Wiping over the leather socks is Sunnah – Sharhu Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 28 : Point 34
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

And wiping over the leather socks is Sunnah.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

“And wiping over the leather socks is Sunnah.” He stated this matter, even though it is from the matters of fiqh then it has a connection to `aqeedah. For whoever denies wiping upon the leather socks, then he will be outside the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah, contradicting the correct creed and belief; because wiping over the leather socks is established from the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam in many ahaadeeth which reach the level of being mutawaatir (reported by a huge numbers of people at every single level of transmission, so many that it would be impossible to gather together upon a lie). [05] Wiping over the leather socks is a concession and acting upon a concession is a Sunnah, because of his saying sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, “Allaah loves that His concessions should be taken up, just as He hates that acts of disobedience to Him are committed.” [06]

So wiping over the leather socks, and wiping over whatever takes the places of the leather socks with regard to normal socks, is established in the Prophetic Sunnah. And no one disagrees about it except for the Raafidah (Shee`ah), whilst they affirm wiping upon the feet. So in the view of the Raafidah the feet are not to be washed, rather they are to be wiped over using as evidence the aayah (of wudoo):

وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ

And wipe your heads and wipe your feet up to the ankles (Sooratul-Maa·idah (5), aayah 6)

And in their view the ka`baan (two ankle bones) it doesn’t mean the two well known ankle bones at the bottom of the shins, rather in their view it refers to what comes under the strap of the shoe or sandal, and it is where the foot joins the heel – that which is called the throne of the foot (i.e. the arch or ridge on top of the foot). This is the ka`b (ankle bone) in the view of the Raafidah. It is other than ka`b which is with the people of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah.

And there is no proof for them even with the recitation with kasrah in the aayah (wa arjulikum), because the well-known recitation is with it being mansoob:

Wa arjulakum’ joining it to those things (which are to be washed), ‘faghsiloo wujoohakum…’ (i.e. wash your faces and your feet).

And with regards to the recitation where there is a kasrah, then it is on account of the word being next to His saying ‘wamsahoo bi ru·oosikum’ (i.e. wipe your heads and also your feet). And the proof is that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam used to wash his feet, and he had not used to wipe except upon the leather socks. [07]

Footnotes:

[05] Translator’s side point: Imaam an-Nawawiyy stated that some of the reports contain from eighty Companions including the ten promised Paradise.

[06] Reported by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad, by at-Tabaraaniyy in al-Mu`jamus-Sagheer, Ibn Khuzaymah in his Saheeh and Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh, from the hadeeth of `Abdullaah Ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhumaa. And it is declared saheeh by al-Munthiriyy in at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb, and he declared the chain of narration of Ahmad to be authentic.

Translator’s side point: And Shaykh al-Albaaniyy in his checking of at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb declared this hadeeth to be hasan saheeh.

[07] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmiyy rahimahullaah said:

“Wiping over the leather socks is from the Sunnahs. And wiping upon the leather socks has entered upon the matters of creed and belief, because some of the innovators deny it; and they are the Khawaarij and the Shee`ah, using as proof that it does not occur in the Qur’aan. But it is established from the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam through the narration of a group of the Companions. And denying it has become a distinguishing sign of the people of innovations. And the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah affirm it, because of the proofs for it.”

Transcribed by Saima Zaher. Download PDF of Lesson 28

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

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Related Link: 
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Types of Impurities (An-Najaasaat) and How to Purify them : Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee | Dawood Burbank

THE CHAPTER OF IMPURITIES (AN-NAJAASAAT):

Najaasaat (impurities) is the plural of najaasah (impurity), and it is everything which the people of sound nature hold to be dirty, and which they guard themselves from, and which they wash their clothes from if it fall upon them, such as urine and excrement.[1]

And the basic principle for all things is permissibility (ibaahah) and that they are pure (at-Tahaarah). So whoever claims that a particular thing is impure must bring evidence. So if he produces it then that is the case; but if he is unable to do so, or he comes with something that does not establish proof, then what is obligatory upon us is to remain upon what is necessitated by the basic principle and the basic natural state.[2]

This is because passing a judgement that something is impure is a ruling which will bring about general duty and responsibility, so it is not permissible except after proof has been established. [3]

So from that which has been proven to be impure are:

1 & 2: Human urine and excrement:

As for excrement (al-ghaa.it), then because of the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<If one of you steps with his shoe upon something harmful (al-Adhaa), then the earth will be purification for it.>> [4]

And ‘al-Adhaa’ is everything which harms/offends, from impurities, filth, rocks, thorns, and other then that. [5]

And what is meant by it in the hadeeth is impurity (najaasah), as is clear. As for urine, then because of the hadeeth of Anas: that a bedouin man urinated in the mosque, so some people stood up to restrain him. So Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: <<Leave him, and do not interrupt him.>>

He said: “When he finished he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) called for a bucket of water, and poured it upon it.” [6]

3 & 4 Pre-seminal fluid (al-madhee) and ‘al-wadee’:

As for pre-seminal fluid, then it is clear, thin, slippery fluid which discharges when there is (sexual) desire. Its discharge does not itself give a feeling of delight, nor does it shoot out all at once, nor is it followed by slackness. The person may not notice its discharge, and this happens to men and women. [7]

And it is impure (najas), and therefore the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) ordered that the penis be washed from it.

From `Alee who said: “ I was a man who had profuse pre-seminal discharge, and I felt shy to ask the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) because of my position with respect to his daughter. So I told al-Miqdaad ibn al-Aswad, and he asked him. So he said:

<<He should wash his penis and perform wudoo..>> ” [8]

As for ‘al-wadee’, then it is a thick white fluid which may come out after urination, [9] and it is impure.

From Ibn `Abbaas who said: “Semen, and ‘al-wadee’, and pre-seminal fluid (al madhee). As for semen, then it is what necessitates a bath (ghusl); and as for ‘alwadee’and ‘al-madhee’, then he said: “Wash your penis, or: the parts of your penis, and perform wudoo. in the manner in which you perform wudoo· for the Prayer.” [10]

5. The dung of animals whose meat may not be eaten:

From `Abdullaah who said: the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) wanted to go out to the toilet, so he said: <<Bring me three stones.>> So I found two stones for him and a piece of dung from a donkey. So he took hold of the two stones, and he threw the piece of dung away, and he said: <<It is something impure.>> [11]

6. Menstrual blood:

From Asmaa· bint Abee Bakr who said: “A woman came to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and said: ‘If menstrual blood falls on the garment of one of us, what should she do?’ So he said: <<She should scrape it off, then she should rub it with water, then she should wash it (all). Then she can pray whilst wearing it.>> [12]

7. The saliva of a dog:

From Aboo Hurayrah who said, Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<The purification for the vessel of one of you if a dog licks from it is that he washes it seven times, the first of them being with earth.>> [13]

8. Animal carcasses:

Referring to animals which die without having been slaughtered in the legislated manner, because of his (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) saying:

<<When an animal skin is tanned then it has become pure.>> [14]

And an ‘animal skin’ (ihaab) is the hide of an animal which has died.

And exceptions to that [15] are:

(i) Dead fish and locusts, because of the hadeeth of Ibn `Umar- radiyallaahu `anhu)maa- who said: Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<Two dead animals and forms of blood have been made lawful for us. As for the two dead animals, then they are fish and locusts; and as for the two forms of blood it is the liver and the spleen.>> [16]

(ii) Dead animals which do not have blood which flows, such as flies, ants, bees, and their like.

From Aboo Hurayrah -radiyallaahu `anhu- that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<If a fly falls into the vessel of one of you then let him immerse it in it, totally. Then let him throw it out, for indeed in one of its wings there is a poison and in the other there is a remedy.>> [17]

(iii) The bones of a dead animal, and its horn, claws, hair, and feathers.

All of that is pure, in keeping with the basic principle, which is that things are pure; and because of what al-Bukhaaree reported in disconnected form,[18] saying, ‘az-Zuhree said about the bones of a dead animal, such as the elephant and its like, “I met people from the Salaf of the scholars using it as combs, and as pots for oil. They did not see any harm in that.” And Hammaad said: “There is no harm in (using) the feathers of dead birds.”

HOW IMPURITY IS TO BE PURIFIED.

You should know that the bringer of the legislation, who made us aware that a thing is impure, or causes other things to become impure, has also made us aware of how we are able to purify it. So what is obligatory upon us is to follow his saying and to comply with his command. So whatever it is reported about that it must be washed until no colour, smell, or taste remains from it, then that is its purification; and whatever it is reported about that water must be poured upon it, or sprinkled upon it, or that it should be scraped, or wiped upon the earth, or merely walking upon pure earth, then that is its purification. Furthermore you should know that water is the basic substance for purifying impurities, since the bringer of the Legislation described it with his saying: <<Allaah created water as being pure and purifying>> [19], so nothing else besides it is turned to, unless that is established from the bringer of the legislation; otherwise not, since it would be a case of turning aside from something known to be a purifier towards something which is not known to be a purifier, and this would be a departure from what the legislated manner of proceeding demands.

So when you know this, then here is what occurs in the legislation regarding the manner of purifying substances which are impure or which cause impurity:

1. Purifying the animal through tanning:

From Ibn `Abbaas -radiyallaahu `anhumaa- who said: I heard Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) say:

<<Whichever animal skin is tanned, then it becomes pure.>> [20]

2. Purifying the vessel which a dog has licked:

From Aboo Hurayrah- radiyallaahu `anhu- that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: <<The purification of the vessel of one of you when a dog has licked it is that he washes it seven times, the first of them being with the earth.>> [21]

3. Purifying a garment which menstrual blood has fallen onto:

From Asmaa· bint Abee Bakr -radiyallaahu `anhaa- who said: A woman came to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and said: “If menstrual blood falls onto the garment of one of us, what should she do?” So he said:

<<She should scrape it off, then she should rub it with water, then she should wash it (all). Then she can pray whilst wearing it.>> [22]

If a trace still remains after that, then there is no harm: From Aboo Hurayrah -radiyallaahu `anhu- that Khawlah bint Yasaar said, “O Messenger of Allaah! I have only a single garment, and I menstruate whilst wearing it.” He said:

<<When you become clean wash the place of the blood, then pray whilst wearing it.>>

She said: “O Messenger of Allaah! If its trace is not removed?” He said:
<<The water will suffice you, and its trace will not harm you.>> [23]

4. Purifying the trailing hem of the woman’s garment:

From a slave-girl who gave birth to a child of Ibraaheem ibn `Abdir-Rahmaan ibn `Awf, that she asked Umm Salamah -the wife of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) I am a woman who makes the hem of my garment long, then what if I walk upon a filthy place?” So Umm Salamah said: “The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: <<What comes after it will purify it.>> [24]

5. Purifying the garment from the urine of a suckling baby: [25]

From Abus-Samh, the servant of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) who said: “The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<It should be washed from the urine of a girl, and sprinkled with water from the urine of a boy.>>[26]

6. Purifying the garment from pre-seminal fluid (madhee):

From Sahl ibn Hunayf who said: I used to experience difficulty and trouble on account of pre-seminal fluid, and I used to frequently take a bath from it. So I mentioned that to Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and he said:

<<The wudoo· would suffice you for that.”>>

I said: “What about that which fall upon my garment from it?” He said:
<<It will suffice you to take a handful of water, and to rub your garment with it wherever you see it has fallen upon it.>> [27]

7. Purifying the underneath of the shoe:

From Aboo Sa`eed -radiyallaahu `anhu- that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: <<When one of you comes to the mosque, then let him turn his shoes over and examine them. So if he sees some filth, then let him wipe it upon the earth, then let him pray whilst wearing them.>> [28]

8. Purifying the earth:

From Aboo Hurayrah -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “A Bedouin stood and urinated in the mosque. So the people began raising their voices against him. So the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said to them:

<<Leave him, and pour a bucket of water upon his urine; for you were sent as people who make things easy, and you were not sent as people who make things difficult.>> [29]

And the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) commanded that in order to quickly purify the earth. So if it had been left until it became dry, and then the trace of the impurity departed, then it would have become pure, because of the hadeeth of Ibn `Umar -radiyallaahu `anhumaa- who said:

“Dogs used to urinate in the mosque, and come and go, in the time of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and they had not used to sprinkle anything upon it.” [30]

Footnotes:

[1] ar-Rawdatun-Nadiyyah (1/12) .
[2] as-Saylul-Jarraar (1/31) of ash-Shawkaanee.
[3] ar-Rawdatun-Nadiyyah (1/15) of Siddeeq Hasan Khaan.
[4] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 834); Aboo Daawood (2/47/381).
[5] `Awnul-Ma`bood (Sharh Abee Daawood) (2/44).
[6] Agreed upon. Muslim (1/236/284), and the wording is his; and al-Bukhaaree (10/449/6025).
[7] Sharh Saheeh Muslim: (3/213).
[8]Agreed upon: Muslim (1/247/303), and the wording is his; al-Bukhaaree (1/230/132) in abridged form.
[9]‘Fiqhus-Sunnah’ (1/24).
[10] Saheeh…al-Bayhaqee (1/115).
[11] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami`: (253); Ibn Khuzaymah (1/39/70), and it is reported by others without the words ‘from a donkey’. It was reported by al-Bukhaaree (1/256/156), an-Nasaa·ee (1/39), at-Tirmidhee (1/13/17), and Ibn Maajah (1/114/314).
[12] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/240/291), and the wording is his; al-Bukhaaree (1/410/307).
[13] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (3933); Muslim (1/234/91/279).
[14] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (511); Muslim (1/277/366), Aboo Daawood (11/181/4105).
[15] i.e. to the condition of being impure (transl.)
[16] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (210); Ahmad (1/255/96), al-Bayhaqee (1/254)
[17] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (837); al-Bukhaaree (10/250/5782), Ibn Maajah (2/1159/3505)
[18] (1/342)
[19] as-Saylul-Jarraar (1/42, 48) -with some paraphrasing. And you should know that regarding his saying “Allaah created water as being pure and purifying” al-Haafiz (Ibn Hajr) said in ‘at-Talkhees’ (1/14): “I have not found it in this form, and it has preceded as a hadeeth of Aboo Sa`eed with the wording: “Water is pure and purifying, nothing causes it to become impure.””
[20] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (2907); Ahmad (1/230/49), at-Tirmidhee (3/135/1728), Ibn Maajah (2/1193/3609), an-Nasaa·ee (7/173).
[21] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (3933), Muslim (1/234/91/279)
[22] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/240/291), and the wording is his; al-Bukhaaree (1/410/307).
[23] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (351); Aboo Daawood (2/26/361), al-Bayhaqee (2/408)
[24] Saheeh:Saheeh Ibn Maajah (430), Muwatta· Imaam Maalik (27/44), Aboo Daawood (2/44/379), atTirmidhee (1/95/143), Ibn Maajah (1/177/531).
[25] i.e. the baby who is still breast-fed and has not been weaned onto solid food (transl.).
[26] Saheeh: Saheeh an-Nasaa·ee (293), Aboo Daawood (2/36/372), an Nasaa·ee (1/158).
[27] Hasan: Saheeh Ibn Maajah (409), Aboo Daawood (1/357/207), at-Tirmidhee (1/76/115), Ibn Maajah (1/169/506).
[28] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (605); Aboo Daawood (2/353/636).
[29] Agreed upon: al-Irwaa. (171); al-Bukhaaree (1/323/220), an-Nasaa·ee (1/48 & 49); and it is reported in longer form by Aboo Daawood (2/39/376) & at-Tirmidhee (1/99/147).
[30] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (368); al-Bukhaaree in disconnected form (1/278/174), Aboo Daawood (2/42/378).

Source : Al-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank . An excellent book on the rules and regulations of various acts of worship, with evidences from the Book and Sunnah. This chapter deals with water and aspects of purification, wudhoo, ghusl, the toilet etc

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

The Bath (al-Ghusl) : Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee | Dawood Burbank

THE BATH (al-Ghusl):

Those things which make it obligatory:

1) Semen coming out whilst awake or during sleep:

Because of his (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) saying:

“Taking a bath is binding if semen comes out.”[1]

And from Umm Salamah that Umm Sulaym said: “O Messenger of Allaah, Allaah is not shy of the truth, so is the bath binding upon the woman if she has a sexual dream.” He said: “Yes if she sees semen.” [2]

And having desire is a condition if a person is awake but not during sleep. Because of his (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) saying:

“If you ejaculate semen then take a bath from janaabah, but if you do not ejaculate it with force then do not take a bath.” [3]

ash-Shawkaanee [4] said: ‘al-hadhf means firing out, and it does not occur in this manner except as a result of desire and it contains a point of note that that which comes out without desire, either because of illness or severe cold, does not necessitate taking a bath.’

And whoever has a sexual dream and does not find semen, then there is no bath due upon him. And whoever finds semen but does not remember any sexual dream then taking a bath is upon him.

From `Aa·ishah-radiyallaahu `anhaa- that she said:

“Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) was asked about the man who finds liquid but does not remember any sexual dream, so he said: “He should take a bath.” And he was asked about a man who sees that he had intercourse in a dream but he does not find any liquid. So he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:”There is no bath due upon him.” [5]

2) Sexual intercourse, even if he does not ejaculate:

From the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah -radiyallaahu `anhu- from the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) that he said: “If he sits between her four limbs, and he has intercourse with her, then the bath has become obligatory, even if he did not ejaculate.” [6]

3) An Unbeliever accepting Islaam:

From Qays ibn `Aasim that he accepted Islaam, so the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) ordered him to take a bath with water and lote-tree leaves. [7]

4) The cessation of the menstrual period and after-birth bleeding:

Because of the hadeeth of `Aa·ishah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said to Faatimah bint Abee Hubaysh:

“When the menstrual period comes then leave off the Prayer; and when it departs, then take a bath and pray.” [8]

And after-birth bleeding is just like the menstruation period by consensus.

5) The day of Jumu`ah:

From the hadeeth of Aboo Sa`eed al-Khudree that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: “Taking the bath for the Jumu`ah is obligatory upon every adult.” [9]

Its Pillars:

1) Intention: Because of the hadeeth:”Actions are but by intentions…” [10]
2) Covering the whole body with water.

Its recommended form:

From `Aa·ishah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- that she said:

‘When Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) took a bath from janaabah he would begin and wash his hands, then he would pour water with his right hand over his left hand and wash his genitals. Then he would perform the wudoo· in the manner in which he performed the wudoo· for the Prayer. Then he would take the water and enter his fingers into the roots of his hair until he saw that he had caused the water to reach all parts of it. Then he would take three handfuls of water and put it upon his head. Then he washed his feet.’[11]

Point of note:

It is not obligatory upon the woman to undo her hair when taking a bath from janaabah, but it is obligatory upon her to do that in the bath for the menstrual period.

From Umm Salamah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- that she said: ‘I said: “O Messenger of Allaah! I am a woman who ties my hair into plaits. Shall I undo it for the bath of janaabah?” He said: “No, it would suffice you to pour three handfuls of water upon your head, then make the water flow upon yourself, and you will be clean.” [12]

From `Aa·ishah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- that Asmaa· asked the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) about the bath from menstruation. So he said:

“One of you should take her water and her lote-tree leaves, so she should purify herself and purify herself in a good manner then she should pour it upon her head and strongly rub it in until she reaches the roots upon her hair. Then she should pour the water upon herself, then she should take a piece of cloth with musk upon it and clean herself with it.” So Asmaa· said: ‘How should she clean herself with it? so he said “Subhaanallaah! (How perfect is Allaah!) She should clean herself with it.”

So `Aa·ishah said to her, and it is as if she said it secretly to her: ‘You should wipe away the trace of blood with it.’

And she asked him about the bath of janaabah. So he said:

“She should take some water and purify herself, and clean herself in a good manner, or perform the purification fully. Then she should pour it upon her head, and rub it in until she reaches the roots of (the hair) upon her head. Then she should pour the water upon herself.” [13]

So this hadeeth clearly shows a difference between the bath which a woman takes from her menses, and her bath from the state of janaabah, since he emphasised upon the menstruating woman that she should exert in rubbing strongly, and in purifying, in a way in which he did not emphasis regarding her bath from janaabah. Just as the hadeeth of Umm Salamah is a proof that it is not obligatory to undo the hair in her bath from janaabah. [14]

And the basic rule is to undo the hair to make certain that the water reaches whatever is underneath it. Except that it has been pardoned in the bath of janaabah because of the fact that it happens repeatedly, and that it would create severe difficulty to have to undo it for that. Contrary to the bath after the menses because it happens only once a month. [15]

A point of note:

It is permissible for the two spouses to take a bath together in a single place, each of them looking at the private part of the other; because of the saying of `Aa·ishah – radiyallaahu `anhaa: ‘I used to take a bath, I and Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) from a single vessel, when we were in a state of janaabah.’ [16]

The recommended baths:

1-Taking a bath at each act of sexual intercourse:

Because of the hadeeth of Aboo Raafi` that one night the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) had relations with all of his wives in succession, taking a bath with this one, and with this one. He said: “O Messenger of Allaah! Why don’t you make it a single bath?” So he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

“This is purer, and better, and cleaner.” [17]

2- The woman who has continual bleeding taking a bath for every Prayer, or one bath for the Zuhr Prayer and `Asr Prayer together, and one bath for the Maghrib and the `Ishaa· Prayer together, and one bath for the Fajr Prayer.

Because of the hadeeth of `Aa·ishah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- that she said: “Umm Habeebah had continual bleeding in the time of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) so he commanded her to take a bath for every Prayer….the hadeeth.” [18]

And in a narration from her a woman had continual bleeding in the time of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) so she was commanded that she should bring the `Asr Prayer forward and delay the Dhur Prayer, and that she should take a single bath for both of them; and that she should delay the Maghrib Prayer and bring forward the `Ishaa· Prayer, and take a bath for the two of them, and that she should take a bath for the Dawn Prayer. [19]

3- Taking a bath after becoming unconscious:

Because of the hadeeth of `Aa·ishah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- that she said Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) became very ill. So he said: “Have the people prayed?” So we said: ‘No, they are waiting for you O Messenger of Allaah’. So he said: “Put some water in the tub for me.” She said so we did so. So he took a bath and then he tried to stand but he fell unconscious. Then he came around and he said: “Have the people prayed?” So we said: ‘No, they are waiting for you O Messenger of Allaah’. He said put some water for me in the tub. She said so we did so. So he took a bath then he tried to stand up and he fainted. Then he came around and he said:” Have the people prayed?” So we said: ‘No, they are waiting for you O Messenger of Allaah’. And she mentioned his sending a message to Aboo Bakr, and the completion of the hadeeth. [20]

4- Taking a bath after burying a Mushrik:

Because of the hadeeth of `Alee ibn Abee Taalib -radiyallaahu `anhu- that he came to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and he said: “Aboo Taalib has died.” So he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: “Go and bury him.” So when I had buried him I came back to him, and he said to me: “Take a bath.” [21]

5- Taking a bath for the two `Eeds and for the Day of `Arafah:

Because of what al-Bayhaqee reported, by way of ash-Shaafi`ee: from Zaadhaan, who said: “A man asked `Alee -radiyallaahu `anhu- about the bath.” So he said: “Take a bath every day if you want to.” So he said: “No, the bath which is the bath.” He said: “The Day of Jumu`ah, and the Day of `Arafah, and the Day of Sacrifice, and the Day of Fitr.” [22]

6- Taking a bath after washing the dead:

Because of his (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) saying: “Whoever washes a dead person then let him take a bath.” [23]

7- Taking a bath for the state of Ihraam for `Umrah or Hajj:

Because of the hadeeth of Zayd ibn Thaabit that he saw the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) remove his (usual) clothes for entering the state of Ihraam, and he took a bath. [24]

8- Taking a bath to enter Makkah:

Because of the hadeeth of Ibn `Umar -radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)- that he had not used to come to Makkah except that he would spend the night at Dhee Tuwaa, and then enter the morning. So he would take a bath and then enter Makkah in the day time; and he mentioned from the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) that he did it. [25]

Footnotes:

[1] Saheeh: [Mukhtasar Muslim (151), Muslim (1/269/343), Aboo Daawood (1/366/214)

[2] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/228/130), Muslim (1/251/313), at-Tirmidhee (1/80/122)

[3] Its chain of narration is hasan saheeh: [Irwaa.ul-Ghaleel (1/162), Ahmad (1/247/82).

[4]  Naylul Awtaar (1/275)

[5] Saheeh: Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (216), at-Tirmidhee (1/74/113), Aboo Daawood (1/399/233)

[6] Saheeh: [Mukhtasar Muslim (152)], Muslim (1/271/348)

[7] Saheeh: [Irwaa.ul-Ghaleel (128), an-Nasaa.ee(1/109), at-Tirmidhee (2/58/602), Aboo Daawood (2/19/351)

[8] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/42/320), Muslim (1/262/333), Aboo Daawood (1/466/279), at-Tirmidhee (1/82/125), an-Nasaa.ee (1/186), and their wordings except for al-Bukhaaree is: ‘wash the blood away from yourself.’

[9]Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (357/2/879), Muslim (2/580/846), Aboo Daawood (2/4 & 5 /337), an-Nasaa.ee (3/93), Ibn Maajah (1/346/1089)

[10]Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree, Muslim (1/204/226)

[11]Agreed upon.

[12]Saheeh: [Irwaa·ul-Ghaleel (136), Muslim (1/259/330), Aboo Daawood (1/426/248), an-Nasaa·ee (1/131), atTirmidhee (1/71/105), Ibn Maajah (1/198/603).

[13]Saheeh: [Mukhtasar Muslim (172)], Muslim (1/261/-61-332)

[14]Tahdheeb Sunan Abee Daawood of Ibnul Qayyim.

[15]Tahdheeb Sunan Abee Daawood of Ibnul Qayyim.

[16]Hasan: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (480), Aboo Daawood (1/370/216), Ibn Maajah (1/194/590).

[17]Hasan: [Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (480)], Aboo Daawood (1/370/216), Ibn Maajah (1/194/590)

[18]Saheeh: [Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (269)] Aboo Daawood (1/483/289)

[19]Saheeh:[Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (273)] Aboo Daawood (1/487/291)

[20]Agreed upon: Muslim (1/311/418), al-Bukhaaree (1/172/687).

[21]Its chain of narration is Saheeh.

[22][[Saheeh:al-Irwaa·:146]].

[23]Saheeh:[Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (1195), Ibn Maajah (1/470/1463).

[24]Hasan: [Irwaa·ul-Ghaleel (149), at-Tirmidhee (2/163/831).

[25]Agreed upon: Muslim (2/919-227-1259)-and this is his wording, al-Bukhaaree (3/435/1573), Aboo Daawood (5/318/1848), at-Tirmidhee (2/172/854).

Source : Al-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank . An excellent book on the rules and regulations of various acts of worship, with evidences from the Book and Sunnah. This chapter deals with water and aspects of purification, wudhoo, ghusl, the toilet etc

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

Wiping Over the Leather Socks (al-Mash ‘alal-khuffayn) – Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee | Dawood Burbank

WIPING OVER THE LEATHER SOCKS (al-Mash `alal-khuffayn):

Imaam an-Nawawee -rahimahullaah- said in his explanation of Muslim (3/164):

‘Those whose sayings are counted in consensus have agreed that it is permissible to wipe over the leather socks, when on a journey and when in residence, whether it is done for a need or otherwise, to the extent that it is permissible for the woman who stays within her house, and at times when the person is not walking about. It is only criticised by the Shee`ah and the Khawaarij, and their disagreement is not counted.

al-Hasan al-Basree -rahimahullaah- said:

Seventy of the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) narrated to me that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) used to wipe upon the leather socks.’

And the best thing that is used as evidence for the permissibility of wiping is that which Muslim reported from al-A`mash: from Ibraaheem from Hammaam, who said: Jareer urinated, and then he performed wudoo·, and he wiped over his leather socks. So it was said: “You do this.” He said, “Yes, I saw Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) urinate, and then he performed the wudoo·, and then he wiped over his leather socks.”

al-A`mash said: Ibraaheem said: “This hadeeth used to please them, because the Islaam of Jareer happened after Sooratul-Maa·idah came down’’. [1]

an-Nawawee said [2] : ‘Meaning that Allaah- the Most High- said:

“Then wash your faces and your arms up to and including the elbows, and wipe your heads, and wash your feet up to and including the ankle bones.” [Sooratul Maa·idah (5):6]

He said: “So if the Islaam of Jareer had come before the descent of al-Maa·idah it would have been possible that his hadeeth about wiping over the leather socks was abrogated by the Aayah of al-Maa.idah, but since his Islaam came later on, then we know for certain that his hadeeth is to be acted upon; and it clarifies that the one who is meant by the Aayah is the person who is not wearing leather socks. So therefore the Sunnah particularises the Aayah, and Allaah knows best.’’

Its Conditions:

It is a condition for the permissibility of wiping that he should wear the leather socks upon the state of having made wudoo·.

From al-Mugheerah ibn Shu`bah -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: I was with the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) one night on a journey. So I poured water out for him from the pot, and he washed his face and his two forearms, and he wiped his head. Then I reached down to remove his leather socks, so he said: “Leave them because I entered them both in a state of purification.” And he wiped over them. [3]

The time period for wiping:

From `Alee ibn Abee Taalib -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) laid down three days and their nights for the traveller,and one day and night for the resident. [4]

The place of wiping and its description:

The place which it is legislated to wipe is the upper surface of the leather sock, because of the saying of `Alee ibn Abee Taalib -radiyallaahu `anhu- : “If the Religion were in accordance with opinion, then underneath of the leather sock would have more right to be wiped then its top part, but I saw Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) wiping over the upper surface of his leather socks.” [5]

And what is obligatory in wiping is whatever the term ‘wiping’ is applied to.

Wiping over socks and sandals:

And just as it is permissible to wipe upon leather socks then it is permissible to wipe upon normal socks and upon sandals, because of the hadeeth of al-Mugheerah ibn Shu`bah that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) performed the wudoo·, and he wiped over the socks and the sandals. [6]

And from `Ubayd ibn Juraij who said: “ It was said to Ibn `Umar: We have seen you doing something which we did not see anyone else besides you doing.’ He said: ‘And what is it?’ They said: ‘We have seen you wearing these animal- hair sandals.’ He said: ‘I saw Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) wearing them and performing wudoo· in them, and he wiped over them.’ [7]

That which nullifies the wiping:

The wiping is annulled by one of these three:

1) Completion of the time period, because wiping has a time limit, as you have known. So it is not permissible to increase upon the time period which has been established.

2) Janaabah: Because of the hadeeth of Safwaan: “Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) used to command us when we were upon a journey that we should not remove our leather socks for three days along with their nights except from janaabah, but rather from passing excrement, and urine and sleep.” [8]

3) Removing that which has been wiped upon from the feet, because if he removes them, and then wears them again, then he will not have entered his two feet in a state of purification.

A point of benefit:

The completion of the time period, and removing that which he has wiped upon nullify the wiping alone. So it is not permissible to wipe until he has performed the wudoo·, and washed his feet, and then worn it. However if he was still in a state of wudoo· when he took off the thing that he wiped over, or when the time period finished, then he remains upon his state of wudoo·. He can pray with it as he wishes until he breaks his wudoo·.

A point of benefit:

Whoever wears two pairs of socks upon a state of purification, and then wipes over them, and then he removes the top one -after having wiped over it, then it is permissible for him to complete the time period by wiping over the underneath one, because it is correct that he entered his two feet into them in a state of being pure. But if he wore a sock, and wiped over it, and then he wore another one on top of it, then he may not wipe over that. This is because it will not be correct that he has entered the two of them when they were pure. [9]

Footnotes:

[1] Saheeh: [Mukhtasar Muslim (136), Muslim (1/227/272), at-Tirmidhee (1/63/93).
[2] Sharh Muslim (3/164)
[3] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/230-79-274), al-Bukhaaree (1/309/206)-in abridged form, Aboo Daawood (1/256/151)
[4] Saheeh:[ Mukhtasar Muslim (139), Muslim (1/232/276), an-Nasaa·ee (1/84).
[5] Saheeh: [Irwaa.ul-Ghaleel 103], Aboo Daawood (1/278/162).
[6] Saheeh: [Irwaa·ul-Ghaleel 101], Aboo Daawood (1/269/159), at-Tirmidhee (1/67/99), Ibn Maajah (1/185/559).
[7] Ibn Khuzaymah (1/p.100 hadeeth 199), al-Bayhaqee (1/ p.287 )
[8] Hasan: [Irwaa·ul-Ghaleel 104], at-Tirmidhee (1/65/96), an-Nasaa·ee (1/84)
[9] This is what Shaikh al-Albaanee mentioned to me.

Source : Al-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank . An excellent book on the rules and regulations of various acts of worship, with evidences from the Book and Sunnah. This chapter deals with water and aspects of purification, wudhoo, ghusl, the toilet etc

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

At-Tayammum (Purification with Earth) – Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee | Dawood Burbank

PURIFICATION WITH EARTH (AT-TAYAMMUM):

Its Legislation:

He- the Most High- says:

“And if you are ill or upon a journey, or one of you comes from going to the toilet, or if you have had sexual intercourse with women and you do not find water, then perform tayammum with clean earth: and wipe your faces and your hands.” [Sooratul-Maa.idah (5):6]

And Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

“Clean earth is a purification for the Muslim even if he does not find water for ten years.” [1]

The causes which render it permissible:

It is permissible to perform tayammum when one is unable to use water, if he can not find it, or if he fears harm from using- it because of illness in the body or severe cold. From `Imraan ibn Husayn -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “We were along with Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) on a journey. So he led the people in the Prayer and then he saw a man who was keeping himself away. So he said:

“What prevented you from praying?” He said: “I was struck by janaabah and there was no water.” So he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: “Use the earth, for it will suffice you.” [2]

And from Jaabir -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “We went out on a journey, so a man from us was struck by a rock and it caused him a head injury. Then he had a wet dream, so he asked his companions: ‘Do you find any concession for me to perform tayammum?’ So they said: “We do not find any concession for you and you, and you are able to use water.” So he took a bath and he died. So when we came to Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) he was informed of that. So he said:

“They killed him, may Allaah kill them. Why didn’t they ask when they did not know? Indeed the cure for ignorance is to ask. It would have sufficed him to perform tayammum.” [3]

And from `Amr ibn al-`Aas -radiyallaahu `anhu- that when he was sent on the military expedition of Dhaatas-Salaasil he said: “I had a wet dream on a night which was severely cold, so I feared that if I took a bath I would die. So I performed tayammum, and then I led my companions in the Dawn Prayer. Then when we came to Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) they mentioned that to him. So he said:

“O `Amr did you lead your companions in Prayer when you were junub?” So I said: “I remembered the Saying of Allaah- the Most High:

“And do not kill yourselves indeed Allaah is ever Merciful to you.” [Sooratun-Nisaa· (4): 29]

So therefore I performed tayammum and then I prayed.” So Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) laughed, and he did not say anything.” [4]

What is ‘earth’ (as-Sa’eed)?

He said in ‘Lisaanul `Arab’ [5] : “The Sa`eed is the earth; it is said: pure earth, and it is said: it is every pure soil; and there occurs in the Revelation sent down:

“So perform tayammum with pure earth” [Sooratul Maa·idah (5): 6]

Aboo Ishaaq said: ‘as-Sa`eed is the face of the earth, and it is upon the person that he should strike his two hands upon the face of the earth, and not care whether the place has soil upon it or not. Because as-Sa`eed is not soil rather it is the face of the earth, whether that be soil or something else. He said: and if there is a land which is all rock, with no soil upon it, and the person performing tayammum strikes his hand upon that rock, then that would be purification if he wipes his face with it.’

The description of the tayammum:

From `Ammaar ibn Yaasir -radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)- who said: ‘I became junub and I did not find any water. Therefore I rolled around in the dust and I prayed. So I mentioned that to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and he said: “It would have sufficed you to do like this”, and the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) struck the ground with his two palms, and blew upon them. Then he wiped his face with them and his two hands.’ [6]

A point of benefit:

The principal with regard to tayammum is that it takes the place of the wudoo· So whatever is permissible to do in a state of wudoo·, then is permissible to do it with it (i.e. tayammum). And it is permissible to perform it before the time, just as that is permissible with the wudoo·; and the person can prayer whatever he wishes with it, just as he prays in a state of wudoo.

The things which break tayammum:

Tayammum is broken by that which breaks the wudoo·. It is also broken by the presence of water -for the person who couldn’t find it, and the ability to use it- for the one who was unable to use it; and whatever came before from his Prayer is correct, it is not necessary for him to repeat it.

From Aboo Sa`eed al-Khudree -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “Two men went out on a journey and it became time for the Prayer and they did not have any water with them. So both of them performed tayammum with pure earth and they prayed. Then they found water within the time. So one of them repeated the wudoo· and the Prayer, and the other one did not repeat. Then they came to Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and they mentioned that to him. So he said to the one who had not repeated: “You attained the Sunnah, and your Prayer suffices you.” And he said to the one who performed wudoo· and repeated: “You have the reward twice over.”’’ [7]

A point of benefit:

Whoever has a wound upon which he has wrapped a bandage, or a fracture which he has set, then having to wash that place falls away from him, and he does not have to wipe over it, nor perform tayammum for it.

The proof for that is the Saying of Allaah- the Most High:

“Allaah does not place a duty on any soul except that which it can carry out.” [Sooratul-Baqarah (2): 286]

And the saying of the Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) “When I command you with a matter, then do what you are able to do from it.” [8]

So everything which the person is unable to do falls away, by the text of the Qur’aan and the Sunnah, and to declare something else to be a replacement for it is legislation, and legislation is not binding except by a text of the Qur’aan or Sunnah; and there is nothing in the Qur’aan or the Sunnah to show that wiping upon a splint or upon ointment is a replacement for washing that which the person is not able to wash. So that saying falls away. [9]

The permissibility of performing tayammum with a wall: [10]

From Ibn `Abbaas-radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)-who said: “ I came along with `Abdullaah ibn Yasaar- the slave belonging to Maymoonah the wife of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) until we entered upon Aboo Juhaym ibn al-Haarith ibn as-Simmah al-Ansaaree.

So Abul- Juhaym said: The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) came from the direction of the well of Jamal [11], so he was met by a man who greeted him with Salaam, but the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) did not respond to him until he went to the wall, and wiped his face and two hands. Then he responded to his greeting of Salaam.” [12]

Footnotes:

[1] Saheeh: [Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (322); at-Tirmidhee (1/81/124), Aboo Daawood ( 1/528/329), anNasaa·ee (1/171)-with wordings which are close.
[2]Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/477/344), Muslim (1/474/682), an-Nasaa·ee (1/171).
[3] Hasan: [Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (326)]; Aboo Daawood (1/532/332), and it contains an addition which is munkar, and that is “…and wipe or tie a piece of cloth upon his wound and then wipe over it. And wash the rest of his body.’’ Shamsul-Haqq said in ‘ `Awnul-Ma`bood’ (1/535): ‘The narration about combining tayammum and washing is not reported by anyone other than Zubayr ibn Khurayq, and he- along with the fact that he is not strong in hadeeth – has also contradicted the rest of those who report it from `Ataa· ibn Abee Rabaah. So the narration of the combination between tayammum and taking a bath is a narration which is weak, rulings cannot be established through it.’ And take note of the point of benefit which follows after one page.
[4] Saheeh: [Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (323), Aboo Daawood (1/530/330), Ahmad (2/191/16),al-Haakim (1/177).
[5] (3/254)
[6] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/455/347), Muslim (1/280/368), Aboo Daawood (1/514/317), an-Nasaa·ee (1/166).
[7] Saheeh:[Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (327), Aboo Daawood (1/536/334), an- Nasaa·ee (1/213).
[8] Saheeh: [Mukhtasar Muslim (639), Muslim (2/975/1337), an-Nasaa·ee (5/110).
[9] al-Muhallaa of Ibn Hazm (2/74).
[10] Whether it is made of clay or made of rock; whether it is painted or not painted .This verdict was given to me by our Shaikh al-Albaanee –rahimahullaah, and he said: “And your Lord is never forgetful” [Soorah Maryam (19): 64]
[11] A place close to al-Madeenah.
[12] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/441/337), Muslim (1/281/369) -in disconnected form, Aboo Daawood (1/521/325), an-Nasaa·ee (1/165).

Source : Al-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank . An excellent book on the rules and regulations of various acts of worship, with evidences from the Book and Sunnah. This chapter deals with water and aspects of purification, wudhoo, ghusl, the toilet etc

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

Siwaak – It’s recommendation is emphasized in five Situations

The siwaak (tooth-stick) :

The siwaak is recommended in all conditions, and its recommendation is emphasized:

1- Along with the wudoo·:

From Aboo Hurayrah -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<If it were not that I would make a difficulty upon my nation I would have commanded them to use the siwaak with every wudoo·.>>” [1]

2- At every Prayer:

From Aboo Hurayrah -radiyallaahu `anhu- from the Prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) who said:

<<If it were not that I would make a difficulty for my nation I would have commanded them to use the siwaak at every Prayer.>> [2]

3- When reciting the Qur·aan:

From `Alee -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “He commanded us to use the siwaak, and he said:

<<When the servant stands in Prayer an Angel comes to him and stands behind him, listening to the Qur.aan and drawing closer. So he continues listening and drawing closer until he places his mouth upon his mouth. So he does not recite any Aayah except that it enters within the Angel>> [3]

4- When entering the house:

From al-Miqdaam ibn Shurayh: from his father, who said: I asked `Aa·ishah, saying: “What had the Prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) used to begin with when he entered his house?” she said: “With the siwaak.” [4]

5- When getting up (to pray) during the night:

From Hudhayfah –radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “When Allaah’s Messenger ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) got up to pray the tahajjud Prayer at night, he used to rub his mouth with the siwaak.” [5]

Footnotes:

[1] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (5317); Ahmad (1/294/171).
[2] Agreed upon Muslim (1/220/252), al-Bukhaaree (2/374/887), at-Tirmidhee (1/18/22), an-Nasaa·ee (1/12); except that the wording of al-Bukhaaree is: “with every Prayer.”
[3] Saheeh Lighairihi: as-Saheehah (1213); al-Bayhaqee (1/38).
[4] Saheeh Ibn Maajah (235); Muslim (1/220/253) Aboo Daawood (1/86/58), Ibn Maajah (1/106/290), an-Nasaa·ee (1/13).
[5] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/220/255), and this wording is his; al-Bukhaaree (1/356/245), Aboo Daawood (1/83/54), an-Nasaa·ee (1/8); and the wording of the three is: “When he got up (to pray) during the night.”

Source : Al-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank .

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

Toilet Manners (Aadaabul-Khalaa) : Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee

1 – It is recommended for the person who wants to enter the toilet to say:

بِسْمِ الله ) اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْخُبُثِ وَالْخَبَائِثِ)

(Bismillaah),
(Allaahummaa innee a`oodhu bika minal-khubuthi wal-khabaa·ith)

(With the name of Allaah),
(O Allaah! I seek Your refuge from male and female devils).

This is because of the hadeeth of `Alee -radiyallaahu `anhu- that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<The screen between the jinn and the private-parts of the descendants of Aadam, when one of you enters the toilet, is that he says:‘Bismillaah’ (with the name of Allaah).>> [1.1]

And because of the hadeeth of Anas -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “When Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) went to the toilet he used to say:

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْخُبُثِ وَالْخَبَائِثِ

‘Allaahummaa innee a`oodhu bika minal-khubuthi wal-khabaa·ith’ (O Allaah! I seek Your refuge from male and female devils).”  [1.2]

2 – And it is recommended that when he departs he says:: (Ghufraanaka): (I seek Your forgiveness), because of the hadeeth of Aa·ishah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- who said: “When the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) came away from the toilet he would say: << Ghufraanaka>> (I seek Your forgiveness).” 1.3

3 – And it is recommended that he should enter with his left-foot first, and depart with the right-foot first.

This is because the right-side is used for noble actions, and the left-side for actions which are not noble actions; and there are reports which indicate this generally. [1.4]

4 – And if he is in an open place, then it is recommended for him to move far enough away so that he is not seen:

From Jaabir -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “We went out along with Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) on a journey, and Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) would not go to the toilet until he had gone far enough so that he would not be seen.” [1.5]

5 – And it is recommended that he does not raise his garment until he is close to the ground:

From Ibn `Umar -radiyallaahu `anhumaa- : “That when the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) wanted to relieve himself he would not raise his garment until he was close to the ground.” [2.1]

6 – And it is not permissible to face or to have ones back towards the qiblah, whether in the open desert or within a building:

From Aboo Ayyoob al-Ansaaree -radiyallaahu `anhu- from the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) who said:

When you go to the toilet, then do not face the qiblah and do not have your back towards it, but rather turn to the east or to the west.” [2.2]

Aboo Ayyoob said: “So we came to Shaam, and we found toilets which had been built facing towards the Ka`bah. So we would turn aside from it, and we would ask for the forgiveness of Allaah -the Most High.” [2.3]

7 – And it is forbidden to go to the toilet upon the path-way of the people, and in the places where they take shade:

From Aboo Hurayrah that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<Beware of the two things which bring about curses.>> They said: “And what are the two things which bring about curses, O Messenger of Allaah?” He said: <<The person who goes to the toilet upon the path-way of the people, or where they take shade.>>2.4

8 – And it is disliked to urinate in the place where he takes a bath: From Humayd al-Himyaree who said: I met a man who had accompanied the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) just as Aboo Hurayrah accompanied him, [2.5] who said: “Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) forbade that one of us should comb his hair every day, and that he should urinate in the place where he takes a bath.”  [2.6]

9 – And it is forbidden to urinate in standing water:

From Jaabir: from the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) that he forbade urinating in standing water. [3.1]

10 – And it is permissible to urinate standing, but sitting is better:

From Hudhayfah -radiyallaahu `anhu-: that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) came to the rubbish dump of a people, and he urinated whilst standing. So I moved away, so he said: <<Draw near.>> So I drew close to him, until I stood at his heels. So he performed wudoo·, and wiped over his leather socks. [3.2]

And we said that sitting is better because that was his usual practice, to such an extent that `Aa·ishah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- said: “Whoever narrates to you that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) urinated whilst standing then do not believe him. He had not used to urinate except whilst sitting.” [3.3]

And this saying of hers does not negate what occurs from Hudhayfah, since she informed about what she had seen, and Hudhayfah informed about what he had seen; and, as is known, the one who affirms is given precedence over the one who negates, since he has additional knowledge with him.

11 – And it is obligatory to keep oneself clean of urine:

So from Ibn `Abbaas -radiyallaahu `anhumaa- : that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) passed by two graves, and said:

<<They are being punished, and they are not being punished for something serious. As for one of them, then he had not used to keep himself clean of his urine; and as for the other, then he used to go between the people with reports to cause trouble (nameemah).” [3.4]

12-And he should not hold his penis with his right hand whilst he is urinating, nor clean himself with it:

From Qataadah -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

When one of you urinates, let him not hold his penis with his right hand; and let him not clean himself with his right hand.” [4.1]

13 – And it is permissible to clean oneself with water, or with stones-or with whatever is like them, and water is better:

From Anas -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) used to enter the toilet, and I and a boy of similar age to me used to carry a pot of water and a spear. So he would clean himself with the water.” [4.2]

And from `Aa·ishah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: <<When one of you goes to the toilet then let him take three stones along with him, and let him clean himself with them, since they will suffice him.>>  [4.3]

14 – And it is not permissible to suffice with less than three stones:

From Salmaan al-Faarisee -radiyallaahu `anhu- that it was said to him: ‘Your Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) has taught you everything, even how to use the toilet!’ So he said: “Yes indeed! He forbade us from facing the qiblah with excrement or urine; and that we should clean ourselves with the right hand, and that we should clean ourselves with less than three stones; and that we should clean ourselves with a piece of animal dung or with a bone.” [4.4]

15 – And it is not permissible to clean oneself with a bone, or with a piece of dung: From Jaabir -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) forbade that a person should wipe himself clean with a bone or a piece of animal dung.” [4.5]

Footnotes :

[1.1] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (3611); at-Tirmidhee (2/59/606)-and this is his wording; Ibn Maajah (1/109/297)…

[1.2] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/242/142), Muslim (1/283/375), Aboo Daawood (1/21/4), Ibn Maajah (1/109/298), at-Tirmidhee (1/76), an-Nasaa·ee (1/20)

[1.3] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (4714); Aboo Daawood (1/52/30), at-Tirmidhee (1/7/7), Ibn Maajah (1/110/300).

[1.4] ‘as-Saylul-Jarraar’ (1/64). Shaikh al-Albaanee said in his notes upon ‘Ta·seesul-Ahkaam’ (1/34), concerning entering the toilet with the justify-foot: “I do not know anything from that in the Sunnah” (transl.).

[1.5] Saheeh: Saheeh Ibn Maajah (268); Ibn Maajah (1/121/335), Aboo Daawood (1/19/2) -with its like.

[2.1] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (4652); Aboo Daawood (1/31/14), at-Tirmidhee (1/11/14) as a hadeeth of Anas.

[2.2] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (109), [Muslim (no.264)], Saheeh Abee Daawood (7).

[2.3] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/498/394), Muslim (1/224/264), at-Tirmidhee (1/8/8).

[2.4] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (110); Aboo Daawood (1/47/25), Muslim (1/226/269)…

[2.5] The narration of an-Nasaa·ee contains the additional wording “for four years.” (transl.).

[2.6] Saheeh: Saheehun-Nasaa·ee (232); an-Nasaa·ee (1/130), Aboo Daawood (1/50/28).

[3.1] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (6814); Muslim (1/235/281), an-Nasaa·ee (1/34).

[3.2] Muslim (1/228/273), at-Tirmidhee (1/11/13), al-Bukhaaree (1/329/225), an-Nasaa·ee (1/19), Aboo Daawood (1/44/23), Ibn Maajah (1/111/305).

[3.3] Saheeh: Saheehun-Nasaa·ee (29), an-Nasaa.ee (1/26), at-Tirmidhee (1/10/12)….

[3.4] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/317/216), Muslim (1/240/292), at-Tirmidhee (1/47/70), Aboo Daawood (1/40/20), an-Nasaa·ee (1/28).

[4.1] Saheeh: Saheeh Ibn Maajah (250); Ibn Maajah (1/113/310) -this is his wording; and it was reported by: al-Bukhaaree (1/254/154), Muslim (1/225/267), Aboo Daawood (1/53/31), at-Tirmidhee (1/12/15), an-Nasaa·ee (1/25) -in longer form, and in abridged form.

[4.2] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/252/152), Muslim (1/227/271), an-Nasaa·ee (1/42)- and he does not have a mention of the spear. An-Nawawee said: “The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) used to take it (i.e. the spear) along with him, because when he had performed wudoo· he would pray. So he needed to erect it in front of him, so that it would be a barrier which he could pray towards.” (transl.)

[4.3] Saheeh:Saheehun-Nasaa·ee; an-Nasaa·ee (1/42), Aboo Daawood (1/61/40)

[4.4] Saheeh: Saheeh Ibn Maajah (255); Muslim (1/223/262), at-Tirmidhee (1/13/16), Aboo Daawood (1/24/7), Ibn Maajah (1/115/316), an-Nasaa·ee (1/38)

[4.5] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (6827); Muslim (1/224/263), Aboo Daawood (1/60/38)

Source : Al-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank . An excellent book on the rules and regulations of various acts of worship, with evidences from the Book and Sunnah. This chapter deals with water and aspects of purification, wudhoo, ghusl, the toilet etc

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

The Excellence of using Siwak(Miswak) – Riyad-us-Saliheen – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Read the ahadeeth from Riyadus-saliheen at the below Link:
https://abdurrahman.org/2014/09/04/riyad-us-saliheen-imaam-nawawi-chapter-215/

Listen the Three Part Audio Series  from Dawud Burbank, may Allaah grant him Jannatul Firdous, ameen

Tahhara & Purification : https://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

The Use of Nail Polish and Artificial Nails in relation to the Purification – Dr. Saleh As Saleh [Audio Clip]


This Short Clip was extracted from this Mp3

Audio Sourcehttp://understand-islam.net/site/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=75&Itemid=58#Travel

The prayer of a person who does hadath (passes, urine, stool or wind) is not accepted till he performs (repeats) the ablution – Umdatul-Ahkaam

Explanation of: ‘Umdatul-Ahkaam (The Reliance of Rulings: a Collection of Authentic Ahadeeth of Fiqh Relevance)

Collected by Imam Taqiyy-ud-deen ‘Abdul Ghani bin ‘Abdilwaahid bin ‘ali Al-Maqadissee (rahimahullaah).Prepared by Saleh As-Saleh .Based Upon the Explanation of Our Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah)

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The Book of Purification

The Second Hadeeth

Narrated Abu Hurayrah (May Allaah be pleased with him): Allaah’s Apostle (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said,

“The prayer of a person who does hadath (passes, urine, stool or wind) is not accepted till he performs (repeats) the ablution.”

[Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 4, Number 137 and Sahih Muslim Kitaab at-Taharah #559]

The Narrator

The narrator is Abu Hurayrah (radiyallaahu ‘anhu). His name is ‘Abdur-Rahmaan bin Sakhir ad-Dawsee. He accepted Islaam in the year of the battle of Khaybar (6 AH), and he witnessed the battle. He was in the company of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), and was very much interested in the hadeeth of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam).

The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), testified to Abu Hurayrah’s keenness regarding the hadeeths.

Ibn ‘Umar (May Allaah be pleased with him and his father) said: “You were closest to the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), being with him, and most knowledgeable in hadeeth”. The same had been reported from ‘Umar (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) himself.

Al-Imaam al- Bukhaaree (rahimahullaah) said: “Abu Hurayrah was the most diligent one in preserving the narrations of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam), in his time”.

The people of knowledge related that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) narrated 5,374 hadeeths. He died in the year 57 AH in the city of Madeenah.

The Subject and Overall Explanation

The subject of this hadeeth is “The ruling concerning salaah without wudhuu’”. In this hadeeth it is clear that the importance of salaah ranks high with Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aalaa), because it is the best of worship after the shahaadah. And it is the relation between the slave and his Lord. And for this reason, the believer is not permitted to indulge in the salaah until he is pure, as this hadeeth illustrates. So Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aalaa), does not accept the salaah of the slave and will not reward him for it if he breaks the wudhuu’ until he repeats the ablution.

From the Benefits of this Hadeeth

1. The hadeeth tells that from the salaah, there is the salaah which is accepted and the salaah which is rejected. The salaah which is in accordance with the shari’ah is accepted. And the salaah which is in opposition to the shari’ah is rejected. This applies to all types of worship, because the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said: “Whoever does an action which is not in accordance with our matter, then it is rejected.” [Al- Bukhaaree and Muslim]. So it must comply with the shari’ah to be accepted.

2. Whether the salaah is an obligatory one or an optional one (even the salaatul-janaazah i.e. funeral prayer), it is not accepted if the person performs it while in a state of ritual impurity, even if he forgets being in such a state. It is only accepted when he repeats the wudhuu’. Similarly, the salaah of one in a state of sexual defilement is not accepted if he performs the salaah before taking the ghusl – the complete bath.

3. The salaah of the muhdith (the one in a state of ritual impurity), is forbidden until he makes the wudhuu’, because Allaah does not accept it. And offering means of nearness to Allaah, knowing that Allaah does not accept them, is like mocking at Allaah.

4. If a person makes wudhuu’ to perform a certain salaah then the second salaah approaches and he attains the time of the second salaah while in a state of purity then it is not an obligation on him to redo the wudhuu’. He or she can pray on the same wudhuu’ done for the previous salaah. And this is very important because some people think that it is an obligation to make wudhuu’ for each salaah. It is not an obligation as long as the state of wudhuu’ is maintained.

5. Ritual purity is a condition for the correctness and acceptance of the salaah.

6. Breaking the wudhuu’ during salaah invalidates the salaah.

The invalidators of wudhuu’ are:

a. Responding to the call of nature or passing wind

b. Intoxication, unconsciousness, deep sleep and insanity

c. Touching the genitals skin to skin, and some scholars conditioned that it must be with a sexual desire

d. Sexual activity which necessitates a ghusl

e. Eating camel’s meat

f. Apostasy (ar-Ridda)

g. Washing a dead body or carrying it. There is a difference of opinion on this, but to be on the precautionary side, one does that. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi was-sallam) said: “He who washes the dead let him take a bath, and he who carries the dead let him make wudhuu’.”

[Ahmed, Abu Daawood and at-Tirmidhee, and Al-Albani graded it as saheeh as in saheeh sunan Abi Daeeod, 2:609)].

The Questions for this Hadeeth

1. What is the full name of Abu Hurayrah?
2. When did he accept Islaam?
3. How many Hadeeths did he report?
4. When did he die?
5. If someone prayed without having wudhuu’ due to forgetfulness, is his salaah acceptable or not?
6. Is it a must to have (make) wudhuu’ for each salaah?

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Posted from: Explanation of Umdatul Ahkaam – by Saleh as Saleh [PDFs]

Certainty is never annulled except by certainty; it can never be annulled by mere doubt – Shaykh As-Sa’di | Dr. Saleh As-Saleh

Al-Qawaa’id wal-Usool al-Jaami’ah wal-Furooq watTaqaaseem al-Badee’ah an-Naafi’ah

The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh
The Beneficial, Eloquent Classifications and Differentiations
Foundation -11

By Sh. ‘Abdur Rahmaan ibn Naasir As-Sa’di (rahimahullaah)

 

Discussion based upon:
1-Sh. Ibn Sa’di’s original explanation
2-Our Sh. Muhammad ibn Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen’s Commentary, and
3-Full explanation by our Sh. (Dr.) Sami ibn Muhammad As-Sghair (summer 1427 A.H./2006 C.E.)

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All Praise is due to Allaah, and may the salaah and salaam be on Prophet Muhammad, his household, the noble companions, and those who follow them until the Day of Resurrection. This is a continuation of the explanation of The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh – The Beneficial, Eloquent Classifications and Differentiations by Imaam ‘Abd ar-Rahman bin Naasir as-Sa’di (rahimahullaah).

Foundation eleven is entitled:

The asl (i.e. previous state or condition) remains in effect, and certainty is not annulled by mere doubt.

This great foundation covers many matters including:

1) Acts of worship
2) Salaah (prayer)
3) Zakaah
4) Fasting
5) Hajj
6) Nikaah (marriage)
7) Divorce

Evidence for Foundation 11

This foundation is established on the authentic hadeeth from ‘Abbaad bin Tamim ( radiyallaahu ‘anhu):

“My uncle (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) asked Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) about a person who imagined to have passed wind during the salaah. Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) replied: He should not leave his salaah unless he hears sound or smells something.’” [1]

Therefore, the person should not discontinue his prayer due to mere doubt. He should only leave when he is certain he has invalidated his state of purity.

Examples:

1) A person makes wudhu and later doubts whether he performed an act that would nullify it. In such a situation, the asl is the existence and continuity of purity. The fact that he thinks he may have done a ritual impurity is not to be considered as in origin, the person was in a state of purity. Certainty is never annulled except by certainty; it can never be annulled by mere doubt. Rather, it is strange that some people when they have doubts, they experience whispering which drives them to remove the doubt with certainty by intentionally invalidating their wudhu.

2) A person was certain that he was in a state of ritual impurity. Later, he doubts whether he made wudhu. In this case, the asl is that the state of ritual impurity remains in effect.

Therefore, the asl remains, and it does not cease except when there is certainty that renders it annulled.

Doubt in the Purity of an Object

Purity (at-tahaarah) is the origin of things (e.g. water, clothing, etc.); whenever someone doubts the purity of something, then he builds upon the asl that it is pure. For instance, if some water from a drain falls on him or he steps in moisture, then the origin is that this water is pure. However, if someone is sure filth has fallen on his garment but later doubts whether he washed it, then the asl is that the ritual impurity remains.

Doubt in the Number of Completed Rakaah in Salaah

In salaah, a person may doubt exactly how many rakaah he has performed. Such situations are divided into two categories: preponderance and total doubt. For example, if someone doubts how many rakaah he has already prayed (e.g. three or four units) but preponderates a certain number, then he builds on that preponderance and later makes two prostrations of forgetfulness (sujuud as-sahw).

The evidence for relying on preponderance came in the sunnah from the hadeeth of Abdullaah bin Masood (radhi Allaahu anhu):

“The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) prayed [and the subnarrator Ibrahim (rahimahullaah) said, ‘I do not know whether he prayed more or less than usual’], and when he had finished the prayers he was asked, ‘O Messenger of Allaah! Has there been any change in the prayers?’ He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, ‘What is it?’ The people said, ‘You have prayed so much and so much.’ So the Prophet bent his legs, faced the qiblah and performed two prostrations (of sahw) and finished his prayers with tasleem (by turning his face to the right and left saying: ‘As-salaamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullaah’). When he turned his face to us, he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, ‘If there had been anything changed in the prayer, surely I would have informed you, but I am a human being like you and liable to forget like you. So if I forget, remind me and if anyone of you is doubtful about his prayer, he should follow what he thinks to be correct (falyataharra as-sawab) and complete his prayer accordingly and finish it and do two prostrations (of sahw).’” [2]

However, when a person is in total doubt concerning how many rakaah he has already completed (e.g. two or three), then he builds upon certainty which is the lesser number; he then makes sujuud as-sahw.

Example:

1) A person is unsure whether he prayed three or four rakaah and is unable to determine which is more likely. He should therefore build on certainty which is the lesser number (i.e. three) and make sujuud as-sahw.

2) A person is not certain whether he prayed three or four rakaah but preponderates that he prayed four. He should therefore build on the preponderance (i.e. four rakaah) and make sujuud as-sahw.

In addition, preponderance is used to determine the number of completed rounds in tawaaf and walks in saa’ee between Safa and Marwah. For instance, if a person is in total doubt as to whether he completed six or seven walks in saa’ee, then he builds on certainty and considers it to be as if he made six trips. Similarly, if he is able to preponderate that it is the sixth walk, then he should consider it the sixth and bring the seventh. However, there is no sujuud as-sahw legislated for tawaaf or saa’ee given the weakness of the narration from ibn ‘Abbaas (radhi Allaahu anhu) that the tawaaf is salaah. This foundation also is applicable to washing a utensil seven times after a dog has licked it. If someone is entirely unsure whether he washed it three or four times, then he builds upon certainty, but if he is able to preponderate, then he builds upon that.

Doubt in the Number of Missed Prayers and Fasts

When making up missed prayers or days of fasting, the person builds on certainty. However, this can be problematic. For instance, someone is unsure whether he broke his fast three or four days in Ramadan. In principle, he is certain he broke it at least three times. However, this origin is opposed by another asl, which is the obligation to fulfill that which is binding upon one’s self. This can not be attained except by fasting four days.

Similarly, if someone does not know if he missed five salaah or six, then in origin he certainly missed at least five, but this is in opposition to the obligation to free one’s responsibility. This can not be fulfilled except by performing six. In this case, he brings that which is higher.

Doubt Concerning which Specific Prayer was Missed

If someone knows that he missed one salaah on a given day but does not remember which prayer (e.g. duhr, ‘asr, etc.), then there are the following opinions concerning that:

1) The person should pray all five prayers because it is possible the missed salaah is any one of them.

2) He should pray one salaah with four rakaah, another salaah with three rakaah, and one salaah of two rakaah. This is because the salaah of four rakaah would cover for duhr, ‘asr, and isha’ while the other two salaah would cover for maghrib and fajr respectively.

3) Our Shaykh, Muhammad bin Saalih al-Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) said, “He should exert the effort until he preponderates which is the correct one.” If the person sincerely attempts to recall which salaah he missed, Allaah (subhaanallaahu wa ta’aalaa) will let him remember.

Doubt in Divorce

There are many different situations in which doubt in divorce can occur. They include:

1) A person doubts whether he uttered the statement of divorce at all. In this situation, the asl is that he did not say it, and the couple is still married. This is because the marriage is certain and is not annulled by mere doubt.

2) If someone doubts whether he conditioned the divorce on something, then the asl is that the divorce is unconditional.

3) Someone conditions his divorce on some matter. Later, he doubts whether the condition was fulfilled. The origin therefore is that it did not take place.

4) A person divorced his wife but is uncertain how many times he uttered the statement (i.e. once, twice or thrice). The asl is that he said it once.

5) A man has two wives (for example Hind and Fatimah), and he doubts which of his wives he uttered the divorce concerning. This matter should be decided by drawing lots. If the lot came on Fatimah, then she is divorced, and Hind remains his wife. If he later remembers he actually divorced Hind or found a paper documenting that, then he leaves Hind and returns Fatimah as long as the drawing of the lots and the accompanying decree was not issued by a judge (if it was performed by a judge, then it would be classified as the judge’s direct ruling). However, if Fatimah got married to someone else in the meantime, then the husband can not return Fatimah because she is now the right of her new husband unless he brings proof, such as a document with testimony, that the divorce was for Hind; in this case, Fatimah can return to him.

6) A person doubts whether his wife finished her waiting period. The asl is that she has not finished it and is still in her ‘iddah.

Doubt in Suckling

Concerning suckling, doubts affect whether or not there is prohibition (tahreem) to marry the wet nurse and her daughters. Cases include:

1) Doubt exists concerning whether a particular child nursed from a woman at all. The asl in this situation is that he did not.

2) Someone doubts whether he suckled from a woman five times or less than that. This person builds upon certainty, which is that he suckled on less than five occasions.

3) There is doubt around when a child suckled from a wet nurse. In this matter, the scholars have two opinions.

a. Some scholars hold that for tahreem to exist, the child must have suckled within the first two years. If there is doubt as to whether a child suckled from a woman within the first two years, then in principle the asl would be that he suckled within that period, which would entail tahreem. However, the scholars have explained that since this asl leads to tahreem, the origin is that there is no forbiddance.

b. Other scholars have mentioned that the condition for tahreem is whether the child suckled before or after weaning. If there is doubt as to whether the child suckled before or after weaning, then in principle the asl would be before weaning. However, just as with the other opinion, the scholars have explained that in origin there is actually no forbiddance in this case.

Thus, with either opinion, there is no tahreem.

4) A mother is certain that a woman in a particular household nursed her child but is unsure as to which specific woman did it. In this case, the tahreem is upon all of the women in the household. For example, if there are two women in that house, then both women and their daughters are haraam for him to marry.

5) A woman is certain that she nursed a child in a particular household but is unsure as to which child. Therefore, it is as if she nursed all of them. Hence, all of the boys of this house are prohibited from marrying her as well as her daughters, and they become mahaarim (pl. of mahram) for her and her daughters.

Doubt in the Hunting of Game

When a person is hunting game, doubt can exist concerning whether the animal was killed by his shot or some other cause. Such situations are divided into two categories.

1) No cause is found for the death of the animal other than the shot. Therefore, the meat is halaal.

Example: Someone says the basmalah and shoots an animal. He later finds the animal dead with no sign of another cause for its death. As such, the asl is the nonexistence of another cause, which makes the meat halaal.

2) Another cause is found for the animal’s death that is equally or close to equally as likely as the shot to have killed it. Therefore, the meat of the animal is haraam. This is proven by the hadeeth of Adi bin Hatim (radhi Allaahu anhu) that the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

When you set off your dog, recite the name of Allaah, and if it catches (game for you) and you find it alive, then slaughter it. If you find it dead and that (your dog) has eaten nothing out of that, (even then) you may eat it, but if you find along with your dog another dog and a kill has been made, then do not eat, for you do not know which of the two has killed it. And if you shoot your arrow, recite the name of Allaah, but if it (game) goes out of your sight for a day and you do not find on that but the mark of your arrow, then eat that it you so like, but if you find it drowned in water, then do not eat that.” [3]

Example: A person shot an animal, but the shot did not kill it immediately. The animal was later found dead in a pool of water. It can not be known whether the shot killed the animal or it drowned. Thus, as proven by the hadeeth of Adi (radhi Allaahu anhu), this meat is forbidden.

Conclusion

Under this foundation many matters fall; anyone that studies fiqh will surely be benefited by it and will be better able to relate matters to their principles and origins. In summary, the continuity of the asl remains whenever the existence of a cause to nullify it is doubted. Similarly, in every matter where there is a doubt about the number, we build on preponderance, and if there is no preponderance, then we build on certainty.

The eleventh foundation in Imaam ‘Abd ar-Rahman bin Naasir as-Sa’di’s book, al- Qawaa’id wal-Usool al-Jaami’ah wal-Furooq wat-Taqaaseem al-Badee’ah an- Naafi’ah (The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh – The Beneficial, Eloquent Classifications and Differentiations), is entitled:

The asl remains in effect, and certainty is not annulled by mere doubt.

All Praise is due to Allaah, and may the salaah and salaam be on Prophet Muhammad, his household, the noble companions and those who follow them until the Day of Resurrection.

Footnotes:

[1] Agreed upon. Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari (English translation vol. 1, hadeeth no. 139) and with a similar wording in Saheeh Muslim (English translation no. 702, book 3).

[2] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari (English translation vol. 1, hadeeth no. 394).

[3] Agreed upon. Reported in Saheeh Muslim (English translation no. 4741, book 21) and with a similar wording in Saheeh al-Bukhaari (English translation vol. 7, hadeeth no. 384, 385, 386, 392, 393, 394, & 395).

Posted from: Explanation of Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh of Shaykh Ibn Sa’di

Drying the Body Parts after Purification – Fahd ibn ‘Abdir Rahman ash-Shuwaib

‘Uthman ibn ‘Affaan, al- Hasan ibn ‘Alee, Anas ibn Maalik, al-Hasan al-Basree, Ibn Seereen, ‘Alqamah, al-Aswad, Masrooq, ad-Dahhaak, ‘Abdullaah ibn al Haarith, Abu Ya’laa, Abul Ahwas, Ash-Sha’bee, Ath-Thawree, Ishaaq, Ibn ‘Umar in a narration, and Abu Hanifah, Maalik, Ahmad, and the Shafi’ee Madhhab in one saying, all say that –

It is permissible after both wudoo and ghusl to dry the body-parts.

And their evidence is what ‘Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) reports – she said:

Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) had a cloth which he used to dry himself with after making wudoo .

[Reported by at-Tirmidhee who declared it to be da’eef]. Then al Ainee states that an-Nasaa’ee records it in ‘al-Kunaa’ with saheeh isnaad.

I say: And it has other narrations which support and strengthen it. (See Fiqh al-Imam Sa’eed, 1/70). Al-Albaanee declares the hadeeth to be hasan. (Saheeh ul Jaami’, 4706).

65. Salmaan al-Faarsee narrates that the –

Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo , then turned up a woollen cloak he had and wiped his face with it.

[Reported by Ibn Maajah (no.468)]. In az-Zawaa’id it is said: Its isnaad is saheeh.

I say: In its isnaad is al-Wadeen ibn ‘Ataa who is sadooq but has a bad memory as al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr says in ‘Taqreeb ut-Tahdheeb’, so its isnaad is da’eef!! – but it is strengthened by the previous hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah to the level of hasan – and Allaah Knows best.

Some others hold it to be makrooh to dry the body-parts after Purification and their proof is:

66. What is established from Maimoonah (radhiAllaahu’anhaa) who described the Prophet’s (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) ghusl from Janaabah and said: Then I brought him a cloth but he refused it. [Al-Bukhaaree, and Muslim – and the word is his].

The Final word: Is that –

Drying the body-parts is one of the desirable actions as shown by the hadeeth of Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) – as for the saying that it is makrooh then that is not acceptable as the saying of Maimoonah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) “but he refused it” does not amount to the fact that it is makrooh – and Allaah Knows best.

Posted from eBook: 
Sifat Wudoo’-in-Nabee (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) – Fahd ibn ‘Abdir Rahman ash-Shuwaib

The Menstruating Woman or the One in Her Post-Partum Period Touching the mus-haf – Shaykh Bin Baaz

Translated by Abu Abdullah Naasir Hussain حفظه الله
Source: http://www.binbaz.org.sa/node/16921

Video Courtesy: Bilal Nahim

Question:

Is a woman that is menstruating or in her post-partum period allowed to touch the mus-haf or read from it? Also, is the menstruating woman allowed to enter the masjid in order to gain religious knowledge?

Shaykh Abdulazeez bin Abdullah bin Baaz:

The menstruating woman is not allowed to sit in the masjid nor touch the mus-haf until she has become purified. However, if a need for her to touch it arose, such as in order to revise a verse (of the Qur’an) or something like that, there is no problem to do so by wearing gloves or by using some other barrier.

As for touching it without some sort of barrier, then no, she should not do that. This is because her impurity is major, like the one who is impure due to sexual relations (junub). The one who is ‘junub’ does not read or touch the mus-haf. As for the menstruating woman, she may recite [the Qur’an] during the whole period. So can the one in her post-partum period, according to the correct Opinion. She can read from her memory without touching the mus-haf unless she has to in order to revise a verse in which case it is alright if she touches it using a barrier.

Commands are not cancelled due to ignorance or forgetfulness, whereas prohibitions are cancelled due to ignorance and forgetfulness – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Q. 504. After completing his ‘Umrah, a man found some filth in his Ihram garments; what is the ruling on this?

A. If a person performed Tawaf and Say for ‘Umrah, and after that, he found some filth in his Ihram garments, then his Tawaf is valid, his Say is valid and his ‘Umrah is valid. This is because if a person has some filth on his garment, and he does not know about it, or he knew about it but he forgot to wash it, and then he prayed in that garment, then his prayer is valid. Similarly, if he made Tawaf in this garment, then his Tawaf is valid. The evidence for that is the Saying of Allah, the Most High:

“Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error” [Al-Baqarah 2:286]

This evidence is general, and it is considered a great rule from among the rules of Islamic Law. There is a specific evidence in the matter, and that is that one day, the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) led his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, in prayer and it was his practice to pray in his shoes, but he removed his shoes and the people removed their shoes too. After he had finished praying, he said to them: What was wrong with you?

They said: “We saw you removing your shoes.”

He said: “Jibril came to me and informed me that there was something harmful or some dirt on them”  [1]

That is, some impurity. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) did not repeat the prayer, even though at the beginning of his prayer, he had worn shoes on which there was some impurity. This proves that if a person prayed in a garment in which there was impurity due to forgetfulness or ignorance, his prayer is valid.

There is a question here: If a person eats camel meat and he stands up and prays without performing ablution, believing that he had eaten mutton, should he repeat his prayer if he found out? We say: He should repeat the prayer after performing ablution. If someone asked: Why do you say that a person who prayed in a polluted garment due to ignorance should not repeat the prayer, while one who eats camel meat due to ignorance, should repeat it? We say: Because we have a useful and important rule, which is, commands are not cancelled due to ignorance or forgetfulness, whereas prohibitions are cancelled due to ignorance and forgetfulness. The evidence for this rule is the saying of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم):

“Whoever slept through a prayer or forgot it, he must offer it as soon as he remembers it.” [2]

And when he made the Taslim after performing two Rak’at in one of his afternoon prayers and he forgot the remainder of the prayer, he completed it when he remembered it. This is an evidence that those things which are commanded are not cancelled due to forgetfulness, because the Prophet ordered the one who forgot his prayer to offer it as soon as he remembers it, and the obligation to pray it was not removed due to forgetfulness. Also, he completed the prayer and he did not cancel the remainder of it due to forgetfulness. The proof that commands are not cancelled due to ignorance, is that a man came and offered a prayer in which he was not at rest, then he came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) and greeted him and he said to him:

“Go back and offer prayer for you have not prayed.”

He repeated it three times and the man kept praying and coming to him, but he would say:

“Go back and offer prayer, for you have not prayed.”

until the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) taught him to pray correctly. So,this man abandoned an obligatory act due to ignorance, because he said:

“By Him Who sent you with the truth, I cannot pray better than this, so teach me.” If an obligation was cancelled due to ignorance, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) would have excused him; and this rule is important and beneficial for the seeker of knowledge.

Footnotes :

[1] Reported by Abu Dawud in the Book of Prayer (650)
[2] Reported by Al-Bukhari in the Book of the Times of the Prayers, in the Chapter: Whoever Forgot a Prayer, The He Must Pray it When he Remembers Hadith (597); and by Muslim in the Book of Masjids, in the Chapter: Making up for the Prayers Hadith 316.

Fatawa Arkanul-Islam -Islamic Verdicts on the Pillars of Islam (Volume Two)
Prayer, Zakah, Fasting, Hajj
By the Honorable Shaikh Muhammad bin Salih Al- ‘Uthaimeen
Collected and Arranged by Fahd bin Nasir bin Ibrahim As-Sulaiman

After he urinates he has drops of urine come out (Urinary incontinence) – Answered by Shaykh Saalih al-Luhaydaan

Q.The individual is asking about drops of urine. After he urinates he has drops of urine come out.

A.The shaykh (HafithahullAllaahu ta’alaa) mentioned this breaks the wudhoo (ablution) and an individual should be diligent in performing wudhoo again.

The shaykh mentioned (HafithahuAllaahu ta’alaa) that if this is the norm, meaning that he usually has these drops after he urinates, so what a person should do in this case is… if he needs to urinate before he prays he does it early. He urinates early before he prays & then he makes his wudhoo. If he feels the drops before he prays then he makes the wudhoo again, as the norm is that drops of urine come after he urinates. The shaykh said before the time of prayer he should urinate and he should make wudhoo. If he feels the drops he should perform istinjaa (meaning clean himself again) & perform a new wudhoo in order that the drops of urine do not come out while he is praying.

However, if the case is that he has constant coming out of urination even if he has not gone to the bathroom then that person, the ruling is that he makes wudhoo once the time of prayer has entered and he prays his nawaafil before the salaah, the obligatory prayer and the nawaafil after the salaah even if his urination has come out. Why? Because this person has a sort of disease and if he wants to pray later on in the day for example he wants to pray the Asr thereafter or Dhuhr thereafter he would do the same thing. He would perform the wudhoo he would pray his sunnah prayers before the obligatory and after it. So that is what this person should do every time it’s time to pray a new prayer that individual should make wudhoo and pray even if the drops come out.

Shaykh Saalih Muhammad al-Luhaydaan (May Allaah preserve him) (Kitaab-ut-Tawheed Class Q&A Session 02.02.13 Riyadh). Translated by Mustafa George hafidhahullaah

A Supplication To Be Said After Performing The Wudoo – Compiled and Translated by Dawud Burbank

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Imaam Muslim -rahimahullaah- reported in his ‘Saheeh’ [The Book of Purification]: (no.234): “Muhammad ibn Haatim ibn Maymoon narrated to me: `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Mahdee narrated to us: Mu`aawiyah ibn Saalih narrated to us: from Rabee`ah -meaning Ibn Yazeed: from Aboo Idrees alKhawlaanee: from `Uqbah ibn `Aamir; And Aboo `Uthmaan narrated to me: from Jubayr ibn Nufayr: from `Uqbah ibn `Aamir, who said:

‘We were tending camels, and my turn came, so I brought them back in the evening. So then I found Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) standing, speaking to the people, and I caught from what he was saying:

<<There is not one of you who performs the wudoo·, and he performs the wudoo· well, and then he stands and prays two rak`ahs, turning his full attention to them with his heart and his face, except that Paradise will be binding for him>>.’

He said: So I said: ‘How fine this is!’ So then someone in front of me said: “That which came before it was even finer.” So I looked, and it was `Umar. He said: “I saw that you came just now. So he had (already) said:

<<There is not one of you who performs the wudoo·, and he performs the wudoo· completely -or: and he performs it fully, then he says:

wudoo-dua-1

(Ashhadu an laa ilaaha illallaah, wa anna Muhammadan `abduhu wa Rasooluh) ‘I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His Slave and His Messenger’,

except that the eight gates of Paradise are opened for him: he may enter through whichever of them he wishes >>.”

And Aboo Bakr ibn Abee Shaybah narrated it to us: Zayd ibn al-Hubaab narrated to us: Mu`aawiyah ibn Saalih narrated to us: from Rabee`ah ibn Yazeed: from Aboo Idrees al-Khawlaanee and Aboo `Uthmaan: from Jubayr ibn Nufayr ibn Maalik al-Hadramee: from `Uqbah ibn `Aamir al-Juhanee: that Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said.., and he mentioned its like, except that he said:

<<Whoever performs the wudoo·, and says:

wudoo-dua-2

(Ashhadu an laa ilaaha illallaah, wahdahu laa shareeka lahu, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan `abduhu wa Rasooluh)
<<‘I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, with no partner; and I testify that Muhammad is His Slave and His Messenger’>>.”

Imaam at-Tirmidhee -rahimahullaah-reported in his ‘Sunan’ [The Book of Purification from Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) : Chapter (41): What should be said after the wudoo·] (no.55):

“Ja`far ibn Muhammad ibn `Imraan ath-Tha`labee, al-Koofee, narrated to us, saying: Zayd ibn Hubaab narrated to us: from Mu`aawiyah ibn Saalih: from Rabee`ah ibn Yazeed ad-Dimashqee: from Aboo Yazeed al-Khawlaanee and Aboo `Uthmaan: from `Umar ibn al-Khattaab, who said: Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said:

<<Whoever performs the wudoo, and he performs the wudoo well, then he says:

wudoo-dua-3

(Ashhadu an laa ilaaha illallaah, wahdahu laa shareeka lahu, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan `abduhu wa Rasooluh. Allaahummaj `alnee minat-Tawwaabeena waj`alnee minal- Mutatahhireen)

<< ‘I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, with no partner; and I testify that Muhammad is His Slave and His Messenger’ O Allaah! Make me from those who constantly repent, and make me from those who purify themselves’>>.”

[Declared ‘Saheeh’ by Shaikh al-Albaanee -rahimahullaah: ‘Saheehut-Tirmidhee’ (no. 48).]

[Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank rahimahullaah]

[Download the Original PDF]

Posted from PDF: https://alitisaambissunnah.wordpress.com

The Concise Fiqh : Tahara (Purification) – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

01 Fiqh Summarized – Purification and Water 
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/fiqh-summarized-purification-and-water-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]

02 Fiqh Summarized – Utensils and Kafir Clothes
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/fiqh-summarized-utensils-and-kafir-clothes-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]

How should the Sick person Purify Himself? – Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen

1. The Sick person is required to purify himself with water, performing ablution from minor impurity and Ghusl from major impurity.

2. If he is unable to purify himself using water, due to weakness or fear of increasing his illness, or delaying his recovery, then he may perform Tayammum.

3. The way to perform Tayammum is to strike the clean earth with his hands once, then wipe his whole face with them, then wipe his hands, one with the other.

4. If he is unable to purify himself, the another person should assist him in making the ablution, or performing the Tayammum.

5. If a certain part of the body which is to be purified is afflicted by a wound, he should wash it with water; but if washing it with water will cause harm to him, then he may wet his hand with water and then wipe over it. If wiping over it may also cause harm he may perform Tayammum for it.

6. If he has a severe fracture in any of his limbs, which is covered with a dressing or cast, he may wipe over it with water, instead of washing it, and it does not require Tayammum, because the wiping takes the place of washing.

7. It is permisable to make Tayammum using a wall, or anything else which is clean and contains dust. If the wall is covered with anything which is not from th earth such as paint, then one should not make Tayammum with it, unless there is dust over it.

8. If the Tayammum is not made on the earth or a wall or anything else containing dust, there is no objection to the collecting of dust in container or a hankerchief, in order to make Tayammum with it.

9. If a person performs Tayammum for prayer, and remains in a purified state until the time of the next prayer, then he may pray with the Tayammum he made before and he does not need to repeat it for the second prayer, since he remains purified and nothing has invalidated it.

10. The sick person is obliged to cleanse his body from all manner of impurity, but if he is unable to do so, he may pray as he is, and his prayer will be correct and he does not need to repeat it.

11 The sick person is required to pray in clean clothes, and if they became soiled, they must be cleaned or replaced with clean ones. If this is not possible, he may pray as he is, and his prayer will be correct and he does not need to repeat it.

12. The sick person is obliged to pray upon something clean and if it becomes soiled, he must wash it, change for something clean or cover it with something clean. If he is unable to do so, he may pray there, and his prayer will be correct and he does not need to repeat it.

13. It is not permissible for the invalid to delay the prayer due to his inability to achieve purification; rather, he should purify himself as much as he is able, then perform the prayer on time, even if there is some impurity on his body, his clothes or his place of prayer, which he is unable to remove.

Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-`Uthaymeen
Fatawa Islamiyah, Vol. 2, p23-25, Dar-us-Salam

Rulings on Purification for the Sick – Shaykh Ibn Baz

All praise be to Allaah, the Lords of the Worlds, and may peace and blessings of Allaah be upon the noblest of the Prophets and Messengers, our Prophet, Muhammad and upon all his family and Companions. As for what follows:

Verily, Allaah, the Most Glorified, Most High has legislated purification for every prayer, because the elimination of impurity and the removal of pollution – whether on the body, the clothes or the place of prayer – are two of the conditions of prayer. So when the Muslim wishes to pray, he must perform the well known ablution (Wudhu) to purify himself from minor impurity, or make Ghusl if the impurity is of the major kind. And before making ablution, Istinja’ must be performed with water, or Istijmar by the one who has urinated or defecated in order that the purification and cleansing be complete. What follows is an explanation of some of the rulings related to this.

Istinja’ with water is obligatory every time something is discharged from the bowel and bladder, such as urine or faeces. But it is not necessary for the sleeper or one who passes wind to perform Istinja’. He is only required to perform ablution, because Istinja’is only prescribed for the removal of impurity, and there is no impurity in this situation.

Istijmar is performed using stones, or another material in its place (such as wood, paper etc.) It must consist of three clean stones, as proved by the Hadith of the Prophet(Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) which states that he said:

“Whoever performs Istijmar, let him make it Witr (i.e. use an odd number of stones).” [Abu Dawud no.35 and Ibn Majah no. 337]

And he (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) also said:

“If any of you goes to defecate, he should take with him three stones, for they will be sufficient for him.”

Muslim narrated that he (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) forbade Istijmar with less than three stones. It is not permissible to make Istijmar with animal droppings, bones or food or anything which contains some forbidden material. It is preferred for a person to perform istijmar with stones, or the like such as tissues etc. After which, he should use water, because the stones remove the essence of the pollution, but the water purifies the area and is therefore more thorough. A person has a choice of Istinja’ with water, orIstijmar with stones or the like. It is reported on the authority of Anas, may Allaah be pleased with him, that he said:

“The Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) entered the toilet and I and a young boy like me carried materials, including water and ‘anaza (a short spear) and he would perform Istinja’ with the water.” [al-Bukhari no.152 & Muslim no.271.]

It is reported on the authority of ‘Aishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, that she said to a group of women:

“Order your husbands to clean themselves following defecation with water, for I am too embarrassed to do so, and the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) used to do so.” At-Tirmidhee said that it was authentic [At-Tirmidhee no.19]

If a person wants to use only one of them (i.e. stones or water), it is preferred to choose water, because it cleans the area removing the essence and the traces and it is more thorough in cleansing. If he chooses to only use stones, he should content himself with three, if it cleanses the area, but if it is not enough, he may use four or five (or more) until he has cleaned the area, but it is better to finish with an odd number, based upon the saying of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

“Whoever performs Istijmar, let him make it Witr.” [Abu Dawud no.35 and Ibn Majah no. 337]

It is not permissable to make the Istijmar with the right hand, according to the Hadith of Salman, may Allaah be pleased with him, in which he said:

“The Messenger of Allaah forbade us from performing Istinja’ with the right hand.” And he said:

“None of you should hold his penis in his right hand while he is urinating. nor should he wipe himself with the right hand after answering the call of nature.” [Al-Bukhari no.153 & Muslim no.267]

But if his left hand has been cut off, or is broken or there is some disease in it, he may use his right hand, and there is no objection to that.

Because the Islamic law is based upon facility and ease, Allaah, the Most Glorified, Most High has lightened the burden of worship on those who have some excuse, according to the excuse. He, the Most High says:

“And (He) has not laid upon you in religion any hardship.” [Surah al-Hajj 22:78]

And He says:

“Allaah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.”[Surah al-Baqarah 2:185]

And He says:

“So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can.” [Surah at-Taghabun 64:16]

And the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said:

“If I order you to do something, do it as much as you can.” [Al-Bukharino.7288 & Muslim no.1337]

And he (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said:

“Verily the Religion is ease.” [Narrated by al-Bukhari]

If a sick person is unable to cleanse himself of minor impurity with the water by making ablution, or he is unable to purify himself of major impurity by making Ghusl, due to weakness, or fear of making his illness worse, or delaying his recovery, he may performTayammum [Dry ablution using sand or dust.]

This is done by striking his hands in clean dust once, then wiping his face with the palms of his hands and his fingers slowly, based upon the Words of Him, the Most High:

“And if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes after answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (by sexual relations) and you find no water, perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands (Tayammum). Truly, Allaah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.” [Surah An-Nisa 4:43]

The ruling on those who are unable to use water is the same that of those who are unable to find water, according to the words of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

“The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” [Al-Bukhari no. 1]

A sick person may fall into one of a number of categories:

1. If his illness is a simple one and he does not fear to use the water, such as an ailment from which there is no fear that using the water will delay his recovery, or increase his pain, or cause any infection, such as a headache, toothache and the like, or he is able to use warm water without harm, then it is not allowed for him to make Tayammum. Because the permission to perform it is in order to prevent harm, and there is no fear of harm to him, and because he can find water, therefore he must use it.

2. If he fears from an illness which he fears may – should he use water – cause his death or harm one of his organs, or may lead to some illness which might cause his death or harm one of his organs, or cause the loss of some faculty, then it is permissible for him to perform Tayammum, based upon the words of the Most High:

“And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allaah is Most Merciful to you.”[Surah an-Nisa’ 4:29]

3. If he is suffering from some illness which makes him unable to move, and he finds no one to bring him water, it is permissible for him to perform Tayammum.

4. Anyone suffering from a wound, an ulcer or fracture, or any illness which will be exacerbated by using water, and who becomes Junub [in a state of sexual impurity] is allowed to perform Tayammum, based upon the above evidences. If he is able to wash the healthy areas of his body, he must do so and make Tayammum for the rest.

A sick person who is in a place in which he finds neither water nor dust, or anyone who can bring him either one of them, may pray whatever condition he is in, and he is not allowed to delay the prayer, as Allaah, the Most High say:

“So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can.” [Surah at-Taghabun 64:16]

6. An invalid afflicted with incontinence of urine, who is not cured by his treatment, must make ablution for every prayer after the start of its prescribed time, wash off any urine that has affected his body, and wear a clean garment for his prayer, if this is not a burden on him. But if it is, he is excused from it, based upon the Allaah Words:

“And (He) has not laid upon you in religion any hardship.” [Surah al-Hajj 22:78]

And His Words:

“Allaah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.”[Surah al-Baqarah 2:185]

And He says:

And the words of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

“If I order you to do something, do it as much as you cable.” [Al-Bukhari no.7288 & Muslim no.1337]

He must try to the best of his ability to prevent the spread of the urine to his clothes, or his body, or the place in which he will pray. And everything that invalidates ablution also invalidates Tayammum, and in addition, the ability to use water or its presence. And Allaah knows best.

Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz
Fatawa Islamiyah, Vol. 2, p17-23, Dar-us-Salam

Menstruations (Hayd) : Umdatul Ahkaam – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 39 – Chapter on Hayd – Menstruations – part 1
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/umdatul-ahkaam-purification-39-chapter-on-hayd-menstruations-part-1-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 40 to 43 – Hayd – Menstruations – part 2
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/umdatul-ahkaam-purification-40-to-43-hayd-menstruations-part-2-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]

Source : Umdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]