Being constant upon performing the obligatory prayers in congregation – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 79 : Points 139
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

If you see a man being constant upon performing the obligatory prayers in congregation, with the ruler or other than him, then know that he is a person of the Sunnah,if Allah,the Most High, wills. If you see a man neglecting the obligatory payers in congregation, even with the ruler, then know that he is a person of desires.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Links: 

Deviant groups like Mu’tazilah and Khawarij declares the rulers and others as disbelievers because of sin (less than Shirk) and abandons congregational prayer with them

Not intending Praying with the Imam & Khawarij’s way of Enjoining Good & Forbidding Evil – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 77 : Points 129 -130
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

[129] Whoever prays behind an Imaam and does not follow him, then there is no prayer for him

[130] Commanding the good and forbidding the evil are to be done with the hand, the tongue and the heart, not with the sword

[Souncloud Audio Link

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Links

Whoever abandons the Jumu’ah & congregational prayers in the mosque, without a valid excuse – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 76 : Point 128
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

Whoever abandons the Jumu’ah Prayer and the congregational prayers in the mosque, without a valid excuse, then he is an innovator [1]. The valid excuse is such as an illness, because of which he is unable to go out to the mosque, or fear of an oppressive ruler and whatever is besides that then there is no excuse for you.

NOTES

[1] Congregational payer in the mosque is an obligation upon the sane, adult males who are able to attend. This is the most correct saying of the scholars.

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: A blind man came to the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and said: “O Messenger of Allah! I have no one to guide me to the mosque.” He, therefore, sought his permission to perform Salat (prayer) in his house. He (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) granted him permission. When the man turned away, he called him back, and said, “Do you hear the Adhan (call to prayer)?” He replied in the affirmative. The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) then directed him to respond to it.

[Muslim]. [The Excellence of Performing Salat (Prayers) in Congregation – Riyadh ul saaliheen]

Ibn Mas’ood (radiAllaahu anhu) said:

“Whoever would be happy to meet Allaah tomorrow as a Muslim, then let him preserve (in establishing) these five prayers from the place where they are called from (i.e. masjids), for verily, Allaah has legislated for your Prophet the ways of guidance. And indeed these (five prayers in the masjid) are from the ways of guidance. And if you were to pray in your homes as this man who refrains (to pray in the masjid) prays in his home, then you would have abandoned the Sunnah of your Prophet. And if you were to abandon the Sunnah of your Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) you would go astray. There is not a man that performs the ablution and does it well, then sets out to go to one of these masjids except that Allaah records a good deed for him for every step he takes and raises him up one level and erases one evil deed due to it. You have certainly seen us, and no one would refrain from the prayer (in the masjid) except the hypocrite whose hypocrisy was well known. And indeed a man would be brought supported by two men until he was made to stand in the row (for prayer).”

[Reported by Muslim] [Virtues of the Prayer – by Shaykh Muhammad Saleh Al Uthaymeen]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/salah/masjid-congregational-prayer

Do not Pray behind a Jahmee – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 74 : Point 124
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

The five daily prayers are permissible behind anyone except a Jahmee, since he is one who totally negates (all of the attributes of Allah). If you have prayed behind him, then repeat your prayer. And if he is your Imam on the day of Jumu’ah, and he is a ruler, then pray behind him, (but) repeat your prayer [1]. If your Imaam, whether a ruler or not, is a person of the Sunnah, then pray behind him and do not repeat the prayer.

NOTES

[1] This is reported by ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmad as the saying of his father, Imaam Ahmad, in as-Sunnah (nos.4-5).

[Souncloud Audio Link

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Links:

The Obligatory Prayers are Five. There is to be no increase in them nor any reduction in their set times – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 49: Point 82
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And know that the obligatory prayers are five. There is to be no increase in them nor any reduction in their set times. And upon a journey they consist of two Rak`ahs except for the Maghrib prayer. Whoever says that they are more than five then he has innovated and whoever says that they are less than five then he has innovated. Allaah will not accept any of them unless they are performed within their times except for the one who forgets then he is excused and must perform it when he remembers it and the traveler who may combine the two prayers if he wishes.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

The five obligatory prayers have tremendous importance. And it is the second pillar (rukn) from the pillars of Islaam after the two testifications. And whoever abandons it denying its obligation then he is a kaafir (disbeliever) by consensus (Ijmaa` ) of the Muslims. And whoever abandons it takaasulan (out of laziness) whilst acknowledging that this is obligatory then he is a disbeliever upon the correct saying from the two sayings of the scholars. And the proof is his sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam’s saying:

“Between the servant and between disbelief, there is the abandonment of the prayer.”[1]

The saying of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“The covenant that is between us and them is the prayer. So whoever abandons it then he has disbelieved.”[2]

This is clear. And he did not say whoever abandoned it denying its obligation. Rather, he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam made it general along with many evidences, which this is not the place to quote in full.

And the prayers became settled at five prayers every day and night. The Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said to Mu`aadh ibn Jabal when he sent him to Yemen:

“Let the first thing that you call them to be the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah. So if they accept that from you then inform them that Allaah has made five prayers obligatory upon them.”[3]

And it was made obligatory upon the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and upon his nation on the night of the Mi`raaj (ascent) through the Heavens, which shows its importance. They were first made obligatory as 50 in each day and night. Then the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam returned to his Lord for a reduction until Allaah made it 5 with regard to its performance and they are 50 in the balance because a single good deed is rewarded with 10 times its like. So a single prayer is for 10 prayers. So, it is multiplied to 50 prayers but as for the action then it is 5 prayers in the day and the night.

So whoever says that the prayers are more than 5 then he is a mubtadi’ (innovator) because he has added something into the religion that is not from it and whoever says that they are less than 5 as is said by a sect of the innovators and the people of misguidance that they are 3. The prayers are confirmed by the Book and the Sunnah and the consensus of the Muslims as being five prayers.

He, the Most High, said:

أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا

Establish the prayers from the time when the sun passes the Zenith until the darkness of the night and establish the recitation of the Qur’aan in the dawn prayer. Indeed the recitation of the Qur’aan in the dawn prayer is attended by the angels of the night and the day. (Sooratul-Israa· (17), aayah 78)

And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam explained them by his saying and his action and they have set times.

He, the Most High, said:

إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَابًا مَّوْقُوتًا

The prayer is a duty prescribed for the believers at set times.
(Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 103)

Meaning: An obligatory duty at set times. Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam clearly explained them by his saying and his action. It is not permissible to take them out of their times except on the condition of a valid excuse such as he has slept or forgotten until the time finishes. So then when he remembers or wakes up it becomes obligatory for him to hasten to perform the prayer whatever time it is. He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“Whoever forgets a prayer or sleeps through it then let him pray it when he remembers it. There is no expiation for it except that.”[4]

And as for deliberately letting it pass beyond its time then it will not be correct from him even if he prays it because he has not prayed the prayer which Allaah commanded him with. Rather, he has just prayed a prayer in accordance with his own desires. So if he deliberately lets it go outside its time then it will not be accepted from him even if he does pray it. So what is upon him is at-tawbah (repentance), that he repents to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic and is constant upon observance of the prayer.

And the number of the rak`ahs (prayer units in each prayer) was explained by the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. The Fajr prayer is 2 rak`ahs and the Maghrib is 3 rak`ahs because it is the odd number of prayer of the day. And the Dhuhr prayer is 4 rak`ahs and the `Asr prayer is 4 rak`ahs and the `Ishaa· prayer is 4 rak`ahs.

And when on a journey, the 4 rak`ah prayers are reduced to 2 rak`ahs; the Dhuhr prayer and the `Asr prayer and the `Ishaa· prayer as occurs in the established Sunnah from the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. And that occurs in the Qur’aan:

وَإِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَقْصُرُوا مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ

And when you travel upon the earth then there is no blame upon you if you shorten the prayer. (Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 101)

As for the Fajr (dawn) prayer then it remains as two rak`ahs and as for the Maghrib prayer then it is not shortened because it is the witr (odd numbered) prayer of the day time. So if it were shortened then the number of rak`ahs of the day time would become even. And this is how the ahaadeeth occur regarding the prayer. So it is not permissible for anyone to interfere with them; either adding or deleting or taking it out of its time.[5]

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Muslim (82) from a hadeeth of Jaabir radiyAllaahu `anhu with the wording:

“Between a man and between shirk & kufr is the abandonment of the prayer.” 

[2] Reported by Imaam Ahmad in the Musnad and by at-Tirmithee and Ibn Maajah and an-Nasaa·ee from a hadeeth of Buraydah radiyAllaahu `anhu. And at-Tirmithee said it is hasan, saheeh (good, authentic) and it was declared authentic by Ibn Hibbaan and by al-Haakim in Al-Mustadrak.

Likewise, Shaykh Al-Albaaniyy rahimahullaah declared it saheeh also in his checking of at-Tirmithee; declared it saheeh (authentic).

[3] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy in his saheeh; you’ll find it there in a number of places; the first of them being no. 1,395 and also reported by Muslim (19) from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhumaa.

[4] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (597) and Muslim (684) from a hadeeth of Anas radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[5] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah said regarding the point – Imaam al-Barbahaaree said that “whoever adds to those five or deletes from the five prayers then he has innovated”,

“As for the saying of the author here, “then he has innovated,” this is different to his usual practice for he very often uses the wording of disbelief for things which are less than full disbelief and here he used the word innovation whilst knowing that whoever says that the obligatory prayer is more than five or less then he has become a disbeliever by consensus of the People of Knowledge. This being based upon Tawaatur (something reported by huge number of people throughout the generations at every level).

And then, these five every one of them is well-known with regard to the number of its rak`ahs so the dawn prayer is 2 rak`ahs and the Dhuhr and `Asr are 4 and Maghrib is 3 and `Ishaa· is 4.

So it is not permissible when in residence to pray less than that and whoever does that claiming that the prayer has been reduced or increased then he is to be made aware of the matter if he is ignorant and if he then still persists then he has disbelieved. So the number of their rak`ahs is taken by narration, which has been passed down by generation after generation from the time of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam to this time.

And it is not permissible to pray less than that except when on a journey in which case the 4 rak`ah prayers are reduced to 2 rak’ahs as is proven by the evidences. And whoever claims that the Maghrib prayer or the dawn prayer should be shortened then he is to be made aware and if he still persists then he becomes a disbeliever.

And likewise, their due times have been taken from what has been passed down from one whole generation to the next by transmission of the action and transmission of the saying. So every obligatory prayer from the obligatory prayers has a separate time and its time has a beginning and an end. And it is not permissible to bring it before its time nor to delay it beyond it except that it is permissible for the traveler to gather two prayers due to the ruling of his being a traveler; either delaying the earlier one to the time of the later one and that is by consensus or bringing the second one forward and praying it along with the first one in the time of the first one in the view of some of the People of Knowledge who hold that the hadeeth in that regard is authentic.

And it is permissible for a person who is ill to combine the prayers to repel difficulty which occurs with praying each obligatory prayer in its specific time.

And whoever makes just three times for prayer like the Shi`a; those who permit joining always such that they join the `Asr with the Dhuhr prayer at the time of Dhuhr and they join the `Ishaa· along with the Maghrib at the time of Maghrib based upon the saying of some of their Imaams. Then whoever does that from them and believes it’s permissible then he is an innovator astray.

Just as is also the case of one who combines `Asr along with Maghrib (the day time prayer along with the night time prayer) or who combines `Ishaa· prayer along with Fajr then he is daalun (astray) also. So therefore jam’ (combining the prayers) cannot be except two obligatory prayers, which can share in their times meaning Dhuhr prayer along with `Asr or Maghrib along with `Ishaa·.

And whoever abandons the prayer deliberately until its time has passed then he has disbelieved because of the authentic evidences which prove that. From them is his sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam’s saying:

“Between a man and between shirk and kufr is the abandonment of the prayer.” 

And from them is his saying:

“The covenant between us and them is the prayer so whoever abandons it then he has disbelieved.” 

…to the rest of the evidences.

And the jumhoor (great majority) hold that the one who abandons the prayer is not a disbeliever (meaning he abandons it out of laziness) on account of that, yet still in spite of this many of them hold that his repentance should be sought. So either he’ll repent from that otherwise he is to be executed with the prescribed punishment. And the matter there is disagreement between the people of knowledge and Allaah, the Most High, knows best. Unless he leaves it on account of a valid excuse, which is forgetfulness or sleep then it’s obligatory upon him to pray it when he remembers it because of the hadeeth of Anas ibn Maalik radiyAllaahu `anhu who said “The Prophet of Allaah sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“Whoever forgets a prayer or sleeps through it then his expiation is to pray it when he remembers it because Allaah, the Most High says:

 وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِي

And establish the prayer for my remembrance.
(Soorah-Taa Haa (20) aayah 14)

And Allaah is the one who grants success.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Praying in Trousers or Pants – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 29 : Point 37
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And there is no harm in praying whilst wearing saraaweel (broad and loose trousers).

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

This word as-saraweel is in the singular.[04] So saraaweel (loose trousers), this word assaraaweel is the singular and it is something well known; it is what is worn upon the `awrah, over the private parts, that which needs to be covered from navel to knee so it is sewn to fit the lower half of the body and it has legs. The prayer is correct in saraweel (loose trousers), this is with regard to the man because the `awrah of the man is between the navel to the knee, and trousers (saraaweel), they cover that. So if a person prays in saraaweel (loose trousers), which properly cover what’s between his navel and his knee, then his prayer will be correct. As for the woman then all of her is `awrah in the prayer except for her face if she has no men who are non mahram. So if he prays in an izaar (waist wrapper) then that would be better than trousers (saraweel) or if he prays in a qamees (a shirt) reaching down to the shins then that would be even better because it will be more beautiful for the appearance.

He the Most High said:

O Children of Aadam, take your adornment at every Prayer.
(Sooratul-A`raaf (7), aayah 31)

Masjid, meaning at every Prayer.

Az-zeenah, adornment, is as Shaykhul-Islaam ibn Taymiyyah said:

“Adornment is more general just being a cover for the private parts.” [05]

Footnotes:

[04] Translator’s side point: They mentioned as occurs in Lisaanul-`Arab, this word is a word originally from Persian introduced into Arabic. And the singular term is saraaweel and the plural is saraaweelaat, meaning trousers.

[05] Translator’s side point: In this speech from Imaam al-Barbahaariyy rahimahullaah, there is some refutation of some of the categories of the Shee`ah, those who hold it is forbidden to pray in saraaweel (trousers) because they are affected from wind that comes out of the trousers. So they make it obligatory to remove the trousers when performing the Prayer.

Translator’s side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmiyy rahimahullaah said in his explanation:

“I say, as for saraaweel (loose trousers), which it is permissible to pray in then they are the saraaweel (looser trousers) which cover the `awrah, those which are broad and loose upon the body such that the person is able to carry out the prayer in the most complete manner. As for if they are tight and they show off the shape of the buttocks then prayer in them would be makroo`ah (disliked) and the prayer may even be null and void if the one wearing them is not able to carry out the pillars, if he is not able to sit properly for the tashahhud and between the sajdahs. And Allaah is the one who grants success.”

Likewise Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymiyy hafizahullaah said in his explanation of this point:

“Likewise, prayer in saraaweel (loose trousers) covers two things:

Firstly, it covers the permissibility of sufficing of wearing loose trousers if they cover and they are loose and wide. And it also contains a refutation of some of the sects of the Ismaa`eeliyys and those who follow their way because when they want to pray, it is essential upon them, they hold, to take off their trousers.”

Shaykh `Abdul `Azeez bin Baaz was asked about al-bantaloon (tighter trousers);

“Is it permissible to pray in these trousers?”

Shaykh `Abdul `Azeez Bin Baaz rahimahullaah responded,

“If the trousers saraaweel cover what’s between the navel and the knee of the man and they are waasi` (broad), they are not dayyiq (tight) then in that case the Prayer will be correct in them and what is better is that there should be a long shirt over them which covers between the navel and knee. And if it goes down to halfway down the shins or down to the ankles, that is better because that will cover better. And Prayer in an izaar (a waist wrapper) is even better than prayer in loose trousers which do not have a long shirt over them because the izaar is more complete in covering than just loose trousers.”

An answer from Shaykh Muhammad Naasiruddin al-Albaaniyy rahimahullaah that you find on some of his taped answers to the questions, he said,

“Wearing these tight trousers, bantaloon it has two problems (museebataan):

The 1st problem is:

The person wearing them will be resembling the disbelievers whereas the Muslims used to wear saraaweel (looser trousers) that were very broad and loose, which some people still wear in Syria and Lebanon. And the Muslims had not used to know about these bantaloon, these tight trousers, except when they were colonised; and then when the colonialists departed they left their evil affects behind and the Muslims took them up based upon their stupidity and their ignorance.

And, The 2nd problem is:
These tight trousers describe the shape of the `awrah.”

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 29

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Shortening the prayer whilst upon a journey is Sunnah – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 29 : Point 35
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

“And shortening the prayer whilst upon a journey is Sunnah.”

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

From the rukhas (concessions/allowances), which the legislation came with to make things easier for the servants and to remove difficulty, is shortening the prayer whilst upon a journey and it is shortening the four rak`ah prayer and this is by the text of the Qur’aan, He, the Most High, said:

And if you travel upon the earth …
(Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 101)

Meaning saafartum; when you go on a journey.

… then there is no sin upon you if you shorten the prayer if you fear that those who disbelieve may put you to trial. (Sooratun-Nisaa (4), aayah 101)

What is apparent from the aayah is then it is not permissible to shorten the prayer except in a state of fear. However, this problem has been removed because Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam was asked:

“Why is it that we still shorten, now that we have become secure?”

So he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“That is a charity which Allaah has given to you so accept from Allaah His charity.” [01]

And he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam used to shorten the prayer on all of his journeys; he would shorten the four rak`ahs prayer to two rak`ahs. This is the Sunnah, and whoever completes it then that is permissible, however it is in opposition to that which is better.

So shortening (al-qasr) is a concession, whoever wishes he can do it and that is better, whoever wishes, he can leave it and complete it, then there is no harm in that because completing (four rak’ahs) is the asl. And the author mentioned that because accepting the concessions of the legislation is from matters of `aqeedah and that contains a refutation of those who are mutashaddideen (over harsh); those who do not accept the legislated concessions.

Footnotes:

[01] Reported by Muslim (no. 686) from a hadeeth of `Umar ibnul-Khattaab radiyAllaahu `anhu.

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 29

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

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The wisdom behind saying, “Laa Hawla Wa-Laa Quwwata illa Billah” when the Mu’adhin says, “Hayya `Ala Al-Salah” and “Hayya `Ala Al-Falah” – Imam Ibn Baz

From `Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz to the honorable brother H. M. Th., may Allah grant him safety! May Allah’s Peace, Mercy, and Blessings be upon you. In respect of your request for Fatwa registered in the Department of the Scholarly Research and Ifta’ (no. 1513), dated (21/4/1407 A.H.), it contains three questions. Here are the answers:

 Q3: What is the wisdom behind saying,  لا حَوْلَ وَلا قُوَّةَ إِلا بِاللهLa Hawla Wala Quwwata Illla Billah”  (There is no might nor power except with Allah) when the Mu`adh-dhin says,  حي على الصلاةHayya `Ala Al-Salah (Come to Salah)” and  حي على الفلاح “Hayya `Ala Al-Falah (Come to Success)” taking into consideration that they imply a call to Salah? Is there a Hadith that refers to that?

A: The wisdom behind that saying is that man is weak by nature. He has no ability to move from a condition to another except with the help of Allah. Even his going to Salah in congregation needs the help and power of Allah. A servant of Allah has no might or power except with Allah. He realizes that he is weak, powerless, and unable to answer this call unless Allah helps him Alone. Therefore, upon hearing that call, he says: “La Hawla Wala Quwwata Illa Billah”.

This is authentically reported from `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) as related by Muslim in his Sahih. May Allah grant us all success! May Allah’s Peace, Mercy, and Blessings be upon you!

Issued by the office of His Eminence and was read to His Eminence again on 4/4/1415 A.H.

Source: Fatwas of Ibn Baz > Volume 10 > Book of Salah > Chapter on Adhan and Iqamah > 

http://alifta.net/Fatawa/FatawaChapters.aspx?languagename=en&View=Page&PageID=1628&PageNo=1&BookID=14

Praying behind every righteous or sinful person / Ruler from the people of the Qiblah, and upon whoever dies from them

Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah: Lesson 38  : Point [152]
Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

152. And we hold praying the Prayer behind every righteous or sinful person from the people of the Qiblah, and upon whoever dies from them

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At-Ta`leeqaat Al-Mukhtasarah `alaa Matn Al-`Aqeedah AtTahaawiyyah. By Shaykh Saalih ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah, in 1426AH

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series of Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah:
Explanation of Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Book Study Resource : Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah – Imam at-Tahaawi

PS: The title of the post is from AbdurRahman.Org

Related Link : Rulers & Kings – https://abdurrahman.org/rulers/

The astronomical reports about the timing of the eclipse must not be taken as the basis for offering Salat-ul-Kusuf (Eclipse Prayer)

The astronomical reports about the timing of the eclipse must not be taken as the basis for offering Salat-ul-Kusuf. Some people of knowledge, including Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah and his knowledgeable disciple Ibn Al-Qayyim, may Allah be merciful with both of them, supported this view saying that the astronomers may sometimes be wrong and then these reports are not reliable and people should not offer Salat-ul-Kusuf depending on them. Rather, they have to offer the Salah upon seeing the eclipse when it is happening.

The publications of the astronomers’ reports about the timing of eclipse should be banned by the Ministry of Information lest some people should be deceived by them. These publications may make people feel less fear upon seeing the eclipse. Allah (Exalted be He) has made them to be frightening and hence, people remember, fear, invoke Allah, and treat their slaves well. May Allah grant us success!

Excerpted from : “How should Salat-ul-Kusuf be done? Fatwas of Ibn Baz – alifta.net”

Source : Browse by Volume Number > Volume 13 > Completion of the Book of Salah (Prayer) > Salat-ul-Kusuf > the manner of Salat Al-Kusuf

Opening Du’a in Prayer : O Allah , separate me from my sins as You have separated the East from the West – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Excellent Explanation of the Opening Supplication in Salah (Prayer)

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Posted from Audio series: Salah – Described – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Du’a at the start of the prayer :

Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Messenger ﷺ used to keep silent between the Takbir and the recitation of Qur’an and that interval of silence used to be a short one. I said to the Prophetﷺ  “May my parents be sacrificed for you! What do you say in the pause between Takbir and recitation?” The Prophet ﷺ said, “I say,

اللَّهُمَّ بَاعِدْ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَ خَطَايَايَ كَمَا بَاعَدْتَ بَيْنَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ، اللَّهُمَّ نَقِّنِي مِنْ خَطَايَايَ، كَمَا يُنَقَّى الثَّوْبُ الْأَ بْيَضُ مِنَ الدَّنَسِ، اللَّهُمَّ اغْسِلْنِي مِنْ خَطَايَايَ بِالثَّلْجِ وَالْمَاءِ وَالْبَرَدِ

Allaahumma baa’id baynee wa bayna khataayaaya kamaa baa’adta baynal-mashriqi walmaghribi, Allaahumma naqqinee min khataayaaya kamaa yunaqqath-thawbul-‘abyadhu minad-danasi, Allaahum-maghsilnee min khataayaaya, bith-thalji walmaa’i walbarad

O Allah , separate me from my sins as You have separated the East from the West. O Allah, cleanse me of my transgressions as the white garment is cleansed of stains . O Allah , wash away my sins with ice and water and frost.

Al-Bukhari 1/181, Muslim 1/419

Translation Source: From the Book “Fortress of the Muslim” ,
Dr. Sa’eed bin Ali Al-Qahtani, Dar-us-Salam Publication

What is the ruling on fasting in Ramadaan when one does not pray? – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Question 14

Question: What is the ruling on fasting in Ramadaan when one does not pray?

Answer: The one who fasts but does not pray, his fasting is of no use to him, nor will it be accepted from him, nor will it free him from his indebtedness (of prayer). In fact, fasting is not required on him so long as he does not pray.

This is since one who does not pray is like a Jew and a Christian. So what do you think about a Jew or a Christian that fasts but yet remains upon his religion – is it accepted from him? No. Therefore, we say to this individual: “Repent to Allaah by praying, and (then) fast.” And whoever turns to Allaah in repentance, Allaah will accept his repentance.

Posted from: Advice for those Fasting in Ramadaan (Q&A)
https://abdurrahman.org/2014/01/29/advice-for-those-fasting-in-ramadhan-qa-shaik-uthaimeen/

Imaam Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen
48 Su’aalan fis-Siyaam (binothaimeen.org). Al-Ibaanah.com

The Secrets of Salaah : Imaam Ibnul Qayyim – Dr. Saleh As Saleh [Audio|En]

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Posted from: Importance, Distinction & Merits of Salah – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

The prayer of a person who does hadath (passes, urine, stool or wind) is not accepted till he performs (repeats) the ablution – Umdatul-Ahkaam

Explanation of: ‘Umdatul-Ahkaam (The Reliance of Rulings: a Collection of Authentic Ahadeeth of Fiqh Relevance)

Collected by Imam Taqiyy-ud-deen ‘Abdul Ghani bin ‘Abdilwaahid bin ‘ali Al-Maqadissee (rahimahullaah).Prepared by Saleh As-Saleh .Based Upon the Explanation of Our Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah)

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The Book of Purification

The Second Hadeeth

Narrated Abu Hurayrah (May Allaah be pleased with him): Allaah’s Apostle (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said,

“The prayer of a person who does hadath (passes, urine, stool or wind) is not accepted till he performs (repeats) the ablution.”

[Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 4, Number 137 and Sahih Muslim Kitaab at-Taharah #559]

The Narrator

The narrator is Abu Hurayrah (radiyallaahu ‘anhu). His name is ‘Abdur-Rahmaan bin Sakhir ad-Dawsee. He accepted Islaam in the year of the battle of Khaybar (6 AH), and he witnessed the battle. He was in the company of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), and was very much interested in the hadeeth of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam).

The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), testified to Abu Hurayrah’s keenness regarding the hadeeths.

Ibn ‘Umar (May Allaah be pleased with him and his father) said: “You were closest to the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), being with him, and most knowledgeable in hadeeth”. The same had been reported from ‘Umar (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) himself.

Al-Imaam al- Bukhaaree (rahimahullaah) said: “Abu Hurayrah was the most diligent one in preserving the narrations of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), in his time”.

The people of knowledge related that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) narrated 5,374 hadeeths. He died in the year 57 AH in the city of Madeenah.

The Subject and Overall Explanation

The subject of this hadeeth is “The ruling concerning salaah without wudhuu’”. In this hadeeth it is clear that the importance of salaah ranks high with Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aalaa), because it is the best of worship after the shahaadah. And it is the relation between the slave and his Lord. And for this reason, the believer is not permitted to indulge in the salaah until he is pure, as this hadeeth illustrates. So Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aalaa), does not accept the salaah of the slave and will not reward him for it if he breaks the wudhuu’ until he repeats the ablution.

From the Benefits of this Hadeeth

1. The hadeeth tells that from the salaah, there is the salaah which is accepted and the salaah which is rejected. The salaah which is in accordance with the shari’ah is accepted. And the salaah which is in opposition to the shari’ah is rejected. This applies to all types of worship, because the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “Whoever does an action which is not in accordance with our matter, then it is rejected.” [Al- Bukhaaree and Muslim]. So it must comply with the shari’ah to be accepted.

2. Whether the salaah is an obligatory one or an optional one (even the salaatul-janaazah i.e. funeral prayer), it is not accepted if the person performs it while in a state of ritual impurity, even if he forgets being in such a state. It is only accepted when he repeats the wudhuu’. Similarly, the salaah of one in a state of sexual defilement is not accepted if he performs the salaah before taking the ghusl – the complete bath.

3. The salaah of the muhdith (the one in a state of ritual impurity), is forbidden until he makes the wudhuu’, because Allaah does not accept it. And offering means of nearness to Allaah, knowing that Allaah does not accept them, is like mocking at Allaah.

4. If a person makes wudhuu’ to perform a certain salaah then the second salaah approaches and he attains the time of the second salaah while in a state of purity then it is not an obligation on him to redo the wudhuu’. He or she can pray on the same wudhuu’ done for the previous salaah. And this is very important because some people think that it is an obligation to make wudhuu’ for each salaah. It is not an obligation as long as the state of wudhuu’ is maintained.

5. Ritual purity is a condition for the correctness and acceptance of the salaah.

6. Breaking the wudhuu’ during salaah invalidates the salaah.

The invalidators of wudhuu’ are:

a. Responding to the call of nature or passing wind

b. Intoxication, unconsciousness, deep sleep and insanity

c. Touching the genitals skin to skin, and some scholars conditioned that it must be with a sexual desire

d. Sexual activity which necessitates a ghusl

e. Eating camel’s meat

f. Apostasy (ar-Ridda)

g. Washing a dead body or carrying it. There is a difference of opinion on this, but to be on the precautionary side, one does that. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi was-sallam) said: “He who washes the dead let him take a bath, and he who carries the dead let him make wudhuu’.”

[Ahmed, Abu Daawood and at-Tirmidhee, and Al-Albani graded it as saheeh as in saheeh sunan Abi Daeeod, 2:609)].

The Questions for this Hadeeth

1. What is the full name of Abu Hurayrah?
2. When did he accept Islaam?
3. How many Hadeeths did he report?
4. When did he die?
5. If someone prayed without having wudhuu’ due to forgetfulness, is his salaah acceptable or not?
6. Is it a must to have (make) wudhuu’ for each salaah?

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Posted from: Explanation of Umdatul Ahkaam – by Saleh as Saleh [PDFs]

Certainty is never annulled except by certainty; it can never be annulled by mere doubt – Shaykh As-Sa’di | Dr. Saleh As-Saleh

Al-Qawaa’id wal-Usool al-Jaami’ah wal-Furooq watTaqaaseem al-Badee’ah an-Naafi’ah

The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh
The Beneficial, Eloquent Classifications and Differentiations
Foundation -11

By Sh. ‘Abdur Rahmaan ibn Naasir As-Sa’di (rahimahullaah)

 

Discussion based upon:
1-Sh. Ibn Sa’di’s original explanation
2-Our Sh. Muhammad ibn Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen’s Commentary, and
3-Full explanation by our Sh. (Dr.) Sami ibn Muhammad As-Sghair (summer 1427 A.H./2006 C.E.)

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All Praise is due to Allaah, and may the salaah and salaam be on Prophet Muhammad, his household, the noble companions, and those who follow them until the Day of Resurrection. This is a continuation of the explanation of The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh – The Beneficial, Eloquent Classifications and Differentiations by Imaam ‘Abd ar-Rahman bin Naasir as-Sa’di (rahimahullaah).

Foundation eleven is entitled:

The asl (i.e. previous state or condition) remains in effect, and certainty is not annulled by mere doubt.

This great foundation covers many matters including:

1) Acts of worship
2) Salaah (prayer)
3) Zakaah
4) Fasting
5) Hajj
6) Nikaah (marriage)
7) Divorce

Evidence for Foundation 11

This foundation is established on the authentic hadeeth from ‘Abbaad bin Tamim ( radiyallaahu ‘anhu):

“My uncle (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) asked Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) about a person who imagined to have passed wind during the salaah. Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) replied: He should not leave his salaah unless he hears sound or smells something.’” [1]

Therefore, the person should not discontinue his prayer due to mere doubt. He should only leave when he is certain he has invalidated his state of purity.

Examples:

1) A person makes wudhu and later doubts whether he performed an act that would nullify it. In such a situation, the asl is the existence and continuity of purity. The fact that he thinks he may have done a ritual impurity is not to be considered as in origin, the person was in a state of purity. Certainty is never annulled except by certainty; it can never be annulled by mere doubt. Rather, it is strange that some people when they have doubts, they experience whispering which drives them to remove the doubt with certainty by intentionally invalidating their wudhu.

2) A person was certain that he was in a state of ritual impurity. Later, he doubts whether he made wudhu. In this case, the asl is that the state of ritual impurity remains in effect.

Therefore, the asl remains, and it does not cease except when there is certainty that renders it annulled.

Doubt in the Purity of an Object

Purity (at-tahaarah) is the origin of things (e.g. water, clothing, etc.); whenever someone doubts the purity of something, then he builds upon the asl that it is pure. For instance, if some water from a drain falls on him or he steps in moisture, then the origin is that this water is pure. However, if someone is sure filth has fallen on his garment but later doubts whether he washed it, then the asl is that the ritual impurity remains.

Doubt in the Number of Completed Rakaah in Salaah

In salaah, a person may doubt exactly how many rakaah he has performed. Such situations are divided into two categories: preponderance and total doubt. For example, if someone doubts how many rakaah he has already prayed (e.g. three or four units) but preponderates a certain number, then he builds on that preponderance and later makes two prostrations of forgetfulness (sujuud as-sahw).

The evidence for relying on preponderance came in the sunnah from the hadeeth of Abdullaah bin Masood (radhi Allaahu anhu):

“The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) prayed [and the subnarrator Ibrahim (rahimahullaah) said, ‘I do not know whether he prayed more or less than usual’], and when he had finished the prayers he was asked, ‘O Messenger of Allaah! Has there been any change in the prayers?’ He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, ‘What is it?’ The people said, ‘You have prayed so much and so much.’ So the Prophet bent his legs, faced the qiblah and performed two prostrations (of sahw) and finished his prayers with tasleem (by turning his face to the right and left saying: ‘As-salaamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullaah’). When he turned his face to us, he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, ‘If there had been anything changed in the prayer, surely I would have informed you, but I am a human being like you and liable to forget like you. So if I forget, remind me and if anyone of you is doubtful about his prayer, he should follow what he thinks to be correct (falyataharra as-sawab) and complete his prayer accordingly and finish it and do two prostrations (of sahw).’” [2]

However, when a person is in total doubt concerning how many rakaah he has already completed (e.g. two or three), then he builds upon certainty which is the lesser number; he then makes sujuud as-sahw.

Example:

1) A person is unsure whether he prayed three or four rakaah and is unable to determine which is more likely. He should therefore build on certainty which is the lesser number (i.e. three) and make sujuud as-sahw.

2) A person is not certain whether he prayed three or four rakaah but preponderates that he prayed four. He should therefore build on the preponderance (i.e. four rakaah) and make sujuud as-sahw.

In addition, preponderance is used to determine the number of completed rounds in tawaaf and walks in saa’ee between Safa and Marwah. For instance, if a person is in total doubt as to whether he completed six or seven walks in saa’ee, then he builds on certainty and considers it to be as if he made six trips. Similarly, if he is able to preponderate that it is the sixth walk, then he should consider it the sixth and bring the seventh. However, there is no sujuud as-sahw legislated for tawaaf or saa’ee given the weakness of the narration from ibn ‘Abbaas (radhi Allaahu anhu) that the tawaaf is salaah. This foundation also is applicable to washing a utensil seven times after a dog has licked it. If someone is entirely unsure whether he washed it three or four times, then he builds upon certainty, but if he is able to preponderate, then he builds upon that.

Doubt in the Number of Missed Prayers and Fasts

When making up missed prayers or days of fasting, the person builds on certainty. However, this can be problematic. For instance, someone is unsure whether he broke his fast three or four days in Ramadan. In principle, he is certain he broke it at least three times. However, this origin is opposed by another asl, which is the obligation to fulfill that which is binding upon one’s self. This can not be attained except by fasting four days.

Similarly, if someone does not know if he missed five salaah or six, then in origin he certainly missed at least five, but this is in opposition to the obligation to free one’s responsibility. This can not be fulfilled except by performing six. In this case, he brings that which is higher.

Doubt Concerning which Specific Prayer was Missed

If someone knows that he missed one salaah on a given day but does not remember which prayer (e.g. duhr, ‘asr, etc.), then there are the following opinions concerning that:

1) The person should pray all five prayers because it is possible the missed salaah is any one of them.

2) He should pray one salaah with four rakaah, another salaah with three rakaah, and one salaah of two rakaah. This is because the salaah of four rakaah would cover for duhr, ‘asr, and isha’ while the other two salaah would cover for maghrib and fajr respectively.

3) Our Shaykh, Muhammad bin Saalih al-Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) said, “He should exert the effort until he preponderates which is the correct one.” If the person sincerely attempts to recall which salaah he missed, Allaah (subhaanallaahu wa ta’aalaa) will let him remember.

Doubt in Divorce

There are many different situations in which doubt in divorce can occur. They include:

1) A person doubts whether he uttered the statement of divorce at all. In this situation, the asl is that he did not say it, and the couple is still married. This is because the marriage is certain and is not annulled by mere doubt.

2) If someone doubts whether he conditioned the divorce on something, then the asl is that the divorce is unconditional.

3) Someone conditions his divorce on some matter. Later, he doubts whether the condition was fulfilled. The origin therefore is that it did not take place.

4) A person divorced his wife but is uncertain how many times he uttered the statement (i.e. once, twice or thrice). The asl is that he said it once.

5) A man has two wives (for example Hind and Fatimah), and he doubts which of his wives he uttered the divorce concerning. This matter should be decided by drawing lots. If the lot came on Fatimah, then she is divorced, and Hind remains his wife. If he later remembers he actually divorced Hind or found a paper documenting that, then he leaves Hind and returns Fatimah as long as the drawing of the lots and the accompanying decree was not issued by a judge (if it was performed by a judge, then it would be classified as the judge’s direct ruling). However, if Fatimah got married to someone else in the meantime, then the husband can not return Fatimah because she is now the right of her new husband unless he brings proof, such as a document with testimony, that the divorce was for Hind; in this case, Fatimah can return to him.

6) A person doubts whether his wife finished her waiting period. The asl is that she has not finished it and is still in her ‘iddah.

Doubt in Suckling

Concerning suckling, doubts affect whether or not there is prohibition (tahreem) to marry the wet nurse and her daughters. Cases include:

1) Doubt exists concerning whether a particular child nursed from a woman at all. The asl in this situation is that he did not.

2) Someone doubts whether he suckled from a woman five times or less than that. This person builds upon certainty, which is that he suckled on less than five occasions.

3) There is doubt around when a child suckled from a wet nurse. In this matter, the scholars have two opinions.

a. Some scholars hold that for tahreem to exist, the child must have suckled within the first two years. If there is doubt as to whether a child suckled from a woman within the first two years, then in principle the asl would be that he suckled within that period, which would entail tahreem. However, the scholars have explained that since this asl leads to tahreem, the origin is that there is no forbiddance.

b. Other scholars have mentioned that the condition for tahreem is whether the child suckled before or after weaning. If there is doubt as to whether the child suckled before or after weaning, then in principle the asl would be before weaning. However, just as with the other opinion, the scholars have explained that in origin there is actually no forbiddance in this case.

Thus, with either opinion, there is no tahreem.

4) A mother is certain that a woman in a particular household nursed her child but is unsure as to which specific woman did it. In this case, the tahreem is upon all of the women in the household. For example, if there are two women in that house, then both women and their daughters are haraam for him to marry.

5) A woman is certain that she nursed a child in a particular household but is unsure as to which child. Therefore, it is as if she nursed all of them. Hence, all of the boys of this house are prohibited from marrying her as well as her daughters, and they become mahaarim (pl. of mahram) for her and her daughters.

Doubt in the Hunting of Game

When a person is hunting game, doubt can exist concerning whether the animal was killed by his shot or some other cause. Such situations are divided into two categories.

1) No cause is found for the death of the animal other than the shot. Therefore, the meat is halaal.

Example: Someone says the basmalah and shoots an animal. He later finds the animal dead with no sign of another cause for its death. As such, the asl is the nonexistence of another cause, which makes the meat halaal.

2) Another cause is found for the animal’s death that is equally or close to equally as likely as the shot to have killed it. Therefore, the meat of the animal is haraam. This is proven by the hadeeth of Adi bin Hatim (radhi Allaahu anhu) that the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

When you set off your dog, recite the name of Allaah, and if it catches (game for you) and you find it alive, then slaughter it. If you find it dead and that (your dog) has eaten nothing out of that, (even then) you may eat it, but if you find along with your dog another dog and a kill has been made, then do not eat, for you do not know which of the two has killed it. And if you shoot your arrow, recite the name of Allaah, but if it (game) goes out of your sight for a day and you do not find on that but the mark of your arrow, then eat that it you so like, but if you find it drowned in water, then do not eat that.” [3]

Example: A person shot an animal, but the shot did not kill it immediately. The animal was later found dead in a pool of water. It can not be known whether the shot killed the animal or it drowned. Thus, as proven by the hadeeth of Adi (radhi Allaahu anhu), this meat is forbidden.

Conclusion

Under this foundation many matters fall; anyone that studies fiqh will surely be benefited by it and will be better able to relate matters to their principles and origins. In summary, the continuity of the asl remains whenever the existence of a cause to nullify it is doubted. Similarly, in every matter where there is a doubt about the number, we build on preponderance, and if there is no preponderance, then we build on certainty.

The eleventh foundation in Imaam ‘Abd ar-Rahman bin Naasir as-Sa’di’s book, al- Qawaa’id wal-Usool al-Jaami’ah wal-Furooq wat-Taqaaseem al-Badee’ah an- Naafi’ah (The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh – The Beneficial, Eloquent Classifications and Differentiations), is entitled:

The asl remains in effect, and certainty is not annulled by mere doubt.

All Praise is due to Allaah, and may the salaah and salaam be on Prophet Muhammad, his household, the noble companions and those who follow them until the Day of Resurrection.

Footnotes:

[1] Agreed upon. Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari (English translation vol. 1, hadeeth no. 139) and with a similar wording in Saheeh Muslim (English translation no. 702, book 3).

[2] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari (English translation vol. 1, hadeeth no. 394).

[3] Agreed upon. Reported in Saheeh Muslim (English translation no. 4741, book 21) and with a similar wording in Saheeh al-Bukhaari (English translation vol. 7, hadeeth no. 384, 385, 386, 392, 393, 394, & 395).

Posted from: Explanation of Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh of Shaykh Ibn Sa’di

Salah at workplace despite a nearby Masjid – Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’

Q: An employee works at a company surrounded by more than three Masjids (mosques). He always offers Salah (Prayer) at the Masjid, but his colleagues offer it in the company. They urge him to join them rather than go to the Masjid. Some Muslim brothers advised him to offer Salah with them to preach and deliver lessons after offering Salah and also lead them in Salah, as he is the most knowledgeable of Sunnah, although one of their colleagues has memorized a greater portion of the Qur’an than him. Should he listen to them or continue to offer Salah at the Masjid, paying no attention to what they say?

A: The employees in this company should offer Salah in any of the nearby Masjids like their colleague, as he is the one doing the right thing by offering Salah at the Masjid, for the Sahih Hadiths (authentic Hadiths) reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him) denote the obligation of offering Salah in congregation in the Masjid with regard to men. Accordingly, it is not permissible to miss congregational Salah in the Masjid except for a Shar’y (Islamically lawful) excuse.

May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.
Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’

Member  – Member – Chairman
`Abdullah ibn Qa`ud – Abdullah ibn Ghudayyan  – Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz

Fatwas of the Permanent Committee – Group 1 – Part 7 – Page 298

Posted from: http://www.alifta.com/Fatawa/FatawaChapters.aspx?languagename=en&View=Page&PageID=94&PageNo=1&BookID=24

The Abridgement Of The Prophet’s Prayer Described – Shaykh Al-Albaani

Author: Shaykh Al-Albaani rahimahullaah
Translated by: Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

[Download PDF]

Contents

Introduction | Facing the Ka bah
Standing (Qiyaam) | The Intention (An-Niyyah)
The Takbeer | The Recitation (Al-Qiraa’ah)
The Bowing (Rukoo) | The Prostration (Sujood)
The Second Rak’ah | The Tashahhud
The Third and Fourth Rak’ahs | The Qunoot in the Witr Prayer
The Final Tashahhud | Supplicating Before the Salutation.
The Salutation and its Types | Appendix One – Soorah al-Faatihah
Glossary of Terms

Introduction

All praise is for Allaah. We praise Him, we seek His aid, and we ask for His forgiveness. We seek Allaah’s refuge from the evils of ourselves and from our evil actions. Whomsoever Allaah guides then none can misguide him, and whomsoever Allaah misguides then none can guide him. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, having no partner, and I testify that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger. To proceed:

Then it was suggested to me that I should undertake an abridgement of my book, Sifat Salaatin-Nabiyy صلى الله عليه وسلم minat-Takbeer ilat-Tasleem Ka’annaka Taraahaa, “A Description of the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلم Prayer from the Takbeer to the Tasleem as if You Were Seeing It,” and that I should shorten it and rephrase it for it to be more accessible to the common people.

So I saw this to be a favorable suggestion, and it agreed with what I myself had felt for a long time. I had also frequently heard such advice from brothers and friends. So this encouraged me to allocate to it a small part of my time which is crowded with knowledge related work and research. So I hastened, as far as my ability and efforts allowed, to carry out the suggestion, whilst asking the Guardian Lord, the One free of all imperfections and the Most High, that He should make it an action done purely and sincerely for His Face, and that He should cause it to be of benefit to my brother Muslims.

In it I have quoted some extra points of benefit additional to what is to be found in Sifatus-Salaat. These were matters that came to my attention and I saw that it would be appropriate to mention them in the abridgement.

I also gave particular attention to explaining some phrases occurring in some of the ahaadeeth and the adhkaar (words of remembrance of Allaah). I also provided major headings for each section, and also sub-headings for further clarification. Under these I quoted the points under discussion, numbered consecutively. Alongside each issue I quoted the ruling: whether it is a pillar (rukn) or an obligation (waajib). As for those matters about which I remained silent and did not mention a ruling, then they are from the Sunan1, and some of them carry the possibility of being declared obligatory – however stating one or the other with certainty would conflict with what is befitting from scholarly research.

So the pillar (rukn) is that which is essential for completion of the affair that it falls within, being such that its absence necessitates that the action depending upon it is nullified. An example is the bowing (rukoo’) in the Prayer – it is a pillar of it, and if it is absent then the Prayer is nullified.

The condition (shart) is like the pillar (rukn) except that it is something outside the action that is dependant upon it. An example is the ablution (wudoo) for the Prayer. Prayer is not correct without it.

The obligation (waajib) is that which has an established command in the Book or the Sunnah, but there is no proof that it is a pillar (rukn) or a condition (shart). One who carries it out is rewarded, and one who leaves it without valid excuse is punished. Just like it is the fard (obligation) and making a difference between the fard and the waajib is a newly invented use of terminology for which there is no proof.

The sunnah is an action of worship that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم continually performed, either always doing it or usually doing it, but which he did not command in a manner causing it to be an obligation. It is such that one who carries it out is rewarded, but one who leaves it out is not punished or blameworthy.

As for the hadeeth that some blind-followers mention and attribute to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, “Whoever leaves my sunnah will not receive my intercession,” then there is no basis for it from Allaah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم and whatever is not established as his صلى الله عليه وسلم saying, then it is not allowed to attribute it to him صلى الله عليه وسلم, for fear of falsely attributing something to him. As he صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “Whoever falsely quotes me as saying that which I have not said-then let him take his sitting place in the Hell-Fire.”

Then it goes without saying that in it, just as in the original work, I do not restrict myself to any particular madhhab from the four followed madhhabs. Rather in it I followed the way of the people of the hadeeth: those who adhere to acceptance of every hadeeth that is established from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. Because of this fact their position is stronger than the madhhabs of those besides them, and this is something witnessed to by the fair-minded people of every madhhab. Amongst those witnessing to this was Abul-Hasanaat al- Luknawee al-Hanafee who said, “How could that not be the case when they are the true inheritors of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, and are the true representatives of his Religion. May Allaah raise us up amongst them, and cause us to die whilst having love for them and whilst following their way.”

And may Allaah have mercy upon Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal who said, ‘The Religion of Muhammad is the narrations (akhbaar)’ – what a fine means for the youth are the reports (aathaar). Do not turn away desiring other then the hadeeth and its people. For opinion (ra’y) is night and the hadeeth is day. And perhaps a youth may be ignorant of where guidance lies whilst the sun has arisen and is shining brightly.’

Muhammad Naasirud-deen al-Albaanee Damascus, 26th Safar 1392AH

FACING THE KA’BAH (Istiqbaalul-Ka’bah)

(1) If you stand, O Muslim, to pray – then face the direction of the Ka’bah, wherever you are, in obligatory Prayers and optional Prayers. This is one of the pillars of the Prayer, such that the Prayer is not valid without it.

(2) The obligation to face the direction of the Ka’bah is removed from a warrior having to pray the Fear Prayer and during severe fighting. It is also removed from one who is rendered incapable of it, such as one who is (very) ill, or one who is upon a ship, car or airplane and who fears that the Prayer time will reach its end. It is also removed from one who prays optional Prayer or the Witr Prayer upon a riding beast or vehicle. It is, however, preferable for him, if he is able, to turn it towards the Qiblah for the initial takbeer. After that it does not matter in which direction it turns.

(3) It is obligatory upon everyone who can actually see the Ka’bah to face it directly. As for those who cannot actually see it then they should face its direction.

THE RULING CONCERNING PRAYING TOWARDS A DIRECTION OTHER THAN THAT OF THE KA’BAH BY MISTAKE

(4) If a person prays towards other than the Qiblah due to the sky being cloudy or for any reason other than that, after having tried to the best of his knowledge and ability to face the correct direction, then his Prayer will be correct and he will not have to repeat it.

(5) However if a person whom he holds to be reliable comes to him whilst he is praying and informs him of the correct direction, then he must immediately turn to the correct direction, and his Prayer will be correct.

STANDING (Qiyaam)

(6) It is obligatory that the person prays standing. This is a pillar (rukn) except for:

(i) The one who is praying the Fear Prayer or during severe fighting. In these circumstances it is permissible for him to pray whilst riding.

(ii) Also the one who is ill and the one who is unable to stand, he should pray sitting if he is able, or if not then whilst lying down. (iii) Also the person praying Optional (Nafl) Prayer, he may pray whilst riding or whilst sitting if he wishes, and in this case he should perform rukoo’ (bowing) and sujood (prostration) by lowering his head and likewise the sick. He should lower his head further for the prostration than for the bowing.

(7) It is not permissible for the person praying sitting to place something raised upon the ground to prostrate upon. Rather he should only make the movement for his prostration lower than that for his bowing, as we have already mentioned, this is what he does if he is unable to directly place his head upon the ground.

PRAYER ON A SHIP OR AIRPLANE

(8) It is permissible to pray the Obligatory Prayer upon a ship, and likewise in an airplane.

(9) A person may pray sitting in either of them if he fears that he will fall over.

(10) In the case of old age or bodily weakness, it is allowed for him during the standing to support himself against a pillar or with a stick.

(11) It is permissible to pray the voluntary Prayer during the night standing or even sitting without an excuse, and he can combine both of these. So he may pray and recite whilst sitting, and then shortly before the rukoo’ he may stand and recite the few aayahs that remain for him whilst standing. Then he bows and prostrates, and then he does the same in the second rak’ah.

(12) If he prays sitting, he sits with his legs crossed, or in any manner of sitting that is comfortable for him.

PRAYER WHILST WEARING SHOES

(13) It is allowed for him to stand in Prayer barefooted, just as it is allowed for him to pray whilst wearing shoes.

(14) What is better is that he sometimes prays barefooted and sometimes prays wearing shoes, doing what is easy for him. So he should not force himself to wear them for the Prayer nor force himself to remove them. Rather if he happens to be barefooted he should pray barefooted, and if he is wearing shoes he should pray whilst wearing the shoes, unless a situation requires otherwise.

(15) If he does remove his shoes then he should not place them on his right-hand side, rather he should place them to his left as long as there is nobody praying to his left. Otherwise he should place them between his feet [2]. This order is authentically reported from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم.

PRAYING WHILST STANDING UPON THE PULPIT (MINBAR)

(16) It is allowed for the Imaam to pray upon an elevated place, such as the minbar – for the purpose of teaching the people. He stands upon it and says the takbeer [3] and recites and bows upon it. Then he steps backwards in order to perform the prostrations on the ground at the foot of the pulpit. Then he can return to it and do in the second rak’ah the same as that which he did in the first.

THE OBLIGATION OF PRAYING TOWARDS A SUTRA (BARRIER) AND OF BEING CLOSE TO IT

(17) It is obligatory that he prays towards a barrier (sutrah). It makes no difference whether he is praying in a mosque or elsewhere, nor whether the mosque is large or small. This is because of the all-embracing statement of the Prophet , “Do not pray except towards a sutrah, and do not let anyone walk in front o f you. So if a person insists (on trying to pass) then fight him, because he has an evil companion along with him,” meaning a devil.

(18) It is obligatory that he is close to it, since the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم commanded that.

(19) Between his صلى الله عليه وسلم place of prostration and the wall towards which he prayed there would be a space approximately wide enough for a sheep to pass through. So if one does likewise then he has carried out the closeness that is obligatory upon him.[4]

THE REQUIRED HEIGHT OF THE SUTRAH (BARRIER)

(20) It is obligatory that the height of the sutrah above the ground be at least a span or two spans, due to his saying, “If one of you places in front of him the like of the back-part of a camel-saddle5, then let him pray and not care about what passes beyond that.”

(21) The person praying faces the sutrah directly. This is what is apparent from the command to pray towards the sutrah. As for the matter of moving slightly to the right or the left, so that he does not stand directly in line with it, then this is not authentically established.

(22) It is permissible to pray towards a staff stuck into the ground or its like, or towards a tree, or a pillar, or towards his wife who is lying upon the bed beneath the blanket, or towards his riding beast, even if it is a camel.

THE FORBIDDANCE OF PRAYING TOWARDS GRAVES

(23) It is not allowed to pray towards graves whatever the case, whether it be the graves of Prophets or anyone else besides them.

THE FORBIDDANCE OF PASSING IN FRONT OF A PERSON WHO IS PRAYING EVEN IN THE SACRED MOSQUE IN MAKKAH (AL. MASJIDUL-HARAAM)

(24) It is not allowed to pass directly in front of a person who is praying if he has a sutrah in front of him. There is no difference in this between al-Masjidul-Haraam and other mosques. The forbiddance applies equally to all of them, due to the generality of his صلى الله عليه وسلم saying, “If the one who passes directly in front of a person knew the (sin) that was upon him, then he would rather stand and wait for forty than pass in front of him.” Meaning, passing in between him and the place of his sutrah. [6]

THE OBLIGATION OF PREVENTING ANYONE TRYING TO PASS IN FRONT OF YOU, EVEN IN THE SACRED MOSQUE IN MAKAAH

(25) It is not allowed for a person praying towards a sutrah to allow anyone to pass in front of him, due to the previous hadeeth, “… and do not let anyone walk in front of him …” and his صلى الله عليه وسلم saying, “If one of you prays towards something that screens him from the people, and someone wants to pass in front of him, then let him repel him by pushing him on the chest, and let him repel him as much as he can … [and in a narration … then let him fight him, for he is a devil].”

MOVING FORWARD TO PREVENT SOMEONE PASSING

(26) And it is allowed for him to take a step or more forwards in order to prevent an animal or a child from passing in front of him, so that they pass behind him.

THAT WHICH BREAKS / DISRUPTS THE PRAYER

(27) From the importance of the sutrah in Prayer is that it prevents the person’s Prayer being nullified by the passing of that which will disrupt it. Contrary to the one who prays without a sutrah, since his Prayer will be nullified if an adult woman, or likewise a donkey, or a black dog passes in front of him.

THE INTENTION (an-Niyyah)

(28) The person who is going to pray must have in his heart the intention to pray that particular Prayer, be it the Obligatory Zuhr or ‘Asr Prayer, or the sunnah Prayer’s for them, for example. This is a condition (shart) or a pillar (rukn). As for expressing that upon the tongue, then it is an innovation (bid’ah), contrary to the sunnah. This was not upheld by any of the Imaams followed by the blindfollowers. THE TAKBEER (Saying: `Allaahu Akbar’)

(29) He begins the Prayer by saying:

Allaahu Akbar Allaah is Greater.

This is a pillar (rukn), due to his saying, “The key to the Prayer is Purification. That which makes outside actions forbidden is the takbeer, and that which causes outside actions to become permissible is the tasleem [7].”

(30) He should not raise his voice in saying the takbeer in any of the Prayers, unless he is an Imaam (leading others in prayer).

(31) It is allowed for the mu’adhdhin to repeat the takbeer of the Imaam in a louder voice in order for the people to hear it, as long as there is a need for that, such as the Imaam’s being ill, having a weak voice, or there being a very large number of people praying behind him.

(32) The person following an Imaam in Prayer should not say the takbeer until the Imaam has finished saying it.

RAISING THE HANDS AND HOW IT IS TO BE DONE

(33) He should raise his hands whilst saying the takbeer or before it, or after it. All of these are established in the sunnah.

(34) He should raise his hands with the fingers extended.

(35) He should raise his palms up to the level of his shoulders, and sometimes he should raise them even further, up to the level of his car lobes. [8]

PLACING THE HANDS AND HOW IT IS TO BE DONE

(36) Then after the takbeer he should place his right hand upon his left hand, and this is from the practice (sunnah) of the Prophets, ‘alaihimus-salaatu was-salaam, and Allaah’s Messenger commanded his Companions with it. It is therefore not permissible to leave the hands hanging by one’s sides.

(37) He should place his right hand upon his left hand, wrist and forearm.

(38) Sometimes he should grasp the left hand with the right hand. [9]

WHERE THE HANDS ARE TO BE PLACED

(39) He should only place his hands upon his chest. This applies equally to men and women. [10]

(40) It is not allowed to place the right-hand on the waist.

HUMILITY AND ATTENTIVENESS (al-Khushoo’) AND LOOKING AT THE PLACE OF PROSTRATION

(41) He must have humility and attentiveness in his Prayer, and should avoid everything that may divert his attention, whether it be designs or decoration. Nor should he pray when food that he desires has been served, nor whilst he is having to withhold urine or faeces.

(42) Whilst standing he should look towards the place of his prostration.

(43) He should not turn to the right or the left, since his turning aside will be something that Satan snatches away and steals from the person’s Prayer.

(44) It is not allowed for him to raise his sight to the sky.

THE OPENING SUPPLICATION (Du’aa al-Istiftaah)

(45) Then he should begin by reciting one of the supplications established from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, and they are many. The most wellknown is:

Subhaanak-Allaahumma, wa biham-dika, wa tabaarakasmuka, wa ta’aalaa jadduka, wa laa ilaaha ghayruka

I declare You free and far removed from all imperfections, O Allaah, and all praise is for You. Blessed is Your Name. Great and Exalted is Your Kingdom. None has the right to be worshipped besides You.

The command for this is established, so one should be careful to do it. [11]

THE RECITATION (al-Qiraa’ah)

(46) Then he must seek refuge with Allaah, the Most High, and it is an obligation, he will be sinful if he leaves it.

(47) The Sunnah is that he should sometimes say:

A’oodhu billaahi min ash-Shaytaan-ir-Rajeem [min hamzihi, wa nafkhihi, wa nafthihi]

I seek refuge with Allaah from Satan, the Rejected One [from the insanity he brings about, from his arrogance and from his evil poetry].

(48) Or that he says:

A’oodhu billaah-is-Samee’-il-‘Aleem min ash-Shaytaan-ir-Rajeem min hamzihi, wa nafkhihi, wa nafthihi

I seek refuge with Allaah, the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing, from Satan, the Rejected One, from the insanity he brings about, from his arrogance and from his evil poetry.

(49) Then he should say quietly, in both loud and silent Prayers:

Bismillaahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem

In the Name of Allaah, the Most Merciful, the Bestower o f Mercy.

RECITING SOORAH AL-FAATIHAH

(50) Then he recites the whole of Soorah al-Faatihah, and (Bismillaah …) is an aayah from it. This is a pillar (rukn), and the Prayer will not be correct without it. So it is obligatory upon even those who do not know Arabic that they memorize it.

(51) But one who is still unable to recite it, then it is sufficient for him to say:

Subhaan-Allaah, wal-hamdulillaah, wa laa ilaaha illallaah, wallaahu Akbar, wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billaah

I declare Allaah free and far removed from all imperfections, and all praise is for Allaah, and Allaah is greater and no power except by the Will of Allah

(52) The Sunnah, when reciting it, is to read it aayah by aayah. One should pause after each aayah. So he says:

Bismillaahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem
In the Name of Allaah, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy.

Then he pauses … then he says:

Al-Hamdu lillaahi Rabbil-‘Aalameen
All praise is for Allaah, the Lord of all the creation.

Then he pauses … then he says:
Ar-Rahmaan-ir-Raheem
The Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy.

Then he pauses … then he says:
Maaliki Yawmid-Deen
Owner o f the Day of Recompense.

Then he pauses, he does likewise until he completes it. [12]

The whole of the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلم recitation would be like this. He would stop at the end of each aayah, and not join it together with the aayah after it, even if they were connected in meaning.

(53) It is permissible to recite either “Maaliki” … Owner of the Day of Recompense, or “Maliki” … King of the Day of Recompense.

THE RECITATION OF SOORAH AL-FAATIHAH BY ONE WHO IS PRAYING ALONG WITH AN IMAAM

(54) It is obligatory that the one praying behind an imaam also recites it in quiet Prayers. He should also recite it in loud Prayers if he cannot hear an imaam reciting, or if it happens that the imaam remains silent after his own recitation in order to enable the follower to recite it. However, it is our view that this period of silence is not established from the Sunnah. [13]

THE RECITATION AFTER SOORAH AL-FAATIHAH

(55) It is from the Sunnah that after reciting al-Faatihah, he recites another Soorah – even in the Funeral Prayer, or that he recites some aayahs, in the first two rak’ahs.

(56) He may sometimes lengthen the recitation after it and shorten it at other times, due to the needs of travel, having a cough and cold, being ill or due to the crying of a child.

(57) The length of recitation will vary according to the different Prayers. So generally, the recitation in the Dawn (Fajr) Prayer is longer than the recitation in any of the other Prayers. Next comes the Zuhr, then the ‘Asr and the Maghrib, then the ‘Ishaa.

(58) The recitation in the (optional) Night Prayer (Salaatul-Layl) is longer than any of those.

(59) The Sunnah is also to make the recitation in the first rak’ah longer than the recitation in the second rak’ah.

(60) Also that he makes the recitation in the last two rak’ahs shorter than that in the first two, by about a half. [14]

RECITING SOORAH AL-FAATIHAH IN EVERY RAK’AH

(61) It is obligatory that he recites al-Faatihah in every rak’ah.

(62) It is from the Sunnah that he sometimes recites something in addition to it in the last two rak’ahs also.

(63) It is not allowed for the imaam to prolong the recitation more than what occurs in the Sunnah. By doing so he would cause difficulty to some of those who may be praying behind him, such as old people, sick people, nursing mothers and those who have needs to attend to.

LOUD AND QUIET RECITATION

(64) He should recite aloud in the Dawm (Fujr) Prayer, the Jumu’ah Prayer, the two ‘Eid Prayers, the Prayer for seeking rain, the Eclipse Prayer and in the first two rak’ahs of the Maghrib and ‘Ishaa Prayers. He should recite quietly in the Zuhr and ‘Asr Prayers, in the third rak’ah of the Maghrib Prayer and the last two rak’ahs of the ‘Ishaa Prayer.

(65) It is permissible for the Imaam sometimes to recite an aayah loud enough to be heard by the people in the quiet Prayers.

(66) As for the Witr Prayer and the Prayer during the night (Salaatul-Layl), then he should sometimes recite quietly in it, and recite loudly at other times. However, his voice should only be raised moderately.

RECITING THE QUR’AAN SLOWLY (AND BEAUTFIULLY)

(67) The Sunnah is that he recites the Qur’aan slowly. He should not recite it quickly or hurriedly. Rather, his recitation should be clear and each letter distinguishable. He should also beatify the Qur’aan with his voice, and recite it in a beautiful and good manner, whilst abiding by the rulings that are well-known to scholars of recitation. He may not recite it in newly innovated tones, nor in the manner of singing.

CORRECTING THE IMAAM

(68) It is prescribed for the one praying behind an imaam that he corrects him if he becomes mixed up in his recitation.

THE BOWING (RUKOO’)

(69) When he has finished reciting he remains silent for a moment, long enough to return his breathing to normal.

(70) Then he raises his hands, in the manner described previously with regard to the initial takbeer (point nos. 33, 34 and 35).

(71) He also says the takbeer (i.e., Allaahu Akbar), and this is obligatory.

(72) Then he performs the rukoo’ (i.e., bows) in such a manner that all his joints are settled, and each part of the body is at rest. This is a pillar (rukn).

HOW THE BOWING (RUKOO’) IS PERFORMED

(73) He should place his hands firmly upon his knees. He should spread his fingers, as if he were grasping his knees. All of this is obligatory.

(74) He should stretch out his back and make it level, such that if water were to be poured upon it, then it would settle upon it. This is an obligation.

(75) He should neither cause his head to droop lower than his back, nor should he raise it above it. Rather he should make it level with his back.

(76) He should keep his elbows (straight and) apart from his sides.

(77) He should say in his rukoo’:

Subhaana Rabbee al-‘Azeem
I declare my Lord, the Supreme, free and far removed from all imperfections. [15]

Saying it three times, or more.

(78) From the Sunnah is that he makes the pillars of equal length. So he should make his rukoo’, his sujood (prostration), and his sitting between the two prostrations of similar length.

(79) It is not allowed for him to recite the Qur’aan in the rukoo’ (bowing), nor in the sujood (prostration).

STRAIGHTENING UP FROM THE RUKOO’

(80) Then he must raise up and straighten his back from the rukoo’. This is a pillar.

(81) He must say, while raising his back:

Sami’ Allaahu liman hamidah
Allaah listens and responds to the one who praises Him. This is an obligation.

(82) He should raise his hands when he rises up, in the manner that has preceded (point nos. 33, 34 and 35).

(83) Then he should stand straight up and remain still, such that every bone returns to its place. This is a pillar.

(84) He should say while standing:

Rabbanaa wa lakal-hamd
O our Lord! And all praise is for You.[16]

This is obligatory upon everyone praying, even if he is praying behind an imaam [17], since it is the saying prescribed for this standing position. As for the saying, then it is the saying prescribed to be said whilst rising.

(85) He should make this standing about as long as the rukoo’ (bowing), as has preceded.

THE SUJOOD (PROSTRATION)

(86) Then he says:

Allaahu Akbar
Allaah is Greater.

and this is an obligation.

(87) And he should raise his hands, sometimes.

PLACING THE HANDS FIRST WHEN PROSTRATING

(88) Then he prostrates, placing his hands upon the ground before his knees. This is what Allaah’s Messenger commanded, and it is what is established from his practice. He also forbade the people from kneeling down in the manner that the camel kneels, and the camel places its knees -which are its fore-legs – first.

(89) So when he prostrates, and it is a pillar, he should rest upon his palms, and extend together.

(90) He should keep his fingers them.

(91) And point them towards the qiblah (direction of Prayer).

(92) And he should place his palms level with his shoulders.

(93) And sometimes he places them level with his ears.

(94) And he must lift his elbows away from the ground. This is obligatory. He is not allowed to spread them on the ground in the manner of the dog.

(95) He must place his nose and his forehead firmly upon the ground, this is a pillar.

(96) He must also place his knees firmly on the ground.

(97) And likewise his toes.

(98) His feet should be placed upright on the ground. All of these are obligatory.

(99) The tips of his toes should be pointed towards the qiblah (direction of Prayer).

(100) And his heels should be joined together.

BEING SETTLED IN THE PROSTRATION

(101) It is obligatory that he is settled in his prostration. This comes about by his resting equally on each of the parts of the body that touch the ground when prostrating. These are: the forehead and the nose – together, the two palms, the two knees and the toes of each foot.

(102) So whoever settles in his prostration in this manner, then he has certainly attained the stillness necessary. This stillness (itmi’naan) in the prostration is a pillar also.

(103) He should say in it:

Subhaana Rabbee al-A’ laa
I declare my Lord, the Most High, free and far removed from all imperfections.

three times or more.[18]

(104) It is recommended to supplicate to Allaah as much as possible while in prostration, since it is a time most suitable for the acceptance of supplications.

(105) He should make his prostration about as long as his bowing, as has preceded.

(106) It is allowed to prostrate upon the earth, or upon something placed upon the ground such as a garment, a carpet, a mat and the like.

(107) It is not allowed to recite the Qur’aan in prostration.

SITTING UPON THE LEFT FOOT LAID FLAT (AL-IFTIRAASH) AND SITTING UPON THE RAISED HEELS (AL-IQ’AA`) IN BETWEEN THE TWO PROSTRATIONS

(108) Then he raises up his head, saying the takbeer (i.e., Allaahu Akbar). This is an obligation.

(109) He raises his hands at this point, sometimes.

(110) Then he sits with calmness, such that every bone settles in its place. This is a pillar.

(111) He should lay his left foot flat beneath him and sit upon it. This is an obligation.

(112) He sets his right foot upright upon the ground.

(113) He should make the toes of his right foot point towards the qiblah (direction of Prayer).

(114) It is also permissible to sit upon the heels (al-Iq’aa`) sometimes. He does this by sitting upon his heels with both feet upright.

(115) He says in his sitting:

Allaahumma-ghfirlee, warhamnee, wajburnee, warfa’nee, wa’aafinee, warzuqnee

O Allaah forgive me, and have mercy upon me, and suffice me, and raise my rank, and grant me safety and well-being, and grant me provision.

(116) And if he wishes he may (instead) say:

Rabbi-ghfirlee, Rabbi-ghfirlee
O my Lord, forgive me! O my Lord, forgive me!

(117) And he should prolong this sitting until it becomes of similar length to his prostration.

THE SECOND PROSTRATION

(118) Then he says:

Allaahu Akbar
Allaah is Greater.

and this is an obligation.

(119) And he raises his hands with this takbeer, sometimes.

(120) And he performs the second prostration, and this is a pillar also.

(121) He does in the second prostration that which he did in the first.

SITTING AT REST (JILSATUL-ISTIRAAHAH)

(122) So when he raises his head up from the second prostration, and he intends to get up to perform the second rak’ah, then he says:

Allaahu Akbar
Allaah is Greater.

and this is an obligation.

(123) And he raises his hands, sometimes.

(124) And he (briefly) sits upright, sitting upon his left foot, such that every bone returns to its place, before standing.

THE SECOND UNIT OF PRAYER (RAK’AH)

(125) Then he gets up, supporting himself upon the ground with his fists clenched, like one who clenches his fists when kneading dough. So he stands up for the second rak’ah, and this is a pillar.

(126) He does in the second rak’ah the same as he did in the first.

(127) Except that he does not recite, “The Opening Supplication,” (i.e., Du’aa al-Istiftaah) in it.

(128) He should make the second rak’ah shorter than the first rak’ah.

SITTING FOR THE DECLARATION OF FAITH (TASHAHHUD)

(129) So when he finishes the second rak’ah he sits to perform the tashahhud. This is obligatory.

(130) And he sits upon the left foot laid flat, as preceded with regard to the sitting between the two prostrations.

(131) However it is not allowed to sit upon the two heels for this sitting.

(134) It it is not allowed for him to sit whilst resting upon his hand, especially the left hand.

AGITATING THE FOREFINGER AND FIXING ONES SIGHT UPON IT

(135) He should clench all the fingers of his right hand, placing his thumb onto his middle finger sometimes.

(136) At other times he may make a circle with his thumb and middle finger together.

(137) He should point his forefinger towards the qiblah (Direction of Prayer).

(138) He should fix his gaze upon his forefinger.

(139) And he should agitate it, making supplication with it, from the start to the end of the tashahhud.

(140) He should not point with his left forefinger.

(141) He does all of this in every tashahhud.

THE WORDING FOR THE TASHAHHUD AND THE SUPPLICATION AFTER IT

(142) The tashahhud is obligatory. If he forgets it, then he should perform two extra prostrations for forgetfulness (Sajdatus-Sahw) at the end of the Prayer.

(143) Its wording is:

At-Tahiyyaatu lillaahi, was-Salwaatu, wat-Tayyibaatu. As-Salaamu ‘alan-Nabee’, wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh. As-Salaamu ‘alaynaa wa ‘alaa ‘ibaad-illaah-is-Saaliheen. Ashhadu an laa ilaaha illAllaah, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan ‘ abduhu wa rasooluh

Words of Praise and glorification are for Allaah alone, and Prayers and acts of worship, and pure words and attributes. May Allaah send peace and security upon the Prophet19, and may Allaah’s Mercy and Blessings be upon him. May Allaah send peace and security upon us, and upon all of Allaah’s righteous servants. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Slave and Messenger.[20]

(144) After this he should supplicate for blessings upon the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم saying:

Allaahumma Salli ‘alaa Muhammad, wa ‘alaa Aali Muhammad, kamaa sallayta ‘alaa Ibraaheem, wa ‘alaa Aali Ibraaheem, innaka Hameedun Majeed. Allaahumma baarik ‘alaa Muhammad, wa ‘alaa Aali Muhammad, kamaa baarakta ‘alaa Ibraaheem, wa ‘alaa Aali Ibraaheem, innaka Hameedun Majeed.

O Allaah! Extol and honor Muhammad and the true followers of Muhammad, just as You extolled and honored Ibraaheem and the righteous offspring of Ibraaheem. Indeed, You are deserving of all praise, Perfect in Glory and Honor. 0 Allaah! Send continual blessings upon Muhammad and upon the true followers of Muhammad, just as You sent blessings upon Ibraaheem and upon the righteous offspring of Ibraaheem. Indeed, You are deserving of all praise, Perfect in Glory and Honor.

(145) And if you wish to say it in shorter form, then say:

Allaahumma Salli ‘alaa Muhammad, wa ‘alaa Aali Muhammed, wa baarik ‘alaa Muhammad, wa ‘alaa Aal Muhammad, kamaa sallayta wa baarakta ‘ alaa Ibraaheem wa ‘alaa Aali lbraaheem, innaka Hameedun Majeed.

O Allaah! Extol and honor Muhammad and the true followers of Muhammad, and send continual blessings upon Muhammad and upon the true followers of Muhammad, just as You extolled and honored and sent blessings upon Ibraaheem and upon the righteous offspring of Ibraaheem. Indeed, You are deserving of all praise, Perfect in Glory and Honor.

(146) Then he may choose, in this tashahhud, any of the reported supplications that please him, sand supplicate to Allaah with that.

THE THIRD AND FOURTH RAK’AHS

(147) Then he says:

Allaahu Akbar
Allaah is Greater.

and this is an obligation. The Sunnah is that he says it whilst he is sitting.

(148) And he raises his hands, sometimes.

(149) Then he gets up to pray the third rak’ah, and it, like the rak’ah coming after it, is a pillar.

(150) He does the same when he wants to get up for the fourth rak’ah.

(151) However before getting up, he should sit up straight, sitting upon his left foot, such that every bone returns to its place.

(152) Then he stands by supporting himself upon his hands, just as he did in getting up for the second rak’ah.

(153) In each of the third and fourth rak’ahs he recites Soorah al- Faatihah, and this is obligatory.

(154) Sometimes he may also recite an aayah or more in addition to it.

AL-QUNOOT (SPECIAL INVOCATION) FOR A CALAMITY AND WHEN IT IS TO BE SAID

(155) It is from the Sunnah that he performs a special invocation, and supplicates for the Muslims when some calamity strikes them.

(156) It is to be said after the bowing (rukoo’), after he has said:

Rabbanaa wa lakal-hamd
O our Lord! And all praise is for You.

(157) There is no set supplication for this; rather he makes whatever supplication is suited to the specific calamity.

(158) He should raise his hands whilst making this supplication.

(159) If he is an imaam leading the people in Prayer, he should raise his voice with his supplication.

(160) Those who are praying behind him should say `Aameen,’ meaning, `O Allaah, respond to it!’

(161) So when he finishes it he should say the takbeer:

Allaahu Akbar
Allaah is Greater.

and perform the prostration.

THE QUNOOT (INVOCATION) IN THE WITR PRAYER21 ITS PLACE AND WORDING

(162) As for the invocation (qunoot) for the Witr Prayer, then it is prescribed to say it occasionally.

(163) It should be said before the rukoo’, contrary to the invocation at the time of a calamity.

(164) He should make the following supplication:

Allaahum-mahdinee feeman hadayta, wa ‘ aafinee feeman ‘ aafayta, wa tawallanee feeman tawallayta, wa baarik lee feemaa a’tayta, wa qinee sharra maa qadayta, fa innaka taqdee wa laa yuqdaa ‘alayka. Wa innahu laa yadhillu man waalayta, wa laa ya’izzu man ‘ aadayta. Tabaaraakta rabbanaa wa ta’aalayta. Laa manjaa minka illaa ilayka

O Allaah! Continually guide me and make me amongst those whom You have guided, and make me one of those whom You save and secure from all evils. And make me one of those whom You love, and whose affairs You take care of. And grant me blessing in all that You have given me, and save me from the evil of what You have decreed, for You alone decree, and none can contradict Your Decree. None can humiliate those whom You have befriended, nor will those who are enemies of You ever have dignity and honor. Blessed are You, O our Lord, and Exalted. There is no way to flee for safety from You except by fleeing towards You.

(165) Then he should perform the bowing (rukoo’) and the two prostrations (sujood), as has proceeded.

THE FINAL TASHAHHUD AND SITTING WITH ONE’S LEFT HIP RESTING UPON THE GROUND (AT-TAWARRUK)

(166) Then he should sit for the final tashahhud, and both are obligatory.

(167) He should do in it what he did in the first tashahhud.

(168) Except that in it he sits with his left hip resting upon the ground, and with both his feet on his right-side. He places his left foot beneath his right shin.

(169) His right foot should be placed upright upon the ground.

(170) And it is allowed to lay it down flat, sometimes.

(171) He should lean heavily upon his left knee with his palm,
supporting himself in that manner.

THE OBLIGATION OF SUPPLICATING FOR BLESSINGS UPON THE PROPHET (AS-SALAATU ‘ALAN-NABEE AND OF SEEKING ALLAAH’S REFUGE FROM FOUR THINGS

(172) It is obligatory that he supplicates for blessings upon the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم in this tashahhud, and we have mentioned some wordings for this in the section on the first tashahhud (point nos. 145 and 146).

(173) He must seek Allaah’s refuge from four things, saying:

Allaahumma innee a’oodhu bika min ‘ adhaabi jahannam, wa min ‘ adhaabil-qabr, wa min fitnatil-mahyaa wal-mamaat, wa min sharri fitnatil-maseehid-Dajjaal

O Allaah! I seek refuge with You from the punishment of Hell-Fire, and from the Punishment of the Grave, and from the Trials of Living and Dying, and from the Evil Trials of the False Messiah (Dajjaal). [22]

SUPPLICATING (DU’AA) BEFORE THE SALUTATION (SALAAM)

(174) Then he may supplicate for himself with whatever supplication he wishes from the supplications established in the Book and the Sunnah. There are very many, so if he has not memorised anything from them, then he may supplicate with whatever du’aa is easy for him, from that which will benefit him in his Religion or his worldly life.

THE SALUTATION (AT-TASLEEM) AND ITS TYPES

(175) Then he should give salutations to his right side, and this is a pillar, turning his face such that the whiteness of his right cheek can be seen.

(176) He then gives salutations to his left side, turning his face such that the whiteness of his left cheek can be seen, even if it is the Funeral Prayer.

(177) The imaam leading others in Prayer, should raise his voice with the salutation except when performing the Funeral Prayer.

(178) There are a number of ways of giving the salutations.

(a) To say:

As-Salaamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh
May Allaah grant you peace and security, and may His Mercy and
Blessings be upon You.

to his right, and:

As-Salaamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullaah
May Allaah grant you peace and security, and may His Mercy be upon you.

to his left.

(b) To say:

As-Salaamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullaah
May Allaah grant you peace and security, and may His Mercy be upon you.

to his right and left.

(c) To say:

As-Salaamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullaah
May Allaah grant you peace and security, and may His Mercy be upon you.
to his right and:

As-Salaamu ‘alaykum
May Allaah grant you peace and security.
to his left.

(d) To give a single salutation facing forwards, and turning slightly to the right, saying:

As-Salaamu ‘alaykum
May Allaah grant you peace and security.

O brother Muslim! This is what I have been able to do with regard to “The Abridgement of the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلم Prayer Described.” I have striven to make it easily understandable, so that it should be clear to you and so that you may picture it as if you were seeing it with your (own) eyes. So if you perform the Prayer in the manner that I have described to you, from the Prayer of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, then I hope that Allaah, the Most High, will accept it from you, because in that case you will be putting into practice the saying of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, “Pray as you have seen me praying.”

Then along with this it is upon you that you do not forget the importance to be given to praying with an attentive heart, and to praying with humility and submissiveness (khushoo’), since this is the major goal of the servant’s standing before Allaah, the Most High, in Prayer.

So in accordance with the level of your fulfillment of what I have described to you, concerning humility, attentiveness and adherence to the manner in which the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم prayed, will be your attainment of the desired fruit indicated by our Lord, the Blessed and Most High, in His Saying:

“Indeed, the Prayer prevents immorality and sin” [23]

So in conclusion I ask Allaah, the Most High, that He accepts our prayers, and the rest of our actions, and that He saves the reward of them for us on that Day when we shall meet Him …

“The Day when neither wealth nor sons will avail – except one who meets Allaah with a heart free of associating anything in worship with Him.” [24]

And all praise is for Allaah, the Lord and Sustainer of all creation.

Appendix One

Soorah al-Faatihah
Bismillaahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem
In the Name of Allaah, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy.
Al-Hamdu lillaahi Rabbil-‘Aalameen
All praise is for Allaah, the Lord of all the creation.
Ar-Rahmaan-ir-Raheem
The Most Merciful, the Bestower o f Mercy
Maaliki Yawmid-Deen
Owner o f the Day of Recompense
Iyyaaka na’budu wa iyyaaka Nasta’een
You alone do we worship, and You alone do we ask for help
Ihdinas-Siraatal-Mustaqeem
Guide us to the Straight Way
Siraat-al-Ladheena an’amta ‘alaihim ghayril-maghdoobi ‘alaihim wa lad-Daalleen.
The Way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, not (the way) of those who earned Your Anger (such as the Jews) nor of those who went astray (such as the Christians).

Glossary of Terms

Aayah (pl. Aayaat): An aayah of the Qur’aan composed of a number of words that occur together.

Ahlul-Bid’ah: The People of Innovation, those people who introduce matters – whether beliefs, actions or principles – into the religion which do not belong in it and which the Messenger and his Companions were not upon.

Ahlul-Kalaam: The People of Theological Rhetoric, those who resort to philosophical reasoning and rationale in understanding the texts of the Book and the Sunnah, and therefore went astray.

Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah: Those who hold fast to that which the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and his Companions were upon with regards to ‘aqeedah (belief), manhaj (methodology) and all other matters of religion and who hold onto to this way, not abandoning it for the way of the innovated and misguided sects such as the Khawaarij, the Mu’tazilah, the Ash’ariyyah, the Soofiyyah and their likes.

‘Allaamah: A title given to someone who is distinguished in his learning and knowledge of the religion.

‘Aqeedah: The principles and specific details of belief that one holds in his heart.

Ashaabul-Hadeeth: The People of Hadeeth, this is a description of whoever submits to the Prophetic Narrations in accepting and deriving his belief. As opposed to Ahlul-Kalaam and Ahlul-Bid’ah who rely upon other than this.

Athar (pl. Aathaar): Literally, a remnant or trace. It means a narration from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم or from the Companions, the Taabi’een or those after them.

Bid’ah: An innovation, something having no precedence from the Prophetic Sunnah.

Dalaalah: Misguidance

Dhaahir: Apparent, manifest

Eemaan: The correct Islamic belief, which comprises firm belief in the heart, profession by the tongue and the actions of the limbs. It can increase and decrease.

Faqeeh: Someone who has good understanding of the religion, of the texts of the Book and the Sunnah and who can derive rulings from them.

Fiqh: The understanding and application of the Sharee’ah as derived from the Qur’aan and the Sunnah.

Haafidh: A preserver of the Qur’aan and Hadeeth.

Hadeeth (pl. Ahaadeeth): A narration containing the sayings of the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم, his actions, his silent approvals or any descriptions of him.

Hasan: In the Science of Hadeeth, a good and acceptable hadeeth.

Haqeeqah: Real, in reality (as opposed to metaphorically).

‘Ilmul-Hadeeth: The Science of Hadeeth, which is involved with separating the correct and true ahaadeeth from the weak and fabricated ones.

Ijmaa’: Consensus, the agreement of the Companions of the Messenger upon an issue, and the agreement of the Scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah upon an issue.

Imaam: One who leads in prayer, in terms of knowledge or fiqh. Also a leader of a state.

Jamaa’ah: The body of Muslims, which is united upon adherence to the truth, which is what the Companions were upon and those following them upon that.

Kaafir: A disbeliever.

Khaleefah (pl. Khulafaa): The leader of the Muslim Ummah.

Khilaafah: The Muslim State, which is based upon the beliefs, actions and methodology of the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم and His Companions.

Khutbah: A sermon (i.e., the khutbah of Jumu’ah)

Kufr: Disbelief.

Madhhab (pl. Madhaahib): A way or a school of thought.

Manhaj: Methodology, the methodology of a Muslim in the derivation, understanding and application of his Religion.

Mu’min: A Believer

Muhaddith: Someone well versed in the Science of Hadeeth and all its branches and who is able to separate the correct from the false ahaadeeth.

Mushaf: The printed Qur`nan.

Mushrik: A pagan, one who associates partners with Allaah, in either his beliefs or his actions.

Muwahhid (pl. Muwahhidoon): One who holds the correct belief in Allaah and His Names and Attributes, who worships Him alone, with everything that the correct meaning of worship requires. Not associating partners with Him in any form or fashion and who dies upon that state.

Nifaaq: Hypocrisy

Qadaa: Allaah’s ordainment of everything in creation.

Qadar: Allaah’s Pre-decree and pre-ordainment of the creation.

Qiblah: The direction one faces during Prayer (i.e., towards the Ka’bah in Makkah)

Saheeh: Authentic, a hadeeth fulfilling all the conditions of authenticity.

Salaam: The greetings that a Muslim gives to another, `Assalaamu ‘alaikum,’ may Allaah protect you and keep you safe.

Salaf: Predecessors, the early Muslims, those of the first three generations specifically (i.e., the Companions, the Successors and their successors) and those who are upon their way in belief and methodology, generally.

Shirk: Associating partners with Allaah.

Sunnah: In the broadest sense the entire religion which the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم came with i.e., all matters of belief, rulings, manners and actions which were conveyed by the Companions. It also includes those matters, which the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم established by his sayings, actions and tacit approval.

Ta’teel: The act of denying any of Allaah’s Attributes.

Ta’weel: To give a figurative explanation of any of Allaah’s Attributes, such as to say that Allaah’s Hand means `power’ or `blessing’ or that His Anger means `to intend to punish’ or to say that His Throne really means His `sovereignty’ and other similarly false interpretations.

Taabi’ee (pl. Taabi’een): The Successors, that is the successors of the Companions, the next generation after the Companions.

Tahreef: To distort the meaning of Allaah’s Attributes or any of the texts of the Book and the Sunnah such as to say that Allaah’s Mercy means `the desire to confer a favor upon someone’ or to say that Istawaa (to ascend) really means istawlaa (to conquer, dominate).

Takyeef: To enquire into exactly how Allaah’s Attributes are such as to say `How is Allaah’s Hand-‘ or `Exactly how does Allaah ascend the Throne-‘ etc. This is an innovation.

Takbeer: Allaahu Akbar … Allaah is greater.

Taqiyah: Deception, manifesting other than ones true Religion, i.e., Hypocrisy (Nifaaq).

Tasdeeq: To affirm something is true and correct.

Tashbeeh: To claim that Allaah’s Attributes resemble the Attributes of the creation such as to say `Allaah’s Hand is like our hands’ etc. This is heresy.

Tawheed: The Unity and Uniqueness of Allaah with respect to His Lordship, His Names and Attributes and in His right to be worshipped alone.

Ummah: The Muslim Nation.

Footnotes:

[1] Sunan: pl. of sunnah, referring here to recommended actions established from the practice of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم [Trans. Note]

[2] I say: This contains a subtle indication that he should not place them in front of him. This is an etiquette that is disregarded by the majority of those who pray, since you see them praying towards their shoes!

[3] i.e., `Allaahu Akbar,’ meaning, `Allaah is greater.’ [Trans. Note]

[4] I say: We know from this that what the Muslims do in all mosques that I have seen in Syria and elsewhere with regard to praying in the middle of the mosque, far away from any wall or pillar, is nothing but negligence of the command and the practice of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم

[5] Mu’khiratur-Rahl: It is the piece of wood placed at the back of the saddle, so the hadeeth contains an indication that it is not sufficient to use a line upon the ground. The hadeeth allowing that is not authentic.

[6] As for the hadeeth that he صلى الله عليه وسلم prayed at the outer edge of the area for tawaaf without any sutrah and the people were passing in front of him, then this is not authentic. Furthermore, it does not mention that they were passing between him and his place of prostration.

[7] i.e., the saying of, `As-salaamu ‘alaikum wa rahmatullaah …’ to complete the Prayer

[8] I say: As for actually touching the earlobes with the thumb then there is no basis for this in the Sunnah. Rather in my view it is something that incites misgivings.

[9] As for the practice of combining both placing and grasping at one and the same time, as some late-comers hold to he good, then there is no basis for it.

[10] I say: The placing of the hands anywhere else but the chesr is either inauthentic (da’eef). Or has no basis

[11] Whoever wishes to see the rest of the opening supplications then let him refer to Sifatus-Salaat, pp. 14-19 of the translation

[12] The whole of Soorah al-Faatihah can be seen in Appendix One

[13] I say: I have mentioned the evidence used by those who support it, along with its rebuttal in Silsilatul-Ahaadeethid-Da’eefah, nos. 546 and 547

[14] For the details of this chapter, refer, if you wish, to Sifatus-Salaat, (pp. 25-39 of the translation).

[15] There are other sayings that can be said with this pillar (rukn). Some are long, some are medium length and some are short. Refer to Sifatus-Salaat, Eng. transl. pp. 44-46

[16] There are other sayings that can be said here. Refer to Sifatus-Salaat, (Eng. transl. pp. 47-50).

[17] It is not prescribed to place one hand upon the other during this standing, since that is not reported. If you wish you may see further discussion of this in Sifatus-Salaat (Eng. transl. pp. 50-51).

[18] There are other sayings that can be said in it, and you can refer to them in, Sifatus- Salaat, Eng. Transl., pp. 55-57

[19] This is what it is prescribed to say after the death of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and this wording is established in the tashahhud of Ibn Mas’ood, ‘Aa’ishah, Ibn az-Zubayr and Ibn ‘Abbaas. So whoever wishes may refer to my book Sifatus-Salaat, (Eng. transl. p. 68).

[20] I have mentioned other wordings of the tashahhud in my book (Eng. transl. pp. 67-70), and that which I have mentioned here is the most authentic

[21] Witr: the odd-numbered rak’ah(s) said at the end of the (optional) Night Prayer

[22] The ‘Trials of Living …’ are that which a person encounters in life with regard to being enticed by the worldly life and the desires to which it gives rise. The ‘Trials of dying …’ are the trials of the grave, and the questioning by the two Angels. And the ‘Trials of the False Messiah (Dajjaal) …’ are the supernatural occurrences that will happen at his hands; things that will lead many people to go astray, to follow him and accept his claim to divinity

[23] Soorah al-Ankaboot (29):45

[24] Soorah ash-Shu’araa (26):88-81)

The prohibition of praying to graves, upon them and in the graveyard – Shaykh Muqbil

Chapter 11 – The prohibition of praying to graves, upon them and in the graveyard

1 – On the authority of Abdullaah bin Umasr on the authority of the Prophet – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – where he said:

Pray some of your prayers in your houses, and do not take them as graves.’

Narrated by Bukhaaree (v.2 p.75) & Muslim (v.6 p.68)

2- On the authority of Abu Huraira -radiAllaah anhu – that the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – said:

‘Do not make your houses into graveyards, verily Shaytaan runs away from the house in which Soorah alBaqarah is recited.’

Narrated by Muslim (v.6 p.568)

What is deduced from these two hadeeth, is that the Prophet – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – ordered that some of the optional prayers should be prayed in homes, and prayer is not kept away from homes, as it is kept away from the graveyards.

3 – On the authority of Abu Murthid al-Ghanawee who said that the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – said:

‘Do not sit on graves and do not pray towards them.’

Narrated by Muslim (v.7 p.38) Abu Dawood (v.3 p. 210), Tirmidhee (v.2 p. 154) Nisaee (v.2 p.53)

4- On the authority of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree -radiAllaah anhu – who said: that the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – said:

‘The whole earth is a place in which to pray except for graveyards and bathing places.’

Narrated by Abu Dawood (v.1 p.184), Tirmidhee (v.2 p.263) Ibn Majah (v.1 p.246) Ahmad (v.3 p.83) by way of Muhammad bin Ishaaq on the authority of ‘Amr bin Yahya bin ‘Imarrah on the authority of his father on the authority of Abu Sa’eed.

Also by way of Hamad bin Salmah on the authority of ‘Amr bin Yahya on the authority of his father. Also as narrated from ath-Thawaree in a Mursalan form.

Also (p.96) by way of AbdulWahid bin Ziyad on the authority of the ‘Amr bin Yahya in a Mosoolun form. It was narrated by Ibn Hibban in his Saheeh, likewise in ‘Muwaarid athaaman’ (p.104) & Hakim (v.1 p.251) and he said it fulfilled the conditions of Bukhaaree & Muslim and ad-Dhahabi agreed with him.

Shaykh ul-Islaam ibn Taymeeyah said in ‘Iqtida as-Siraat al-Mustaqeem’: ‘Narrated by Ahmad and Abu Dawood, Tirmidhee, Ibn Majah and Bazzar and other than them, with good chains of narrations and whoever speaks against this hadeeth has not gathered all its chains.’

5- On the authority of Abu Huraira -radiAllaah anhu – who said: that the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – said:

‘Do not make your houses into graves, do not make my grave as a place of Eid (i.e. regularly visited), and send your prayers upon me, since your prayers reach me from wherever you are.’

Narrated by Abu Dawood and Ahmad (v.8 p.155) from the ‘Tarteeb of al-Musnad’.

Shaykh ul-Islaam – may Allaah have mercy on him – said in ‘Iqtida as-Siraat ul Mustaqeem’ (p.321): ‘This chain is Hasan.’ then he mentioned what was said regarding one of the narrators, Abdullaah bin Nafa’ asSaaigh, and he mentioned its supporting narrations.

6- On the authority of Abdullaah bin ‘Amr -radiAllaah anhu – that the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – ‘Prohibited praying in a graveyard.’ Narrated by Ibn Hibban as is mentioned in ‘muwaarid athaaman’ (p. 105).

7- On the authority of Anas -radiAllaah anhu – that the Prophet – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam -‘prohibited praying to graves.’ and in another wording: ‘He prohibited praying between graves.’

Narrated by lbn Hibban as in ‘Muwaarid’ (p.105), and al Haythamee said in ‘Mua’jam al-zawaid’ (v.2 p.27): narrated by Bazaar, and its narrators are the narrators of the saheeh

8- On the authority of ‘Amroo bin Dinaar who was asked about praying between graves – who said, ‘It was mentioned to me that the Prophet – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – said:

‘Banu Israeel took the graves of their Prophets as places of prayer due to that Allaah Ta’ala cursed them.’

Narrated by Abdur Razzaq (v.1 p.407) and it is a mursal hadeeth (not attributed to the Prophet – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam.)

9- On the authority of Abu Sa’eed the freed slave al-Mahree who said that the Messenger of Allaah said:

‘Do not take my house as a place of Eid, nor your houses as graves and send your prayers upon me wherever you are, verily your prayers reach me.’

Hadeeth mursal narrated by Sa’eed bin Mansoor, as is mentioned in ‘Iqtida Siraat ul-Mustaqeem’ (p.322)

Therefore, what is exempted from the prohibition of praying in a graveyard is the funeral prayer, due to the ahadeeth which were mentioned about it:

1- On the authority of Ibn Abbas -radiAllaah anhu – that –

the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – passed by a grave where someone was buried just that night and he said; ‘when was this person buried?’

They said; ‘last night.’
He said: ‘Why did you not inform me?’
They said: ‘He was buried in the dark of the night, and we disliked to wake you up.’

So the Messenger – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam — stood for the funeral prayer and we stood in a row behind him.

Ibn Abbas said: ‘and I was among them, and we prayed over him.’

Narrated by Bukhaaree (v.3 p.433), Muslim (v.6 p.24 & p.25), and Ahmad (v.7 p.226) with the tarteeb of Sa’aatee.

2- On the authority of Abu Huraira -radiAllaah anhu – that –

A black man or woman used to live in the masjid, and he died. The Prophet – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam -did not know about his death.

So that day the Messenger – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam -mentioned him and said: ‘What happened to that person?’
They said: ‘He died O Messenger of Allaah.’
He said: Why did you not inform me?
They said: Surely he was such and such, such is his story, and they belittled his matter.

The Messenger – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – said: Show me where his grave is.’ He came to his grave and prayed over him.

Narrated by Bukhaaree (v.3 p.448) and Muslim (v.6 p.25, 26), Ahmad (v.7 p.223, 224) from the tarteeb of Musnad

3- On the authority of Anas bin Malik -radiAllaah anhu –

A black man used to clean the masjid and he died, he was buried during the night, and when the Prophet – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – came, he was informed about him. He said: ‘Go to his grave.’

So they went to his grave and he said: ‘Certainly these graves are full of darkness for the inhabitants, and indeed Allaah Azza wa Jaal illuminates them by my prayer over them.’

When he came to the grave and prayed over it, a man from the Ansaar said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah! Indeed my brother died and he was not prayed over.’

He asked: ‘Where is his grave?’

So he told him, and the Messenger of Allaah went with the Ansaar.

Narrated by Ahmad (v.7 p.225), Sa’atee mentions in his Takhreej: narrated by al-Bayhaaqi, ibn Mundah and Abu Dawood at-Tayalisee and al-Haythamee mentioned with his wording and said: a part of it is in asSaheeh, it is narrated by Ahmad and its narrators are the narrators of As-Saheeh.

4- Also on the authority of Anas that –

the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – prayed for the woman at her grave, who had been already buried.

Narrated by Ahmad (v.7) from tarteeb of al-Musnad, as-Sa’atee mentions: narrated by al-Bazzar and alBayhaqi and narrated by Muslim also by way of Shobah with a chain of the hadeeth from that chapter; concise, with the wording that the Prophet – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam -prayed at a grave.

What is apparent is that the grave is of the woman who used to live in the masjid. This is what is generally understood although another meaning is possible. Allaah Subhana wa Ta’ala knows best.

5 – On the authority of Yazeed bin Thaabit -radiAllaah anhu – who said:

We went out with the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – and when we reached al-Baqee (the graveyard). He came across a new grave. He questioned us about it, so it was said it was such and such woman, and he knew her.

He said: ‘Why didn’t you inform me about her.’

They said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah you were sleeping and fasting, we disliked to wake you up.’

He said: ‘Don’t do that. There is none amongst you who dies and I am here amongst you, except that you should inform me about that person. Verily my prayer over him is mercy for him.

Yazeed said; then he came to the grave and we made rows behind him, he prayed the funeral prayer over it with four Takbirs.

Narrated by Ahmad (v.7 p.225) from the Tarteeb of al-Musnad. Sa’atee mentions: it was narrated by anNisa’ee, al-Bayhaqee and its Sanad is good.

Imaam a-Bayhaqee – may Allaah have mercy on him – said: (v.4 p.48): We were informed by Abu Abdullaah al-Hafidh and Abu Sa’eed bin Abee ‘Amr who both said: Abul-Abbas Muhammad bin Yaqoob narrated to us that ar-Rabia’bin Sulaiman narrated to us that Bashr bin Bakr narrated to us that al-Awaz’aee narrated to me that Ibn Shihab informed me on the authority of Abee Umamah bin Sahl ibn Haneef al-Ansaari that some of the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – informed him that –

the Messenger of Allaah used to visit the poor, sick Muslims and those who were weak. He would follow their funerals, and no one used to pray over them except the Messenger. There was a poor woman from the people of al-Awaali (a place in Madinah) whose sickness lasted a long time. The Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam -used to ask her neighbours about her, from those who used to visit her. He would order them that they should not bury her if anything happened to her, so that he could pray over her.

The woman died that night. So, they carried her and brought her with the funeral bier – or he mentioned the place of the funeral prayer – in the masjid of the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam -so that the Messenger of Allaah could pray over her as he had ordered them. However, they found that he had gone to sleep after the Isha prayer, and they disliked waking him from his sleep. They prayed over her, took her and buried her.

In the morning the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam -asked about her from her neighbours who came to visit him. They informed him about her and that they disliked to wake the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – for her.

The Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam — said to them: ‘Why didn’t you do it? Let’s go.’

So, they went with the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – until they reached her grave. They arranged themselves in rows behind the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – as they would arrange themselves in rows for the funeral prayer. The Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – prayed over her, and said four takbeers just like he would say the takbeer for the funeral prayer.

This hadeeth is authentic.

Now, our noble Shaykh AbdulGhaffar al-Hindi – may Allaah preserve him – mentioned during the debate, that he required me to discuss the saying of Allaah Azza Wa Jal: << Then those who won their point said: “We verily shall build a place of worship over them.” >>

Since it is from the greatest doubts of the Qubooreeyeen (grave worshippers). I responded to his request – may Allaah preserve him – after the debate had ended, and I wrote the following:

The Qubooreeyeen have a doubt, and it is regarding the saying of Allaah Ta’ala << then those who won their point said: “We verily shall build a place of worship over them.” >>

They say: building masajid on graves was permitted in the Sharia’ for those before us, and it is also permissible for us now, as long as there is no abrogation.

The reply to this doubt is from the following angles:

Firstly: this action was the action of the people of the companions of the cave. The companions of the cave said, describing this nation: <<These, our people, have taken for worship gods other than Him (Allaah) >> Therefore whoever claims that the people of the companions of the cave accepted Islaam after the people of the cave isolated themselves, then he has certainly relied upon the stories of Banu Israeel.

From the evidences showing that their people remained upon their disbelief is the saying of Allaah Ta’ala: << And thus We made their case known to the people, that they might know that the Promise of Allaah is true, and that there can be no doubt about the Hour >>

He who does not know that the promise of Allaah is true and that there is no doubting the final Hour, then he is not a Muslim.

Secondly if we accept, for the sake of argument, that they were Muslims, then where do we find in their Sharia’ that building masajid on graves was permissible for them?

Is it not possible that they arrived at an understanding and were mistaken? Thirdly if we accept for the sake of argument that it has been permitted in the Sharia’ for those before us, then now it has been abrogated with our Sharia’.

The Ahadeeth are Mutaawatir (recurring chains) from the Messenger of Allaah – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam -which prohibit the taking of the graves as places of worship. The curse of the Prophet – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam -is upon the one who does this, as is mentioned in Bukharee and Muslim from the hadeeth of ‘Aeysha -radiAllaah anha.

All Praise belongs to Allaah, may His peace and blessings be upon our final Prophet Muhammad, his family, his companions and all those who follow his guidance.

Posted from: The Ruling of the Dome Built upon the Grave of the Messenger of Allaah – Imam Muqbil – Translated by Abbas Abu Yahya

Straightening and Perfecting the Rows in Congregational Prayer – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

[Alternative Download Link]

Benefits mainly from the Zaad al Mustaqni of Shaykh Uthaymeen & others as well
Audio Extracted from the Lecture : Salaah-Described-001-Going-to-Salat-Rows (19:02 to 58:16)

Posted from Audio series: Salah – Described – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Subhaana Rabbiyal-A’laa (سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الأَعْلَى) – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Short Clip|Eng]

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While prostrating (Sujood):

سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الأَعْلَى
(3 times)

Subhaana Rabbiyal-A’laa

Glory is to my Lord, the Most High. (Recite three times in Arabic)

Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, An-Nasa’i, At-Tirmithi, and Ahmad.
See also Al-Albani, Sahih At-Tirmithi 1/83.

Posted from: Salah (Prayer) Decsribed : Sujood (Prostration) – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Related Link: Dua during Sujud for worldly matters – Shaykh Abdil-‘Azeez Aali Shaikh

Reference: www.AbdurRahman.Org