bad Deeds: This is clear; if someone does a bad deed, he has it recorded against him.

2. Bad Intentions: Sins an individual intends or hopes to do are also written against him. But like good intentions, he has a bad deed recorded for the intention and not a full bad deed for the action intended. The proof of this is in the same hadith mentioned about good intentions. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) spoke about a person Allah had provided wealth but no knowledge so that he aimlessly wasted his wealth. A person Allah had given neither wealth nor knowledge then said, “If I had wealth, I would do what he does,” admiring the former’s wasteful spending. So the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَوِزْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ

He is recorded for his intention, and the sin is the same for both of them. [75]

As for an individual intending to do a bad deed but refrains from it, this is of three types:

  • 1) If the person does not do the deed because he was unable though he tried to do it, he is just like a person who actually did the bad deed,
  • 2) If he refrains from doing the deed for the sake of Allah, he is rewarded, and
  • 3) If he simply decides not to do it (but not for the sake of Allah) or even if committing the deed did not seriously cross his mind, then he has neither sin nor reward written for him.

3. Bad Deeds Intended but Not Performed: These are also recorded against a person as complete bad deeds if the person tried his utmost to do them based on the statement (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) of the prophet:

ذَا تَوَاجَهَ الْمُسْلِمَانِ بِسَيْفَيْهِمَا فَكِلاهُمَا مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ

If two Muslims face off with their swords (i.e. if they fight to the death), both of them are people of the fire.

After hearing this, the companions asked, “Messenger of Allah, we understand about the killer, but why the one killed too?” He replied:

إِنَّهُ أَرَادَ قَتْلَ صَاحِبِهِ

He also wanted to kill his opponent.[Recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim.]

Similarly, if someone wanted to drink alcohol but something happened so that he was unable to do it, it is still recorded against him as a bad deed because he tried as much as he could to commit it.

To conclude this topic we must know that Allah rewards good deeds with rewards greater than the original good deed, but He recompenses a bad deed only equivalent to the original sin; He says (تعالى) :

مَن جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أَمْثَالِهَا وَمَن جَاءَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ فَلا يُجْزَى إِلاَّ مِثْلَهَا وَهُمْ لا يُظْلَمُونَ

Whoever comes (on the Day of Judgment) with a good deed will have ten times the like thereof, and whoever comes with an evil deed will not be recompensed except the like thereof, and they will not be wronged. [77]

Receiving the Books of Deeds

About the distribution of these books and the ways in which people will receive them, Allah (تعالى) says:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابًا يَسِيرًا وَيَنقَلِبُ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ مَسْرُورًا وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ وَرَاءَ ظَهْرِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَدْعُو ثُبُورًا وَيَصْلَى سَعِيرًا

Then as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will be judged with an easy reckoning, and he will return to his people in happiness. But as for he who is given his record behind his back, he will cry out for destruction, and he will burn in a blaze.[Surah al-Inshiqaq, 84:7-12]

And he says:

وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِشِمَالِهِ فَيَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي لَمْ أُوتَ كِتَابِيَهْ

But as for he who is given his record in his left hand, he will say, “Oh, I wish I had never been given my record.” [Surah al-Haqqah, 69:25]

On the Day of Judgment, people will receive their books of deeds in different ways. Some will be given their books in their right hands – these are the believers. In this is also an indication that the right hand is more honorable and so a believer is given his book in his right hand. When the believer receives his book of deeds, he will take it with his right hand, rejoice, then cry out:

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَيَقُولُ هَاؤُمُ اقْرَءُوا كِتَابِيَهْ

So as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will say, “Here,read my record!” [Surah al-Haqqah, 69:19]

But as for a disbeliever in Allah, he receives his book of deeds in his left hand or from behind his back. He will then cry out for destruction:

وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِشِمَالِهِ فَيَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي لَمْ أُوتَ كِتَابِيَهْ وَلَمْ أَدْرِ مَا حِسَابِيَهْ

But as for he who is given his record in his left hand, he will say, “Oh, I wish I had never been given my record and had never known what my account was.[Surah al-Haqqah, 69:25-26.]

So the manner in which people receive their books of deeds is of three types: in the right hand, in the left hand, and behind the back. But these three types are only different in description and are not three separate ways books will be distributed. This is because if an individual receives his book of deeds from behind his back, he is at the same time given his book in his left hand—he takes it with his left hand, reaching his hand behind him. And since he receives his book with his left hand, he is known as one of the “People of the Left.” [82] He receives his book behind his back because during his life, he turned his back on the book of Allah. So it is only befitting that in return, he is given his book of deeds from behind his back, and Allah knows best.

To conclude, Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) says:

وَكُلَّ إِنسَانٍ أَلْزَمْنَاهُ طَائِرَهُ فِي عُنُقِهِ وَنُخْرِجُ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كِتَابًا يَلْقَاهُ مَنشُورًا اقْرَأْ كِتَابَكَ كَفَى بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا

Every person, we have imposed his fate upon his neck. And we will produce for him, on the Day of Resurrection, a record which he will find spread open. (It will be said to him,) “Read your book. You are sufficient today as a reckoner against yourself. [Surah al-Isra, 17:13-14.]

As for his fate (i.e. his deeds) imposed on his neck, this is the most befitting attachment for a person’s deeds – bound to his neck – because he will never be separated from them until he dies. He will find his book open; he neither expends effort nor does he find difficulty in opening it. “Read your book” Read what has been written for or against you. “Your own self is sufficient as a reckoner against you today“. This is the perfection of justice and fairness – that the individual will be responsible for taking himself to account.

We have in front of us now a door we may close on every bad deed, every sin: repentance. Regardless of how great a sin may be, when someone repents to Allah, he will forgive him. Even if a person continuously repeated the same sin but he repents, Allah will forgive him. The matter is still within our hands, so we must ensure that nothing is written in this book except righteous deeds before Allah judges creation.

Footnotes:

[69] Surah al-Isrā, 82:10-12.

In Surah Qaf, 50:17-18, Allah informs us that the angels are seated on the right and left of us:

إِذْ يَتَلَقَّى الْمُتَلَقِّيَانِ عَنِ الْيَمِينِ وَعَنِ الشِّمَالِ قَعِيدٌ مَّا يَلْفِظُ مِن قَوْلٍ إِلاَّ لَدَيْهِ رَقِيبٌ عَتِيدٌ

When the two receivers receive, seated on the right and on the left. Not a word does he utter but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it).

[71] Recorded by al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah and al-Albani said it is authentic in “Sahih Sunan al-Tirmidhi” (no. 1894).

The full text of the hadith is:

ثَلاثَةٌ أُقْسِمُ عَلَيْهِنَّ وَأُحَدِّثُكُمْ حَدِيثًا فَاحْفَظُوهُ ، قَالَ : مَا نَقَصَ مَالُ عَبْدٍ مِنْ صَدَقَةٍ ، وَلا ظُلِمَ عَبْدٌ مَظْلَمَةً فَصَبَرَ عَلَيْهَا إِلاَّ زَادَهُ اللَّهُ عِزًّا ، وَلا فَتَحَ عَبْدٌ بَابَ مَسْأَلَةٍ إِلاَّ فَتَحَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ بَابَ فَقْرٍ – أَوْ كَلِمَةً نَحْوَهَا – وَأُحَدِّثُكُمْ حَدِيثًا فَاحْفَظُوهُ ، قَالَ : إِنَّمَا الدُّنْيَا لأَرْبَعَةِ نَفَرٍ : عَبْدٍ رَزَقَهُ اللَّهُ مَالاً وَعِلْمًا فَهُوَ يَتَّقِي فِيهِ رَبَّهُ وَيَصِلُ فِيهِ رَحِمَهُ ، وَيَعْلَمُ لِلَّهِ فِيهِ حَقًّا فَهَذَا بِأَفْضَلِ الْمَنَازِلِ ، وَعَبْدٍ رَزَقَهُ اللَّهُ عِلْمًا وَلَمْ يَرْزُقْهُ مَالاً فَهُوَ صَادِقُ النِّيَّةِ يَقُولُ : لَوْ أَنَّ لِي مَالاً لَعَمِلْتُ بِعَمَلِ فُلانٍ ، فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَأَجْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ ، وَعَبْدٍ رَزَقَهُ اللَّهُ مَالاً وَلَمْ يَرْزُقْهُ عِلْمًا فَهُوَ يَخْبِطُ فِي مَالِهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ لا يَتَّقِي فِيهِ رَبَّهُ وَلا يَصِلُ فِيهِ رَحِمَهُ وَلا يَعْلَمُ لِلَّهِ فِيهِ حَقًّا فَهَذَا بِأَخْبَثِ الْمَنَازِلِ ، وَعَبْدٍ لَمْ يَرْزُقْهُ اللَّهُ مَالاً وَلا عِلْمًا فَهُوَ يَقُولُ : لَوْ أَنَّ لِي مَالاً لَعَمِلْتُ فِيهِ بِعَمَلِ فُلانٍ ، فَهُوَ بِنِيَّتِهِ فَوِزْرُهُمَا سَوَاءٌ 

There are three things that I attest to; I will mention them so remember them.

  • 1) Charity will never decrease a person’s wealth,
  • 2) no servant is wronged and patiently endures that except that Allah will increase him in honor, and
  • 3) no servant opens the door of begging except that Allah will open the door of poverty (or he said similarly).

And I will mention something else so remember it.

The world is for four types of people:

  • 1) a person Allah has provided with wealth and knowledge so he is conscientious of his Lord regarding them and thus gains his mercy therewith. He knows Allah has a right upon him with regards to them, and this is the best of the (four) types.
  • 2) A person Allah has provided with knowledge but not wealth, yet he is truthful in his intention when he says, “If I had wealth, I would do what so-and-so does (the first type of person).” So he is rewarded for his intention, and the reward is the same for both of them.
  • 3) A person Allah has provided wealth but no knowledge so that he aimlessly wastes his wealth without knowledge. He is neither conscientious of his Lord with it nor does he achieve his mercy. He does not even know that Allah has a right upon him regarding it, and this is the worst of the (four) types.
  • 4) A person Allah has provided no wealth and no knowledge. But he says, “If I had wealth, I would do what so-and-so does (the third type of person).” So he is also recorded for his intention, and the sin is the same for both of them.

[75] Recorded by al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah and al-Albani said it is authentic in “Sahih Sunan al-Tirmidhi” (no. 1894). See page 53 for the full hadith.

[77] Surah al-Anaam, 6:160.

Evidence from the Sunnah of a ten-fold reward for a good deed and only a single recompense for a bad deed is the hadith recorded by Muslim in which the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

يقول الله : مَنْ جَاء بالحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أمْثَالِهَا أَوْ أزْيَد ، وَمَنْ جَاءَ بالسَيِّئَةِ فَجَزاءُ سَيِّئَةٍ سَيِّئَةٌ مِثْلُهَا أَوْ أغْفِرُ . وَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ مِنِّي شِبْرًا تَقَرَّبْتُ مِنْهُ ذِرَاعًا ، وَمَنْ تَقَرَّبَ مِنِّي ذِرَاعًا تَقَرَّبْتُ مِنْهُ بَاعًا ، وَمَنْ أتَانِي يَمْشِي أتَيْتُهُ هَرْوَلَةً ، وَمَنْ لَقِيني بِقُرَابِ الأرْض خَطِيئةً لا يُشْرِكُ بِي شَيئاً ، لَقِيتُهُ بِمِثْلِهَا مَغفِرَةً

Allah says, “Whoever does a good deed will have ten times reward for it or even more. And whoever does a bad deed will have a single bad deed for it or I will forgive it. Whoever comes close to me a hand-span, I will come close to him an arm’s length; and whoever comes close to me an arm’s length, I will come close to him the distance of two outstretched arms. Whoever comes to me walking, I will come to him running. And whoever meets me with the earth full of sins but associated nothing with me in worship, I will meet him with as much forgiveness.”

[82] A similar description is used in the Surah al-Waqi’ah, 56:8-9:

فَأَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ مَا أَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ وَأَصْحَابُ الْمَشْأَمَةِ مَا أَصْحَابُ الْمَشْأَمَةِ

The Companions of the Right – what are the Companions of the Right? And the Companions of the Left – what re the Companions of the Left?

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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“iyyāka na’budu wa iyyāka nasta’īn” – Shaykh al-‘Uthaymīn

The Explanation of Verse 4 of Sooratul Faatiha

 إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ 

iyyāka na’budu wa iyyāka nasta’īn

You alone we worship, and from you alone we seek help.

“You alone” (iyyāka): This is a case in grammar when the direct object comes before the verb, “we worship” (na’budu). In Arabic grammar, when the direct object precedes the verb, it gives a sense of restriction, so the meaning would be, “We do not worship anyone or anything except you alone.”

“we worship” (na’budu): Meaning: We humble ourselves to you in complete humility.

In this way, you find the believers placing the most honorable part of their bodies (their faces) at the level of their feet in humility to Allah (عزّ وجلّ). They prostrate on the ground, covering their foreheads with dirt. This is from their humbleness before Allah. And if another person were to say, “I will give you the whole world and what it contains, just prostrate to me once,” you will never find true believers accepting this because this type of humility is a form of worship specifically for Allah alone.

The word “worship” includes doing everything Allah commands and avoiding everything he forbids. Whoever is not in accordance with this, not carrying out what he is commanded to do and avoiding what he is forbidden to do then he is not a true worshipper and servant. A worshipper is someone who obeys the one he worships in whatever he legislates. So, worship requires that mankind carry out everything they are commanded to do and avoid everything they are forbidden from doing. However, it is not possible to fulfill all of these duties without the help and assistance of Allah. Because of this, Allah ( سبحانه وتعالى ) then says:

“and from you alone we seek help” (wa iyyāka nasta’īn): Meaning, “We do not seek the help of anyone else in worship or in anything else.” This “seeking of help” is to request the help and assistance, and Allah combines between worship and the seeking of assistance or reliance in many places the noble Qur’an. This is because worship could not be completely established except with the help of Allah by entrusting one’s affairs to him, and relying on him.

Points of Benefit of al-Fātiḥah, Verse 4:

1. From the virtues of this verse is the sincerity in worship that is due to Allah alone as he says, “You alone we worship“. It shows that this worship is due only to Allah by the direct object (“You”) coming before the verb (“we worship”) according to the rules of Arabic grammar.

2. Another point is that seeking help is also sincerely and solely for Allah based on the statement, “and from you alone we seek help“. Likewise, the direct object precedes the verb indicating a sense of restriction just like in the first part of the verse.

Those points being said, what if someone asks:

How is it that seeking help is exclusively for Allah alone when there has come in another verse:

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى 

And help one another in righteousness and piety.[Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:2]

So, how do we understand the previous statements about seeking help only from Allah when, here in this verse, Allah confirms that seeking help from other than himself is permissible (rather it is a command here)? Also, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

 تُعِيْنُ الرَّجُلَ فِي دَابَّتِهِ، فَتَحْمِلُهُ عَلَيْهَا، أَوْ تَرْفَعُ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا مَتَاعَهُ صَدَقَةٌ 

Helping someone onto his riding animal, carrying him on it, or lifting his belongings up to him while he is on it – all of these are (considered) acts of charity. [Recorded by Al-Bukhaaree (no. 2891) and Muslim (no. 1009)]

The answer to this question is that the act of seeking help and assistance is of two types. The first type is to request help while entrusting all affairs to the one you ask from. For example, you rely completely on Allah and you realize that any result you seek will not come from your own power or capability. This type of seeking help is specific for Allah ( تعالى ); he alone deserves this type.

The second type is to request help or cooperation in something you want to accomplish. This type is permissible as long as the one being requested is living and capable of doing what is asked of him. This is not considered a form of worship. This is the type that Allah refers to when saying:

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى

And help one another in righteousness and piety. [Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:2]

If it is further asked, “Is seeking help from the creation permissible at all times and in all situations?

The answer is no. Requesting help from the creation is only allowed when the one being asked is fully capable of what he is being asked for, otherwise seeking his help is not permissible. An example would be asking help from someone dead in his grave; this is prohibited, rather it is major Shirk (the associating of partners with Allah in worship)! This is because the person in his grave does not even have the ability to help himself, so how could he help someone else? Similarly, if someone seeks the help of another person who is not present with him such as a person believing that someone else in the far eastern part of the world could help him with something in his (the one seeking help) land – this is also major Shirk because the person whose help is sought is not capable of helping the seeker while they are in different lands.

If it is now asked, “So, is it permissible to seek help from the creation if these conditions are met?

The answer is that it is better not to ask anyone for any help unless it is absolutely necessary or if it is known that the person would be happy to provide help. In this case, one could request his assistance in order to please him. The act that you seek another’s help in fulfilling must also not be something sinful and prohibited.

Posted from the article : Explaining Surah al-Fatihah – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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The Believers will see their Lord in the Hereafter – Shaykh ‘Uthaymīn

The Fifteenth Event

The Believers See Their Lord

وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَّاضِرَةٌ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ

(Some) faces that day will be radiant, looking at their Lord. [Sūrah al-Qiyāmah, 75:22-23]

To explain the verse, “faces that day” means on the last day, the Day of Resurrection. “radiant” here includes beauty because the word used in the verse comes from the Arabic word نَضَارَة (naḍārah) which means beauty. This meaning is also indicated in the statement of Allah (in which a similar form of the same word is used):

فَوَقَاهُمُ اللَّهُ شَرَّ ذَٰلِكَ الْيَوْمِ وَلَقَّاهُمْ نَضْرَةً وَسُرُورًا

So Allah will protect them from the evil of that day and give them radiance and happiness. [Sūrah al-Insān, 76:11]

In other words: beauty in their faces and happiness in their hearts.

As for “looking at their Lord“, it is real sight which occurs from the faces and by the eyes. This is different from insight that may occur within the heart (similar to the English usage, “I will look into it.”) which means thinking about or considering something. Here, however, the looking occurs from the faces and is directed toward the Lord (عزّ وجلّ) just as is explicitly indicated by “at their Lord“.

This noble verse means that these radiant, beautiful faces will be looking directly at their Lord (عزّ وجلّ) and, consequently, will increase in beauty. Look at how these faces were prepared, made ready to look at Allah (عزّ وجلّ) – they will have been made bright and beautiful in preparation to look upon the face of Allah.

This verse is a clear proof that Allah will actually be seen with actual eyes and this is the position of mainstream Muslims who follow the Sunnah (Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamā’ah).

They have proven this with the same verses mentioned herein and they also learn this from the numerous statements of the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) transmitted to the companions and to their followers and so on. So these texts are explicitly clear as evidence confirming this (the believers seeing Allah in the hereafter) because they are within the book of Allah (تعالى) and the Sunnah of his messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) and they are reported by many different chains of narration.

So mainstream Muslims who follow the Sunnah hold the belief that the looking, the sight mentioned here, is real. It does not mean “perception” or “complete awareness” because Allah says:

لَّا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَبْصَارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الْأَبْصَارَ

Vision does not perceive him. [Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:103]

Just as knowing with one’s heart does not necessarily equate to perceiving his true reality. Allah (تعالى) says:

يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْمًا

But they do not encompass him with knowledge. [Sūrah ṬāHā, 20:110]

We know our Lord with our hearts yet we still do not know exactly how he is. Similarly, on the Day of Resurrection we will see our Lord with our own eyes, yet our sight will still not completely perceive him.

The second verse indicating that believers will see their Lord is the statement of Allah:

عَلَى الْأَرَائِكِ يَنظُرُونَ

On thrones, looking. [Sūrah al-Muṭaffifīn, 83:23]

Allah did not mention in this verse specifically what they are looking at so it is general, including anything that is pleasing to look at. The greatest and most pleasing sight is to look upon Allah (تعالى) as he says in the very next verse:

تَعْرِفُ فِي وُجُوهِهِمْ نَضْرَةَ النَّعِيمِ

You will recognize in their faces the radiance of pleasure. [Sūrah al-Muṭaffifīn, 83:24]

So the context of the verse is similar to the first one, “faces that day will be radiant, looking at their Lord” and they will be looking at everything that pleases them.

The third verse regarding the believers looking at Allah is:

لِّلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا الْحُسْنَىٰ وَزِيَادَةٌ

For those who have done good is the best (reward) and even more. [Sūrah Yūnus, 10:26]

As for “the best”, it is Paradise and “even more” is the believers looking at the face of Allah. This is how the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) explained this verse as is confirmed in the ḥadīth recorded by Muslim and others:

إِذَا دَخَلَ أَهْلُ الْجَنَّةِ الْجَنَّةَ ، قَالَ : يَقُولُ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى : تُرِيدُونَ شَيْئًا أَزِيدُكُمْ.؟ فَيَقُولُونَ : أَلَمْ تُبَيِّضْ وُجُوهَنَا ؟ أَلَمْ تُدْخِلْنَا الْجَنَّةَ وَتُنَجِّنَا مِنْ النَّارِ ؟ قَالَ : فَيَكْشِفُ الْحِجَابَ فَمَا أُعْطُوا شَيْئًا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْهِمْ مِنْ النَّظَرِ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ

When the people of Paradise have entered Paradise, Allah (تبارك وتعالى) will ask, “Do you want me to give you something more?” They will say, “Have you not brightened our faces? Have you not already admitted us into Paradise and saved us from the fire?” He will then remove the covering and they will not have been given anything more beloved to them than looking at their Lord (عزّ وجلّ) [Recorded by Muslim]

After saying that, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then recited the verse, “For those who have done good is the best (reward) and even more.” So this verse is evidence of seeing Allah as the messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) has explained, and no doubt, he is the most knowledgeable person of the Quran’s meanings. He explained that it means looking at the face of Allah and this is the “even more” reward the believers will be given in addition to the previous delights of Paradise.

Therefore, this blessing is not the same types of blessing as are well-known of Paradise. Many of the delights of Paradise are physical in nature: rivers to enjoy, physical rewards, fruits, pure spouses, etc. Then the blessings and pleasures of the heart follow. But looking at Allah is a direct delight pleasing to the heart. The people of Paradise will have never seen anything more enjoyable or satisfying than that. We ask Allah to make us those who see him.

This blessing is in no way comparable to anything else, not the fruits of Paradise, its rivers, or anything else. Because of this, Allah said “For those who have done good is the best (reward) and even more.” because it is in addition to even the best rewards of Paradise.

The fourth verse is:

لَهُم مَّا يَشَاءُونَ فِيهَا وَلَدَيْنَا مَزِيدٌ

There they will have all that they desire and with us is even more. [Sūrah Qāf, 50:35]

Many scholars have explained “but with us is even more” just how the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) explained it – that it is looking at the face of Allah.

So those are the four verses the author (Ibn Taymiyyah) mentions as proof of the believers seeing Allah. There is also a fifth verse from which Imam al-Shāfi’ī deduced that the believers will see Allah. It is the statement of Allah (تعالى) about the wicked sinners:

كَلَّا إِنَّهُمْ عَن رَّبِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لَّمَحْجُوبُونَ

No! Surely, they will be veiled from (seeing) their Lord that day. [Sūrah al-Muṭaffifīn, 83:15]

The point he makes from the verse is that since such people will be veiled from Allah due to his anger with them, then it can be understood that those with whom he is pleased will not be veiled. So if the people who gain his anger are veiled from Allah then the people who gain his pleasure will see Him (عزّ وجلّ)

This deduction of Imam al-Shāfi’ī is definitely very strong because if everyone was going to be veiled, prevented from seeing their Lord, then there would have been no reason to specifically mention only the wicked people in the verse.

We also believe that seeing Allah in this life is impossible. This is because the current nature and condition of humans is one that cannot bear looking at Allah (عزّ وجلّ). How could it when the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) told us about his Lord:

حِجَابُهُ النُّورُ ، لَوْ كَشَفَهُ لأَحْرَقَتْ سُبُحَاتُ وَجْهِهِ مَا انْتَهَى إِلَيْهِ بَصَرُهُ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ

His veil is light. If he were to remove it, the splendor of his face would burn his creation, consuming it as far as his sight reaches.[Recorded by Muslim]

But as for seeing Allah in the hereafter, it is certainly possible because people that day will be in a different world. Their nature and condition will be different than they are in this life. And this is known from all the texts of the Quran and Sunnah that tell about how people will be, what they will experience during the events of the resurrection and of their final abode in either the home of bliss or Hell.

About the believers seeing their Lord, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) was once with his companions on a night when the full moon was out. He looked up at the moon and said:

إِنَّكُمْ سَتَرَوْنَ رَبَّكُمْ كَمَا تَرَوْنَ هَذَا الْقَمَرَ ، لا تُضَامُونَ فِي رُؤْيَتِهِ ، فَإِنْ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَنْ  لا تُغْلَبُوا عَلَى صَلاةٍ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَصَلاةٍ قَبْلَ غُرُوبِ الشَّمْسِ فَافْعَلُوا

You will certainly see your Lord just as you can see this moon; you will have no trouble in seeing him. So if you can avoid missing a prayer before the sun rises and a prayer before it sets, then do so. [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

The statement, “You will certainly see your Lord” is addressed to the believers. As for “just as you can see this moon,” this is a real, actual seeing because when we see the moon, it is actual sight with our eyes. The comparison here is between the sight of the moon and the sight of Allah, and it is not a comparison between the moon and Allah because there is nothing like or comparable to Allah.

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) would sometimes try to bring the meaning of what he is talking about closer to people by mentioning what they understand of perceptible things.

For example, Abū Razīn al-‘Uqaylī, a companion of the messenger, once asked him, “Messenger of Allah, will each one of us see his Lord, individually on the Day of Resurrection? And what is a sign similar to that among his creation?” He ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم .) said:

يَا أَبَا رَزِينٍ ، أَلَيْسَ كُلُّكُمْ يَرَى الْقَمَرَ لَيْلَةَ الْبَدْرِ مُخْلِيًا بِهِ

Abū Razīn, do you not each individually see the full moon?

Abū Razīn answered, “Yes.” The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) then told him:

فَاللَّهُ أَعْظَمُ ، فَإِنَّمَا هُوَ خَلْقٌ مِنْ خَلْقِ اللَّهِ ، فَاللَّهُ أَجَلُّ وَأَعْظَمُ 

Allah is even greater. That (the moon) is only a single creation from Allah’s creation, but Allah is even more exalted and greater.

[Recorded by Imām Aḥmad (4/11) and Abū Dāwūd (no. 4731). al-Albānī said it is authentic in “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Abī Dāwūd” (3957)]

As for “you will have no trouble in seeing him” in the earlier ḥadīth, different wordings have come in similar narrations, but the point is that no one will prevent another from seeing Allah due to crowding or anything else. Each person will see him ( (سبحانه وتعالى while he is in the utmost state of tranquility and peace.

As for “So if you can avoid missing a prayer before the sun rises and a prayer before it sets, then do so,” the prayer before sunrise is Fajr, the morning prayer, and before sunset is ‘Aṣr, the afternoon prayer. ‘Aṣr is even better than Fajr because it is the middle prayer which Allah has specifically told us to safeguard after mentioning prayers in general.[167] But Fajr is better than ‘Aṣr from a different perspective in that it is the prayer that is specifically witnessed by the angels as Allah says:

أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا

Keep up prayer from the declining of the sun till the darkness of night and the morning recitation; surely the morning recitation is witnessed. [Sūrah al-Isrā, 17:78]

There also occurs in an authentic ḥadīth:

مَنْ صَلَّى الْبَرْدَيْنِ دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ 

Whoever prayers the two cool ones will enter Paradise.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

The two cool prayers are Fajr and ‘Aṣr.

What practical benefit do we gain from knowing these verses (and ḥadīth) about the believers seeing their Lord in Paradise? There is no greater effect on a person’s behavioral approach and direction in life than this. When anyone realizes that his main objective, the height of his reward is to look upon the face of his Lord, this life and everything in it then becomes almost worthless to him in comparison. Nothing else would compare or be as precious to him as reaching that moment of seeing Allah (عزّ وجلّ). It is the goal of every seeker; it is the final achievement.

If you know that you will one day see your Lord with your own eyes, then by Allah this life would not mean a thing to you.

Everything of this world is nothing in comparison because the sight of Allah’s face is the prize for which the competitors compete, the goal to which the racers race, and it is the greatest triumph of everything.

So if you know this, will you strive to reach it or not?

Footnotes:

[167] This occurs in Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2:238:

حَافِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْوُسْطَىٰ وَقُومُوا لِلَّهِ قَانِتِينَ

Attend constantly to prayers and (in particular) to the middle prayer, and stand up truly obedient to Allah.

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Our Lord descends every night to the sky of this world when the last third of the night remains – Shaykh ‘Uthaymīn

Our Lord’s Descent

The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said in an authentic ḥadīth:

يَنْزِلُ رَبُّنَا تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا حِينَ يَبْقَى ثُلُثُ اللَّيْلِ الآخِرُ ، يَقُولُ : مَنْ يَدْعُونِي فَأَسْتَجِيبَ لَهُ ؟ مَنْ يَسْأَلُنِي فَأُعْطِيَهُ ؟ مَنْ يَسْتَغْفِرُنِي ؟ فَأَغْفِرَ لَهُ

Our Lord, the blessed and exalted, descends every night to the sky of this world when the last third of the night remains. He asks, “Who is calling on me so I can answer him? Who is asking me (for anything) so I can give (it to) him? Who is asking for my forgiveness so I can forgive him?”

[Recorded by al-Bukhārī (no. 1145) and Muslim (no. 758)]

This ḥadīth is a proof confirming the descent of Allah to the lowest heaven, the sky of this world.

Some people of knowledge said this ḥadīth has come with many different chains of narration, and the scholars have always agreed that it is one of the famous ḥadīth often mentioned by the scholars of the Sunnah.

The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) says,  “Our Lord descends every night to the sky of this world.” Allah’s descent is real and actual because, as we have mentioned before, anything mentioned with a pronoun that refers back to Allah, it must be attributed to him in a real, actual manner.

So we should believe in it and accept it as truth, saying just as the ḥadīth says, “Our Lord descends to the sky of this world,” to the lowest heaven closest to the earth. There are seven heavens, and Allah (عزّ وجلّ) descends at this time during the night to be near his worshippers just as he does during the afternoon on the Day of ‘Arafah (during the pilgrimage), praising and boasting to the angels about his worshippers. [41]

As for “every night” it is general to include every single night of the year. “when the last third of the night remains“. In Islamic legislation, the night begins at sunset and this is unanimously agreed upon. The difference (among scholars) however comes with regards to when the night ends. Does it end with the appearance of first light or the actual rising of the sun? Apparently, the night, according to legislation, ends with the appearance of first light, and the common, “astral” night ends with sunrise. Allah asks, ” “Who is calling on me…”. This is a question yet really intended as an encouragement and motivation rather than expecting an actual answer. It is like his statement (in the Qur’an):

هَلْ أَدُلُّكُمْ عَلَى تِجَارَةٍ تُنجِيكُم مِّنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ

Shall I guide you to a transaction that will save you from a painful punishment? [Sūrah al-Ṣaf, 61:10]

…calling on me…” saying, “Oh Lord…”

…so I can answer him?” This is the result and reward for doing the first part – calling on Allah.

 “Who is asking me (for anything) so I can give (it to) him?” such as saying, “I ask You for Paradise,” or similar things.

Who is asking for my forgiveness…” saying, “Oh Allah, forgive me,” or “I seek your forgiveness, Allah.”

…so I can forgive him?” Forgiveness means to conceal one’s sins and overlook them.

With this, it should be clear to every person who reads this ḥadīth that what is meant by “descends” here is that Allah Himself descends. We do not even need to say He descends “personally” because as long as the verb is associated with Him, then He himself does it. Still, some scholars did say, “He personally descends.” They resorted to saying that, compelled to adding “personally” only because there are those people who twist the meaning of ḥadīth, claiming that what really descends is the decision and decree of Allah. Others say it is Allah’s mercy that descends, and even others say it is one of his angels that descends.

All of these are incorrect. For one thing, Allah’s decision and decree are constantly descending, and not only during the last third of night as he ( تعالى ) says generally:

يُدَبِّرُ الأَمْرَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ إِلَى الأَرْضِ ثُمَّ يَعْرُجُ إِلَيْهِ

He arranges each matter from the heaven to the earth then it will ascend to him.[Sūrah al-Sajdah, 32:5]

And he says:

وَإِلَيْهِ يُرْجَعُ الأَمْرُ كُلُّهُ

And to him the matter will return, all of it.[Sūrah Hūd, 11:123]

As for their statement that it is really only the mercy of Allah that descends to the worldly sky when the last third of night remains, Allah is above such deficiencies and insults! Mercy does not descend except at that time?! Allah ( تعالى ) says:

وَمَا بِكُم مِّن نِّعْمَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ

And whatever you have of blessing, it is from Allah. [Sūrah al-Naḥl, 16:53]

Every blessing and favor is from Allah, and they are the results of his mercy; they can be witnessed at all times.

We could then ask: What good does it do for us if mercy descends only down to the sky (and no further)?

As for those who say it is really only an angel that descends, we ask: Does it make sense that an angel would say, “Who is calling on me so I can answer him? Who is asking me for anything…”?!

So it is clear that these claims are distorted meanings, they are incorrect and proven so by the ḥadīth itself.

By Allah, such people who claim these things do not know more about Allah than Allah’s messenger, they are certainly not more sincere in advising the servants of Allah than his messenger, and they are not more precise and eloquent in speech than the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم).

Some people also ask: How can you say Allah descends? If He does so, then what about His being high above everything? What about His being over the throne? If He descends, this would involve movement and relocation. Also, if He descends, this would be an action that happens and anything that happens must have a cause.

To this we say: This is baseless and pointless arguing. There is no reason not to say that Allah’s descent is real. Do you know what Allah deserves (of characteristics and descriptions) more than the companions of the messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)?

The companions never made any of these false assumptions and conjectures. Instead they listened, they believed, they accepted, and they trusted it as absolute truth. Yet now, you people come and challenge the meanings, arguing for the sake of falsehood, asking, “How? Why?”

We say Allah descends, and we do not delve into asking, “What about his throne? Does this mean he leaves it or not?”

As for his being above, we say he descends and yet he is still high above his creation because “descent” here does not necessarily mean that he is surrounded by the lowest heaven to which he descends while the other heavens are above him. Rather, he is not contained within anything of his creation.

So Allah actually descends in a real manner while he is actually high above in a real manner, and nothing is similar to him.

Rising over the throne is an action, not a permanent, personal characteristic. We should not, as far as I am concerned, begin asking whether he leaves the throne or not. Instead, we should keep silent about it just as the companions did, may Allah be pleased with them all.

However, the scholars of those who follow the Sunnah take one of three positions regarding the issue of whether Allah leaves his throne during his descent. Some say he leaves the throne, others say he does not leave it, and others say we should remain silent and not delve into the issue.

Ibn Taymiyyah says in his al-Risālah al-‘Arshiyyah that Allah does not leave the throne (during his descent) because the evidence confirming he is on the throne is strong and explicit just as this ḥadīth is also a strong, explicit proof of his descent. The actions and characteristics of Allah (عزّ وجلّ) are not to be measured by those of creation. So we should leave the texts of his being on the throne confirmed as they are just as we leave the text of his descent confirmed as it is. We say he is established on his throne and yet he still descends to the sky of this world; Allah alone knows the “how” of it. Our minds are too deficient and incomplete to know everything about Allah, the Most High.

The second position is that Allah leaves the throne during his descent and the third position is to remain silent – in other words, not to say whether he does or does not leave his throne.

Some people more recently bring up yet another point of confusion. Since the earth is round and revolves around the sun, they ask how Allah can descend during the last third of the night when the last third is a constant time. For example, when the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia leaves this time, Europe and surrounding countries enter it. So is Allah constantly and forever descending?

In reply, we say: First and foremost, you should simply believe and accept that Allah descends during this specific time. If you do believe in it, then there is nothing else required from you. Do not go into asking, “How?” Instead, accept that when the last third of night remains in Saudi Arabia, then Allah descends, and when it remains in America, Allah also descends. And His descent finishes when the light of morning appears in any place, respective to it.

To conclude, our position is that we believe and accept everything that has come to us from Allah’s messenger, Muhammad ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) in that Allah comes down to the sky of this world, the lowest heaven, when the last third of night remains and he asks, “Who is calling on me so I can answer him? Who is asking me (for anything) so I can give (it to) him? Who is asking for my forgiveness so I can forgive him?”

Beneficial Points We Learn from This Ḥadīth

This amazing ḥadīth:

  • Confirms that Allah is high above creation based on the words, “Our Lord descends.”
  • Confirms that Allah does actions by his choice and will—these are known as “action” characteristics (see footnote no. 7 of the main article)—based on the statement, “Our Lord descends…when the last third of the night remains..”
  • Confirms that Allah speaks based on the statement, “He asks…
  • Confirms Allah’s kindness and generosity based on his questions, “Who is calling on me…? Who is asking me…? Who is asking for my forgiveness…?”

People should take advantage of this part of the night, asking for whatever they need from Allah, calling upon him, and asking his forgiveness as he asks, “Who is calling on me…? Who is asking me…? Who is asking for my forgiveness…?” And again, the word “Who” here is presented in the form of a question but is actually intended to motivate rather than ask.

So we should take advantage of this chance because nothing that has passed of your life is in your favor except the times you spent in obedience to Allah. Perhaps more days may pass you by, but when death comes it will be as if you were only born that minute. At that time, everything of one’s past life will mean nothing to him.

Footnotes:

[41] The ḥadīth about this is recorded by Muslim (no. 1348). The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

مَا مِنْ يَوْمٍ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ أَنْ يُعْتِقَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ عَبْدًا مِنْ النَّارِ مِنْ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ وَإِنَّهُ لَيَدْنُو ثُمَّ يُبَاهِي بِهِمْ الْمَلائِكَةَ ، فَيَقُولُ :  مَا  أَرَادَ هَؤُلاءِ

There is no day on which Allah frees more servants from the fire than the Day of ‘Arafah. He comes near (them) and praises and boasts about them to the angels, saying, “What do these want?” (or “Anything they want!”)

Posted from the appendix of the article : In the Company of Allaah: Confirming Allaah is with His Creation – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Day of Resurrection: The Bridge (As-Ṣirāṭ) – Shaykh Uthaymeen

The Day of Resurrection: The Tenth Event

The Bridge

The Arabic word صِرَاط (Ṣirāṭ) is the bridge stretched over Hell over which people will cross to get to Paradise. About it, Allah ( تعالى ) says:

وَإِن مِّنكُمْ إِلَّا وَارِدُهَا ۚ كَانَ عَلَىٰ رَبِّكَ حَتْمًا مَّقْضِيًّا

And there is none of you except that he will pass over it. This is with your Lord a decree which must be accomplished.[Sūrah Maryam, 19:71]

‘Abdullāh Ibn Mas’ūd, Qatādah, and Zayd Ibn Aslam explained this verse to mean the crossing of the bridge. Others, including Ibn ‘Abbās, explained that it describes those who will enter the fire but will be saved from it.

The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

ثُمَّ يُضْرَبُ الْجِسْرُ عَلَى جَهَنَّمَ ، وَتَحِلُّ الشَّفَاعَةُ وَيَقُولُونَ : اللَّهُمَّ سَلِّمْ سَلِّمْ

Then the bridge will be placed over Hell and intercession will be permitted. They (the messengers) will say, “Oh Allah, save (us), save (us).” [113]

Scholars have differed as to the exact nature of this bridge. Some say it is a wide path over which people will cross according to the deeds they did in this life. They say it is wide because the word “bridge,” taken at face value, means just that and because Allah’s messenger ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) described it as being slippery and elusive. They understood that the bridge must be somewhat wide because a very narrow path would not be described with the specific Arabic words (slippery and elusive) that the prophet used. When asked about the bridge, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

مَدْحَضَةٌ مَزِلَّةٌ عَلَيْهِ خَطَاطِيفُ وَكَلالِيبُ وَحَسَكَةٌ مُفَلْطَحَةٌ لَهَا شَوْكَةٌ عُقَيْفَاءُ

It is slippery, elusive with hooks and grapples, and broad spikes and curved thorns.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

And in the ḥadīth narrated by Abū Hurayrah, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

وَبِهِ كَلالِيبُ مِثْلُ شَوْكِ السَّعْدَانِ غَيْرَ أَنَّهَا لا يَعْلَمُ قَدْرَ عِظَمِهَا إِلاَّ اللَّهُ فَتَخْطَفُ النَّاسَ بِأَعْمَالِهِمْ

It has hooks like the thorns of al-Sa’dān (a place in Najd) except that no one but Allah knows the huge size of them. They will seize people according to their deeds.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

Other scholars said no, it is actually a very narrow bridge just as has come in a ḥadīth narrated by Abū Sa’īd al-Khudrī ( رضي الله عنه ) in which he said:

بَلَغَنِي أَنَّ الصِّرَاطَ أَحَدُّ مِنَ السَّيْفِ وَأَدَقُّ مِنَ الشَّعْرَةِ

He informed (or: It has reached) me that the bridge is sharper that a sword and thinner than a hair.[116]

Here we come to a question: How is it possible for people to actually pass over a bridge like this? The answer is that the events and things to occur in the hereafter cannot be compared to or measured based solely on what we know of things of this life. Allah is capable of anything, and we do not know exactly how people will cross it. Will they cross in groups or one at a time? Allah knows best.

But regarding this issue—whether the bridge is wide or narrow—it is not incumbent on people to accept one position over the other because both groups of scholars have strong points.

Crossing the Bridge

No one will cross the bridge except the believers. As for the disbelievers, they will be taken straight to the fire. The believers will cross it according to their deeds based on the ḥadīth narrated by Abū Sa’īd al-Khudrī ( رضي الله عنه ) that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

فَيَمُرُّ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ كَطَرْفِ الْعَيْنِ وَكَالْبَرْقِ وَكَالرِّيحِ وَكَالطَّيْرِ وَكَأَجَاوِيدِ الْخَيْلِ  وَالرِّكَابِ فَنَاجٍ مُسَلَّمٌ وَمَخْدُوشٌ مُرْسَلٌ وَمَكْدُوسٌ فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ

The believers will cross: some as fast as the blink of an eye, some like lightning, some like the wind, some like a bird, some like horses, and some as fast as camels. Some people will be safe a secure, some will be scratched but delivered, and others will fall into the fire of Hell.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

The speed at which a person crosses is obviously not by his choice. If it were, naturally everyone would want to cross quickly. Rather, the passage across is according to the speed at which he used to accept religious teachings in this life. So whoever was always quick to accept the teachings of the messengers, he will pass quickly over the bridge. Whoever was slow to accept them will pass slowly over the bridge. It is a suitable reward and the reward is according to the deed.

Some people will be seized by hooks that are on the bridge and, again, this will only be according to their deeds. As for the prophet’s statement, “others will fall into the fire of Hell,” it is understood that the fire into which sinners will fall is the same fire the disbelievers will be in. However, these believing sinners will still not experience the same punishment as disbelievers will. Some scholars have even said that this fire will be cool and safe for them just as the fire was cool and peaceful on Prophet Abraham. [118]

However, what is more apparent is that this is not the case; the fire will likely be hot and painful but not as intense as the heat the disbelievers in Allah will experience. As a side note, the points on the body upon which believers prostrate during prayer will never be touched by the fire just as it has been reported by the prophet in “Ṣaḥīḥ al- Bukhārī” and “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim.” [119] The places of prostration are those that touch the ground: the forehead, nose, palms, knees, and the toes.

In a ḥadīth in “Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim,” the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) also said:

تَجْرِي بِهِمْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ وَنَبِيُّكُمْ قَائِمٌ عَلَى الصِّرَاطِ يَقُولُ : رَبِّ سَلِّمْ سَلِّمْ حَتَّى تَعْجِزَ أَعْمَالُ الْعِبَادِ حَتَّى يَجِيءَ الرَّجُلُ فَلا يَسْتَطِيعُ السَّيْرَ إِلاَّ زَحْفًا

Their deeds will carry them (over the bridge) while your prophet is standing on the bridge saying, “My Lord, save (them), save (them).” Some servants’ deeds will hinder them so much that a man will be unable to pass over except while crawling. [Recorded by Muslim.]

And in “Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī:”

حَتَّى يَمُرَّ آخِرُهُمْ يُسْحَبُ سَحْبًا

…until the last of them crosses being dragged.[Recorded by al-Bukhārī]

The first of the prophets to cross the bridge will be Muhammad ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and the first of all religious nations will be his nation as the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

فَأَكُونُ أَنَا وَأُمَّتِي أَوَّلَ مَنْ يُجِيزُهَا ، وَلا يَتَكَلَّمُ يَوْمَئِذٍ إِلاَّ الرُّسُلُ ، وَدَعْوَى الرُّسُلِ يَوْمَئِذٍ : اللَّهُمَّ سَلِّمْ سَلِّمْ

I and my nation will be the first to be allowed to cross it. On that day, no one will speak except the messengers and the prayer of the messengers that day will be, “Oh Allah, save (us), save (us)! [Recorded by al-Bukhārī]

Ibn Taymiyyah says, “After they cross, they will stop at a bridge/platform between Paradise and the fire and they will settle any unresolved issues between themselves.”

This area is a small bridge or platform, and this settling of disagreements between them is not the major settling of affairs and retribution that occurs between people on the Day of Resurrection. Instead, this particular reconciliation is to resolve any bad feelings, grudges, or anger that may still remain in people’s hearts. So in a sense, this is a period of purification because the major settling of disagreements does not necessarily remove all feelings of resentment within people’s hearts.

So this bridge or platform between Paradise and Hell is to purify the hearts so that the believers enter Paradise having no bad feelings for one another as Allah ( تعالى ) says:

ادْخُلُوهَا بِسَلَامٍ آمِنِينَ وَنَزَعْنَا مَا فِي صُدُورِهِم مِّنْ غِلٍّ إِخْوَانًا عَلَىٰ سُرُرٍ مُّتَقَابِلِينَ

Enter it with peace, safe and secure. And we will remove whatever is in their breasts of resentment, (so they will become) brothers, on thrones facing each other.[Sūrah al-Ḥijr, 15:46-47]

About this bridge before Paradise, the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

إِذَا خَلَصَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ مِنَ النَّارِ ، حُبِسُوا بِقَنْطَرَةٍ بَيْنَ الْجَنَّةِ وَالنَّارِ ، فَيَتَقَاصُّونَ مَظَالِمَ كَانَتْ بَيْنَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا ، حَتَّى إِذَا نُقُّوا وَهُذِّبُوا أُذِنَ لَهُمْ بِدُخُولِ الْجَنَّةِ ،فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ لأَحَدُهُمْ بِمَسْكَنِهِ فِي الْجَنَّةِ أَدَلُّ بِمَنْزِلِهِ كَانَ فِي الدُّنْيَا

When the believers are delivered from the fire, they will be detained at the bridge between Paradise and the fire to settle whatever injustices may have occurred between them in life. When they have all become refined and purified, entrance into Paradise will be granted. And I swear by the one in whose hand is Muhammad’s life, each individual will recognize his home in Paradise even more so than he does his home in this life. [Recorded by al-Bukhārī]

Footnotes

[113] Recorded by by al-Bukhārī and Muslim. The wording of Muslim is above; the wording of al-Bukhārī is:

يُضْرَبُ جِسْرُ جَهَنَّمَ ، فَأَكُونُ أَوَّلَ مَنْ يُجِيزُ ، وَدُعَاءُ الرُّسُلِ يَوْمَئِذٍ : اللَّهُمَّ سَلِّمْ سَلِّمْ

The bridge of Hell will be placed and I will be the first to be permitted. The supplication of the messengers that day will be, “Oh Allah, save (us), save (us).”

[116] Recorded by Imām Aḥmad in a marfū’ form meaning some ḥadīth scholars accept it as being “raised” to the status of an actual statement of the prophet himself ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ). Imam Muslim also mentioned it in his authentic collection as a comment to another ḥadīth.

[118] This is when the disbelieving people attempted to burn Abraham for destroying their idols. About this, Allah says in Sūrah al-Anbiyā, 21:68-69:

قَالُوا حَرِّقُوهُ وَانصُرُوا آلِهَتَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ فَاعِلِينَ قُلْنَا يَا نَارُ كُونِي بَرْدًا وَسَلَامًا عَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ

They said, “Burn him and support your gods if you are to act.” We (Allah) said, “Fire, be coolness and safety upon Abraham.”

[119] The ḥadīth, recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim, is:

إِذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ رَحْمَةَ مَنْ أَرَادَ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ أَمَرَ اللَّهُ الْمَلائِكَةَ أَنْ يُخْرِجُوا مَنْ كَانَ يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ فَيُخْرِجُونَهُمْ وَيَعْرِفُونَهُمْ بِآثَارِ السُّجُودِ وَحَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَلَى النَّارِ أَنْ تَأْكُلَ أَثَرَ السُّجُودِ

When Allah wants mercy for someone from the people of the fire, he commands the angels to take out whoever used to worship Allah. So they (the angels) will recognize them by the marks of prostration because Allah has forbidden the fire from destroying the marks of prostration.

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Day of Resurrection: The Scales are Placed & Deeds are Weighed – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

The Sixth Event

The Scales are Placed & Deeds are Weighed

In one of the verses that proves the scales will be setup on the Day of Resurrection, Allah says:

فَمَن ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

And those whose scales are heavy (with good deeds), it is they who will be successful.[Sūrah al-Muminūn, 23:102]

The verse contains a conditional clause; the condition is “those whose scales are heavy“, and if that condition is met, the consequence is “it is they who will be successful.” By “scales are heavy“, what is meant is that one’s good deeds outweigh his bad. “Successful” here describes an individual who achieves what he hopes for and is saved from what he fears. So he is given safety from what he hates and rewarded with what he loves. Allah also says:

وَمَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ فِي جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدُونَ

But those whose scales are light, it is they who have lost their souls. In Hell they will abide forever. [Sūrah al-Muminūn, 23:103]

Those who do not believe in Allah will “have lost their souls.” They will lose themselves, their families, and the possessions they hold dear:

قُلْ إِنَّ الْخَاسِرِينَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَهْلِيهِمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۖ أَلا ذَلِكَ هُوَ الْخُسْرَانُ الْمُبِينُ

Say: Indeed, the losers are the ones who will lose themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection. Unquestionably, that is the clear loss.[Sūrah al-Zumar, 39:15]

But as for a believer in Allah whose behavior was righteous, he will have succeeded, gaining his soul, his family, and his possessions, having benefited from all of them. People who do not believe in Allah (or disbelieve in Allah’s “oneness”) will lose themselves because they will have not benefited from their very existence in life. In fact such people, despite what they presumably achieve in life, actually achieve no true benefit and gain only harm (in the hereafter). In a sense, they even lose their wealth in life as they gain no real benefit from it. Even when they may share it with others among creation, such charity does not benefit the givers. Allah (تعالى) says:

وَمَا مَنَعَهُمْ أَن تُقْبَلَ مِنْهُمْ نَفَقَاتُهُمْ إِلَّا أَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِاللَّهِ وَبِرَسُولِهِ

And nothing prevents their spending from being accepted from them except that they disbelieved in Allah and in his messenger.[Sūrah al-Tawbah, 9:54]

They also lose their families because their families will either be in the fire with them, or if their families are in Paradise, such disbelievers will still have lost them because they themselves will be in the fire. Any individual who dies while disbelieving in Allah will never again enjoy the company of his family. Such enjoyment will be locked out from a disbeliever as soon as he is locked in his coffin, and each one will imagine no one else is receiving a harsher punishment than he.

As for “whose scales are light“, this means his bad deeds will outweigh his good or he will have no good deeds whatsoever. This is the meaning if we accept the position that disbelievers will have their deeds weighed which seems apparent from the verse in Sūrah al-Muminūn, 23:103 and others like it. And this position is one of the two held by religious scholars. The other opinion, that disbelievers will not have their deeds weighed, is the second position and it is based on the verses:

قُلْ هَلْ نُنَبِّئُكُم بِالْأَخْسَرِينَ أَعْمَالً الَّذِينَ ضَلَّ سَعْيُهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ يُحْسِنُونَ صُنْعًا أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ وَلِقَائِهِ فَحَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فَلَا نُقِيمُ لَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَزْنًا

Say: Shall we inform you of the greatest losers as to (their) deeds? Those whose effort is lost in the worldly life while they thought they were doing good work. Those are the ones who disbelieve in the verses of their Lord and in (their) meeting him. So their deeds have become worthless, and we will not assign to them on the Day of Resurrection any weight. [Sūrah al-Kahf, 18:103-105]

As for the two positions, whether disbelievers will have their deeds weighed or not, Allah knows best which is correct.

The Arabic word for scales used in some verses, ( مَوَازِيْن mawāzīn), has been reported in other texts in both the singular and plural forms. As for the plural form, Allah (تعالى) says:

وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَازِينَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فَلَا تُظْلَمُ نَفْسٌ شَيْئًا

And we place the scales of justice for the Day of Resurrection, so no soul will be treated unjustly in any way. [Sūrah al-Anbiyā, 21:47]

And:

وَالْوَزْنُ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْحَقُّ ۚ فَمَن ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ وَمَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُم بِمَا كَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يَظْلِمُونَ

And the weighing (of deeds) that day will be true. So those whose scales are heavy, it is they who will be successful. And those whose scales are light, they will lose themselves for what injustice they were doing toward our verses. [Sūrah al-‘Arāf, 7:8-9]

As for the singular form, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

كَلِمَتَانِ حَبِيبَتَانِ إِلَى الرَّحْمَنِ خَفِيفَتَانِ عَلَى اللِّسَانِ ثَقِيلَتَانِ فِي الْمِيزَانِ : سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ الْعَظِيمِ

There are two statements beloved to the Most Merciful, light on the tongue but heavy on the scale: “Glorified is Allah and all thanks are for him,” and “Glorified is Allah the greatest.” [59]

In this ḥadīth, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) mentioned the singular form, ( مِيْزَان mīzān), “scale.” So how do we understand the Quran verses which mention “scales” and this ḥadīth which mentions “scale?”

Perhaps it is mentioned in the plural form only as a way of speaking about what is weighed – deeds – which is plural. Then it is mentioned in the ḥadīth in singular form because the scale is actually one. It could also be because perhaps there is one scale for each nation or even that the prophet meant “heavy in weight” when he said, “heavy on the scale.”

However, what is apparent—and Allah knows best—is that the scale is actually one but is mentioned in plural form with regards to what is weighed (i.e., deeds). This linguistic usage can also be seen in the verse:

… فَمَن ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ

So those whose scales are heavy…[Sūrah al-A’rāf, 7:8]

In this verse, it is not actually the scales that are heavy, rather it is a form of Arabic speech in which one word (e.g. scales) is used to mean another word relating to the former (e.g. deeds).

There is a related issue but one into which people have not delved: Will there be a single scale setup for all nations, all mankind, or will there be one for each nation (e.g., one for Muhammad’s nation, one for Jesus’ nation, one for Moses’, etc.)? This question may be relevant because some texts indicate the rewards for deeds vary for different nations. [61]

These texts, taken at face value, are apparent in that the scale will be real and tangible as this is exactly how the word “scale” is commonly understood. This is because the principle of understanding religious texts reported in the Quran or Sunnah is that they are to be understood upon the commonly known, real and actual meanings of their words unless there is clear evidence that they should be understood differently (i.e. metaphorically). The commonly understood meaning to all Muslim teachers, writers, and lecturers ever since the Quran was revealed up until today is that the scale is real. However, some misguided sects have differed in understanding. For example, those who incorrectly believe any texts can be figurative, having metaphorical meanings instead of what the words actually mean, they claim that there will not be a real scale setup on the Day of Resurrection. They insist that there is really no need for an actual scale to weigh actions because Allah already knows the deeds of his servants and their worth. Instead, they claim that “scale” is allegorical and it really means Allah’s “fairness” or “justice.”

No doubt, the claim of such people is incorrect because it contradicts the outward, apparent meaning of the word and the consensus of all the righteous predecessors who understood the word to mean what the word actually means – scale. If we say the meaning is figurative and it really means fairness or justice, then there is little meaning in the several texts which mention “scale,” they would simply say “justice” (as other texts do) because the characteristics of fairness and justice are closer to and speak more directly to people’s souls than the word “scale” anyway. For this reason, Allah says:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالْإِحْسَانِ

Indeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct.[Sūrah al-Naḥl, 16:90]

The correct understanding is to take the word “scale” on its intended, actual meaning. We say that the correct understanding is the same one revealed – scale. The “Ḥadīth of the Card” (to be mentioned soon) also proves that it is a real, actual scale with weighing pans. This ḥadīth mentions that scrolls of bad deeds placed in one pan will be lighter than a single card placed in the other pan which will be heavier. So it is clear, what is correct is what was revealed – the scale is real.

The actions of the servants will then be weighed. And with that, there are two points of discussion.

The first point is this: How will deeds be weighed when it is known that a deed is simply a description or action of the one who performed it, and a deed has no physical form? The answer is that Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) will make these deeds into actual, physical forms. This should not be unbelievably strange when considering the capability of Allah (عزّ وجل). As an analogy, death will be made into the form of a ram on the Day of Judgment and it will be slaughtered between Paradise and Hell [63] while death now is simply a concept and not a physical form. And to clarify a side-note, the Angel of Death is not the one slaughtered here; it is actually death that Allah (تعالى) will make into a physical form everyone will witness and see. Similarly, Allah (عزّ وجل)جلwill turn deeds into actual forms that will be actually weighed with this actual scale.

The second point: Deeds will actually be weighed, both good and bad. This is the apparent understanding as Allah (تعالى) says in the Quran:

يَوْمَئِذٍ يَصْدُرُ النَّاسُ أَشْتَاتًا لِّيُرَوْا أَعْمَالَهُمْ  فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ

That day, people will depart, separated (into categories) to be shown their deeds. So whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it, and whoever does an atom’s weight of evil will see it. [Sūrah al-Zalzalah, 99:6-8]

So it is clear that deeds will really be weighed whether they are good or bad. Also, as has previously been mentioned, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)said, “There are two statements beloved to the Most Merciful, light on the tongue but heavy on the scale…” This ḥadīth is also clear, even explicit, in that actions will actually be given form and weight and then weighed, and there are several other texts that prove this.

However, there are other reliable texts that indicate that it may not be the actual deeds weighed but rather the records of deeds. An example of this type is the “Ḥadīth of the Card” in which the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

« إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَيُخَلِّصُ رَجُلاً مِنْ أُمَّتِي عَلَى رُءُوسِ الْخَلائِقِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فَيَنْشُرُ عَلَيْهِ تِسْعَةً وَتِسْعِينَ سِجِلاًّ كُلُّ سِجِلٍّ مِثْلُ مَدِّ الْبَصَرِ ثُمَّ يَقُولُ.: أَتُنْكِرُ مِنْ هَذَا شَيْئًا ؟ أَظَلَمَكَ كَتَبَتِي الْحَافِظُونَ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : لا يَا رَبِّ ، فَيَقُولُ : أَفَلَكَ عُذْرٌ ؟ فَيَقُولُ : لا يَا رَبِّ ، فَيَقُولُ : بَلَى إِنَّ لَكَ عِنْدَنَا حَسَنَةً فَإِنَّهُ لا ظُلْمَ عَلَيْكَ الْيَوْمَ ، فَتَخْرُجُ بِطَاقَةٌ فِيهَا أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ، فَيَقُولُ : احْضُرْ وَزْنَكَ ، فَيَقُولُ : يَا رَبِّ مَا هَذِهِ الْبِطَاقَةُ مَعَ هَذِهِ السِّجِلاَّتِ ؟ فَقَالَ : إِنَّكَ لا تُظْلَمُ ، قَالَ : فَتُوضَعُ السِّجِلاَّتُ فِي كَفَّةٍ وَالْبِطَاقَةُ فِي كَفَّةٍ فَطَاشَتْ السِّجِلاَّتُ وَثَقُلَتْ الْبِطَاقَةُ فَلا يَثْقُلُ مَعَ اسْمِ اللَّهِ شَيْءٌ »

Allah will single out a man from my nation at the head of all the creations on the Day of Resurrection. Ninety-nine scrolls (of bad deeds) will be spread out before him, each as far as the eye can see. He will be asked, “Do you deny doing any of this? Did my recording, guardian angels wrong you in any way?” The man will answer, “No, my Lord.” He will be asked, “Do you have any excuse?” to which he will again reply, “No, my Lord.” It will then be said, “Rather you certainly do have a good deed with us and there will be no injustice on you today.” A card will then be brought out, written on it: “I testify there is nothing deserving of worship but Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is his servant and messenger.” The man will be told, “Present yourself for your weighing.” He will ask, “My Lord, what is this card compared to all these scrolls (of bad deeds)?” He (Allah) will tell him, “You will certainly not be wronged.” So the scrolls will be placed in one pan (of the scale) and the card in the other, and the scrolls will be lighter and the card heavier as nothing is heavier than the name of Allah.

[Recorded by al-Tirmidhī, Ibn Mājah, and Aḥmad. al-Albānī said it is authentic in his “Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan al-Tirmidhī” (no.2127)]

From this ḥadīth, it is apparent that it is the written records of deeds weighed instead of the deeds themselves.

There are other texts that indicate what is weighed is the person who does the deeds. For example, Allah says:

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ وَلِقَائِهِ فَحَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فَلَا نُقِيمُ لَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَزْنًا

Those are the ones who disbelieve in the verses of their Lord and in (their) meeting with him, so their deeds have become worthless. And we will not assign to them on the Day of Resurrection any weight.[Sūrah al-Kahf, 18:105]

But it has been said that the meaning of “weight” in the verse could mean “significance” or “importance” instead of weight. Another indication that it may be the person himself that is weighed is the ḥadīth of Abū Hurayrah ( رضي الله عنه)in which he narrated that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

« إِنَّهُ لَيَأْتِي الرَّجُلُ الْعَظِيمُ السَّمِينُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لا يَزِنُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ جَنَاحَ بَعُوضَةٍ »

A huge, fat man will be brought on the Day of Resurrection and he will not weigh in the sight of Allah even as much as a gnat’s wing [Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim]

The understanding that it is the person who will be weighed is also indicated by the ḥadīth of Ibn Mas’ūd ( رضي الله عنه)when he was once trying to break a siwāk branch from a tree. He used to have thin legs and the wind blew and started to move him. Because of this, other companions ( رضي الله عنه)مbegan laughing at him. So the prophet ( صلّى الله ) عليه وسلّمasked them, “What are you laughing at?” They answered, “At the skinniness of his legs.”

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)then said:

« وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ ، لَهُمَا أَثْقَلُ فِي الْمِيزَانِ مِنْ أُحُدٍ »

I swear by the one in who hand is my soul (Allah), they (his legs) are both heavier in the scale than Mt. Uḥud. [Recorded by Aḥmad (1/421) and al-Albānī classed its chain of narrators as ḥasan in “Sharḥ al-A’qīdah al-Ṭaḥāwiyyah.]

So to conclude, we have texts indicating three things that will be weighed in the scale: the deeds, the records of deeds, and the person who performed the deeds.

Some scholars said the way to understand these together is simply that some people will have their deeds weighed, some will have their records of deeds weighed, and others will be weighed themselves. Other scholars said that when texts mention deeds being weighed, what is really meant is the records of deeds, and as for a person being weighed, this is specific to certain individuals.

Other scholars have combined these texts with the understanding that in reality only the records of deeds are weighed, but they will be heavy or light based on the merit and greatness of the deeds written in them. So in essence, it is as if the deeds are weighed. But after reflecting on the texts relevant to this issue, we find most of them indicate that it is the deeds that are weighed. Yet some people will be exclusively chosen to have their records of deeds weighed or even the individual himself. As far as the ḥadīth of Ibn Mas’ūd or the “Ḥadīth of the Card,” it could be that these are specific situations for which Allah chooses whomever he wants from his servants.

So the scales are placed, people’s deeds are weighed, then the books of deeds are distributed.

Footnotes:

[59] Recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim. The transliteration of these two statements:

سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ الْعَظِيمِ

SubḥānAllahi al-‘Aẓīm SubḥānAllahi wa biḥamdihi
Glorified is Allah the greatest Glorified is Allah and all thanks are for him

Another ḥadīth which mentions “scale” in the singular form and indicates the greatness of this scale is classified as authentic by al-Albānī in “Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥīḥah” (no. 941). In it, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) said:

« يُوْضَعُ المِيْزَانُ يَوْمَ القِيَامَةِ فَلَوْ وَزِنَ فِيْهِ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ لَوَسَعَتْ فَتَقُوْلُ المَلائِكَةُ : يَا رَبّ لِمَنْ يَزِنَ هَذَا ؟ فَيَقُوْلُ اللهُ تَعَالَى : لِمَنْ شِئْتُ مِنْ خَلْقِي . فَتَقُوْلُ المَلائِكَةُ : سُبْحَانَكَمَا عَبَدْنَاكَ حَقَّ عِبَادَتِكَ . وَيُوْضَعُ الصِّرَاطُ مِثْلَ حَدِّ المُوْسَى فَتَقُوْلُ المَلائِكَةُ : مَنْ تَجِيْزُ عَلَى هَذَا ؟ فَيَقُوْلُ : مَنْ شِئْتُ مِنْ خَلْقِيْ . فَيَقُوْلُوْنَ : سُبْحَانَكَمَا عَبَدْنَاكَ حَقَّ عِبَادَتِكَ »

The scale will be set up on the Day of Resurrection, and if the heavens and the earth were to be weighed in it, it would be sufficient to hold them. The angels will ask, “Oh Lord, who is this for?” Allah will reply, “For whomsoever I want among my creations.” The angels will then say, “Glory to you, we have not worshipped you as you rightfully deserve to be worshipped.” And the bridge will be placed (over Hell) and it will be like the edge of a razor. The angels will ask Allah, “Who will be saved from this?” to which Allah will again reply, “Whomsoever I want among my creations.” They will say, “Glory to you, we have not worshipped you as you rightfully deserve to be worshipped.”

[61] One example of such texts is the ḥadīth recorded by al-Bukhārī in which the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)said comparing Muslims to Jews and Christians:

« مَثَلُكُمْ وَمَثَلُ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابَيْنِ كَمَثَلِ رَجُلٍ اسْتَأْجَرَ أُجَرَاءَ فَقَالَ : مَنْ يَعْمَلُ لِي مِنْ غُدْوَةَ إِلَى نِصْفِ النَّهَارِ عَلَى قِيرَاطٍ ؟ فَعَمِلَتْ الْيَهُودُ ، ثُمَّ قَالَ : مَنْ يَعْمَلُ لِي مِنْ نِصْفِ النَّهَارِ إِلَى صَلاةِ الْعَصْرِ عَلَى قِيرَاطٍ ؟ فَعَمِلَتْ النَّصَارَى ، ثُمَّ قَالَ : مَنْ يَعْمَلُ لِي مِنْ الْعَصْرِ إِلَى أَنْ تَغِيبَ الشَّمْسُ عَلَى قِيرَاطَيْنِ ؟ فَأَنْتُمْ هُمْ ، فَغَضِبَتْ الْيَهُودُ وَالنَّصَارَى فَقَالُوا : مَا لَنَا أَكْثَرَ عَمَلاً وَأَقَلَّ عَطَاءً ؟ قَالَ : هَلْ نَقَصْتُكُمْ مِنْ حَقِّكُمْ ؟ قَالُوا : لا ، قَالَ : فَذَلِكَ فَضْلِي أُوتِيهِ مَنْ أَشَاءُ »

Your example compared to those of the two former scriptures can be likened to a man who hires a number of laborers. He asks, “Who will work for me from morning until midday for a certain sum?” The Jews are the ones to work at this time. Then he asks, “Who will work from midday to the late afternoon for the same sum?” The Christians are the ones to work at this time. Then he asks, “Who will work from the late afternoon until sunset for double that sum?” You (Muslims) are these people. This angers the Jews and Christians who ask, “Why did we have to work more only to receive less?” He answers, “Have you been cheated of any of your rights?” They answer, “No.” He then says, “This is my favor that I give to whom I please.”

[63] The proof is the ḥadīth recorded by al-Bukhārī and Muslim in which the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)said:

« يُؤْتَى بِالْمَوْتِ كَهَيْئَةِ كَبْشٍ أَمْلَحَ فَيُنَادِي مُنَادٍ : يَا أَهْلَ الْجَنَّةِ ، فَيَشْرَئِبُّونَ وَيَنْظُرُونَ ، فَيَقُولُ : هَلْ تَعْرِفُونَ هَذَا ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ : نَعَمْ هَذَا الْمَوْتُ ، وَكُلُّهُمْ قَدْ رَآهُ ، ثُمَّ يُنَادِي : يَا أَهْلَ النَّارِ ، فَيَشْرَئِبُّونَ وَيَنْظُرُونَ ، فَيَقُولُ : هَلْ تَعْرِفُونَ هَذَا ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ : نَعَمْ هَذَا الْمَوْتُ ، وَكُلُّهُمْ قَدْ رَآهُ ، فَيُذْبَحُ ، ثُمَّ يَقُولُ : يَا أَهْلَ الْجَنَّةِ خُلُودٌ فَلا مَوْتَ وَيَا أَهْلَ النَّارِ خُلُودٌ فَلا مَوْتَ ، ثُمَّ قَرَأَ : “وَأَنْذِرْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْحَسْرَةِ إِذْ قُضِيَ الأَمْرُ وَهُمْ فِي غَفْلَةٍ “وَهَؤُلاءِ فِي غَفْلَةٍ أَهْلُ الدُّنْيَا “وَهُمْ لا يُؤْمِنُونَ »”

Death will be brought in the form of a black and white ram and a caller will call out, “Oh people of Paradise!” and they will stretch their necks and look. They will be asked, “Do you know what this is?” to which they will answer, “Yes, that is death,” and each of them will be able to see it. Then it will be called out, “Oh people of Hell!” They will also stretch out their necks and look. They will be asked, “Do you know what this is?” and they too will say, “Yes, it is death,” and each of them will see it. It will then be slaughtered. Then it will be said, “Oh people of Paradise, eternity and no death. Oh people of Hell, eternity and no death.”

Then the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)recited:

وَأَنْذِرْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْحَسْرَةِ إِذْ قُضِيَ الأَمْرُ وَهُمْ فِي غَفْلَةٍ

And warn them of the Day of Regret, when the matter will be concluded. And yet they are in heedlessness.

He then said, “And these people are headless, people of this life,” and finished the verse:

وَهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

And they do not believe. [Sūrah Maryam, 19:39]

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

Related Links:

Sunan an-Nasaaee & Imam an-Nasaaee – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

“Sunan an-Nasaaee”

an-Nasaaee authored a collection which he titled: “as-Sunan al-Kubraa” in which he gathered authentic Hadeeth as well as those with defects in their chains. He then summarized his collection which is known as “as-Sunan as-Sughraa” although he actually called it “al-Mujtabaa”.

In this summarized collection, he gathered only those Hadeeth which he considered to be authentic; it is this collection that is referred to when a Hadeeth is generally attributed to anNasaaee. “al-Mujtabaa” has the least number of weak Hadeeth out of the other four collections (excluding “Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” and “Saheeh Muslim”). It also contains the least amount of chains including narrators that have been criticized (regarding their Hadeeth narrating). It occupies a status right after “Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” and “Saheeh Muslim”. From the point of only relying upon narrators that are completely void of any criticism, this collection exceeds “Sunan Abu Daawood” and “Sunan at-Tirmithee” due to an-Nasaaee’s severe scrutiny of narrators within his writings. al-Haafith Ibn Hajar said, “How numerous are the narrators that Abu Daawood and atTirmithee relied on, yet an-Nasaaee shunned recording their Hadeeth. He even avoided recording Hadeeth from some of the narrators relied upon in the two authentic collections (“Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” and “Saheeh Muslim”).”

In summary, the conditions of an-Nasaaee in “al-Mujtabaa” are the strongest after the two authentic collections.

an-Nasaaee

He is ‘Abdur-Rahmaan Ahmad Ibn Shu’ayb Ibn ‘Alee an-Nasaaee, and it is said his name is anNaswee, referring to Nasa, a famous place in Khuraasaan. He was born in 215 Hijrah in Nasa. He then traveled in search of Hadeeth, eventually hearing from and studying from the people of the Hijaaz (lands such as Syria, Palestine, etc.), Khuraasaan, ash-Shaam, the Arabian Peninsula and other lands. He resided for a long time in Egypt and his writings spread throughout there. Later he journeyed to Damascus where he met with trials and tribulations. He died in 303 Hijrah in Ramlah, Palestine when he was eighty-three years old.

He left behind him many great works of Hadeeth and the study of their defects. May Allaah have mercy on him and reward him on behalf of his contribution to the Muslims.

Source: Biographies of the Famous Hadeeth Scholars and an Introduction to Their Collections – Shaykh Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) | Translated by: Abu az-Zubayr Harrison (rahimahullaah)

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The Sun will be brought near on the Day of Qiyaamah – Shaykh Uthaymeen

 

Bismillaah

Day of Resurrection
The Third Event

The Sun is Brought Near

The sun will be brought near to mankind, as close as a “mile,” the Arabic word used for mile here being مِيْل (mīl). Whether it is the mile we know to be the common unit of distance or the eye-pencil to apply kohl (as the word could imply in Arabic), whatever the case the sun will be very close to people.[29] If the sun’s heat is as we know it here in this life while there is such a great distance between it and us, then how will it be when it is a “mile” above our heads?

Here is a question: It is well-known that if the sun were to move even a hair from its position, it would burn the earth, incinerating it completely. So how is it possible on that day for the sun to be that close and not burn creation? The answer is that although people will be resurrected on that day with their previous bodies, they may not be recreated in the same exact state and with the same capability as they have now. Rather, they will be stronger and greater in what they can withstand.

For example, if people were to remain for fifty days in direct sunshine with no shade, no food, and no water, they would be unable to do so; they would die. But on the Day of Resurrection, they will remain in such a state for fifty thousand years [30] without food,water, or shade except those to whom Allah ( عزّ وجلّ ) shades. In addition, they will witness other terrifying events but they will be made to withstand them.

As an example of this greater capability to bear situations without dying, look at how the people of the fire will withstand such seemingly unbearable circumstances:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِنَا سَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِمْ نَارًا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتْ جُلُودُهُم بَدَّلْنَاهُمْ جُلُودًا غَيْرَهَا لِيَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ

Indeed, those who disbelieve in our verses, we will drive them into a fire. Every time their skins are roasted through, we will replace them with other skins so they may taste the punishment. [Surah An-Nisa 4:56]

Will anyone be saved from the heat of the sun on the Day of Resurrection? Yes, there are types of people whom Allah will shade from the sun. The prophet ( صلّى اللّه عليه وسلّم ) said:

There are seven (types of people) whom Allah will shade in his shade on a day when there will be no shade except his shade: a just ruler; a youth who grew up in the worship of Allah; a man whose heart is attached to the mosques; people who love each other for Allah’s sake, meeting for his sake and parting for his sake; a man who is called by a woman of beauty and position (for adultery), but he says: “(No) I fear Allah;” a man who gives in charity and hides it so much so that his left hand does not know what his right hand gives in charity; and a man who remembered Allah in private so much that his eyes shed tears. [Recorded by al-Bukhārī, Muslim, and al-Tirmidhī]

There are also other types of individuals Allah will shade on that day. And by, “when there will be no shade except his shade,” it means no shade except the shade Allah creates. And it is not as some people think that it is the shade of Allah himself because that would necessitate that the sun would be above Allah ( عزّ وجلّ)

In this life, we can take shelter in shade ourselves, but on the Day of Resurrection, there will be no shade except the shade Allah ( سبحانه وتعالى ) makes so that whoever he wills can take shelter in his shade when the sun is brought near.

Due to the closeness of the sun, people will sweat so much that it will rise.

The Fourth Event

The Sweat Rises

Because of the sun’s heat, people will sweat profusely in proportion to their deeds. For some, the sweat will rise to their ankles, some to their knees, some to their waists, and for some, the sweat will rise up to their mouths. So individuals will be at different levels regarding their sweat. They will sweat from the intense heat and the extremely uncomfortable situation: crowdedness, extreme hardships, and at close distance to the sun. Still, although people will sweat from the circumstances of that day, their sweat will only be according to their deeds in this life. [33]

Here is a question: How will they be of varying degrees in sweat if people are all together in one place? To answer, we must return to a basic principle of belief. It is that when dealing with affairs of the unseen, events that authentic texts confirm will take place in the future, it is incumbent upon us to believe in them, trusting them to be true without persisting in asking, “How? Why?” These are things beyond the extent of our own intellects; it is not yet possible for us to perceive or fully understand it.

Imagine two people buried in a single grave, one a believer and the other a disbeliever. The believer will still experience the enjoyment that he deserves, and the disbeliever will experience the punishment he deserves even though they are in the same grave. Likewise, we believe the sweat will rise on the Day of Judgment as foretold.

Now are we saying that Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) will gather together someone whose sweat will reach his mouth in a particular place, someone with sweat to his ankles in a different place, and others with sweat rising to their knees or waist in other places? No, not necessarily but Allah knows best. What we are saying is that it is possible for the individual with sweat reaching only to his ankles to be next to someone with his sweat up to his mouth because Allah is capable of doing anything. This is comparable to the fact that light will encompass believers all around them, yet at the same time, disbelievers in Allah will be surrounded by darkness.

So regarding the Day of Resurrection, we must believe in it and all that is to occur on that day. As for the “How?” and “Why?” of the exact nature, that is not our right to know. As people suffer on the Day of Resurrection, standing in their own sweat, they will anxiously wait for judgment to begin. And this will only occur by “The Greatest Intercession.”

Footnotes:

[29] The prophet ( صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ) said in the ḥadīth recorded by Muslim confirming this:

» تُدْنَى الشَّمْسُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مِنْ الْخَلْقِ حَتَّى تَكُونَ مِنْهُمْ كَمِقْدَارِ مِيلٍ «

On the Day of Resurrection, the sun will be brought close to creation so much that it will be a “mile” from them.

One of the narrators of the ḥadīth, Sulaym Ibn ‘Āmir, said, “By Allah, I do not know if he meant by mīl the distance of land or the mīl that is used to apply kohl to the eye.”

[30] The scholar is perhaps alluding to the verse in Sūrah al-Ma’ārij (70:4) in which Allah says,

تَعْرُجُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ

The angels and the spirit will ascend to him during a day the extent of which is fifty thousand years.

Also, the prophet ( صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) said in a ḥadīth recorded by Muslim:

مَا مِنْ صَاحِبِ كَنْزٍ لا يُؤَدِّي زَكَاتَهُ إِلاَّ أُحْمِيَ عَلَيْهِ فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ فَيُجْعَلُ صَفَائِحَ فَيُكْوَى بِهَا جَنْبَاهُ وَجَبِينُهُ حَتَّى يَحْكُمَ اللَّهُ بَيْنَ عِبَادِهِ فِي  يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ ثُمَّ يَرَى سَبِيلَهُ إِمَّا إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَإِمَّا إِلَى النَّارِ

There is no owner of treasure who does not pay its zakāh (obligated charity), but it will be heated in the fire of Hell and made into plates with which his sides and forehead will be branded until Allah passes judgment between his slaves on a day the length of which will be like fifty thousand years. Then he will be shown his path, whether it leads to Paradise or to Hell.

[33] This is established by the ḥadīth recorded by Muslim in which the prophet ( صلّى اللّه عليه وسلّم ) said:

فَيَكُونُ النَّاسُ عَلَى قَدْرِ أَعْمَالِهِمْ فِي الْعَرَقِ ، فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَكُونُ إِلَى كَعْبَيْهِ ، وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَكُونُ إِلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ ، وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَكُونُ إِلَى حَقْوَيْهِ ، وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يُلْجِمُهُ الْعَرَقُ إِلْجَامًا

The people will be in sweat in accordance with their deeds. For some, it will rise to their ankles, some to their knees, some to their waists, and for some of them, the sweat will reach their mouths.

Posted from the article : The Resurrection, A Summary of Events to Occur – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullaah | Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison rahimahullaah

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Two Points of Interest Regarding “Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” & “Saheeh Muslim” – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Bismillaah

The First Point:

It should not be understood that “Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” and “Saheeh Muslim” encompass every authentically reported statement of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم). Rather, there are many authentic Hadeeth collected by other scholars that neither one of them (al-Bukhaaree & Muslim) recorded in their collections.

an-Nawawee said:

“The intent of both al-Bukhaaree and Muslim was only to collect a large number of authentic Hadeeth just as a book of Fiqh [2] may collect texts pertaining to many different issues, not encompass every possible issue. However, if there is a Hadeeth having an authentic chain of narration that one of them may have left out, or even both of them, then they would have had a reason to do so or they may have recorded a similar Hadeeth in its place. From what is well-known from them, it may be assumed that perhaps they felt it better not to record it, or perhaps they even forgot. They also may have left certain Hadeeth out in order not to make their collections even longer than they are, or they felt what they have recorded was sufficient pertaining to a certain topic. They may have had other reasons as well.”

The Second Point:

Scholars unanimously agree and consider “Saheeh al-Bukhaaree” and “Saheeh Muslim” to be the most authentic written works of Hadeeth. Regarding this, the famous scholar, Ibn Taymiyyah, said, “There is no Hadeeth they both agree to be authentic except that it is undoubtedly authentic.” He also said, “The vast majority of their narrations, the scholars of Hadeeth know with certainty that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) actually said them.”

Footnotes:

[2] Fiqh: The knowledge of practical legislated Islaamic rulings by their related detailed proofs. – Shaykh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen, “al-Usool min ‘Ilm al-Usool” pg. 7. – T.N.

Source: Biographies of the Famous Hadeeth Scholars and an Introduction to Their Collections – Shaykh Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) | Translated by: Abu az-Zubayr Harrison (rahimahullaah)

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Allaah (تعالى ) said: “I Have Forbidden Oppression” – Explained by Shaykh Utahymeen

Title: “I Have Forbidden Oppression”
شرح األربعني النبوييه :Title Original
Author: Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn

The Ḥadīth

Abū Dharr al-Ghifārī (رضي الله عنه) reported that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) narrated that his lord said:

“Oh my servants, I have forbidden oppression even for myself, and I have made it forbidden among you as well, so do not oppress one another.”

The Explanation

Allah says, “Oh my servants, I have made oppression forbidden even for myself,” and He (Azza wa Jal) may make something forbidden upon himself because the decision is His. As for us, we make nothing forbidden for Him, but He may forbid something upon Himself as he wishes just as He may obligate and decree something upon Himself.

Read the statement of Allah (تعالى ) :

Say, “To who belongs whatever is in the heavens and earth?” Say, “To Allah.” He has decreed upon himself mercy.[4]

And he pledged upon himself:

“My mercy surpasses my anger.” [5]

Allah has also made oppression forbidden among us as he says, “And I have made it forbidden among you as well.” This includes a person oppressing himself or others. However, the second meaning is more apparent as he then says, “So do not oppress one another.” Meaning: None of you may oppress another individual. Still, it is known that oppression may occur against oneself or against another;

Allah says:

“And we did not oppress them, but they oppressed themselves.” [6]

The Arabic word for oppression, ظُلْم ẓulm, often revolves around failing to give someone else his or her rights or it could linguistically mean “shortcomings” as in the following verse as Allah says:

“Each of the two gardens produced its fruit and did not fall short thereof in anything.”[7]

This understanding of oppression—failing to give others their rights—is of two types: 1) refusing to fulfill an obligation to another person, and 2) unlawfully forcing another person to do something which he should not have to do.

An example of the first type would be if you were to refuse to repay a debt to someone or to even postpone payment based on the prophet’s statement (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) :

“A rich person’s (one with means to repay) postponement (of repaying) is oppression.” [8]

And an example of the second type would be if you claimed someone owed you something and you deceitfully produced evidence of the claim so that the individual was forced to pay – this is oppression.

Question: By Allah’s command, “So do not oppress one another,” is there any exception to this order?

Answer: No, oppression is forbidden under all circumstances, no exceptions.

Question: Is it permissible for us to take the wealth or possessions of the Muā’had? [9]

Answer: No, it is neither permissible for us to take the wealth and possessions of those with whom we have an understood agreement of peace, nor is it permissible for us to take their blood. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

Whoever murders a Muā’had will not even smell the fragrance of Paradise although its fragrance can be smelled from forty years away. [10]

We ask Allah for his help.

By this, we know the extent of the aggression, oppression, and utter misguidance of those arrogant individuals who hostilely transgress in taking the wealth and possessions of Muā’had unbelievers regardless of whether they are non-Muslims living peacefully with you in your land or if you were in their lands. We hear of some youths in non-Muslim lands claiming there is nothing wrong with taking wealth or ruining the possessions of disbelievers. You find them breaking street lights, destroying shops, and smashing cars. This is impermissible in Islam. Glorified is Allah! A nation of people accepts you as guests into their lands, you are under their authority and their agreement of trust and yet you betray them. This is the severest form of misrepresenting and dishonoring Islam; it is slandering and disgracing Islam.

But the dishonor and disgrace is not actually against Islam. Rather it is against those individuals themselves – those who claim ascription to Islam. For that, it is incumbent to know that the wealth of non-Muslims under a trust or agreement of peace is sacred regardless of whether they are living peacefully among you or you with them in their lands. It is forbidden to show aggression and hostility against them because that is oppression.

Footnotes:

[1]This article is taken from selected parts of Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn’s explanation of ḥadīth twenty-four of the famous forty-two ḥadīth collection by Imām an-Nawawī known as “al-‘Arba’īn al-Nawawī” or “Nawawī’s Forty (Ḥadīth).”

[2] This ḥadīth is actually much longer but only this portion is explained herein for brevity and for the article’s focus on the topic of oppression.

[3] Recorded by Muslim (no. 2577), Aḥmad (5/153, 160, 177), al-Tirmidhī (no. 2495), and Ibn Mājah (no. 4257).

[4] The Quran, Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:12.

[5] This is a ḥadīth qudsī recorded by Muslim, al-Bukhārī, al-Nasāī, and Ibn Mājah. In the text of Muslim, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )said :

When Allah created the creation, He pledged upon Himself in his book which is with him over his throne, “My mercy certainly overcomes my anger.”

[6] The Quran, Sūrah Hūd, 11:101.

[7] The Quran, Sūrah al-Kahf, 18:33.

[8] Recorded by al-Bukhārī (no. 2166) and Muslim (no. 1564).

[9] Translator’s Note: Muā’had refers to non-Muslims with whom Muslims have a stated or understood agreement of peace. This may be in the form of official documents (such as entry visas into one another’s countries) or the lack of any official, government-sponsored declaration of war. Thus, the actions of today’s Muslim terrorists, as they declare whole groups or nations of non-Muslims as enemy combatants as they see fit, are neither Islamic nor are they in conjunction with the ḥadīth above (and many other Islamic texts), and Allah knows best.

[10] Recorded by al-Bukhārī (no. 3166).

Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison hafidhahullaah

Posted from Original PDF:
http://authentic-translations.com/trans-pub/ae_misau_12.pdf

Fearing Others Besides Allah – Shaykh Abdur-Rahman Ibn Hasan Ali-Shaykh

Title: Fearing Others Besides Allah
Original Title: فتح المجيد
Original Author: ‘Abdur-Raḥmān Ibn Ḥasan Āli-Shaykh
Translator: Abu az-Zubayr Harrison ( hafidhahullaah)

Contents:

The First Verse: That is only Satan who frightens (you) of his supporters
The Types of Fearing Others Besides Allah
The Second Verse: The mosques of Allah are only to be maintained by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day
The Third Verse: “And of mankind are some who say, “We believe in Allah,” but if they are made to suffer for the sake of Allah…”
The Ḥadīth: “Whoever seeks the pleasure of Allah by angering people, Allah will suffice him regarding people.”

The First Verse:

Allah (تعالى ) says:

That is only Satan who frightens (you) of his supporters. So do not fear them, but fear Me, if you are indeed believers. [1]

Fear is one of the most dignified and important religious principles. Fear of Allah summarizes all forms of worship which must be made solely and sincerely for Allah.

Allah says (about His messengers):

And they, from fearing Him, are frightened. [2]

And He (تعالى ) says (about the angels):

They fear their Lord above them.[3]

And He (تعالى ) says (about the believers):

But whoever has feared standing before his Lord will have two gardens.[4]

And:

So fear only Me.[5]

And Allah says:

So do not fear people, but fear Me. [6]

There are many verses in the Quran similar to these.

Fear of other than Allah can be divided into three types.

1. The first type of fear is an inward, spiritual fear. This type is the religious fear one has of other than Allah such as fearing idols and false gods, being afraid that they may afflict him with something he dislikes. An example is the verse in which Allah narrated that the people of Prophet Hūd said to him:

“We only say that some of our gods have possessed you with evil.” He said, “Indeed, I call Allah to witness, and you witness yourselves, that I am free from whatever you associate with Allah.” [7]

Allah also says about this type of fear:

And they threaten you with those (they worship) other than Him. [8]

This is exactly the same type of fear those who worship grave inhabitants have as well as idol worshippers; such people fear these false gods. They threaten the people who believe only in Allah with the punishment of such false deities when the believers criticize their misplaced worship, encouraging them to instead sincerely worship Allah alone. This type of fear completely invalidates tawḥīd – the worship of Allah alone.

2. The second type of fearing others besides Allah is when one chooses not to do what he is religiously obligated to do out of fear of other people. This type of fear is impermissible and it is a form of associating others with Allah which contradicts complete tawḥīd. And it is this type of fear for which the opening verse was revealed; Allah (تعالى ) says:

Those to whom hypocrites said, “The people have certainly gathered against you, so fear them.” But it (only) increased them in faith and they said, “Sufficient for us is Allah and (He is) the best disposer of affairs.” So they returned with favor from Allah and bounty, no harm having touched them. They pursued the pleasure of Allah, and Allah is the possessor of great bounty. That is only Satan who frightens (you) of his supporters. So do not fear them, but fear Me, if you are indeed believers. [9]

Similarly, in a ḥadīth

Allah (تعالى ) will ask a worshipper on the Day of Resurrection, “What prevented you, when you saw some wrongdoing, from changing it?” The person will answer, “My Lord, the fear of people.” He will say, “I was more deserving that you fear Me.” [10]

3. The third type of fearing others besides Allah is the natural fear. It is the instinctive fear of an enemy, a wild animal, or similar things. There is nothing wrong with this type of fear as Allah (تعالى ) said relaying the story of Prophet Mūsá ( عليه السلام) :

So he escaped it (the city), fearful and anticipating (apprehension). He said, “My Lord, save me from the wrongdoing people.” [11]

As for the meaning of “That is only Satan who frightens (you) of his supporters” in the opening verse,12 it means he tries to make you afraid of his allies. And as for “So do not fear them, but fear Me”, this is a commandment from Allah (تعالى ) to believers that they must not fear others besides Him. It is an order that they should limit their emotion of fear to Allah alone, fearing none other. This is the complete sincerity and devotion Allah requires from his worshippers and with which He is pleased. So when they ensure their fear is for none other than Allah, as well as all other aspects of worship, He will in return give them what they hope for and keep them safe and secure from the fears of this life and the hereafter as He (تعالى ) says:

Is Allah not sufficient for His servant? And yet they threaten you with other than Him.[13]

The great scholar Ibn al-Qayyim ( رحمه الله  تعالى ) said:

Part of the plot of the enemy of Allah is that he tries to frighten believers with his soldiers and supporters. He does so in order that the believers will be too scared to oppose and strive against them, too scared to encourage his supporters to do good or forbid them from doing evil. As such, Allah, the Most High, informs us that this is all part of the plot and deception of Satan and his intimidation and frightening (of believers). Yet He has forbidden us from fearing them by saying—and this is the interpretation of most interpreters—that Satan is only trying to make the believers scared of his supporters. Qatādah says, “He (Satan) makes them (his supporters) seem greater, more significant in the believer’s hearts.” So whenever a worshipper’s faith in Allah becomes stronger, the fear of Satan’s supporters becomes less, and when his faith weakens, his fear of them becomes greater. Therefore, this verse shows that sincerity in fear is one of the conditions of complete faith.

The Second Verse

Allah (تعالى ) says:

The mosques of Allah are only to be maintained by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day and establish prayer and give charity and fear none other besides Allah. It is expected that those will be of the rightly guided.[14]

Here, Allah tells us the mosques of Allah are to be maintained only by people of faith in Allah and the last day (the Day of Judgment). They are those who both believe with their hearts and worship with their limbs, and they make their fear sincerely and exclusively for Allah and no other. For these, He has confirmed the maintenance of places of worship after He forbade it for those who worship others besides Him. This is because the establishment and care of such places of worship is to be done with obedience (to Allah) and righteous actions. As for one who worships other than Allah, even if he were to perform a seemingly righteous action:

Their deeds are like a mirage in a desert which a thirsty one thinks is water until, when he comes to it, he finds it is nothing but finds Allah before him. [15]

Or:

Their deeds are like ashes which the wind blows forcefully on a stormy day.[16]

Considering that, true goodness does not result from such action or person. So places of worship, the mosques, should be maintained and populated with only true faith, the most dignified of which is tawḥīd and righteous deeds free of all forms of deficiency such as the worship of other than Allah and unfounded religious innovation. All of that is included in the meaning of the word “faith” (īmān) according to mainstream Muslims who follow the Sunnah.

About “and (they) fear none other besides Allah” in the verse, Ibn ‘Aṭiyyah says,

“It means the type of fear which is based on honor, worship, and obedience. And while it may be inevitable that people are afraid of worldly dangers, they must ultimately fear the decree and control of Allah alone regarding (the consequences) of such worldly dangers.”

Ibn al-Qayyim ( رحمه الله ) says,

“Fear is worship of the heart, and it is not fitting to be given to others besides Allah, similar to repentance, love, reliance, hope, and other aspects of worship of the heart.”

As for “It is expected that those will be of the rightly guided”, Ibn Abī Ṭalḥah reported that Ibn ‘Abbās ( رضي الله عنه ) ماsaid, “He is saying, ‘They are the rightly guided.’ Any time the Arabic word ‘( عَسَىasá – “perhaps,” “it is expected,” etc.) is used in the Quran, it means it is something destined to happen.” [17]

The Third Verse

Allah (تعالى ) says:

And of mankind are some who say, “We believe in Allah.” But if they are made to suffer for the sake of Allah, they consider the trial of mankind as (if it were equal to) the punishment of Allah. [18]

Ibn Kathīr ( رحمه الله ) says:

Allah (تعالى ) informs us about the characteristics of some people who dishonestly claim to believe, but their belief is only with their tongues and not firm in their hearts. For such people, when a trial or tribulation comes to them in this life, they believe it is from the resentment and wrath of Allah and then leave Islam. Ibn ‘Abbās ( رضي الله عنه ما ) said, “It becomes a tribulation from which he leaves his religion when harmed for the sake of Allah.”

Ibn al-Qayyim ( رحمه الله ) says:

When people are sent a messenger, they become one of two types of individuals: those who respond, “I believe,” and those who do not. Those who refuse continue on with their sin and disbelief. As for he who says he believes, he is then tested by his Lord with trial and affliction; the affliction is only a test however. This is to distinguish the truthful from the untruthful. As for those who do not believe (in the messenger), he should not think that Allah is incapable (of testing him), or that he will escape from Him. As a consequence, whoever believes in the messengers and obeys them, the messengers’ enemies will begin to show enmity toward him and afflict him with whatever will harm him (in this life). And those who neither believe in the messengers nor obey them, they will be recompensed in this life and in the hereafter and will still eventually experience what harms them. Yet their harm is greater and more lasting than that experienced in life by the messenger’s followers.

So even though every soul will experience some type of harm, whether it believes or refuses belief, a believer is hurt in this life only as a trial for him then he will be rewarded for it both in this life and in the hereafter. But he who refuses to believe, he may experience his delight in this life, again only as a trial for him, then he experiences a permanent harm and everlasting pain (in the hereafter).

Everyone must live among others and people have their own ideas and plans. People want other individuals to agree and conform to them in their plans. If one does not agree with them, choosing instead to contradict them, they seek to harm and punish him. Even if he were to conform to them, he would still be harmed, sometimes by the very people he agrees with, sometimes by others. For example, if a person of religion who is conscientious of Allah is among sinful or oppressive people, he may feel he has no way of escaping their wickedness and oppression except by either agreeing and conforming to what they are upon or at least by remaining silent regarding their evil. Were he to support them or remain silent, he may save himself from their evil and tribulations. But they will then have gained influence and power over him, humiliating him and perhaps harming him with affliction even greater than he had feared had he criticized them and differed from them. Even if he were safe from them, he may simply be humiliated and harmed by other than them.

The solution is to remember what the Mother of the Believers, ‘Āishah ( رضي الله عنها ), said to Muā’wiyah ( رضي الله عنه ): Whoever seeks the pleasure of Allah by angering people, Allah will suffice him regarding people. And whoever seeks the pleasure of people by angering Allah, Allah will entrust him to people.” [19]

So when Allah guides an individual, inspiring within him His guidance and saving him from the evil of his own soul, such a person would refuse to support and agree with others in sinful acts. He would patiently bear whatever enmity they show him for it. He will then have his reward in this life and the hereafter as did the messengers and their followers.

Allah (تعالى ) then informs us about those who enter the faith without true insight. When he is harmed for the sake of Allah, he considers the tribulation of people—and it is the hurt he feels from them and their hatred which the messengers and their followers always experience from those who oppose them—he makes such tribulation of people, by his fleeing from it and avoiding whatever upsets them, equal to the punishment of Allah from which believers should more rightfully flee with true faith.

True believers with complete insight, however, flee from the punishment of Allah toward belief in Him. They bear patiently with whatever temporary harm they may suffer (from people) for Him, harm from which they will soon escape. But the other individual (who refuses to differ from sinful people), from his weak insight and unclear understanding of faith, flees from the harm of those who oppose the messengers toward agreeing with them and following them. In doing so, he flees from the punishment of people and into the punishment of Allah. He equates the harm of people, by his action of fleeing from it in what angers Allah, with the punishment of Allah. How unbefitting it is that he seeks safety and refuge (from people’s harm) in the scorching fire, running away from the pain of an hour to the pain of eternity.

Also in this verse is a refutation of the Murjiah Karrāmiyah sect (who claim that merely expressing faith with the tongue is sufficient to be saved). This is because such peoples’ statement, “We believe in Allah,” as mentioned in the verse, did not benefit them when they refused to patiently bear the harm of those who would hurt them for the sake of Allah. So proclaiming faith alone is of no benefit without actions. True religious faith of any person is only correct when it combines three aspects: belief in the heart and its actions (emotions in accordance with faith), statements with the tongue, and actions with the limbs. That is the position of all mainstream Muslims who follow the Sunnah, past and present, and Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) knows best.

Such action (conforming to sinfulness, refusing to differ from it) is a form of flattering the creation despite the truth, and the only one saved from such action is one whom Allah saves.

The Ḥadīth

‘Āishah ( رضي الله عنه ) reported that Allah’s messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

“Whoever seeks the pleasure of Allah by angering people, Allah will suffice him regarding people. And whoever seeks the pleasure of people by angering Allah, Allah will entrust him to people.” [20]

Ibn Ḥibbān recorded this ḥadīth with that wording and al-Tirmidhī recorded it by way of a man from Medina who said that Mu’āwiyah ( رضي الله عنه ) wrote to ‘Āishah ( رضي الله عنها) : “Write and advise me but be concise.” She replied, greeting him with “Peace be on you,” then wrote that she heard the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) say, “Whoever seeks the pleasure of Allah by angering people, Allah will suffice him regarding people. And whoever seeks the pleasure of people by angering Allah, Allah will entrust him to people.”

The scholar of Islam (Ibn Taymiyyah) says:

‘Āishah wrote this ḥadīth to Mu’āwiyah and it has been reported from her in a marfū’ form [21] that she said, “Whoever seeks the pleasure of Allah by angering people, Allah will suffice him regarding people. And whoever seeks the pleasure of people by angering Allah, they will not protect him from Allah in any way.” That is the marfū’ form.

It has also been reported in a mawqūf form [22] that she said, “Whoever pleases Allah at the expense of angering people, Allah will be pleased with him and cause people to be pleased with him too. But whoever pleases people at the expense of angering Allah, He will make those who praise him revert back to criticizing him.”

This is the greatest understanding of religion. Whoever seeks to please Allah, even if it means angering people, he has rightfully feared Allah and has become His righteous worshipper. Allah in return assumes the responsibility of protecting the righteous and He is sufficient for his worshipper.

And whoever fears Allah, He will make a way for him to get out (from every difficulty), and He will provide him from (sources) he could never imagine.[23]

Allah will certainly suffice him from having to rely on people. As for trying to please all people, that is impossible anyway.

As for, “seeking the pleasure of people by angering Allah,” in doing this, the person gives preference to people’s acceptance and happiness over that of Allah. This happens when the honor and respect for Allah and His greatness has not settled in his heart. If it had, it would have prevented him from seeking to gain the pleasure of the creation by gaining the anger of his creator, his Lord, and owner – the very One who controls all hearts, removes all difficulties, and forgives all sins. Based on this, such a choice (preferring to please people by angering Allah) is a form of associating others in worship with Allah because he considers pleasing the creation a higher priority than pleasing Allah. He seeks to get closer to creation by way of displeasing Allah. And no one is saved from this except one whom Allah saves and for whom He gives the success of truly knowing Him. This is attained by knowing what befits Allah by believing in His characteristics and rejecting any false notions which reduce His perfection and knowing tawḥīd of His lordship and sole right to worship. With Allah alone is success.

Ibn Rajab ( رحمه الله ) said:

If one realizes that anyone of creation on earth—and the earth is merely dirt—is himself (created) from dirt, then why would someone give preference to obeying someone from dirt over obeying the Lord of lords? How can he please dirt by angering the Owner, the Bestower? That is certainly an amazing thing.

In this ḥadīth, there is a severe reprimand for whoever fears people, preferring their acceptance and pleasure over Allah. And perhaps his punishment for doing so may even be a test or affliction in his religion—we seek refuge with Allah from that—as He says:

So He punished them with hypocrisy in their hearts until the day they will meet Him because they failed Allah in what they promised Him and because they used to lie. [24]

Footnotes:

[1] The Quran, Sūrah Āli ‘Imrān, 3:175
[2] Sūrah al-Anbiyā, 21:28
[3] Sūrah al-Naḥl, 16:50
[4] Sūrah al-Raḥmān, 55:46
[5] Sūrah al-Naḥl, 16:51
[6] Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:44
[7] Sūrah Hūd, 11:54
[8] Sūrah al-Zumar, 39:36
[9] Sūrah Āli ‘Imrān, 3:173-175
[10] Recorded by Aḥmad (3/27, 29, 77), Ibn Ḥibbān (1845), Ibn Mājah (4017), and others. Shaykh ‘Abdul ‘Azīz Ibn Bāz said it is authentic in his checking of Fatḥ al-Majīd. Shaykh Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī said the similar narration of Ibn Mājah is authentic in Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Ibn Mājah (no. 3244).
[11] Sūrah al-Qaṣaṣ, 28:21
[12] The verse again (Sūrah Āli ‘Imrān, 3:175):
“إِنَّمَا ذَلِكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوْلِيَاءَهُ فَلا تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ ”
That is only Satan who frightens (you) of his supporters. So do not fear them, but fear Me, if you are indeed believers.
[13] Sūrah al-Zumar, 39:36
[14] Sūrah al-Tawbah, 9:18
[15] Sūrah al-Nūr, 24:39
[16] Sūrah al-Nūr, 24:39
[17] Shaykh ‘Abdul ‘Azīz Ibn Bāz noted in his checking of Fatḥ al-Majīd that Ibn Kathīr mentioned that Ibn ‘Abbās also said, “It is similar to the verse in which Allah says to his prophet ( ): صلّى الله عليه وسلّم”It is expected that your Lord will resurrect you to a praised station” (Sūrah al-Isrá,17:79) and this refers to his intercession.” Muhammad Ibn Isḥāq Ibn Yassār said, “‘( عَسَىasá) mentioned in the Quran is truth from Allah.”
[18] Sūrah al-‘Ankabūt, 29:10
[19] This ḥadīth is recorded by al-Tirmidhī and the explanation will come on pg.14 of this article.
[20] Recorded by Ibn Ḥibbān (1542 – )مواردand al-Tirmidhī (2414) and al-Albānī said it is authentic in Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan alTirmidhī (1967).
[21] Muḥammad Ibn Ṣaliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn explains in his booklet Muṣṭalaḥ al-Ḥadīth that a marfū’ narration is one in which is either explicitly attributed to the prophet ( ) صلّى الله عليه وسلّمor considered to be attributed to him based on other ruling factors.
[22] Ibn al-‘Uthaymīn explains also in Muṣṭalaḥ al-Ḥadīth that a mawqūf narration is one that is attributed only to the narrating companion and not raised to the status of being attributed to the prophet ( .) صلّى الله عليه وسلّم
[23] Sūrah al-Ṭalāq, 65:2,3
[24] Sūrah al-Ṭawbah, 9:77

PS: The Arabic verses and hadith  are not posted in this article, please refer to PDF for the same.

[Download Original PDF]

Posted fromhttp://www.authentic-translations.com

Women : The Greatest Temptation – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Women : The Greatest Temptation – Shaykh Uthaymeen

A FRIDAY SERMON BY: Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn [1]

Oh Muslims, there is a certain well known pastime of tribulation and temptation into which many people fall today. Unfortunately, this issue does not negatively affect only the individuals who fall into it. Rather, its consequences affect others as Allah (تعالى) says:

Beware of a trial which will not afflict only those who have transgressed among you exclusively, and know that Allah is severe in penalty. [2]

Muslims, the tribulations to which I refer are temptations pertaining to (the unlawful admiration of) women, and it is such trials about which the messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

I will not leave behind a trial more harmful to men than (the temptations of) women.[3]

It is a trial which the shameful ones readily partake in, one that affects their desires, blinds their eyes, and destroys their judgment. This eventually leads them to following women around in the streets and shopping malls, flirting with them, whistling at them and whispering to them. They may even go so far as to touch or grope women in public as if they are completely unconcerned with others around them. Perhaps they see others as insignificant as if they were cattle. This is because such people are immersed in their own lust. They belittle morality and they defy societal norms. They are fearless before Allah (Azza wa Jal) as they choose ways (to support their desires) other than the respectable ways of sensible people.

We must, as a believing Muslim people, renounce these activities perpetrated by such immoral individuals. We detest these types of behaviors because they contradict the characteristics and qualities of believers in Allah and the last day. We disapprove of such actions because they are means leading one closer to adultery or fornication about which Allah (تعالى)  says:

And do not approach adultery, fornication. Certainly, it has always been immoral and an evil way.[4]

We condemn this behavior (of chasing after women, watching them desirously, flirting with them, etc.) because it infringes upon personal safety and security, and it could lead to community fear, panic (among women), and societal disorder. And we criticize it because it may inevitably bring about a swift, overwhelming and inclusive punishment. Allaah (azza wa jal) says:

When we intend to destroy a town, we command its affluent ones, but they defiantly disobey. So the word comes into effect upon it, and we destroy it with complete destruction. [5]

Here, “We command” is a type of universal responsibility befitting those of affluence and power (to enforce change in society). Allah mentions the “affluent ones” because it is often the rich and powerful who immerse themselves in sin. And if they refuse to change, “The word comes into effect upon it, and we destroy it with complete destruction.” After mentioning His punishment for adultery and fornication (among other sins), Allah then speaks about the exception, those who will avoid punishment, the true worshippers of the Most-Merciful:

Whoever does that incurs sin. The punishment will be multiplied upon him and he will abide therein disgraced, except for those who repent, believe, and do righteous deeds. For them, Allah will replace their bad deeds with good ones and Allah is ever forgiving, merciful. [6]

Oh Muslims, You who try to safeguard your dignity and protect the women in your care, immoral qualities and shameful behaviors such as these to which some people degenerate—and such behavior was not prevalent in our society until recently—weaken your religion, weaken your honorable protectiveness of women, and spread the means leading to tribulations and societal problems.

Weakening of One’s Religion

As for the weakening of one’s religion, these people who follow women around, being tested with admiring and flirting with them, had they been strong in religion, they would not dare do the kinds of things they do with women. Such actions result in their sinning against Allah (azza wa jal)  and preoccupying themselves with and giving preference to the creation instead of the creator. Allah (azza wa jal) says:

Tell the believing men to lower their gazes and protect their private parts. That is purer for them. Allah is certainly aware of everything they do. [7]

The Weakening of One’s Honorable Protectiveness of Women

As for the weakening of one’s honorable protectiveness – the praiseworthy type of respectful jealousy one should have of women – individuals afflicted with this temptation to “chase women,” had they had the complete respectful honor for women, they would not dare chase after the women of their brothers (in faith), the women (sisters, daughters, mothers) of their fellow citizens, thereby putting those women into the same types of temptations and tribulations. The type of religious brotherhood we have obliges men to respect and honor his brothers’ womenfolk and those of his fellow citizens, having the same kind of commendable jealousy for their honor and chastity as he has for his own female relatives.

I would ask these men: Would you be happy to know that someone chases after your own wife out of desire for her? Or your daughter, your sister, or other female relatives? Would you like people flirting with them? If he would hate such behavior with his own women, why would he allow his own desires to tempt him into doing the same things with other women? I warn these individuals who have been afflicted with such admiration of women from the very actions which would allow another man to gain influence over his own women. I advise them to prevent his relatives from becoming afflicted with such trials.

The Spreading of Tribulations & Societal Problems

The tribulations and temptations to admire and chase after women are many. Such behavior (because of its popularity and influence) leads to various forms of widespread media, including audio, visual, and written publications, being placed in the hands of our young men and women. They have newspapers and magazines filled with images and articles that arouse their desires, stimulate their emotions, and kindle the fires of passion. Even worse than this media is that which comes to our land from abroad, or sometimes even from our own citizens. We ask Allah to guide them and to protect us from their evil.

Another way this tribulation may spread is by the very blessings which Allah has bestowed on this land: the comfort of its society, its excess wealth, good food, and the overall security and prosperity of our society. Oftentimes, such luxuries lead one’s heart to become empty and the body to become idle from inactivity or unemployment. This is why you almost always find these young men to be one of two types. They are often unsuccessful men who have no careers to occupy their time or attention. They live off the prosperity of other wealthy, successful men. They neither know a skill, nor try to learn one. They do not work towards a specific occupation or official career. Thus, his desires get the better of him and leave him in a perpetual downfall.

Or they may often be men who may work but they waste the results of their labor, wasting their earnings, unconcerned with its value or what results from the bad consequences of their actions. But as for a dignified, determined believer, he does not allow his personality to deteriorate to the point of such shallow yet despicable behavior. Other ways these temptations spread is what some women of immoral conduct themselves perpetrate in their choice of clothing, their appearance, and lustful behaviors. By these choices, they are inclined to promote this type of tribulation. Such conduct was foreign to our righteous predecessors. Some women go to shopping centers to flaunt themselves, to exhibit their beauty with the most attractive clothing they own. They may then throw over it a thin cloak but one that might be shortened or raised up so that her attractive clothing underneath is displayed. They are dressed yet still appear naked, wearing the types of garments the women of Hell wear. The prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

There are two types of the people of Hell that I have never seen: (1) People with whips like the tails of cattle with which they beat people, and (2) women who are dressed but appear naked, walking with an enticing strut with their heads looking like the humps of camels. They will never enter Paradise, nor even smell its fragrance although its scent can be perceived from such and such a distance. [8]

Some women also frequent shopping centers adorned with gold jewelry or elegant watches, walking in such a manner and revealing her hands (in an attractive, seductive way) to entice those who see her even though Allah (Azza wa Jal) says:

They (believing women) should not strike their feet in such a manner that the adornment they hide may be known. [9]

Other women go out perfumed, sometimes choosing to wear the strongest, most fragrant perfume so that almost every man she passes who smells her scent, she allures him with it. The prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said about this:

Any woman who has been around incense should not join us in the last evening prayer. [10]

A woman, if she wears perfume and then passes by a gathering (of men), she is this and that (meaning: a type of adulterer, fornicator). [11]

Other women frequent the malls unveiled or wearing a thin veil that barely conceals her face. Perhaps it is even worn as a way of beautifying her face, or just to hide some blemish on her face. Still other women may cover their faces yet they wear the veil so tightly that their nose, eyebrows, and cheeks are shown. These are no doubt temptations.

You also find women roaming shopping centers in a strutting, swaying manner and joke and giggle with their girlfriends. Sometimes they visit shops, with or without need, to chat with the salesman, prolonging their conversation. Perhaps she requests an item stored in the back of the shop that she actually does not want; she just wants to keep chatting with the salesman. Yet Allah (Azza wa Jal) told the prophet’s wives and they were considered the “mothers of the believers,” they were the most pure and farthest from any behaviors or situations of temptation – Allah told them:

Do not be soft in speech (to men) for fear that he in whose heart is a disease should desire (you), but speak in an honorable manner. [12]

Muslims, we have described some things regarding the sickness but is there a cure? The answer is yes and there are several types of medicine thanks to Allah. We are a Muslim nation practicing the religion of Islam, and Allah (Azza wa Jal) has clarified the general responsibilities a man has regarding his family members and the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has spoken about this as well. As for Allah (Azza wa Jal) He says in His noble book:

You who believe, protect yourselves and your families from a fire whose fuel is people and stones over which are (appointed) angels, stern and severe. They do not disobey Allah in what He commands them but do as they are commanded.[13]

As for the Sunnah, the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

Each of you is a shepherd and each of you is responsible for his flock. The leader is a shepherd and responsible for his flock (i.e., citizens). A man is a shepherd over his family and responsible for his flock. A woman is a shepherd in her husband’s home and responsible for her flock. And a servant, worker is a shepherd over the property of his master, boss. So each of you is a shepherd and is responsible for his flock.[14]

Worshippers of Allah, fear Allah and fulfill your responsibilities. Continuously prevent and discourage the women in your care from visiting shopping centers to behave in manners that contradict religious rulings.

I ask Allah to help us and you with regards to the medicine of integrity and honor, to guide us and guide others with us for He is capable of all things. All thanks are for Allah, the lord of the worlds, and may Allah send peace and prayers on our prophet, Muhammad, and upon his family and companions.

Ibn al-‘Uthaymīn continues in the second part of his Friday sermon…

Oh Muslim brothers. You, men who are caretakers of women, men who are responsible for your families, fear Allah with respect to yourselves and families. Cultivate in them respectable manners and praiseworthy characteristics, and discourage them from becoming the very means which lead to temptations and tribulations. You are men and they are women and men have been charged with taking care of women because of what Allah has given one over the other and because men (are obliged to) spend their wealth to support them. [15]

A man should neither be (helpless, having no influence) as if he were simply a rock in his house, nor should he be as if he is one of the women. Rather, he must act like a man in every sense of the word. Be shepherds; be responsible and influential so that you live among your families as men.

Some people go to great measures to ensure their financial stability, carefully watching their expenses, their checkbooks and bookkeeping. Yet they neglect their family members for whom they are personally and immediately responsible. Such a man, were he to lose a single sheep from his flock (a single coin, for example), he would search right and left for it until it is found. All the while, he remains unconcerned that his family members, his sons and daughters, are losing their manners and good character.

Men are protectors and maintainers of women by what Allah has given one over the other and what they spend (to support them) from their wealth.

Fulfill the obligations Allah has placed over you. This is my advice I present to you as I remind you that you are responsible for your families because Allah told you this and the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has charged you with this. Do you want to waste this trust you have been given? Do you want to be unable to answer when you are made to stand in front of Allah and asked about this trust?

Fear Allah and take seriously the obligations Allah has placed on you. Do not neglect and waste your chances at raising your family. If you fail in the upbringing of your family and this man fails his family and that man fails, soon the entire society becomes corrupt. Society is a conglomeration made up of individuals, so when the individuals become corrupt the entire population is corrupt.

I conclude this speech of mine asking Allah (Azza wa Jal) to assist us and you all in fulfilling our responsibilities we have regarding the safeguarding of our families. Oh Allah, help us care for our families, providing the best care for them.

Footnotes:

[1]This is a sermon given by Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn before a Friday prayer. The complete opening and closing supplications of the scholar have been omitted. The Arabic text and audio, at the time of translation, is available at: http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/all/khotab/article_265.shtml.
[2] The Quran, Sūrah al-Anfāl, 8:25
[3] Collected by al-Bukhārī. Allah confirms this in Sūrah Āli-‘Imrān, 3:14, as He mentions various things people covet, beginning the list with women: Beautified for people is the love of that which they desire: women…
[4]Sūrah al-Isrā, 17:32
[5]Sūrah al-Isrā, 17:16
[6]Sūrah al-Furqān, 25:68-70
[7] Sūrah al-Nūr, 24:30
[8] Collected by Muslim
[9] Sūrah al-Nūr, 24:31
[10] Collected by al-Nasāī and al-Albānī said it is authentic in Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan al-Nasāī (no. 4739)
[11] Collected by al-Tirmidhī and al-Albānī said it is authentic in Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan al-Tirmidhī (no. 2237). In a similar narration collected by al-Nasāī and graded as authentic by al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan al-Nasāī (no. 4737), the prophet (صلّى اهلل عليه وسلّم) said explicitly: “Any woman who wears perfume and then passes by people so that they smell her fragrance, she is an adulterer, fornicator”
[12] Sūrah al-Aḥzāb, 33:32
[13] Sūrah al-Taḥrīm, 66:6
[14] Collected by al-Bukhārī
[15] This is based on the verse in Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:34:

Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison hafidhahullaah

Posted from Original PDF:
http://www.authentic-translations.com/trans-pub/at_misau_20.pdf

None of you should die Except while he is having good thoughts about Allah – Imam Nawawī’s & al-Manāwī

Jābir ( رضي الله عنه) said: Three days before he died, I heard the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) say

« لاَ يَمُوتَنَّ أَحَدُكُمْ إِلاَّ وَهُوَ يُحْسِنُ الظَّنَّ بِاللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ »

[11] None of you should die except while he is having good thoughts about Allah (عزّ وجلّ)

al-Nawawī’s Explanation

The following is again from al-Nawawī’s explanation of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim.

Regarding the statement of the prophet » None of you should die except while he is having good thoughts about Allah « scholars have said that this is a warning against losing hope and despairing (of Allah’s mercy) and an encouragement to have hope especially at the time of death.

Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) also said in the previous ḥadīth » “I am as my servant thinks of Me.” « and (considering both ḥadīth) scholars explain that » having good thoughts about Allah « means that an individual should expect Allah to have mercy on him and pardon him.

Some scholars have also said that during times of wellbeing and health, an individual should have both hope and fear in Allah and these two feelings should be equally balanced. Others say that one’s fear should be more, but when the signs of death approach, a person’s hope in Allah’s mercy should become stronger. This is because the very purpose of having fear of Allah is to prevent oneself from committing sins and ugly deeds and to increase in obedience and good deeds. And those things are most often not possible during that situation (i.e., during the last moments of one’s death).

Instead, in that situation, assuming good thoughts about Allah is preferable which would cause one to have feelings of destitution and submission and to feel oneself in total need of Allah (تعالى).

The ḥadīth mentioned by Imām Muslim right after this one also supports this understanding:

« يُبْعَثُ كُلُّ عَبْدٍ عَلَى مَا مَاتَ عَلَيْهِ »

Every servant will be resurrected according to what he died upon.[12]

Scholars explain that it means each individual will be resurrected in the same state in which he died. The next ḥadīth (in Imām Muslim’s authentic collection) also supports this:

« إِذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ عَذَابًا أَصَابَ الْعَذَابُ مَنْ كَانَ فِيهِمْ ثُمَّ بُعِثُوا عَلَى
أَعْمَالِهِمْ.»

When Allah intends to punish an entire group of people, the punishment afflicts them all, but then each is resurrected according to (his individual) deeds.[13]

And the ḥadīth:

« إِنَّمَا يُبْعَثُ النَّاسُ عَلَى نِيَّاتِهِمْ »

People will only be resurrected upon their (individual) intentions. [14]

al-Manāwī’s Explanation

The following explanation is from al-Manāwī’s, Fayḍ al-Qadīr.

His (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) statement » None of you should die except while he is having good thoughts about Allah « means: Let none of you die under any circumstance except while in the state of thinking good about Allah (تعالى) in that He will be merciful with you and pardon you. This is because when a person’s time of passing arrives and his journey comes to an end, his fear (of Allah) has no real purpose (to prevent him from bad deeds during life). It would perhaps lead him to despair and to a feeling of restriction of (Allah’s) mercy and bounties.

Whoever at that time, even if his heart were laden with major sins, begins expecting the best (of his Lord) and increases in hope, he has then perfected his provisions for his arrival to his Lord…

al-Ṭībī said:

The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) instructs one to ensure he does not die in any state other than expecting and assuming good about Allah. And this does not mean one can change destiny or fate. Rather, what is intended is that an individual is commanded to have good thoughts (about Allah) so that when death overcomes him, he is in such a state.

نسأل الله الغفور الرحيم لتوفيقه على حسن الظنّ به خصوصًا عند الموت

Footnotes:

[11] Collected by Muslim.
[12] Ibid.
[13] Ibid.
[14] Collected by Ibn Mājah and al-Albānī says it is authentic in Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Ibn Mājah (no. 3407).

Source: Excerpted from the article “Thinking Good About Allah” – With Explanations by: Ibn Ḥajar al-‘Asqalānī, al-Nawawī, & al-Manāwī – authentic-translations.com

The Day Your Lord Comes with the Angels, row after row – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen

The Day your Lord Comes

[1] This article was taken from the book Tafsīr Juz ‘Amma by Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn (1423/2002, Riyadh: Dar al-Thurayya). At the time of translating, the original Arabic text could be found at: ibnothaimeen.com/all/books/article_17873.shtml.

Verses 21-30 from Surah al-Fajr

No. When the earth is leveled, pounded and crushed,
and your Lord comes with the angels, row after row,
and that day, Hell is brought near, the day man will remember, but how will the remembrance help him then?
He will say, “I wish I had sent forth (some good) for my life.”
But on that day, no one will punish as He punishes,
and no one will bind as He binds.
(But to the righteous it will be said,) “You, soul at peace,
return to your Lord well-pleased (yourself) and well pleasing (to Him).
Go and enter among My servants
and enter My paradise.”

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The Day Your Lord Comes – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen

Courtesy of authentic-translations.com
Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison hafidhahullaah

Know Allah in prosperity, He will know you in adversity – Imam Ibn Rajab al-Ḥanbalī

Selections [1] from Jāmi’ al-‘Ulūm wal-Ḥikam:

[1] Taken from Ibn Rajab al-Ḥanbalī’s book Jāmi’ al-‘Ulūm wal-Ḥikam, an explanation of the forty-two famous ḥadīth collected by Imām al-Nawawī. The ḥadīth explained in this article is number nineteen.

The prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:
Know Allah in prosperity, He will know you in adversity.” [2]

When a worshipper is conscious and fearful of Allah in times of ease and wellbeing, preserving His rules and paying careful attention to His rights upon him, he begins to know Allah. There is then established between him and his Lord a special relationship. In return, his Lord will remember and know His worshipper during his times of hardship. He will preserve and take care of such person’s relationship with Him in difficult times. Because of this relationship, Allah saves his worshipper from his difficulties. This special relationship brings an individual close to his Lord and ensures His love for him and His answering of his prayers.

A person’s “knowing his Lord” is of two types:

1. A general knowledge. When a person is familiar with Allah is this manner, he simply accepts that He exists, affirms correct belief in Him, and has faith in Him. All believers in general know Allah in this way.

2. A specific knowledge and relationship. When a person truly knows Allah, he turns his heart completely to Him, devotes himself to Him, and feels at ease with Him. He is comforted when Allah is mentioned although he is still shy before Him and fears Him. Those who truly know Allah focus on this specific type of “knowing Him.”

Similarly, Allah’s “knowing his servant” is of two types.

1. A general knowledge. This is Allah’s knowledge of all His servants, His observation of everything they conceal or make apparent, as He ( تعالى ) says:

“And indeed We have created mankind, and We know what his own self whispers to him.” [3]

Another example of this general type of Allah knowing His creation is His statement:

“He was most knowing of you when He produced you from the earth and when you were fetuses in the wombs of your mothers.” [4]

2. A specific knowledge and relationship. This type of “knowing His servant” is when Allah loves His worshipper, brings him close to Him, answers his prayers, and helps him out of difficulties. This is the type of relationship the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) refers to when he said that Allah says (in a ḥadīth qudsī):

“My servant continues to come close to Me with extra acts of worship until I love him. When I love him, I become his ears with which he hears, his eyes with which he sees, his hand with which he strikes, and his leg with which he walks. Were he to ask Me for anything, I would certainly give it him, and were he to seek My help, I would certainly help him.” [5]

Illustrating this specific type of Allah knowing His servants, there is a report that when al-Ḥasan was fleeing the oppression of al-Ḥajjāj, he came to the house of Ḥabīb Ibn Muḥammad. Ḥabīb said to him, “Abū Saī’d, is there no relationship between you and your Lord by which you could pray to Him to hide you from these people? Come into the house.” al-Ḥasan went inside, and al-Ḥajjāj’s soldiers went in after him but could not see him. When that was mentioned to al-Ḥajjāj, he said, “He was inside the house but Allah blinded your eyes so that you could not see him.”

In summary, whoever shows Allah constant, respectful fear and obedience during times of ease and prosperity, Allah will show him gentleness and assistance during times of difficulty and adversity.

al-Tirmidhī recorded a ḥadīth from Abū Hurayrah ( رضي الله عنه ) that the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

“Whoever would like Allah to answer him during hardships and difficulties then let him increase in supplication during times of wellbeing.” [6]

The most difficult hardship a servant faces in this life is death; what comes after it is even more severe if the servant’s final destination is not good (Paradise). So it is necessary for a believer to prepare for death and what follows it during times of ease and wellbeing by remaining constantly conscious and fearful of Allah and doing righteous deeds (during life). Allah ( عزّ وجلّ ) says:

“Oh you who believe, fear Allah and let every soul look to what it has put forth for tomorrow. And fear Allah, indeed Allah is aware of what you do. And do not be like those who forgot Allah so He made them forget about their own souls. Those are the defiantly disobedient ones.” [7]

Whoever remembers Allah while in good health, in times of ease and comfort, and prepares himself for his meeting with Allah ( عزّ وجلّ ) upon death and afterwards, Allah will in return remember him during these hardships (associated with death). He will be with the person during such difficulties. Allah will be gentle with him as He assists him, takes care of him, and keeps him firm upon the worship of Allah alone (when he dies). Allah will then meet the person while being happy with him.

On the other hand, whoever forgets Allah during times of ease and comfort (in life) and fails to prepare for his meeting with Him, Allah will forget him during these hardships (of death). And the “forgetting” here means Allah will abandon the person and disregard him.[8]

But when death comes to a true believer in Allah, one who has prepared for it and has good expectations of his Lord, and the good news of Allah comes to him, he then would love to meet Allah and Allah would love to meet him. However, a wicked person is just the opposite of that (i.e., he hates to meet Allah so Allah hates to meet him).[9] The believer is then filled with happiness with what he put forth before him (in life) and with what he is about to arrive at (Paradise). As for someone who is negligent (who forgot about his own soul), he is filled with regret, saying:

“Oh, how I regret what I neglected regarding Allah. [10]

Footnotes:

[2] This is part of a longer ḥadīth recorded by Aḥmad, al-Bayhaqī, and al-Lālakāī and Shaykh Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī said it is authentic in his al-Jāmi’ al-Saghīr wa Ziyādatuh (5272).
[3] The Quran, Sūrah Qāf (50:16)
[4] Sūrah al-Najm (53:32)
[5] Recorded by al-Bukhārī
[6] Recorded by al-Tirmidhī (no. 3382) and al-Albānī said it is ḥasan in Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan al-Tirmidhī (no. 2693).
[7] Sūrah al-Ḥashr (59:18-19)
[8] About this type of “forgetting” them, Allah says in Sūrah al-‘Arāf (7:51):

So today We will forget them just as they forgot the meeting of this day of theirs and for having rejected Our verses.

And His ( سبحانسَه وتعالى ) frightening verses in Sūrah ṬāHā (20:124-126):

And whoever turns away from My remembrance, he will certainly have a depressed life, and We will gather him on the Day of Resurrection blind. He will say, “My Lord, why have you raised me blind while I used to see?” (Allah) will answer, “Likewise Our signs came to you but you forgot them, so likewise you will today be forgotten.”

[9] About this, the messenger of Allah ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said (recorded by al-Bukhārī):

Allah says, “If my servant loves to meet Me, I love to meet him, and if he hates to meet me, I hate to meet him.”

[10] Sūrah al-Zumar (39:56)

[Note: Arabic Text of the Verses and Hadeeth not mentioned in the above article. Please read the below PDF for the  same]

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Courtesy of authentic-translations.com
Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison hafidhahullaah

Reference: AbdurRahman.Org
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Your share of adultery – Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen

Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn’s Explanation: [10]

[10] The selections here are from Ibn al-‘Uthaymīn’s explanation of Riyāḍ al-Ṣāliḥīn. Since the chapter in Riyāḍ al-Ṣāliḥīn where the ḥadīth under discussion appears includes preceding verses of the Quran related to lowering one’s gaze, his explanation of those verses have also been included here for the benefit it contains and its relevancy to this translated work.

The chapter in al-Nawawī’s Riyāḍ al-Ṣāliḥīn (in which the ḥadīth under discussion appears) begins with the following verses.

“Tell the believers to lower their gaze.” 

[Sūrah al-Nūr (24:30)]

Looking at non-relative women is forbidden as the author رحمه الله says and that is because Allah commanded that we lower our gaze as He says “Tell the believers to lower their gaze and preserve their private parts. That is purer for them. Allah is certainly aware of what you do.” He instructs us to lower our gaze and guard our private parts, and this indicates that when someone does not restrain his gaze, that becomes the very means by which he may fail to preserve his private parts.

When a person is liberal with his eyes, allowing them to roam freely, his heart becomes infatuated with women. He continues to look at them until he may approach a woman, speak to her, carry on a conversation with her, arrange a date with her, and then finally the immorality (of adultery) happens. We seek protection with Allah from this. This is why the look has been called “the messenger” or “delivery” of adultery; it invites to illegal sexual activity, and this is why Allah commands us to lower our gaze.

He عز وجلalso says:

“He knows the eyes’ deceit and what the breasts conceal”
[Sūrah al-Ghāfir (40:19)]

The “eyes’ deceit” is the visions a person’s sight may steal (when looking at impermissible things). In other words, a person may secretly look at something forbidden when people cannot observe him. However, Allah certainly knows what he is doing because “He knows the eyes’ deceit”.

Allah جل وعلى also knows “what the breasts conceal” of both good and bad intentions. He even knows the ideas a person’s own soul may inwardly suggest to him and what he accepts of those suggestions.

Allah تعالى also says:

“Surely the hearing, the sight, and the heart – of each of those one will be questioned”
[Sūrah al-Isrā (17:36)]

A person is accountable for his hearing and will be questioned about it. What did he listen to with his ears? Did he listen to impermissible speech or to a woman, enjoying the sound of her voice? Likewise an individual is accountable for his sight and heart so it is critical that a person safeguards himself (regarding his senses). As for a woman relative or someone to whom it would be forbidden for him to marry anyway, there is no problem with looking at her. He may see her face, her head, her hands, her arms, her legs and feet; there is no problem with any of this unless there is some sort of temptation he fears for himself. If he feels there would be some temptation for him, then he should not even look at women that are religiously considered as his female kin.

For example, if a man had a “sister” because his mother breastfed another girl in infancy who was originally unrelated to him, if such a woman was considered beautiful in his eyes, then looking at her would not be permissible even though a sister of breastfeeding is considered by the religion to be of the same status of an actual, related sister. If he feels some kind of temptation by looking at her, he must then lower his gaze when with her. She must also cover up when she is with him because the origin and purpose behind the ḥijāb (the religious covering) is to prevent temptations. So if she finds some sort of temptation, then she too must cover her face even in front of related men.

However, if there is no such temptation present and a person is chaste with a normal, sound and un-perverted heart, then he is only forbidden to look at nonrelative women not in his immediate family, for example his cousins, his sisters-inlaw, etc. In conclusion, the important point is that a man may look at women religiously considered to be his immediate relatives as long as no sort of temptation is there. As for looking at unrelated women, they are never permissible for him to look at.

The following ḥadīth, with the wording from Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, is the one mentioned in Riyāḍ al-Ṣāliḥīn (and the same one mentioned on pg. 2-3 of this work).

Abū Hurayrah رضي الله عنه narrated that the prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم said:

It has been written upon the Son of Adam his share of adultery which he will indulge in; there is no escaping it. The two eyes, their adultery is looking (at what is forbidden). The two ears, their adultery is listening. The tongue, its adultery is speaking. The hand, its adultery is the touching, and the foot, its adultery is walking (toward adultery). The heart desires and hopes (for adultery) but the private parts either confirm that or deny it. » which he will indulge in; there is no escaping it « means every individual will carry out and realize his inevitable share of adultery, and there is no escape from it unless Allah protects him from doing so.

The prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم then mentioned some examples such as,

» The two eyes, their adultery is looking « When a man looks at unrelated women, even if it is without desire, it is a form of adultery – adultery of the eye.

» The two ears, their adultery is listening « A man may listen to a woman speaking and become moved by her voice; this is the adultery of the ear. Similarly,

» The hand, its adultery is the touching « which is anything physically done with the hand like touching or similar physical actions.

» the foot, its adultery is walking « and this includes when someone walks to any place wherein immorality and sexual activity is being committed. It could also be when a man hears a woman’s voice and he walks over to her or sees a woman whom he then approaches. These are all types of adultery – adultery of the foot.

» The heart desires « and may be inclined toward adultery, becoming infatuated with women and this is the adultery of the heart.

» but the private parts either confirm that or deny it « In other words, if a person commits adultery with his private parts—we seek protection with Allah from that—he has then actualized the adultery of all his other senses and limbs. In contrast, if he does not commit adultery with his private part, choosing instead to safeguard and preserve himself, he then denies his other senses their forms of adultery.

This ḥadīth shows the extreme caution required to prevent one’s heart from being attached to women. A man must avoid becoming obsessed with their voices, looking at them, touching them, or approaching them. He has to prevent his own heart’s infatuation with the allure of women as all of these are types of adultery, and we seek protection from Allah.

Every individual of sound intellect and chastity must beware and take precautions to ensure nothing of his senses or body parts become obsessed with women. Anytime a person senses himself being allured to any of that, he must retreat and keep far away (from actualizing any forms of adultery) because Satan courses through the Son of Adam like blood runs through him.

Also, the initial glance can be a poisonous arrow from Iblīs. For example, a man may glance at a woman while unconcerned with her at first sight. However, with the second look then the third he finds his heart becoming attached to her, Allah forbid. He may become so in love with that woman that he thinks of nothing but her. Standing, sitting, when he sleeps and when he wakes up, he thinks of her. And this is how the evil and temptation begins.

We ask Allah for wellbeing and all success is from Him.

Excerpted from PDF. You can read the full PDF article Here

Courtesy of authentic-translations.com
Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison hafidhahullaah

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“O Allaah Bless me in what You have given…” – Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen

The Explanation of:

وَبَارِكْ لِي فِيمَا أَعْطَيْتَ
“Bless me in what You have given…”

The Arabic word بَرَكَة (barakah) “blessing” literally means an abundance of anything good that is continuous. The scholars even trace this word and its meaning back to the word بِرْكَة (birkah) which means a large amount of water or any wide container or gathering of water that is constantly filled with water. Similarly, the word blessing means a continuously large amount of good. So the meaning of this statement is: Send blessings down upon everything you have given me.

The wording, “…in what you have given…” is comprehensive including anything Allah has given us of wealth, children, knowledge, and anything else Allah ( سبحانه وتعالى ) has bestowed upon us. So you ask Allah to put blessings in all of that. If Allah does not put blessings in what he has given you, you would surely be prevented from a great amount of good.

How many people have a wealth in abundance, yet it is as if they live in poverty? This is because they gain no real benefit from their wealth; they simply collect it and never benefit from it. This is the result of the blessings being removed from it. Likewise, many people have lots of children and grandchildren, yet their children do not benefit their parents in anything due to their disobedience and ungratefulness. Such people have not been blessed in their children.

You also find some people to whom Allah has given a great amount of knowledge, yet it is as if he is illiterate. You see no traces of knowledge upon him in his worship, in his character, in his manners, nor in the way he treats others. Rather, his knowledge may even increase him in arrogance and considering himself to be above the rest of Allah’s worshippers, belittling and humiliating them. Such a person does not realize the one who bestowed this knowledge upon him is none other than Allah. You see that he never benefits people with his knowledge, neither with lessons, nor advice, nor with writings. On the contrary, he is exclusively centered only upon himself. This is without doubt a great loss, even though religious knowledge is one of the most blessed things Allah gives to a servant. One reason for this is that when you teach others and spread this knowledge among people, you are rewarded from several different perspectives:

1. When you spread this religious knowledge, you are spreading the religion of Allah ( عزّ وجلّ ). So you work for the sake of Allah, opening people’s hearts with knowledge.

2. From the blessings of spreading knowledge and teaching it is that by doing so, there is the preservation and protection of Allah’s legislation (religious laws). If it weren’t for the passing on of knowledge, the legislation would not have been preserved.

3. Also from the blessings of spreading knowledge is that when you teach others, you do them a great deal of good. You give them insight into the religion of Allah. And when that person then worships Allah with knowledge and insight, you are rewarded with similar rewards he is given because it was you who directed him towards a particular good deed, and the one who directs another to do something good is just like the one who actually does it. [15]

Also, by spreading and teaching religious knowledge, one’s own knowledge increases. It is known that anyone who teaches a particular knowledge to people, his knowledge in that subject will increase. This is because in teaching, one is recalling what he previously learned and memorized as well as learning new things that he must prepare. To this meaning, there is a famous (Arabic) proverb regarding wealth, “It increases by spending it often, and it decreases if held in a tight fist.” Similarly, if knowledge is withheld and not taught, it will eventually decrease.

Footnotes :

[15] A proof of this is the ḥadīth recorded by Muslim (no. 1893), al-Tirmidhī (no. 2671), Abū Dāwūd (no. 5129), and by Aḥmad in which the prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

مَنْ دَلَّ عَلَى خَيْرٍ فَلَهُ مِثْلُ أَجْرِ فَاعِلِهِ
Whoever directs someone to do something good, he will have a reward like the one who actually did it.

Posted fromExplaining the Du’a of Qunut in the Witr Prayer – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen, Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison

Learn the below important supplication:

O Allah, increase my wealth and offspring, and bless me in what You have given me

The Explanation of: “Oh Allah, guide me with those You have guided.”.. – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen

The Explanation of: اللَّهُمَّ اهْدِنِي فِيمَنْ هَدَيْتَ
“Oh Allah, guide me with those You have guided.”

Meaning: Guide me to the truth and assist me in acting in accordance with it. Complete, beneficial guidance is that in which Allah combines for a servant both knowledge and action. Guidance without action is of no real benefit. Rather it is even harmful because if a person does not act in accordance with what he already knows, his knowledge becomes evidence against him.

An example of guidance in the form of knowledge but with no action is the verse of Allah:

As for Thamūd, we guided them but they preferred blindness over guidance. [5]

Meaning: We clarified the path to them and we conveyed the knowledge to them. However, they preferred blindness over guidance, and from this we seek refuge with Allah.

Also from this type of guidance – simply giving the knowledge and clarifying the truth – is the statement of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى)to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) :

And certainly, you guide to the straight path.[6]

Meaning: You direct the people to the straight path and teach them about it. As for the other type of guidance which is the granting of success, an example of this type is the verse:

Indeed, you can’t guide whoever you like.[7]

This type is the guidance of granting one success in their deeds. In this case, the messenger ( صلى الله عليه و سلم ) is never able to grant someone the success of their good actions as this type of guidance is specific to Allah alone. If the prophet ( صلى الله عليه و سلم ) were capable of that type of guidance, he would have guided his uncle, Abū Ṭālib. He did try to guide his uncle and even when he was about to die, the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و سلم ) said to him:

Oh uncle, say, “There is nothing worthy of worship except Allah,” – a statement by which I will testify on your behalf before Allah.

But the decree of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) had already passed that the prophet’s uncle would be from the inhabitants of the Fire, and from this we seek refuge with Allah. So Abū Ṭālib neither said nor believed that nothing has the right to be worshipped except Allah. The last thing he said before dying was that he would remain upon the religion of ‘AbdulMuṭṭalib.8 Despite this, Allah allowed his messenger ( صلى الله عليه و سلم ) to intercede for Abū Ṭālib, not just because he was the prophet’s uncle, but because he used to continually defend the prophet ( صلى الله عليه و سلم ) and Islam (even though he did not personally accept Islam). So the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و سلم ) interceded for Abū Ṭālib and as a result of this intercession, he ( صلى الله عليه و سلم ) said about his uncle:

He is in the lowest part of the fire, and if it were not for me, he would have been in the lowest, deepest part of the fire.[9]

And the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و سلم ) also said :

Perhaps my intercession will benefit him on the Day of Resurrection so that he will be put into the lowest part of the fire, it reaching only to his ankles, yet from which his brain will boil. [10]

So when we say in the Du’ā of Qunūt, “Guide us with those you have guided,” we are asking Allah for both types of guidance: the guidance of knowledge and the guidance of being successful in our actions. As an example, the following verse also includes both of these types of guidance:

Guide us to the straight path. [11]

So when anyone says this du’ā he should sincerely call to mind that he is asking for both types of guidance: the guidance of the correct knowledge and the guidance of acting in accordance with it.

As for the wording, “…with those you have guided,” this is a way of seeking nearness to Allah by mentioning his favors on others in that he guided them. So we also ask him to bestow the same favor upon us and guide us. In other words, we ask you (Allah) for guidance, and receiving it is only by virtue of your mercy, your wisdom, and your past favors as you have guided others

Footnotes:

[5] The Quran, Sūrah Fuṣṣilat, 41:17
[6] The Quran, Sūrah al-Shūrá, 42:52.
[7] The Quran, Sūrah al-Qaṣaṣ, 28:56.
[8] The ḥadīth is recorded by al-Bukhārī (no. 1360, 3884, and 4675) Muslim (no. 24), al-Nasāī (no. 2035), and by Aḥmad.
[9]The ḥadīth is recorded by al-Bukhārī (no. 3883, 6208) and Muslim (no. 209) as well as by Imām Aḥmad.
[10] The ḥadīth is recorded by al-Bukhārī (no. 3885, 6564) and Muslim (no. 210) and also by Aḥmad.
[11] The Quran, Sūrah al-Fātiḥah, 1:5

Posted fromExplaining the Du’a of Qunut in the Witr Prayer – Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen, Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison

An Explanation of The Du’aa of Qunoot – by Shaykh Muhammad Saleh Al Uthaymeen

This is a concise explanation of the Du’aa, or supplication that is said during the Witr prayer. This explanation was given by Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen, may Allaah have mercy on him, during his lectures which he used to present in the central mosque in Mecca (al-Masjid al-Haraam) during the blessed month of Ramadhaan. This Article includes Memorization Chart & Glossary

Click the below link to read or download PDF

The Du’aa of Qunoot during Witr Prayer – Shaykh Uthaymeen [PDF]

Praying for the Absolute Destruction of Non-Muslims – Shaykh Abd al-Muhsin Ali-‘Ubaykan

Praying for the Absolute Destruction of Non-Muslims
الفتاوى الشرعية يف القضايا العصرية :Original Title
Author: ‘Abdul-Muḥsin Āli-‘Ubaykān
Translated by: Abu az-Zubayr Harrison – authentic-translations.com

Question: Is it permissible to go to such extremes while supplicating during prayer in that someone prays for complete destruction for every single non-Muslim to be gone?

Click the below link to read or download the full document

Praying for the Absolute Destruction of Non-Muslims-Abd al-Muhsin Ali-Ubaykan- Authentic-Translations.com [PDF]