Smoking: Is It Haraam (Unlawful)? – Dr. Saleh as Saleh

Bismillaah

Smoking: Is It Haraam (Unlawful)?
Author: Sheikh (Dr) Muhamad Bin Ahmad Bin Ismaa’eel
Translated by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullaah)

Many Muslims regard smoking as disliked by Sharee’ah but not forbidden. When an advice is given about smoking and its ruling you often hear a defensive response. People know the killing effects of smoking, but Satan wants them to keep on spending and burning their chests.

Certainly, cigarettes were not present in the lifetime of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). However, what was present and will continue to be present is the Revelation in its forms, the Qur’aan and authentic Sunnah. The Qur’aan formulated the prohibition of everything that is evil:

He allows them all that is good and lawful, and prohibits them as unlawful all that is evil.” (Qur’aan 7: 157)

Evil manifests itself in things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, drinks, etc. Let us see whether smoking is evil or not?

1-Smoking is a killer:

It causes lung cancer, tuberculosis, and heart diseases, to mention a few. We know that Allaah forbids us from killing ourselves. He says:

وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا

وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ عُدْوَانًا وَظُلْمًا فَسَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِ نَارًا ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرًا

“And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allaah is Most Merciful to you. And whoever commits that through aggression and injustice, We shall cast him into the Fire, and that is easy for Allaah.” (Qur’aan 4: 29-30)

Allaah also says:

“And do not throw yourselves into destruction” (Qur’aan 2: 195)

The above ‘Ayaat are sufficient to prove the Tahreem of smoking.

2-Smoking burns wealth:

Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

 وَلَا تُبَذِّرْ تَبْذِيرًا

إِنَّ الْمُبَذِّرِينَ كَانُوا إِخْوَانَ الشَّيَاطِينِ

“But spend not wastefully (your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift. Verily, spendthrifts are brothers of the devils.” (Qur’aan 17: 26-27)

You see some Muslim smokers, may Allaah guide them to the truth, reserving their cash to buy a pack or a twelve-pack carton of cigarettes, or for the “pipe stuff”, etc. wasting their money and their chests: waste on top of waste.

3-Smoking inflicts harm on non-smokers:

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“There should be neither harming, nor reciprocating harm”

[An authentic hadeeth reported in Saheeh Al-Jaam’, # 7517.]

a-Smoking harms the body.

b-It is harmful to others. Many people encounter breathing problems when they smell a pipe or a cigarette, especially people suffering from bronchial asthma.

c-It is the cause of many devastating fires, etc.

4-Smokers cause the spread of evil: They smoke openly and thus encourage others to smoke.

5-Smoking effects worship: Many smokers dislike fasting and praying because they become impatient. They want to go for the next “round”. The smoker becomes like an addict.

6-Smoking makes people smell bad: His car, clothes, home, etc. Carry the bad smell too! He hurts others with his smell while in prayer. In fact the angels also get affected by the smell, because the Prophet ρ said:

“Whoever has eaten from such greens: garlic, onions, or leek should keep away from our mosque. Truly, the angels are harmed by that which harms the offspring of Adam.”

[Al-Bukaree, Muslim, At-Tirmithee, and An-Nassaa’ee from the hadeeth of Jaabir. See Saheeh AlJaami’ # 6089.]

The above points are clear evidences that smoking is evil, and thus it is Haraam (unlawful). If the Muslim is under any kind of stress, then he must turn to Allaah for help. The Book of Allaah, the Qur’aan is a healing. When the urge for smoking arise, resort to the Qur’aan and strive to comply with Allaah’s commands:

وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمَعَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

“Those who strive hard in Us (Our Cause), We will surely guide them to Our Paths.” (Qur’aan 29: 69)

You may want to take by some of the following means while depending upon Allaah, seeking His help and guidance:

1-Try to minimize drinking the drinks that became “mentally related” to smoking:coffee, tea, etc.
2-Whenever there is an urge for smoking, try to make yourself busy with something else.
3-Minimize contact with smokers.
4-Try not to accept a cigerette from anyone.
5-Try not to finish smoking the whole cigarette. Go to two thirds, then half, etc.
6-Try not to deeply inhale the smoke.
7-Try to drink a lot of water one you quit smoking.
8-Try to remember that you want to gain the pleasure of Allaah.

Source: Pages 54 – 56 in the below PDF Document
The Three Letters – The Beard, Isbaal , Smoking – Dr Saleh as Saleh [PDF]

Source: Understand-islam.net

Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/category/islam/smoking

Shubuha (Doubt) : Isbaal is permitted as long as it is not done out of conceit

[Isbaal is to wear garments that extend below the ankles]

First Shubuha (Doubt): Isbaal is permitted as long as it is not done out of Makheelah. Some refer to the following hadeeth as an evidence:

[Abdullah bin Umar رضي الله عنهم ا reported that: “I came to visit the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم and I was wearing an Izaar Yataqa’qa’ (clanking because of its trailing below the ankles) . He صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Who is this?” I said: “Abdullah bin Umar”. He said: “If you are an Abd (i.e. a true slave) of Allaah, then pull up your Izaar”. I did. He then said: “more!”. (Ibn Umar) said: “I pulled it up until it reached the middle of shank; this was the (length) of his Izaar until he (صلى الله عليه و سلم) died”. He then looked towards Abee Bakr and said: “If anyone trails his garment arrogantly, Allaah will not look at him on the Day of Judgment”. Then Abu Bakr said: “My Izaar sometimes hangs low (in another narration he said: “one of the sides of my lower garment hangs low if I do not take care of it”)[99]. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلمsaid: “But you are not one of them (in another narration he said: You are not one of those who do so conceitedly)[100].] [101]

Discussion: The hadeeth supports the Tahreem of Isbaal rather than the opinion which permits the Isbaal as long as it is not done out of conceit. In fact the hadeeth clearly makes it obligatory on the Muslim not to let his Izaar hang lower than his ankles, and that he must tuck it up even though his intention was like that of Abu Bakr in the hadeeth i.e. not done out of conceit. In fact Abu Bakr said: “One side of my Izaar hangs low if I do not take care of it”. In our times, however, people let their Izaars hang low, unlike Abu Bakr, and then they claim: “Well we do not do it out of arrogance!”. Don’t they realize the commands of Allaah’s Messenger to tuck up the Izaar and that his Izaar was extending to the middle of his shanks? Don’t they know that He صلى الله عليه و سلم never thinks about Makheelah? Isn’t he our example?

It is also clear that Abu Bakr did not say that: “I made my Izaar trailing”. In fact he said in one narration: “Sometimes my Izaar hangs low”. So, its his Izaar that goes down when as he said: “I do not take care of it”. Its clear that when he takes care of it it stays above his ankles, but when it gets loose it hangs low. Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajer reported that Ibn Sa’dd reported a narration from the way of Talha bin Abdullaah bin Abdur-Rahmaan bin Abee Bakr, that ‘Aaaishah رضي الله عنها وعنهم said: “Abu Bakr was Ahnaa (had an inclination in his back), his Izaar could not hold on him, it used to get loose around his loins”. Al-Hafidh also reported a narration from the way of Qayess Ibn Abee Haazim who said: “I visited Abee Bakr and he was a thin person.” [102]

Those who design garments, pants, etc. whose lower ends abide by the Sunnah, but when they wear them they get loose and sometimes trail below the ankles, resemble the case of Abu Bakr.

The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم considered that Abu Bakr was not “one of those who hang their garments out of conceit”, because Abu Bakr did not intend to lower his Izaar below the ankles, and it only trailed when he did not take care of it. Those who intend to trail out of conceit are threatened with a grave punishment:

The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said:

Allaah will not look (on the Day of Resurrection)[103] at person who drags his Izaar (behind him) out of conceit.” [104]

In another narration the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said:

Allaah will not look at a person , on the Day of Judgemt, who drags his Izaar out of pride and arrogance.” [105]

In addition, on the Day of Judgment, Allaah will not talk to or sanctify the Musbil. This is confirmed in the authentic hadeeth in which Abu Dharr reported the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم as saying:

“There are three (kinds) of persons to whom Allaah will neither speak on the Day of Judgment, nor will He look at them nor purify them, and they will have a painful Punishment. He (Abu Darr) said: “Allaah’s Messenger repeated it three times. Abu Dharr remarked: “They failed and they lost; who are these persons, O Messenger of Allaah? He صلى الله عليه و سلم replied: “The one who wears a trailing robe (the Musbil), the one who takes account of what he gives, and the seller of goods by false oaths.” [106]

Certainly Abu Bakr received a testimony from the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم that he did not lower his Izaar out of arrogance. Those who intentionally make Isbaal, when did they receive a purifying testimony?

In another incident, Abdullah Ibn Umar passed by the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم and his Izaar was hanging low. He said describing this incident:

“I happened to pass before Allaah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم with my garment hanging low. He said: Abdullah, tug up your lower garment. I tugged it up, and he again said: “Tug it still further”. I tugged it still further and I went on tugging it afterward, whereupon some of the people said: “To what extent?” Thereupon he said: “To the middle of the shanks.” [107]

The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم did not keep silent when he saw Abdullah bin Umar hanging low his Izaar. This shows that the prophibition of Isbaal for men is not restricted only to the case if it is done out of Makheelah. Abdullah bin Umar is one of the great Sahabah. Imagine what would the position of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم be if he sees the clothes on many Du’aat (those who invite others to this Deen), or even “scholars” each trailing his Jubbah,[108] garment, or pants? We know that Ibn Umar hastened to comply with the Prophet’s command. Now it takes hours, talks, lectures to convey the Prophet’s command and still you find people arguing that: “Well! As long as Isbaal is not done out of conceit then its OK!” Indeed it makes the clement person preplexed! To Allaah alone, is the complaint!

References:

[99] From Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V. 7, hadeeth # 675.

[100] Ibid. Also reported by Abee Dawood.

[101]The hadeeth was reported by Imaam Ahmad, Abdul Razzaaq, At-Tabaraanee and others. Al-Albaanee said: The hadeeth’s Isnaad is according to the conditions laid down by Ash-Shayekhan (i.e. the two Shayeks: Al- Bukhaaree and Muslim), As-Silsilah As-Saheehah, V. 4, P. 95. The part of the hadeeth starting with the saying of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم: If anyone trails his Izaar” and ending with “you are not of those who do so conceitedly” is reported by Al-Bukhaaree, Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree V. 7, hadeeth # 675.

[102] Fathul Baaree V. 10, P. 255.

[103] See Appendix.

[104] Al-Bukhaaree, Muslim, and Ahmad. See Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V. 7, hadeeth # 675., and Saheeh Muslim, V. 3, Ahadeeth # 5191-5195.

[105] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V. 7, hadeeth # 679 and Saheeh Muslim, hadeeth # 5201.

[106] Collected by Muslim (Saheeh Muslim, V.1, hadeeth # 192 and 193), Saheeh Abee Daawood, hadeeth # 3444, Saheeh At-Tirmithee # 967, Saheeh Ibn Majah, # 2208, An-Nassaa’ee, Book of Zakat, V.5, P. 81, Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad, V. 5, P. 148 and P. 162, and others. Al-Albaanee also reported it in Saheeh Al-Jaami’, V.3, hadeeth # 3062.

[107] Reported by Muslim, Saheeh Muslim V. 3, hadeeth # 5200.

[108] Jubbah, a cloak.

Author: Sheikh (Dr) Muhamad Bin Ahmad Bin Ismaa’eel
Translated by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullaah)
Daar Al-Bukhari Publishing & Distribution

The Three Letters – The Beard, Isbaal , Smoking – Dr Saleh as Saleh [PDF]
Source: Understand-islam.net

Isbaal (Men wearing garments that extend below the ankles) – Dr. Saleh as Saleh

Author: Sheikh (Dr) Muhamad Bin Ahmad Bin Ismaa’eel

Translated by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullaah) د/صالح الصالح
Daar Al-Bukhari Publishing & Distribution

Read the Pages 33 – 54 in the below PDF Document
The Three Letters – The Beard, Isbaal , Smoking – Dr Saleh as Saleh [PDF]

Source: Understand-islam.net

الإسبال Isbaal

What is Isbaal?
Isbaal is to wear garments that extend below the ankles.

Is it Forbidden?
Yes, because the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“The part of an Izaar (garment) which hangs below the ankles is in the Fire.” [73]

Some hold the opinion that Isbaal is forbidden when it is done out of pride, conceit or arrogance. Is this argument true?

The answer is: No, because:

First: The threat to punish in Hell those who drag their garments bellow the ankles is clear [74].

Second: Several texts indicate that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) was commanding the people to pull up their garments. The majority of the Muslim Scholars (Al-Jumhoor) agree that when the text is in the imperative from, intended for Tahreem (forbidding something), unless there is another authentic evidence that indicates otherwise.

[73] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V.7, hadeeth # 678.

[74]The punishable part is that which violates the command of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) i.e below the ankles. Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajer is with the opinion that the obvious literal meaning of the hadeeth holds true i.e. the clothes together with the part below the ankles will be in Hell as it is the case in the saying of Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى):

“Certainly! You (disbelievers) and that which you are worhipping now besides Allaah, are (but) fuel for Hell!” (Qur’aan 21:98).

See Fathul Baaree V. 10, hadeeth # 5789 (same as # 678 above), PP. 268-269, Published by Daar Ar-Rayyaan, Cairo, Egypt.

In one incident, the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) sighted someone dragging his lower garment. He rushed to him and said:

“Pull up your Izaar and fear Allaah”. The man said: “I am a an Ahnaf [75] person with trembling knees”. He (the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم)) said: “Tuck up your Izaar! Certainly, all of Allaah’s creation of Allaah is good”. Since then the man was not seen except with his Izaar touching the middle of his shanks or up to the middle of his shanks [76].

It is clear that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) did not question the man whether he was doing it out of pride or arrogance. In fact its clear that from the condition of the man that he did not even think about arrogance! Nevertheless the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) did not accept it his Isbaal and considered that Isbaal is incompatible with At-Taqwa (the fear of Allaah).

Third: The generalized prohibition of Isbaal is clear in the saying of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). On one occasion he said to Sufyaan bin Sahl:

“O Sufyaan bin Sahl! Do not lower your garment below your ankles because Allaah does not love the Musbileen (those who lower their lower garments below their ankles).” [77]

Jaabir bin Saleem said that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) told him:

“…And beware of the Isbaal of the Izaar because it is from Al-Makheelah (conceit, arrogance, etc.) and Allaah does not love it.” [78]

One can notice the text (underlined) in the imperative from indicating the forbidding of Isbaal whether it is done out of Makheelah or not. Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajer in his commentary about some of the Ahaadeeth mentioned above said:

“The Isbaal mentioned in these Ahadeeth is a grave sin if it is done out of Makheelah, otherwise the apparent meaning of the Ahadeeth indicates that it is forbidden.” [79]

Fourth: The manifestation of the ِAayah:

And whatsoever the messenger gives you take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain from it.” (Qur’aan 59:7)

It is known that the Ath-Thawb [80] of the most honorable of mankind, Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) was up to the middle of his shanks.” [81]

This is confirmed in another hadeeth in which Uthmaan (رضي الله عنه) reported that the “The lower garment of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) extended to the middle of his shanks.” [82] Who else is more humble than him (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم)? He knew that Isbaal necessitates Al-Makheelah even if the Musbil does not intend it. This is supported by the hadeeth of Jaabir bin Saleem in which the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) made it clear that Isbaal is a manifestation of arrogance:

[75] Ahnaf, a person afflicted with a distortion of the foot with each foot moving towards the other one along the big toe.
[76] Reported by Ahmad and others, and it satisfies the conditions set by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim. See As-Silsilah As-Saheehah, hadeeth # 1441.
[77] Saheeh Sunnan Ibn Majah by Shayekh Nassir-ud- Deen Al-Albaanee # 2876.
[78] Silsilat Al-Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah, the Series on the Collection of Authentic Ahaadeeth, by Shayekh Al-Albaanee, hadeeth # 770.
[79] Fathul Baaree, V. 10, P. 263.
[80] Ath-Thawb: garment.
[81] Reported by Ahmad, At-Tirmithee in Ash-Shamaa’il Al-Muhammadiyyah and by others. The hadeeth is authentic as reported by Waleed An-Nassr in his book Al-Isbaal Liqhayr Al-Khuyalaa’, P. 15.
[82] Reported by At-Tirmithee in Ash-Shamaa’il Al-Muhammadiyyah and Al-Albaanee authenticated it # 98.

He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) commanded Jaabir bin Saleem saying:

“And Tuck up your Izaar up to the middle of your shanks, and if you dislike it, then up to the ankles (i.e. up to a point above the ankles) and beware of Isbaal because it is arrogance.” [83]

Shouldn’t we, therefore, abide by the command of Allaah in the above ِAayah?

Fifth: Isbaal by men is an immitation of women.

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) forbade that men dress like women and vice versa. He said:

“Allaah cursed the man dressed like a women and the women dressed like a man.” [84]

In fact Ibn Umar رضي االله عنهما said that: “the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“The one who trails his Thobe out of conceit, Allaah will not look at him on the the Day of Judgment”.

Ummu Salamah رضي االله عنها said: “What should the women, O Messenger of Allaah, do with the lower ends of their dresses?” He said: “They may let them hang down a span”. She said: “Still their feet will be uncovered”. He said: “Then let them hang the ends down a forearm’s length, not exceeding it.” [85]

Lowering the garments below the ankle is a the code of dress of women. Shaykh ul Islaam Ibn Taymmeyah said:

“…The imitation (of others) in the outward appearances produces a proportional assumption of the deeds and manners. That is why we are ordered to oppose the Kuffar… and that is also why men and women are prohibited from imitating each other in accordance with the Ahadeeth:

” من تشبه بقومٍ فهو منهم ”
“Whoever takes the similitude of certain people becomes one of them” [86]

[83] Silsilat Al-Ahadeeth as-Saheehah, hadeeth # 1109 and 1352.
[84] Saheeh Abee Dawood, hadeeth # 3454, Ibn Majah 1903, Saheeh Al-Jaami’e As-Sagheer, hadeeth #5095, and others.
[85] An authentic narration reported by Abee Dawood (# 3467 in Saheeh Abee Dawood), An-Nassaa’ee (#5336) and At-Tirmithee (Saheeh At-Tirmithee #1415), and Ibn Majah #3580 & 3581.
[86] An authentic hadeeth collected by Abee Dawood, Ahmad, and others. See As-Silsilah As-Saheehah V.1, 676

The man who imitates women acquires from their manners according to the extent of his imitation, such that it he may end up in complete effeminacy…The woman who imitates men assumes part of their manners until she attains levels of Tabarruj [87], Burooz [88] and Mushaarakah with men [89] driving some of them to show their bodies as men do, demanding superiority over men, and doing whatever contradicts the bashfulness of the woman…” [90]

When Ummar bin Al-Khattaab (رضي الله عنه) saw a man dragging his Izaar, he called upon him and said: “Are you having your menses?”. The man said: “O Ameer Al-Mu’mineen [91]! Does a man have menses?” Umar said: “What made you drag your Izaar over your feet?” He then ordered a blade, rapped (the lower ends of) the man’s Izaar and cut what trailed below the ankles…

Today we see that men are trailing their Izaar (Thobe, trousers, pants, etc.) like women while women wear clothes whose lower ends are way above the ankles! May Allaah guide our men and women to abide by the Commands of Allaah and His Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم).

Sixth: Isbaal is extravagancy:

Allaah has set a measure for everything, including the clothes for men. If a Muslim exceeds the limits set by Sharee’ah then he becomes an extravagant. Allaah, Most Exalted, says:

“And eat and drink but waste not by extravagance, certainly He (Allaah) likes not the extravagants.” (Qur’aan 7: 31).

[87] Tabarruj, displaying beautification as a show off to strangers. Displaying beautification to the husband is not Tabarruj.
[88] Burooz, show off.
[89] Mushaarakah, joining men in all walks of life.
[90] Sheikh ul Islam Ibn Taymmeyah in his book Al-Fatawa (Arabic), V. 22, P. 254.
[91] Ameer Al-Mu’mineen, the Commander of the Faithful. It is a title given to the Islamic Caliph. This incident was narrated by Kharshah bin Al-Hurr. The report is found in Waleed An-nasr’s book Al-isbaal Lighayer Al-Khuyalaa, p. 18, where he attributed it to At-Tabaree. It is reported in a summarized version by Ibn Abee Shaybah in his Mussannaf (V.8, p. 393) with a Saheeh Isnaad, as An-Nasr said.

Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajer, may Allaah’s Mercy be upon him, said:

“If the Thobe (as well as all other garments) exceeds the appropriate size [92] of the one who wears it, then it would be prohibited based upon extravagance and that leads to Tahreem.” [93]

Seventh: Isbaal and impurities:

Ubaid bin Khalid said: “I was walking trailing my Burd [94]. A man talked to him saying: “Pull up your Thobe because that (will keep it) more clean and will last longer”. I looked (to see who was talking to me) and he was the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). I said: “It is only a black and white-striped Burdah (outer garment)”. He said: “Don’t you have an example in me?” I said: “I looked (at him) and his Izaar was (extending) to the middle of his shanks.” [95]

Abdullah Ibn Mas’oud narrated that: “A young man paid a visit to Umar (رضي الله عنه) (after he was stabbed by Abu Lu’lu’ah Al-Majoosee) and he started praising Umar (رضي الله عنه). (The narrator) said: “Umar saw the man trailing his Izaar”. He said to him: “O son of my brother! Lift your clothes, for this will keep them clean, and save you from the Punishment of your Rabb.” [96]

The painful suffering from the fatal wounds in Umar’s body did not prevent him from talking about the issue of Isbaal because Umar realized the threat of punishment in Hell for those who hang down their lower garments. In this there is a great lesson for all Muslims and especially our young generations that they should take this matter seriously and abide by the commands of Allaah and His Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). On the other hand the incident shows that Umar while leading an Ummah did not say this is a “minor issue” as some Muslims respond when they are adviced about this issue or that of the beard. He considered all matters of Deen in light of the teachings of the Qur’aan and Sunnah. Certainly if a person is new to Islaam or if he is ignorant, then we gradually teach him the importance of Tawheed and that the Sunnah is an integral part Tawheed.

[92] The appropriate size takes into consideration what is prohibited and what is permitted. For example, it is prohibited to wear pants that “just fit in” and display or “framelike” the shapes of the private parts of men. This would alos be considered an an immitation of the Kuffar.
[93] Fathul Baaree, V. 10, P. 263.
[94] Burd, a black decorated square outer garment.
[95] Shayekh Al-Albaanee said that the hadeeth is authentic as in Ash-Shamaa’il Al-Muhammadiyyah (Sumarized Version), # 97.
[96] Collected by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim. See Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree V. 5, hadeeth # 50. It is also reported by Ibn Abee Shaybah in his Musannaf , V. 8, P. 27.

When these matters are made clear to him, then it is very natural to call him to abide by them. Setting the priorities without compromising or indefinitely postponing the reminders is, inshaaaAllaah, the beneficial approach.

Note: Someone may ask the question: “If the Sunnah for women is to trail their dresses, then what about the impurities that may attach to the dresses?”

A women asked Umm Salamah رضي االله عنها the following question: “I am a women having a long trail of my garment and I walk in a filthy place; (then what should I do?). Umm Salamah replied: “The Messenger of Allaah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: ‘What comes after it cleanses it’. “ [97]

[97] The hadeeth is reported by Imaam Malik, Ahmad, At-Tirmithee, Abee Dawoood, and Ad-Daarimee.

The Sharee’ah permitted the trailing by the women in order to cover her feet which are illegal to keep naked before others. That is the exception upon which the ruling for women regarding the trailing is different from that for men.

Summary: Isbaal is forbidden due to the following reasons:

1-The threat of punishment in Hell for the Musbil,
2-The clear command of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) to pull the garments above the ankles,
3-The absolutely generalized terms regarding its Tahreem,
4-The demand to follow the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and abide by his orders,
5-It is a Makheelah (pride, arrogance, conceit, etc.),
6-It is an imitation of women,
7-It is an extravagancy,
8-The Musbil cannot protect against filth.

Shayekh Al-Albaanee said that the hadeeth is authentic since it is supported by another sound narration reported by Abee Dawood and in which a women of the Banu Abd Al-Ashhal reported: “I said O Allaah’s Messenger! Our road to the mosque has an unpleasent stench; what should we do when it is raining? He asked: “Is there not a cleaner part after the filthy part of the road?”. She replied: “indeed there is one”. He said: “It makes up for the other”. See Mushkatul Masaabeeh, V.1, hadeeth # 504 and 512.

Clearing Some Shubuhaat [98] Regarding Isbaal

[98] Shubuhaat, unclear matters.

First Shubuha: Isbaal is permitted as long as it is not done out of Makheelah.

Some refer to the following hadeeth as an evidence:

[Abdullah bin Umar رضي االله عنهماreported that: “I came to visit the Messenger of Allaah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and I was wearing an Izaar Yataqa’qa’ (clanking because of its trailing below the ankles) . He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: “Who is this?” I said: “Abdullah bin Umar”. He said: “If you are an Abd (i.e. a true slave) of Allaah, then pull up your Izaar”. I did. He then said: “more!”. (Ibn Umar) said: “I pulled it up until it reached the middle of shank; this was the (length) of his Izaar until he ((صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم)) died”. He then looked towards Aboo Bakr and said: “If anyone trails his garment arrogantly, Allaah will not look at him on the Day of Judgment”. Then Abu Bakr said: “My Izaar sometimes hangs low (in another narration he said: “one of the sides of my lower garment hangs low if I do not take care of it”)[99]. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم)said: “But you are not one of them (in another narration he said: You are not one of those who do so conceitedly)[100][101]

Discussion: The hadeeth supports the Tahreem of Isbaal rather than the opinion which permits the Isbaal as long as it is not done out of conceit. In fact the hadeeth clearly makes it obligatory on the Muslim not to let his Izaar hang lower than his ankles, and that he must tuck it up even though his intention was like that of Abu Bakr in the hadeeth i.e. not done out of conceit. In fact Abu Bakr said: “One side of my Izaar hangs low if I do not take care of it”. In our times, however, people let their Izaars hang low, unlike Abu Bakr, and then they claim: “Well we do not do it out of arrogance!”. Don’t they realize the commands of Allaah’s Messenger to tuck up the Izaar and that his Izaar was extending to the middle of his shanks? Don’t they know that He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) never thinks about Makheelah? Isn’t he our example?

It is also clear that Abu Bakr did not say that: “I made my Izaar trailing”. In fact he said in one narration: “Sometimes my Izaar hangs low”. So, its his Izaar that goes down when as he said: “I do not take care of it”. Its clear that when he takes care of it it stays above his ankles, but when it gets loose it hangs low. Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajer reported that Ibn Sa’dd reported a narration from the way of Talha bin Abdullaah bin Abdur-Rahmaan bin Abee Bakr, that ‘Aaaishah رضي االله عنها وعنهم said: “Abu Bakr was Ahnaa (had an inclination in his back), his Izaar could not hold on him, it used to get loose around his loins”. Al-Hafidh also reported a narration from the way of Qayess Ibn Abee Haazim who said: “I visited Abee Bakr and he was a thin person.” [102]

[99] From Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V. 7, hadeeth # 675.
[100]Ibid. Also reported by Abee Dawood.
[101] The hadeeth was reported by Imaam Ahmad, Abdul Razzaaq, At-Tabaraanee and others. Al-Albaanee said: The hadeeth’s Isnaad is according to the conditions laid down by Ash-Shayekhan (i.e. the two Shayeks: Al- Bukhaaree and Muslim), As-Silsilah As-Saheehah, V. 4, P. 95. The part of the hadeeth starting with the saying of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم): If anyone trails his Izaar” and ending with “you are not of those who do so conceitedly” is reported by Al-Bukhaaree, Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree V. 7, hadeeth # 675.
[102] Fathul Baaree V. 10, P. 255.

Those who design garments, pants, etc. whose lower ends abide by the Sunnah, but when they wear them they get loose and sometimes trail below the ankles, resemble the case of Abu Bakr.

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) considered that Abu Bakr was not “one of those who hang their garments out of conceit”, because Abu Bakr did not intend to lower his Izaar below the ankles, and it only trailed when he did not take care of it. Those who intend to trail out of conceit are threatened with a grave punishment:

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

Allaah will not look (on the Day of Resurrection) [103] at person who drags his Izaar (behind him) out of conceit.” [104]

In another narration the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

Allaah will not look at a person , on the Day of Judgemt, who drags his Izaar out of pride and arrogance.” [105]

In addition, on the Day of Judgment, Allaah will not talk to or sanctify the Musbil. This is confirmed in the authentic hadeeth in which Abu Dharr reported the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) as saying:

[103] See Appendix.
[104] Al-Bukhaaree, Muslim, and Ahmad. See Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V. 7, hadeeth # 675., and Saheeh Muslim, V. 3, Ahadeeth # 5191-5195.
[105] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V. 7, hadeeth # 679 and Saheeh Muslim, hadeeth # 5201.

“There are three (kinds) of persons to whom Allaah will neither speak on the Day of Judgment, nor will He look at them nor purify them, and they will have a painful Punishment. He (Abu Darr) said: “Allaah’s Messenger repeated itthree times. Abu Dharr remarked: “They failed and they lost; who are these persons, O Messenger of Allaah? He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) replied: “The one who wears a trailing robe (the Musbil), the one who takes account of what he gives, and the seller of goods by false oaths.” [106]

Certainly Abu Bakr received a testimony from the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) that he did not lower his Izaar out of arrogance. Those who intentionally make Isbaal, when did they receive a purifying testimony?

In another incident, Ubdullah Ibn Umar passed by the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and his Izaar was hanging low. He said describing this incident:

“I happened to pass before Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) with my garment hanging low. He said: Abdullah, Tuck up your lower garment. I tucked it up, and he again said: “Tug it still further”. I tucked it still further and I went on tugging it afterward, whereupon some of the people said: “To what extent?” Thereupon he said: “To the middle of the shanks.” [107]

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) did not keep silent when he saw Abdullah bin Umar hanging low his Izaar. This shows that the prophibition of Isbaal for men is not restricted only to the case if it is done out of Makheelah. Abdullah bin Umar is one of the great Sahabah. Imagine what would the position of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) be if he sees the clothes on many Du’aat (those who invite others to this Deen), or even “scholars” each trailing his Jubbah,[108] garment, or pants? We know that Ibn Umar hastened to comply with the Prophet’s command. Now it takes hours, talks, lectures to convey the Prophet’s command and still you find people arguing that: “Well! As long as Isbaal is not done out of conceit then its OK!” Indeed it makes the clement person preplexed! To Allaah alone, is the complaint!

[106] Collected by Muslim (Saheeh Muslim, V.1, hadeeth # 192 and 193), Saheeh Abee Daawood, hadeeth # 3444, Saheeh At-Tirmithee # 967, Saheeh Ibn Majah, # 2208, An-Nassaa’ee, Book of Zakat, V.5, P. 81, Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad, V. 5, P. 148 and P. 162, and others. Al-Albaanee also reported it in Saheeh Al-Jaami’, V.3, hadeeth # 3062.

[107] Reported by Muslim, Saheeh Muslim V. 3, hadeeth # 5200.
[108] Jubbah, a cloak.

Second Shubuha: The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) himself dragged his garment, so why is it that trailing is forbidden? People who say stand by the above statement take the following texts as their evidence:

Narrated Abu Bakra (رضي الله عنه): “We were with Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) when the sun eclipsed. Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) stood up dragging his cloak till he entered the mosque…” [109]. In another narration, Abu Bakra said: “Allaah’s Messenger came out dragging his cloak till he reached the mosque.” [110] Still in another narration by Abu Bakra: “He got up dragging his garment hurriedly till he reached the mosque.” [111]

The other case is when the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) made an early salutation after the third rak’ah of an afternoon prayer. “A man called Al-Khirbaaq who had long arms got up and said: “Has the prayers been shortened, O Messenger of Allaah? He came out angrily trailing his cloak and when he came to the people he said: Is he telling the truth? They said: “Yes”. He then said one rak’ah, then gave the salutation, then made two prostrations (of forgetfullness), then gave the salutation.” [112]

The third incident as reported by Abur Rahman bin Abee Sa’eed Al-Khudree who narrated it from his father. He (the father) said: I went to Qibaa’ with the Messenger of Allaah(صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) on Monday till we reached (the habitation) of Banu Saalim. The Messenger of Allaah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) stood at the door of ‘Itbaan and called him loudly. So he came out dragging his lower garment. Upon this Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: “We have made this man to make haste”. ‘Itbaan said: “Messenger of Allaah, if a man parts with his wife suddenly without seminal emission, what is he required to do (with regard to bath)?”. The Messenger of Allaah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: “It is with the seminal emission that bath becomes obligatory.” [113]

[109] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V. 2, hadeeth # 150.
[110] ibid, hadeeth # 170.
[111] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V. 7, hadeeth # 676.
[112] See Saheeh Muslim, V. 1, hadeeeth # 1187.
[113] Saheeh Muslim, V. 1, hadeeth # 674.

All of the above Ahadeeth are supporting evidences for the opinion that if a person does not intend to lower his garment, but it happens that he draggs it due to to certain circumstances, like being in a hurry, angry, etc. then he is not a Musbil by intention. Therefore, he is to be reminded but not blamed. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) came in a hurry, so did ‘Itbaan. Another exception is due to necessity.114 For example if someone has a wound on his ankle, he may cover it by extending his lower garment if he does not have any other means to protect it.

Third Shubuha: It was reported in the Musannaf of Ibn Abee Shayebah with an authentic chain of narrators that Abdullah bin Mas’oud (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) “used to dragg his lower garment; when he was asked about it he said: ‘I have thin shanks’. “ [115]

1-Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajer responded to this issue saying: “it indicates that he extended it lower than the recommended, which is the middle of the shanks. It is improper to suspect that he let it exceed the ankles as indicated by his response: ‘I have thin shanks’116. It is possible that he was not aware of the story of Umr bin Zarrarah,117 and Allaah knows best.” [118]

2-The narration about Ibn Mas’oud is of the Mawqoof [119] category opposed by many Marfoo’[120] narrations. Certainly the Marfoo’ takes precedence over the Mawqoof. The evidence is in what is established by the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم).

[114] See Fathul Baaree, V. 10, P. 257.
[115] Musannaf Ibn Abee Shayebah, V. 6, P. 26 # 11.

[116] In fact Abdullah bin Mas’oud reported that the “The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) disliked ten things”. He mentioned them and amongst them was “the dragging of the Izaar (i.e. below the ankles). This was reported by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad, V. 6, PP. 103-104, hadeeth # 4179 . The checker, Ahmad Shaakir, may Allaah’s Mercy be upon him, said: ”Its Isnaad is Saheeh”. This supports Al-Hafid’s position that the “Isbaal” in Abdullah bin Mas’oud’s garment was an extension lower than the middle of the shanks but not exceeding the ankles. Certainly Ibn Mas’oud would not opposee the Prophet’s position on Isbaal.

[117] Abu Umamah (رضي الله عنه) reported that: “While we were with the Messenger of Allaah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), Umr Bin Zararah AlAnsaaree followed us and he was dressed with a cloak and a trailing Izaar. The Messenger of Allaah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) began to hold the side of his Thobe, humbling himself to Allaah and saying: ‘I am your slave, the son of your male-slave, the son of your female-slave”, until Umr heard it. Upon this he said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah!, I am a person with thin shanks’. He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: ‘O Umr! Allaah has perfected everything He has created; O Umr! Allaah does not like the Musbil.’ “-Reported by At-Tabaraanee and others. Al-Hafidh said: “Its narrators are Thuqaat (trustworthy). See Fathul Baaree, V. 10, PP. 275-276.

[118] Fathul Baaree, V. 10, P.276.
[119] Mawqoof, “stopped”; a narration from a Sahabee (Companion) not traced to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم).
[120] Marfoo’, “raised”; a narration attributed to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم).

The Fourth Shubuha: Some people consider the matters of Isbaal , the growing of the beard, and the entire outward appearance of the Muslim as “minor” or “trivial” issues. They base this conclusion on their understanding that the Deen of Allaah is divided into a “crust or a shell” and a “core”. The outward appearance is from the “crust” part.

This classification of Islamic matters is an innovation.[121] It is aimed at diluting the Deen of Allaah leaving it for the taste of men and women to decide for themselves whether they have to abide by some of its rules and regulations. In fact we are ordered by Allaah to “fully, perfectly, and whole-heartedly” enter the Deen of Islaam:

“O you who believe! Enter perfectly in Islaam and follow not the footsteps of Satan.” (Qur’aan 2:208)

Ibn Katheer said in his Tafseer (exegesis) of this ِAayah: “Enter in Islaam and obey all of its rules and regulations”. Al-Alloosee, may Allaah’s Mercy be upon him, commented about the same ِAayah, saying: “Entirely enter in Islaam and do not let anything of your outward and inward natures except that Islaam contains them leaving no room for anything else.” [122]

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) ordered, forbade, warned and set the example regarding the Isbaal, the beard, the straightening of the lines in the prayers. So, the Muslim should not take these matters lightly because insisting one even one sin, no matter how small, may subject the Muslim to the threat of Allaah:

There is truth in the saying that: “had it not been for the shell, the core would spoil”! Islaam is an intact message. The deeds of the heart reflect on the outward behavior and appearance. This evident in the hadeeth in which the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: “Truly there is a piece of flesh in the body; if it is sound, the the whole body is sound, and if it is corrupt the whole body is corrupt. Truly it is the heart”-Saheeh Muslim, V. 3, # 3882.

What is also certain is that the outward appearance influences the inward condition. In the hadeeth reported by An-Nu’maan bin Basheer, the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: “Straighten your rows (in prayers) or Allaah would certainly put your faces in contrary directions (i.e. would create dissension amongst you).”- Saheeh Muslim, V. 1, hadeeth # 874 and 875. In another narration reported by Abee Daawood, the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: “…or Allaah would make your hearts differ.”-See Saheeh Al-Jaami’, hadeeth # 1202.

[122] Rooh Al-Ma’aanee, V. 1. The Tafseer of ِAayah # 208 of Soorat Al-Baqara. Published in 1408/1987 by Daar Al-Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon.

So when they turned away (from the Path of Allaah), Allaah turned away their hearts (from the right Path).” (Qur’aan 61, 5)

Sahl bin Sa’d narrated that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Beware of the small sins! The similitude of the small sins is like a group of people who came down to the depth of a valley; one (person amongst them) brought a stick (of wood), and another (person) brought another stick (etc.), until they collected what was enough to get their bread baked. It is certain that when the small sins take hold of their possessor they destroy him (her).” [123]

Ubaadah bin Qurss said: “you do certain things that are “thinner than hair” in your sight (i.e. not blameworthy in your consideration), but at the time of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) they were considered from the grave offenses.” [124] When this saying of Ubaadah bin Qurss was mentioned to Muhammad Ibn Seereen,[125] he believed it and said: “I consider that trailing of the Izaar is one of the grave offenses because of the severe threat of Punishment that was related in the texts about it. People think of it as one of the minor sins because of their excessive ignorance and false pride.”[126]

[123] Reported by Imaam Ahmad and others. See As-Silsilah As-Saheehah, V. 1, hadeeth # 389.
[124] Reported by Ahmad and others. Waleed An-Nassr reported it as Saheeh in his book: “(The ruling on) Isbaal not done out of Conceit.” P. 29, second edition, 1411/1990. Publisher’s name not mentioned. 125 Abu Bakr, Muhammad Ibn Seereenn, died 110 Hj/729. He was one of the known Fuqahaa’ (Jurists) of the City of Bara-Iraq. He was famous for his in depth interpreatations of dreams.

[126] Reported in Al-Fath Ar-Rabbaanee Bitarteeb Musnad Al-Imaam Ahmad Ashayebaanee, by Ahmad Al-Bannaa As-Saa’aatee, V. 17, P. 291. Daar Ash-Shihaab, Egypt.

The Approved Length of the Lower Garment:

The Izaar (including pants) must be above the ankles and preferably to the middle of the shanks:

“I happened to pass before Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) with my garment hanging low. He said: Abdullah, Tuck up your lower garment. I tucked it up, and he again said: “Tug it still further”. I tucked it still further and I went on tugging it afterward, whereupon some of the people said: “To what extent?” Thereupon he said: “To the middle of the shanks.” [127]

Huthaifah said: “Allaah’s Messenger took by shank (or by the muscle of my shank) and said: “This is the extent of the Izaar. If you dislike it, have it lower (i.e. above the lower end of the shank’s muscle). If you (still) dislike it, then (know that) it is not legitimate that the Izaar extend below the ankles.” [128]

Al-’Alaa bin Abdur Rahmaan reported that his father (Abdur Rahmaan bin Ya’qoob) said: “Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudree about wearing lower garment”. He said: “You have come to the man who knows it well. Allaah’s Messenger said: ‘The Izaar of the Muslim should be halfway down his legs-and he is guilty of no sin if it extends between that and the ankles, but what comes lower than the ankles is in Hell. (On the Day of Judgment), Allaah will not look at him who conceitedly trails his lower garment.’ “ [129]

[127] Reported by Muslim, Saheeh Muslim V. 3, hadeeth # 5200.
[128] Reported by Ahmad, At-Ttirmithee, An-Nassaa’ee, and others. At-Tirmithee said it is sound and acceptable hadeeth (At-Tirmithee, Book of Dress # 1783). See As-Saheehah, V. 4, # 1765.
[129] Saheeh Abee Dawood, hadeeth # 3449. Also reported by Ibn Maajah. Al-Albaanee said it is Saheeh as in As-Saheehah, and in Saheeh Al-Jaami’ As-Sagheer, # 921.

Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajer, may Allaah’s Mercy be upon him, said: “It is concluded, therefore, that there are two two cases regarding the men’s Izaar: a highly recommended case where the length of the lower garment is halfway down the shanks, and a permissible length where its lower border is above the ankles.” [130]

Note: Shortening the lower garment above the middle of shanks is an exaggeration in Deen and it is prohibited.

What Clothes Are Covered Under The Laws Regarding Isbaal?

When it comes to the Issue of Isbaal for men, what matters is the length and not the kind of dress. Abdullah bin Umar reported that:

Isbaal is lower garment, Al-Qameess,[131] and turban [132]. If anyone trails any of them conceitedly, Allaah will not look at him on the Day of Resurrection.” [133]

Imaam Ibn Hazm said describing the Musbil:

Isbaal generally covers trousers, lower garments, shirts, and everything people wear.” [134]

[130] Fathul Baaree, V. 10, P. 259.

[131] Al-Qamees, the Shirt that covers the body halfway to the middle of the legs. Included in this category is the Morocon بُرنُس hooded cloak, جلاَّبية Jallaabiyyah (a loose shirt like garment, the common dress of the male population of Egypt), العبائة Al-’Abaa’ah (a cloak-like, woolen wrap, occasionally striped), and the like Fathul Baaree, V. 10, P. 260.

[132] This shows that trailing and hanging down is not confined to the Izaar in all of its forms. One should not exceed the usual customs and practices that do not oppose the Islamic teachings. The turban as well as its ends should not be very long in order to safeguard against conceit and arrogance besides this would be considered as extravagance. Some of toady’s lengthy turbans may need a special instrument to roll them! Similarly there is trailing and hanging in the wide sleeves of some garments especially in some parts of Egypt and in Sudan. Imaam Ibn Qayyim, may Allaah’s Mercy be upon him, said: “Lengthy and wide sleeves, which look like bags, were never worn by the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) or anyone of his companions, and (their style) is in opposition to his Sunnah. Their permissibility is doubtful because they they are related to false pride”. Imaam Ash-Shawkaanee, may Allaah’s Mercy be upon him, described the clothes of some of the scholars as having “wide sleeves such that each one would be sufficient to make of it an outer garment or a shirt for one of his children or to one of the orphans!…”-Nayel Al-Awtaar, V. 2, 108.

[133] Saheeh Abee Dawood, # 3450, Saheeh Ibn Maajah, # 3567, An-Nassaa’ee, and Ibn Abee Shayebah. Shayekh Al- Albaanee authenticated it in Saheeh Al-Jaami’ # 2770.

[134] Ibn Hazm’s Al-Muhalla, V. 4, P. 100, the Chapter on Salaat (Prayers).

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajer quoted At-Tabaree saying: “In the lifetime of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) most people used to wear the Izaar and Al-’Ardiyah (loose outer garments, cloaks, robes, etc.). But When people started wearing shirts and other kinds of clothes (like cloaks etc.), the same ruling of prohibition applied to the trailing and hanging of the Izaar was applied to them. Ibn Battaal said: ‘This is a good analogical deduction. So, even if there is no text that includes the Thobe , the prohibition clearly involves all (i.e. all dresses that hang low)’.” [135]

Isbaal And Prayers:

You may have noticed some people tugging up their lower garments (especially pants) when they are about to start their prayers. They refer to a hadeeth reported by Abee Dawood in which it is said that: “Allaah does not accept the prayers from a man trailing his lower garment”. However, the hadeeth is weak. Shayek Nassir ud Deen Al-Albaanee said: “Its Isnaad is weak, because of Abu Ja’far, an un-known as Ibnul Qattan said…So, whoever authenticated the Isnaad of this is mistaken.” [136]

Having said the above, one should be aware that intending to pray in a state of Isbaal out of conceit, subjects the Musbil to a grave punishment from Allaah. Abdullah bin Mas’oud said:“I heared Allaah’s Messenger saying:

‘Anyone who conceitedly trails his Izaar during prayers, Allaah has nothing to do with pardoning him and protecting him (from Hell or from bad deeds).” [137]

Another narration came as Mawqoof (i.e. a narration from a companion. In this case by Abdullah bin Mas’oud). It reads:

“The Musbil during prayer has nothing to do with pardoning him and protecting him (from Hell or from bad deeds).” [138]

[135] Fathul Baaree, V. 10, P. 260.
[136] Al-Albaanee, Mushkat ul Massabeeh, V. 1, # 761.

[137] Reported by Abee Dawood V. 1, Book of Salat, hadeeth # 637 (Arabic or English Texts). The narration is in At-Tabaraanee in Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer , V. 9, P. 315. The checker said: it is authentic.”

[138] Reported by Abee Dawood and At-Tayaalisee, V. 1, P. 352, Al-Baihaqee, V. 2, P. 432 (Book of Zuhd), Al-Haythamee in Majma’ Az-Zawaa’id, V. 5, P. 124 (he said: At-Tabaraanee reported it and its narrators are trustworthy), and Al-Albaanee authenticated it in Saheeh Al-Jaami’, hadeeth # 5888. Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajer said: “It was reported by At-Tabaraanee with a good Isnaad from Abdullah Ibn Mas’oud. An issue like this could not just be an opinion (i.e. of Abdullah Ibn Mas’oud)…”-Fathul Baaree, V. 10, P. 257.

The Musbil, therefore, should be aware that Isbaal is a great offense during prayers or after its completion. It should be also noted that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) ordered that we should not make Kaft of our clothes or hair during prayers. Kaft is to draw, cluster, pile up, tuck up, or band clothes together right before or during prayers to prevent their spreading [139]. Like, for example, to bring together and assemble the sides of one’s Thobe between the legs when one is about to enter the prayers or during Ruk’oo or Sujood, to pile up the ends of the head-cover on the head or the shoulders, to tuck up the lower ends of the pants,[140] or the ends of the sleeves, etc. In the hadeeth narrated by Abdullah bin Abbaas ,رضي االله عنهما the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said::

“I have been ordered (and thus his Ummah) to prostrate on seven bones: on forehead (along with the tip of the nose), pointed towards his nose, both hands, both knees and the toes of both feet, and not to tuck up the clothes and the hair.” [141]

[139]See Ibn Al-Atheer in An-Nihaayah fee Ghareeb Al-hadeeth, V. 4, P. 184.

[140]This is not to be confused with tucking up and then cutting off the trailing ends of the lower garments halfway to the middle of the legs or to an extent that keeps the lower ends of the Thobe, pants, trousers, etc. above the ankles. Even if the lower end is within the recommended limits, it should not be tucked up at its end because that constitutes Kaft.

[141]Saheeh Al-Bukharee, V. 1, hadeeth # 774.

The Dress of Men

The dress of men is governed by the following legislations:

1-It is forbidden if it extends below the ankles. The Musbil is under the threat of punishment in Hell.
2-Isbaal itself is Makheelah.
3-If the Musbil intends conceit and arrogance, Allaah will not look at him on the Day of Judgment.
4-Isbaal is not confined to the lower garments. It covers the cloak, robe, pants,trousers, turban, sleeves, etc.
5-The person who does not intend Isbaal and his lower Izaar hangs low out of his control is not a Musbil.
6-The recommended length of the lower garment is halfway to the middle of the shanks, and the permissible is to up to the ankles.
7-The dress must not resemble that of the Kuffar.
8-The dress must not be for fame.
9-The dress must not resemble that of women.
10-The dress must not contain forbidden pictures (human and animal life), or material the essence of which is in disagreement with Islamic Principles including the immitation of the Kuffar.
11-Wearing golden rings, bracelets, necklace, etc. Is forbidden.
12-It is forbidden to wear pure silk.

 

The Beard…Why? – Sheikh (Dr) Muhamad Ismaa’eel / Dr. Saleh as Saleh

The Beard…Why?
Author: Sheikh (Dr) Muhamad Bin Ahmad Bin Ismaa’eel

Translated by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullaah)
د/صالح الصالح
Daar Al-Bukhari Publishing & Distribution

This work is a an abbreviation of the original book entitled
“The Evidences That Beard Shaving is Haraam (Islamically Unlawful)”.

Read the Pages 1 – 29 in the below PDF Document

The Three Letters – The Beard, Isbaal , Smoking – Dr Saleh as Saleh [PDF]

Source: Understand-islam.net

Contents

The Growing of the Beard Is

  • 1-Obedience
  • 2-Prophet Muhammad’s (Sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam) Sunnah
  • 3-The Human Fitrah
  • 4-The Sunnah (Way) of The Prophets
  • 5-The Way of The Believers
  • 6-Rujoolah (Manhood) & Fuhoolah (Potency & Excellence)
  • 7-Beauty & Honor

Shaving The Beard is

  • 1-Disobedience
  • 2-Extremism & Deviation From The Guidance of Allaah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam)
  • 3-An Alteration of Allaah’s Creation
  • 4-A Resemblance of The Kuffar
  • 5-Taking The Similitude of Women
  • 6-Humiliation
  • 7-Deformation

Read the Book below:

Introduction

All praise is due to Allaah, the One who gives might to whoever obeys and fears Him; the One Who humiliates whoever ignores His command and disobeys Him [3] (سبحانه و تعالى).  May the Salah [4] and Salaam (peace) of Allaah be upon His Messenger, the believers from his family, and all of his companions, all of whom had their desires in line with the Prophet’s guidance.

This work is a an abbreviation of the original book entitled “The Evidences That Beard Shaving is Haraam (Islamically Unlawful)”. I have restructured the book into a more appealing format that is suitable to all readers. I ask Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) to accept this work and make of it a universal benefit in this World as well as (a prevailing one) on the Day of Recompense when:

{..Neither wealth nor sons will avail, except him who brings to Allaah a clean heart (from Shirk [5] and hypocrisy.} (Qur’aan 42:88-89)

And all Praise is due to Allah.

[3] سبحانه وتعالى :Subhanahu Wata’aala, Most Glorified and Most High is He.

[4] The Salah of Allah upon His Prophet, Muhammad, is His mentioning of the Prophet’s name and his praise before the angels who are close to (but below) Allaah, the most High. The angels as well as all believers are asked to make Salah on the Prophet. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

“Allah sends His Salah (Graces, Honors, Blessings, Mercy, etc.) on the Prophet (Muhammad) and also His angels too (ask Allah to bless and forgive him). O you who believe! Send your Salah on (ask Allah to bless) him (Muhammad), and (you should) greet (salute) him with the Islamic way of greeting (salutation i.e., As-Salamu ‘Alaikum).”(Qur’an 33: 56).

This invocation of Salah and Salaam and what it means is abbreviated : sallaa Allaahu ‘aleihi was sallam.

[5] Shirk: to associate anything and/or anyone in the worship of Allaah.

THE GROWING OF THE BEARD IS:

1-Obedience

Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

{It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allaah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision.} (Qur’aan 33:36)

{And let those who oppose the Messenger’s (Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) commandment (i.e. his Sunnah, legal ways, orders, acts of worship, statements, etc.) (among the sects) beware, lest some Fitnah [6] befall them or a painful torment be inflicted on them.} (Qur’aan 24:63)

One of the commands of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) is the order to grow beards. Ibn ‘Umar [7] (رضي الله عنه), one of the companions of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), related that:

The Messenger of Allaah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) ordered [8] us to:
trim closely the mustache and to let the beard grow.” [9]

[6] Fitnah: disbelief, trials, afflictions, earthquakes, killing, being over-powered by a tyrant, etc.

[7] (رضي الله عنه): Radiya Allahu Annhu i.e. May Allaah be pleased with him.

[8] The wording of the command came as, “let grow, spare, let go, and bring to its full extent”. All are in the command form.

[9] Saheeh Muslim: The authentic book of hadeeth collected by Imam Muslim, V.1, hadeeth # 499 (English translation published by Dar Al-Arabia, Beirut, Lebanon).

Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allaah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Trim closely the mustache, and grow the beards, and oppose the Magians (Persian fire worshippers).” [10]

On one occasion, when the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) received two of Kissra’s [11] emissaries, he disliked to look at them when he saw that they were shaven and with grown mustaches. He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Woe to you! Who ordered you to do this? They said: “Our Lord (meaning their Kissra)”. The Messenger of Allaah (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) then said: “But my Rabb (Allaah) ordered me to let my beard grow and to trim my mustache.” [12]

The imperative wording in the Prophet’s statement indicates that it is obligatory to comply with the command, and as such, the one who complies will be rewarded and the one who does not is subject to punishment (i.e. as Allaah سبحانه و تعالى wishes).

[10] Saheeh Muslim, V.1, hadeeth # 501.
[11] Kissra: Khosru, a Persian King. Kissra is a designation of the Persian kings in general.
[12] The author said that the hadeeth is hasan: “good”.

2-Prophet Muhammad’s Sunnah

Allaah, Glorified in His Majesty and Might, says:

Indeed in the Messenger of Allaah (Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) you have a good example to follow.” (Qur’aan 33:21)

We sent no Messenger but to be obeyed by Allaah’s leave.” [13] (Qur’aan 4:64)

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

The best of guidance is that of Muhammad [14] صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم

It is confirmed that in his natural constitution, the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) had a thick and great beard. The companion Anas (رضي الله عنه) said,

“The Prophet’s beard filled from here to here (i.e. on the Prophet’s face)”, while moving his hand across his cheeks.” [15]

The Sahaabah (the companions رضي االله عنهم) were able to know that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) was reciting (i.e. Qur’aan) in ‘Asr (afternoon) and Thuhr (noon) prayers by “the movement of his beard” [16].

“Whenever the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) performed ablution, he took a handful of water, and, putting it under his chin, made it go through his beard [17], saying: This is how my Rabb (Allaah) commanded me.” [18]

[13] Mujaahid, one of the great scholars of Tafseer said that “No one will obey them (i.e. the Messengers) except through the success grantred by Allaah.”-reported in the Tafseer of The Noble Qur’aan by Ibn Katheer, Surat An-Nissaa’, ِAayah 64. “Allaah’s Leave” is also interpreted to mean: “Alaah’s Knoweledge”, reported in Imam Ash-Shawkanee’s Tafseer, the Summarized Version from Fath ul Qadeer, by Muhammad Suleiman Al-Ashqar.

[14] Saheeh Muslim, V.2, hadeeth # 1885.

[15] Reported by Ibn as-Saakir in his famous book of history known as “Tareekh Ibn as-Saakir”.

[16] Collected by Al-Bukhari in his collection of hadeeth known as Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V.1, hadeeth # 727 and 728 (English Translation, Dar Al-Arabia Publications, Beirut, Lebanon).

[17] This method is called تخليل takhleel, which means to comb the beard with wet fingers.

[18] An authentic hadeeth collected in Saheeh Al-Jaami’ (Arabic) # 4696; Published by Al-Maktab Al-Islaamee, Beirut, Lebanon, 1988 Edition, Third Print.

In fact, there are many other collections of Ahaadeeth (sing. Hadeeth) confirming that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) had a great beard. How astonishing are those who claim to love the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) while actually they do not love his figure, but rather prefer the look of his enemies (i.e. by being shaven) [19], when Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) made it clear that:

“Say (O Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم to mankind): ‘If you (really) love Allaah then follow me (i.e. Qura’an and Sunnah), Allaah will love you…'” (Qur’an 3: 31)

The love that does not entail its holder to follow and imitate the beloved, is only a claim of love and not true love [20]. One of the Sahaabah رضي االله عنهم said: “While I was walking in Madeenah, a man behind was saying: ‘Lift up your Izaar [21], for it is more pious and makes it (your Izaar) last longer.’ [22] I turned (towards him), and he was the Messenger of Allaah. I said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah it is only a simple Burda [23] (i.e. one would not think of it as a source of pride and arrogance nor to consider piety and elegance when it comes to wearing it.).’ The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) responded: “Don’t you have an example in me?“. I looked (at him) to find that his Izaar extended to the middle of his legs (only) [24]

[19] This does not reflect a true love of the honorable look of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), especially when it is known that he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) commanded the Muslims to grow their beards.

[20] The following of the Prophet’s way is the thing that is beloved to Allaah. This applies to every matter, even though it may not be obligatory, because the one who loves the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) does not differentiate between what is obligatory and what is not; He followes the beloved because of his love for him. So, how should we view it when the matter is known to be obligatory, as it is the case with the growing of the beard?

[21] A garment that covers the lower half of the body.

[20] Isbaal is to wear garments that extend below the ankles. This is absolutely prohibited as confirmed in many authentic Ahadeeth. See Special Section on Isbaal.

[23] A black square garment wrapped around the body.

[24] A good hadeeth supported by other narrations as mentioned by the author.

The question raised to the shaven: What would your response be if you start offering excuses to Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), when he is telling you: “Don’t you have an example in me?”

3-A Human Fitrah [25]

Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

“So set you (O Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) your face towards the religion of pure Islamic Monotheism (Haneefan): i.e. to worship none but Allaah Alone. This is the Fitrah with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in “Khalqi-illah:, i.e. the religion of Allaah and all that is related to it as explained by Qur’an and Sunnah.” (Qur’aan 30:30)

It means, “set your face towards Islam and continue on this Deen which Allaah ordained for you as part of the Haneefiyah (The belief in the Oneness and Uniqueness of Allaah) way of Ibraheem (Abraham). In addition, you are holding to your sound Fitrah with which Allaah has created mankind; It is the natural inclination to know about Allaah and to worship Him alone, in addition to other natural associated characteristics.”

The Mother of the Believers, ‘Aisha ,رضي االله عنها said that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Ten are the acts of Fitrah: clipping the mustache, letting the beard grow, using as-Siwaak [26], snuffing up water in the nose, cutting the nails, washing the finger joints, plucking the hair under the armpits, shaving the pubes, and cleaning one’s private parts with water. The narrator said, ‘I have forgotten the tenth, but it may have been rinsing the mouth.'” [27]

[25] Fitrah: The natural state of submission to The Creator, Allaah. Man is born on this state of Fitrah.
[26] As-Siwaak: A piece of a branch or a root of a tree called al-Araak used as a tooth-brush.
[27] Collected by Muslim in his Saheeh, V.1, hadeeth # 502.

The Fitrah is the state upon which the creation of Allaah’s bondsmen has been initiated. He implanted within their nature, its execution, an inclination towards it, and a tendency to like it; He brought them to dislike what contradicts it. In fact, if a man abandons the qualities of Fitrah, his feature will no longer be like that of human being,-then how should one from amongst the common people of Islam, the Deen of Fitrah, be?!

The person on a straight Fitrah which is not spoiled by the influence of the surrounding environment, keeps inclined by his nature to dislike anything of his body that is not part of its natural beauty. He is also inclined to like the created characteristics of Fitrah, even in the absence of any revealed legislation concerning them. So, how about when they came within the Laws revealed to all of the Prophets from Allaah?

As-Suyuti, may Allah’s Mercy be upon him, said:

“The best that has been said about the explanation of Fitrah is that it is the old Sunnah (way) chosen by the Prophets which is in agreement with (all) the revealed Laws, thus, indicating that it is a matter upon which they have been created.”

4- A Characteristic Feature of the Prophets

The Fitrah, as explained above, is the Sunnah of the Prophets. Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

“And (remember) when the Rabb (Allaah) of Ibraheem (Abraham), tried him with (certain) Kalimaat (commands), which he fulfilled.” (Qur’aan 2:124)

Ibn Abbaas (may Allaah be please with him and his father) explained in an authentic report, that the Kalimaat which Allaah tried Ibraheem with, were the qualities of the Fitrah.

The Qur’aan clearly mentions that Prophet Haroon (Aaron: may Allaah’s peace be upon him) had a grown beard. Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) told about Haroon’s response to his brother, Prophet Moses:

He (Haroon) said: ‘O son of my mother! Seize (me) not by my beard, nor by my head!‘ “(Qur’aan 20:94).

Had he been shaven, Moses would have not tried to seize him by his beard!

In Soorat al-An’aam after mentioning the names of several Messengers including Ibraheem and Haroon, Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

“Those (Prophets and Messengers) are they whom Allaah has guided. So follow their guidance.” (Qur’aan 6:90)

Allaah ordered our Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) to follow the path of the Messengers before him, and this is extended to us, because the command to the exemplar is a command to his followers. Allaah, Most Exalted, says:

“Indeed in the Messenger of Allaah (Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) you have a good example to follow…”(Qur’an 33: 21)

Naturally the beard is one example (as well as a command) for us to follow.

5- The Way of the Believers

Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

“You (true believers in Islamic Monotheism and real followers of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and his Sunnah) are the best of the peoples ever raised up for mankind.” (Qur’an 3: 110)

He (سبحانه و تعالى) also says:

“And follow the path of him who turns to Me in repentance and obedience.” [28] (Qur’aan 31:15)

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“The best people are the people of my generation, and then those who will follow (come after) them, and then those who come after the latter.” [29]

He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) also said:

“Keep to my Sunnah and that of al-Khulafaa’ ar-Rashidun (rightly-guided Caliphs). Bite on it with your morals. And beware of innovations (in religion), for every invented matter (in religion) is a Bid’ah [30]-[and every Bid’ah is a Dalalah and every Dalalah is in Hell-Fire.] [31]

It is confirmed that Al-Khulafaa’-ar-Raashidun [32] and others from the Sahabah and at-Taabi’een (those who followed the path of the Sahabah) had great beards.

Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq (رضي الله عنه) had a “thick beard”; Omar (رضي الله عنه) had a “fully grown beard”, and Uthman (رضي الله عنه) had a “great beard”. Ali (رضي الله عنه) had a “wide beard that covered (the area) between his shoulders”.

[28] This is Part of the recommendation of Luqmaan to his son. Luqmaan was a righteous man to whom Allaah gave Hikmah (Guidance towards proper understanding, approach, and judgment).

[29] Collected by Al-Bukhaaree in his Saheeh, V.8, hadeeth # 652, Muslim in his Saheeh, V.4, hadeeth # 6150-6159, Ahmad, and at-Tirmithee.

[30] An authentic hadeeth related by Abu Daawood, Ahmad, Ibn Maajah, Al-Haakim, and at-Tirmidhee.Sheikh Nassir-ud-Deen Al-Albaanee further confirmed its authenticity.

[31] From a hadeeth by Jaabir (رضي الله عنه) collected by Muslim, An-Nasaa’ee and others.

[32] Al-Khulafaa’ -ar-Raashidun, the title given to the first four Caliphs in Islaam.

Those were the most wise people of this Ummah according to the general consensus of its scholars. After them came righteous followers and truthful fighters in the cause of Allah who took over the treasures of Kissra [33] (of Persia) and Caesar (of the Romans), the earth’s Eastern and Western regions yielded to them and no one amongst them was shaven.[34]

[33] Kissra: Khosru, a Persian King. Kissra is a designation of the Persian kings in general.

[34] One of the supplications of the believing slaves of The Most Beneficent is:

“And make us leaders for the Muttaq’een (i.e. the pious and righteous persons who fear and love Allaah much). “ (Qur’aan 25:74)

Some of the scholars commented on the above ِAayah, saying: “make us followers to those before us (from the Muttaq’een) so that we may fit to become good examples for those who come after us”. There is no related report about anyone from as-Salaf us Salih (righteous predecessors from as-Sahabah, atTaabi’een, and those who righteously follow their path) that he shaved his beared, a matter which they considered not permissible. Had it been a good thing to do, they would have gone to it first, before us! That is becuase they had not left any trait of good except that they had hastened to do. In his book, Maratibul Ijmaa’ (lit. The Levels of Consensus), Imam Ibn Hazm, may Allaah’s Mercy be upon him, said:

“They (i.e., as-Salaf us Salih), agreed that shaving off all of the beared is a Muthlah (alteration of Allaah’s creation) (and thus) it is not permissible”. Shayekhul IslaamIbn Taymeeyah said: “According to the authentic Ahadeeth, the shaving of the beard is forbidden, and no one (from the scholars) permitted it.”

If you search across the entire length and width of the pages of the Islamic history, you will not find anyone amongst the scholars of guidance and Masabeeh-ud- Dujaa (people who were like lamps that dissipated darkness), who used to shave his beard. This Dalalah (straying from the right path by shaving the beard), was leaked to us and was “relished” by some Muslims who came in touch with the Kuffar when the latter occupied our land, or, when they (some Muslims) moved to the countries of the Kuffar and their minds became “occupied” by them. Thus they turned away from the guidance of their righteous predecessors, and, instead, followed other than the believers’ path, Hathwa Al-Quthati bil Quthati [35]. They became afflicted by the ways of the Christians and Jews, “braiding them” (i.e. tracing and adopting their practices) inch by inch, and yard by yard!

[35] Al-Qutha, the feather of an arrow. Al-Quthati bil Quthati, the feathers are very similar and successive in their orientation on the arrow. This parable is to emphasize the following and the copying of the deeds of the non-believers. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) gave this parable as well as another parable, saying:

“You will follow the practices of those who were before you, inch by inch and yard by yard; so much so that if they were to enter a hole of a Dhabb (a desert animal that looks like a lizard but bigger in size), you would also follow them”. We said: ‘O Allaah’s Messenger (do you mean) the Jews and Christians?’ He replied: “If not them, who else?”

This hadeeth was collected by Al-Bukhaaree, Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V.9, hadeeth # 422. Similar narrations were collected by Muslim, Ahmad, Ibn Maajah and others.

6-Rujoolah (Manhood) and Fuhoolah (Potency and Excellence)

Allaah has created human males and females and made the hair a shared characteristic amongst them, except in some places like the beard and the mustache, where He made the hair growth a distinction between a man and a woman. For a man to put on a woman’s clothes (in imitation), is less profound than imitating her by having his beard shaved, because the beard is the apparent difference and the clear distinctive feature between a man and a woman. [36]

[36] Medically it is known that the growth of the beard on the male’s face is one of the effects of the male hormone known as Testosterone. Diseases that may occur to some patients causing a decrease in ar-Rujoolah (demasculinization), is accompanied by a loss of the beard’s hair on the man’s face. If this hormone is injected in a female it would lead to a loss in femininity (Defeminization) and an appearance of the syptoms of Istirjaal (Virilization) or (Masculinization). Most apparent of these syptoms is ash-Sha’raaniyeeyah (Hirsuitism) ,الشعرانية where there is an abundant growth of hair in places where there is no normal hair growth, like that of beard and the mustache.

Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) have made it permissible for men and women to wear clothes that best fit their Fitrah.

Islaam permitted gold and silver to be used by women for beautification purposes, while it prohibited them for men because they are not suitable for the perfection of manhood. As much as it is a beauty for a woman to have no mustache and a beard on her face, the beauty, respect, dignity, and reverence of a man lies in having a beard and a mustache.

7-Beauty and Honor

Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

And indeed we have honored the children of Adam..” (Qur’aan 17:70)

Some scholars said that: “part of His honor to the offspring of Adam, is creating them on the best and most beautiful forms. Other scholars considered that the beards for men and the lock for women are examples of His honoring. Indeed, Allaah, the Exalted, says:

“[Our Sibghah (religion)] is the Sibghah (religion) of Allaah (i.e. Islaam) and which Sibghah (religion) can be better than Allaah’s…” (Qur’aan 2:138).

“This Sibghah is Islaam, and it is the Fitrah upon which mankind are created, as indicated by many of the Mufassireen (scholars of Tafseer). Part of this Fitrah is the form of man itself.” [37] Allaah, Most Glorified in Might and Majesty, said:

“Verily, We created man of the best stature (mould)” (Qur’aan 95:4)

“O man! what has made you careless concerning your Rabb (Allaah), the Most Generous? Who created you, fashioned you perfectly, and gave you due proportion, In whatever form He willed, He put you together.” (Qura’an 82:6-8)

“The work of Allaah, Who perfected all things…” (Qur’aan 27:88)

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“All of the creation of Allaah is perfectly beautiful.” [38]

[37] Translators note.

[38] An authentic hadeeth collected by Ahmad & at-Tirmithee and reviewd by Shayekh Nassir-ud-Deen AlAlbaanee in his book Silsilat al-Ahadeeth as-Saheehah, hadeeth # 1441 (Arabic Text).

The stature and the fashion of our creation is a Ni’ma (blessing) and honor from Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى). There is no doubt, that the shaving of the beard is a denial of this Ni’ma and a retraction from the Sunnah of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) whose guidance is the best of guidance. It is also a degeneration to the level of the Kuffar whom the evils of their deeds seem pleasing to them, and thus came to anticipate that perfectness and civilization can be realized when the major apparent distinctions between men and women are eliminated![39]

The degree of exaltation of the greatness of beard-growing by the scholars of Islaam reached to the extent that Imams like Abu Haneefah, Ahmad, and Ath-Thaw’ree said: “If the beard is ‘victimized’ by completely shaving it, and it does not grow again, then the offender has to pay a full Diy’ah [40] as if he, himself, killed the beard-owner”. Ibn Al-Muflih (may Allaah’s Mercy be upon him) explained that: “This is so because he (the offender) had removed the intended purpose of beard-growth. This is the same as if he would remove the sight of the eye.”

The Ansaar [41] spoke highly of a man by the name of Qayes bin Sa’d, saying: “How good is cheif Qayes, for he is a brave and an honorable man! But he had no beard. Verily! by Allaah if the beard could be bought by Daraahim [42] we would buy him one to complete his manhood!”

A member of the clan of Banee Tameem, from the family of Al-’Ahnaf bin Qayes, said: “I wish that we buy Al-’Ahnaf a beard for twenty thousand (of the available currency)”! He did not mention anything about Al-Ahnaf’s Hanafah [43] and ‘Awarah,[44] instead he pointed that his displeasure was because Al-Ahnaf did not have a beard. In fact, wise men look at the man without a beard as someone “defficent, incomplete, of low rank, etc.”

[39] On Monday october 29, 1993 a group representing the European Airline Industry issued a warning to the British Airways calling the British airliner to stop executing a policy in which women are assigned separate seats on its flights to and from Saudi Arabia. The airliner explained that its decision is for the comfort of its passengers. The European group considered this as a promotion of “uncivilized” practices and threatened that it will boycott the British Airways if it did not comply with their warning!

[40]Blood-money compensation.

[41]Ansaar, the Muslims in Madeenah who gave support and shelter to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) and his companions following their Hijrah (migration) from Makkah.

[42] A kind of Arabian silver coins.

[43] Distortion in the foot.

[44] Being one-eyed.

It is reported that the Justice Shurayeeh said: “I wish I could find for myself a beard for ten thousand (10,000) Dirhams”. How strange it is that some people of our times wish to pay large amounts of money to have their beards completely removed so that they don’t have to shave again!

Shaving The Beard Is:

1-Disobedience

Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

“And whoever disobeys Allaah and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed in a plain error.” (Qur’aan 33:36)

“And whoever disobeys Allaah and His Messenger, then verily, for him is the Fire of Hell, he shall dwell therein forever.” (Qur’aan 72:23)

As pointed out before, the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) commanded the growing of beards and that it is forbidden to disobey the Prophet’s commands. Allaah تعالى says:

“And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it)! and fear Allaah. Verily, Allaah is severe in punishment.” (Qur’aan 59:7)

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: “And whatsoever I forbade for you abstain (from it)!” [45]

The Prophet’s command to let the beards grow necessitates saving the beards from shaving or shortening to the degree that it looks close to being shaven. It is so because the command to comply with something is in itself a prohibition against what contradicts it. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Do not pluck out the gray (or white) hair because it is the light of the Muslim.” [46]

[45] Collected by Muslim in his Saheeh, V.4, hadeeth # 5818-5820, and by Al-Bukhaaree, Saheeh AlBukhaaree, V.9, hadeeth # 391.
[46] The author said it is a good hadeeth.

There is no difference whether the hair is plucked out from the beard or the head. Anas (رضي الله عنه) said: “It is disliked for a man to pluck out the white hair from his beard or his head.” [47] Actually, the one who shaves his beard dislikes the black as well as the white hair which is the light of the Muslim.

It is related that Omar (رضي الله عنه) and the Justice of Al-Madeenah, Ibn Abee Ya’laa, turned down the testimony of the person who plucks out the beard’s hair. Al-Ghazalee & An-Nawawee, may Allaah’s mercy be upon both of them said: “plucking out the beard’s hair when it is about to grow is a resemblance of the Murd [48] and is considered from the grave Munkaraat (wrong-deeds).”

2-Extremism and Deviation From The Guidance of Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم)

Allaah, Most High, says:

“He who obeys the Messenger (Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم), has indeed obeyed Allaah, but he who turns away, then We have not sent you (O Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) as a watcher over them.”(Qur’aan 4:80)

Since the Prophet’s Sunnah (verbally, practically, and qualitatively) calls for the growing of the beard, then shaving it is turning away from his sublime way and his honorable Sunnah. He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) warned that:

“Whoever turns away from my Sunnah is not of me (i.e. not one of my followers).” [49]

“He who does an act which our matter (i.e. our religion) is not in agreement with, will have it rejected.” [50]

[47] Related by Imam Muslim.

[48] Murd (sing. Amrad), the boy with a sprouting hair on his mustache and who reached the age at which his beard would grow, but it is not visible.

[49] An agreed upon hadeeth collected by Muslim, Saheeh Muslim,V.2, hadeeth # 3236 and Al-Bukhaaree,Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V.7, hadeeth # 1, Ahmad and An-Nassaa’ee.

[50] Collected by Muslim, Saheeh Muslim, V.3, hadeeth # 4266.

“Whoever follows other than our Sunnah is not of us.” [51]

When Kissra sent two of his men to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) (as emissaries), they came in with their beards shaved and their mustaches grown, the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) disliked to look at them, and said:

“Woe to you! Who ordered you to do this (i.e. to shave the beards and grow the mustaches)?” They said: “Our rabb (i.e. Master)-meaning Kissra.”.

Upon this the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) responded: “But My Rabb (Allaah) Commanded me to let my beard grow, and to trim my mustache.” [52]

So, what about you, O shaved! What would your feeling be if the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) would get hurt from looking at your face? In fact what would your reply be if he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) turned away his honorable face from you, saying: “Woe to you! Who ordered you to do this?”

3-An Alteration of Allaah’s Creation

Allaah, Most High He is, says:

“No change let there be in the Khalq of Allaah” (Qur’aan 30: 30)

The Tafseer (explanation) of this Ayah is that the word “khalq” refers to the Fitrah, the creation on the state of belief in Allaah. The ِAayah, therefore, demands not to alter the state of belief in the Tawheed of Allaah, as well as all other qualities associated with the Fitrah.

[51]The author said it is a good hadeeth. Also mentioned as a good hadeeth in Saheeh Al-Jaami’ under #5439.

[52] The author said that the hadeeth is Hasan: “fine”, authentic but does not reach the category of Saheeh.

The alteration of this Fitrah is an obedience to Shaytan (Iblees, the Devil), and a disobedience to Ar-Rahmaan, Exalted in His Majesty. Allaah spoke about the plot of Iblees against man:

“And indeed I will order them to change the nature created by Allaah.” (Qur’aan 4:119)

The above Ayah is a clear text that the shaving of beards is a disobedience to Allaah and a change of the qualities of Fitrah. Any change of the nature of creation which Allaah and (or) his Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) did not permit [53] is forbidden. Implicit in the saying of Allaah : تعالى

“And He created you and made good your shapes.” (Qur’aan 64:3)

is the order that (Muslims) “must look nice and clean”. It is as if saying that:

“Allaah has created you in the best shape and most perfect from. So, do not alter His creation (through ways) that will make it ugly and distorted”. Or: “take good care of it by keeping it in a state that ensures the continuity of its beauty, and obey not the Shaytan’s command whereby he orders you to alter the creation of Allaah”.

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) warned women that:

“Allaah curses those ladies who practice tattooing and those who get themselves tattooed, and those ladies who remove the hair from their faces and those who make artificial spaces between their teeth in order to look more beautiful whereby they change the features created by Allaah.” [54]

[53] Not every change is considered a “change in the creation of Allaah”. Clipping the nails, shaving the head during Hajj at the end of the state of Ihraam, removing the pubic and armpit hair, circumcision, etc. are just some examples of changes that are not only permissable but are meritous, and Allaah’s knows best.

[54] Collected by Al-Bukhaaree, Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V.7 hadeeth # 822 and Muslim, Saheeh Muslim, V.3, hadeeth # 5301 and Ahmad.

The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) mentioned the cause behind their curse: “changing the features created by Allaah”. Certainly, the curse is an evidence for the inviolability of changing Allaah’s creation. Therefore, the one who shaves off his beard for socalled “beautification purposes” changes the creation of Allaah, Glorified is He above every imperfection. Knowing that what is permitted for women regarding beautification is more than what is permitted for men, then with all the more reason the shaved falls under the threat of receiving Allaah’s curse. Shaving off the beard falls under the meaning of النَّمَصAn-Namass, which is removing the hair from the face or the eyebrows of women to look more “beautifil”. For men, it is even uglier!

4-A Resemblance of The Kuffar

Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

“Then we have put you (O Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) on a plain way of (Our) commandment (like the one which We commanded Our Messenger before you (i.e. legal ways and Laws of Tawheed). So follow you that (Islamic Monotheism & its Laws), and follow not the desires of those who know not.” [55](Qur’aan 45:18)

The Ayah clearly calls for the dissociation from following the desires of those who don’t follow the command of Allaah’s Messengers. Their desires include their outward appearance and whatever they like from what is necessitated by their false religion, as well as everything associated with it. Therefore, agreeing to their desires means following their paths (of falsehood). We are ordered to be different from them. Allaah, Most High, says:

[55] According to the Tafseer of at-Tabaree as quoted in the Interpretation of the Meaning of the Noble Qur’an (English Translation by Taqi’-ed-Deen al-Hilalee; Published by Dar us-Salaam, P.O. Box 21441, Riyadh, Saudia Arabia 11475).

“Has not the time come for the hearts of those who believe (in the Oneness of Allaah-Tawheed) to be affected by Allaah’s reminder of the Truth, lest they become as those who received the Scripture (The Torah and The Gospel) before (i.e. Jesus) and the term was prolonged for them and so their hearts were hardened? And many of them Fasiqun (rebellious, disobedient to Allaah).” (Qur’aan 5716)

In the above Ayah, the text: “lest they become as those who received the Scripture”, is an absolute prohibition against imitating them. Ibn Katheer (in his Tafseer) said: “That is why Allaah forbade the believers from imitating them in any basic or minor matter.”

Part of the goals and objectives established by the Noble Qur’an and which were detailed and explained by Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) is to abandon the resemblance of the Kuffar in their deeds, sayings and desires. Allaah’s Messenger manifested these objectives in many of the branches of the Sharee’ah like Salaat, funerals, fasting, diet, dressing, etiquette’s and manners, habits, etc. Emphasizing this distinction, the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Whoever acts according to a Sunnah (way) other than our Sunnah is not from us.” [56]

The Jews in Madeenah realized these objectives and felt that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) purposely intended to be different from them in all affairs even the most private ones. They commented: “This man (i.e. Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) does not want to leave anything we do without opposing us in it” [57].

He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) also said:

“Whoever takes the similitude (in manners) of a certain people becomes one of them.” [58]

[56] A good hadeeth as refered to by the author. See F.N. # 42
[57] Collected by Muslim, Saheeh Muslim, hadeeth # 592.
[58] An authentic hadeeth collected by Abu-Dawood, Ahmad, and others.

Al-Hassan (i.e. Al-Basri) said: “Rarely a man imitates a certain people except that he would follow them (i.e. in this life and in the Hereafter)”. Some of the respected people from the Ansaar asked the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) “O Messenger of Allaah, the people of the Book shave their beards and let their mustaches grow. He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said: “Clip your mustaches and let your beards grow and oppose the people of the Book”. He (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) also said:

“Oppose the Mushrikeen (polytheists): trim closely the mustaches and let the beards grow.” [59], [60]

In another hadeeth, the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Juzzoo [61] the mustache, let the beards grow, and oppose the Magians.”-reported by Muslim

[59] An agreed upon hadeeth collected by Muslim, Saheeh Muslim, V.1, hadeeth # 501, and by AlBukhaaree, Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V.7, hadeeth # 780.

[60] Its worth noting that the Mushrikeen at the time of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) had grown beards (see Saheeh Muslim, hadeeth # 1800-Arabic) because the Arabs did not change this beauty neither prior to or after the Revelation came down to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم). In fact, Islaam acknowledged this quality of the Mushrikeen. The Arabs may have continued on this quality following the sunnah (way) of Prophet Ibraheem, may Allah’s peace be upon him. Westeners continued to grow their beards until Peter, the King of Russia, spread the act of beard-shaving in Europe in the beginning of the seventh centuary. Later, many Muslims were influenced by this bad western way. As far as how the Muslims opposed the Mushrikeen, who had grown at the time of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) , it was done by triming what extended on the upper lips from the mustache .Whenever the Mushrikeen would shorten their beards, the Muslims opposed them by letting their beards fully grow. The opposition here, therefore, is in the description of the action itself. If the Mushrikeen would shave their beards, we would be (naturally) opposing them in the basic action itself, i.e. letting the beards grow.

[61] Juzzoo: (attain the utmost) in triming your mustach. Shayekh Nassir-ud-Deen Al-Albani said that the “trimming covers only what extends above the lip, and it is not shaving the entire mustache, because this would be against the practical and confirmed Sunnah of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) . That is why when Imam Malik was asked about the one who shaves off his mustache, he replied: “I think he should take a painful beating”. He also said to someone who shaved his mustache: “This is a Bid’ah (innovation) that is emerging amongst the people”-[reported by Al-Baihaqee 1: 151, see also Fathul Baaree 10: 285-286].

That is why Imam Malik had a grown mustache; when he was asked about it, he said: “ Zayed bin Aslam reported to me on the authority of ‘Aamir bin Abdullah bin Az-Zubayer, that Umar (i.e. Ibn Al-Khattaab) (رضي الله عنه) used to twine his mutache and blow (his breath out) when he got angry”-authentically narrated by AtTabaraanee in “Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer 1:4:1. At-Tabaraanee (1: 329:2), Abu Zar’ah in his “Taareekh 46:1”,and Al-Baihaqee reported that:

“five of the Sahabah used to Yaqummoon (remove i.e. the hair of) their mustaches from the side of the lip”. Al-Albaanee commented on the level of the Sanad (chain of narrators) by saying, “it is good”, and that “Ibn as-Saakir reported a similar narration, 8:520:2”. The above comments of Shayekh Al-Albaanee can be referred to in his book “The Etiquettes of Marriage”, PP. 209-210, 2nd Edition, Published by AlMaktabah Al-Islaamiyyah, Amman, Jordan, 1414 Hj.

Abu Shaamah, May Allaah’s Mercy be upon him, said: “Some people started to shave their beards, and that is even worse than what has been related that the Magians were shortening their beards!”

NOTE: Know, may Allaah’s Mercy be upon you, that the argument that some of the Mushrikeen today are growing their beards does not invalidate the concept of opposing the Mushrikeen, because:

First: It is the norm that most of them shave their beards. In fact this Bid’ah (of beard-shaving) did not pass to us except through them.

Second: Those amongst the Mushrikeen who kept their beards believing that it is an act of honorable manhood, or because they follow the way of their Prophets, their Fitrah (regarding this particular quality) is sound, since our Sharee’ah agreed to their Sharee’ah in relation to this issue. We still, however, oppose them by trimming the mustache and clipping what extends of it above the upper lip . The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Whoever does not take (i.e. hair) from his mustache then he is not from us.” [62]

Some of the Kuffar (like today’s Jews) grow their beards while others shave them. Either way, we are ordered to oppose those who shave and those who take off some of their beards, but not to oppose those who grow them (except as detailed above). Because, had the ruling been to absolutely oppose all of what the Kuffar do, it would have been incumbent upon us to stop the circumcision just because the Jews practice it!

Third: The fact that today most Muslims shave their beards does not rebuke the legitimate continuity of the principle of opposing the Mushrikeen because the Qur’aan and Sunnah constitute an established evidence against the Mushrikeen prohibiting the alteration of Allaah’s creation as well as taking the similitude of women. In addition, the Sunnah established that beard-growing is one of the characteristics of Fitrah which does change with the change of time, nor it changes just because some people deviate from it. Therefore, it is not right that we reject the Laws of Allaah because of the practices of those who oppose us in Deen, or because of negligence by some who belong to Islaam.

[62] An authentic hadeeth collected by Ahmad, at-Tirmithee, an-Nassaa’ee and ad-Diyaa’ (See Saheeh alJaami’, hadeeth # 6533. Sheikh Al-Albaanee commented on this hadeeth saying that “The hadeeth indicates that the permissible thing to do is to take from the mustache some of it, and it is the hair that extends above the lip. However, taking it all as some of the Sufi (mystics) and others do, is , as Imam Malik said,مُثلة Muthlah (deformation)”.

5-Taking the Similitude of Women

Ibn Abbaas رضي االله عنهما said:

“Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) cursed those men who are in the similitude (assume the manners) of women and those women who are in the similitude (assume the manners) of men.” [63]

When Abdullaah bin Umar(رضي الله عنه) saw a woman wearing a bow and walking in a way assuming the manners of men, he said:

“Women who assume the manners of men are not from us and also those of men who assume the manners of women.” [64]

There is no doubt that assumption of the manners of women by shaving the beard is more clear and vivid than the wearing of a bow by a woman assuming the manners of men.

if a woman puts on a faked beard on her face, she would be assuming the resemblance of men. By the the same talking, the man who takes off his beard, which Allaah beautified him with, would be immitating women.

[63] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V.7, hadeeth # 773.

[64] Reported by Imam Ahmad and Abu-Na’eem. It is an authentic hadeeth as the author said. Also Shayekh Al-Albaanee authenticated it in his book Al-Hijab ,PP. 66-67.

If you ask a common Muslim from Ahlu Sunnah [65]: “whom does the face of a shaven man resemble?” He would say: “That of a woman, a boy, a Jew or a Christian”. The scholars called this similitude at-Takhan’nuth (effeminateness). The renowned scholar of Islaam, Ibn Abdul Barr, may Allaah’s Mercy be upon him, said: “It is Haraam (unlawful) to shave the beard and that only those Mukhan’nathoon (effeminate) of men who do that.”

NOTE:

(1) If a man dyes his limbs with Henna [66], he assumes the similitude of women although he may have a beard, a mustache and a turban. The same holds true for the one who shaves his beard, although he may have a mustache, a shirt, and a turban!

(2) Assuming the manners, appearances, etc. of others is a matter that cannot be judged based upon intention, like the cases of murder, beating, or destructive acts. The person who acts to adopt the manners of others will attach to himself the quality of “similitude” though he may have not intended it. The corruption resulting from immitation is real, though he may have no objective behind it.

That is why the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) forbade certain deeds behind which there were no intentions or even thoughts for immitation. For example, he (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) forbade praying at sunrise, at one time during the noonperiod, [67] and sunset, lest we immitate the Kuffar who prostrate to the sun at these times, knowing well that the (true) Muslim does not prostrate to anyone except Allaah alone.

[65] Ahlu Sunnah, Muslims who follow the teaching of Islaam based on the Qur’aan, Sunnah, and the understanding and practice of the Sahaabah and their followers from the righteous predecessors. They stay away from innovations introduced by scholastic theology, Sufism (mysticism), blind immitation to Madaahib, figuiritive interpretations of the Names and Attributes of Allaah, etc.

[66] Henna, a reddish-orange cosmetic gained from leaves and stalks of the Henna plant.

[67] The time when the shade of an arrow rises up all the way on itself and nothing of its shade remains on earth.

6-Humiliation

None of the early Muslim scholars shaved their beards even once! Some Muslim rulers, who were not scholars themselves, used to punish some wrong-doers by shaving their beards then mounting them on riding animals and walking them in towns in dishonor. That is why some scholars said: “it is permissible to discipline someone by shaving his head but not his beard”, because it is originally Haraam to shave the beard. Do not you notice that when the pilgrim ends the state of Ihraam [68] it is a Sunnah (in accordance with the Prophet’s way) for him to shave (or clip) the head but not the beard? The respect of as-Salaf as-Salih for the beard was apparent in their stiff decisions to reject the testimony of those who shave their beards… In fact, the scholar Ad-Dusooqee said: “It is forbidden for a man to shave his beard or mustache and the one who does that must be disciplined”.

7-Deformation

Narrated Abdullaah bin Yazeed Al-Ansaaree that:

“The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) forbade An-Nuhba [69] and Al-Muthla (deformation).” [70]

Narrated Sumrah and Omraan bin Hussein رضي االله عنهما that: “Every time the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) gave us a speech except that he ordered us to give charity and forbade us from Al-Muthla (deformation).” [71]

Narrated Ibn as-Saakir that Omar bin Abdul Aziz ( may Allaah’s Mercy be upon him) said: “The shaving of the beard is a Muthla and the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) forbade the Al-Muthla.”

Imam Ibin Hazzm, may Allaah’s Mercy be upon him, said in his book Maratib AlIjmaa’ (the Levels of Consensus): “They (the Muslim scholars) agreed that the
shaving of the beard is a Muthla which is not permissible.”

[68] Ihraam, literally it means “entering into a state of sanctity”. In accordance with the Sunnah of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) it involves the putting on of a particular type of dress and abstention from certain actions.

[69] An-Nuhba, means robbing and taking the property of someone else publicly and by force.

[70] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V.7, hadeeth # 425.

[71] The author said it is a good hadeeth.

Some scholars considered the clipping of the beard a Muthla while others considered the shaving of the mustache a Muthla. Imagine what would the position of the scholars be regarding the complete removal of the beard? The face is an honored part of the body because it is the center of beauty and of the senses. Its right, thereofre, is to dignity protection, not Al-Muthla and dishonor. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) taught usin his saying that:

“When any one of you fights his brother, he should avoid the face” and in one narration:”he should not slap at the face.” [72]

When Suwayed bin Miqrin (رضي الله عنه) saw a man striking his boy (on the face), he said: ” Did you not know that the Soorah (face) is respected.”- reported by Muslim.

How strange it is to hear the people of our times congratulating those who deform their natural creation by shaving their beards, saying: Na’eeman (With Grace!!!!!).

This is what Allaah had allowed me to summarize about this subject. I ask Allaah (the Most Mighty and the Most Exalted) to show me the truth as well as the rest of the Muslims and to guide us to follow it; To make falsehood clear to us and to guide us away from it, and to save us from following desire which leads to misguidance.

All Glory and Praise is due to You (Allaah). I bear witness that there is no true god worthy of being worshipped except You Alone. I ask Your Forgiveness and I repent to You (Alone). All Praise is due to the Rabb of Al-‘Aalameen (Mankind, Jinns and all that exists).

The completion of the first edition of the book was on Monday 17/5/1414 Nov.1, 1993. Revised on the 4th of Rajab 1425; 20/8/2004

[72] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree (V.3, hadeeth # 734) and Saheeh Muslim (V.4, hadeeth # 6321 and 6324). The text is that of Muslim.

I ask Allaah, by His Names and Attributes to accept this work by the author and by myself and to make it a reserved reward for the Day of Judgment. I ask Him (سبحانه و تعالى) to forgive me if I had done any mistake and I ask the readers to write their findings and (or) their comments and send them to me: saleh3214@yahoo.com.

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