How should the Sick person Purify Himself? – Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen

1. The Sick person is required to purify himself with water, performing ablution from minor impurity and Ghusl from major impurity.

2. If he is unable to purify himself using water, due to weakness or fear of increasing his illness, or delaying his recovery, then he may perform Tayammum.

3. The way to perform Tayammum is to strike the clean earth with his hands once, then wipe his whole face with them, then wipe his hands, one with the other.

4. If he is unable to purify himself, the another person should assist him in making the ablution, or performing the Tayammum.

5. If a certain part of the body which is to be purified is afflicted by a wound, he should wash it with water; but if washing it with water will cause harm to him, then he may wet his hand with water and then wipe over it. If wiping over it may also cause harm he may perform Tayammum for it.

6. If he has a severe fracture in any of his limbs, which is covered with a dressing or cast, he may wipe over it with water, instead of washing it, and it does not require Tayammum, because the wiping takes the place of washing.

7. It is permisable to make Tayammum using a wall, or anything else which is clean and contains dust. If the wall is covered with anything which is not from th earth such as paint, then one should not make Tayammum with it, unless there is dust over it.

8. If the Tayammum is not made on the earth or a wall or anything else containing dust, there is no objection to the collecting of dust in container or a hankerchief, in order to make Tayammum with it.

9. If a person performs Tayammum for prayer, and remains in a purified state until the time of the next prayer, then he may pray with the Tayammum he made before and he does not need to repeat it for the second prayer, since he remains purified and nothing has invalidated it.

10. The sick person is obliged to cleanse his body from all manner of impurity, but if he is unable to do so, he may pray as he is, and his prayer will be correct and he does not need to repeat it.

11 The sick person is required to pray in clean clothes, and if they became soiled, they must be cleaned or replaced with clean ones. If this is not possible, he may pray as he is, and his prayer will be correct and he does not need to repeat it.

12. The sick person is obliged to pray upon something clean and if it becomes soiled, he must wash it, change for something clean or cover it with something clean. If he is unable to do so, he may pray there, and his prayer will be correct and he does not need to repeat it.

13. It is not permissible for the invalid to delay the prayer due to his inability to achieve purification; rather, he should purify himself as much as he is able, then perform the prayer on time, even if there is some impurity on his body, his clothes or his place of prayer, which he is unable to remove.

Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-`Uthaymeen
Fatawa Islamiyah, Vol. 2, p23-25, Dar-us-Salam

Rulings on Purification for the Sick – Shaykh Ibn Baz

All praise be to Allaah, the Lords of the Worlds, and may peace and blessings of Allaah be upon the noblest of the Prophets and Messengers, our Prophet, Muhammad and upon all his family and Companions. As for what follows:

Verily, Allaah, the Most Glorified, Most High has legislated purification for every prayer, because the elimination of impurity and the removal of pollution – whether on the body, the clothes or the place of prayer – are two of the conditions of prayer. So when the Muslim wishes to pray, he must perform the well known ablution (Wudhu) to purify himself from minor impurity, or make Ghusl if the impurity is of the major kind. And before making ablution, Istinja’ must be performed with water, or Istijmar by the one who has urinated or defecated in order that the purification and cleansing be complete. What follows is an explanation of some of the rulings related to this.

Istinja’ with water is obligatory every time something is discharged from the bowel and bladder, such as urine or faeces. But it is not necessary for the sleeper or one who passes wind to perform Istinja’. He is only required to perform ablution, because Istinja’is only prescribed for the removal of impurity, and there is no impurity in this situation.

Istijmar is performed using stones, or another material in its place (such as wood, paper etc.) It must consist of three clean stones, as proved by the Hadith of the Prophet(Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) which states that he said:

“Whoever performs Istijmar, let him make it Witr (i.e. use an odd number of stones).” [Abu Dawud no.35 and Ibn Majah no. 337]

And he (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) also said:

“If any of you goes to defecate, he should take with him three stones, for they will be sufficient for him.”

Muslim narrated that he (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) forbade Istijmar with less than three stones. It is not permissible to make Istijmar with animal droppings, bones or food or anything which contains some forbidden material. It is preferred for a person to perform istijmar with stones, or the like such as tissues etc. After which, he should use water, because the stones remove the essence of the pollution, but the water purifies the area and is therefore more thorough. A person has a choice of Istinja’ with water, orIstijmar with stones or the like. It is reported on the authority of Anas, may Allaah be pleased with him, that he said:

“The Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) entered the toilet and I and a young boy like me carried materials, including water and ‘anaza (a short spear) and he would perform Istinja’ with the water.” [al-Bukhari no.152 & Muslim no.271.]

It is reported on the authority of ‘Aishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, that she said to a group of women:

“Order your husbands to clean themselves following defecation with water, for I am too embarrassed to do so, and the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) used to do so.” At-Tirmidhee said that it was authentic [At-Tirmidhee no.19]

If a person wants to use only one of them (i.e. stones or water), it is preferred to choose water, because it cleans the area removing the essence and the traces and it is more thorough in cleansing. If he chooses to only use stones, he should content himself with three, if it cleanses the area, but if it is not enough, he may use four or five (or more) until he has cleaned the area, but it is better to finish with an odd number, based upon the saying of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

“Whoever performs Istijmar, let him make it Witr.” [Abu Dawud no.35 and Ibn Majah no. 337]

It is not permissable to make the Istijmar with the right hand, according to the Hadith of Salman, may Allaah be pleased with him, in which he said:

“The Messenger of Allaah forbade us from performing Istinja’ with the right hand.” And he said:

“None of you should hold his penis in his right hand while he is urinating. nor should he wipe himself with the right hand after answering the call of nature.” [Al-Bukhari no.153 & Muslim no.267]

But if his left hand has been cut off, or is broken or there is some disease in it, he may use his right hand, and there is no objection to that.

Because the Islamic law is based upon facility and ease, Allaah, the Most Glorified, Most High has lightened the burden of worship on those who have some excuse, according to the excuse. He, the Most High says:

“And (He) has not laid upon you in religion any hardship.” [Surah al-Hajj 22:78]

And He says:

“Allaah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.”[Surah al-Baqarah 2:185]

And He says:

“So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can.” [Surah at-Taghabun 64:16]

And the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said:

“If I order you to do something, do it as much as you can.” [Al-Bukharino.7288 & Muslim no.1337]

And he (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said:

“Verily the Religion is ease.” [Narrated by al-Bukhari]

If a sick person is unable to cleanse himself of minor impurity with the water by making ablution, or he is unable to purify himself of major impurity by making Ghusl, due to weakness, or fear of making his illness worse, or delaying his recovery, he may performTayammum [Dry ablution using sand or dust.]

This is done by striking his hands in clean dust once, then wiping his face with the palms of his hands and his fingers slowly, based upon the Words of Him, the Most High:

“And if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes after answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (by sexual relations) and you find no water, perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands (Tayammum). Truly, Allaah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.” [Surah An-Nisa 4:43]

The ruling on those who are unable to use water is the same that of those who are unable to find water, according to the words of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

“The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended.” [Al-Bukhari no. 1]

A sick person may fall into one of a number of categories:

1. If his illness is a simple one and he does not fear to use the water, such as an ailment from which there is no fear that using the water will delay his recovery, or increase his pain, or cause any infection, such as a headache, toothache and the like, or he is able to use warm water without harm, then it is not allowed for him to make Tayammum. Because the permission to perform it is in order to prevent harm, and there is no fear of harm to him, and because he can find water, therefore he must use it.

2. If he fears from an illness which he fears may – should he use water – cause his death or harm one of his organs, or may lead to some illness which might cause his death or harm one of his organs, or cause the loss of some faculty, then it is permissible for him to perform Tayammum, based upon the words of the Most High:

“And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allaah is Most Merciful to you.”[Surah an-Nisa’ 4:29]

3. If he is suffering from some illness which makes him unable to move, and he finds no one to bring him water, it is permissible for him to perform Tayammum.

4. Anyone suffering from a wound, an ulcer or fracture, or any illness which will be exacerbated by using water, and who becomes Junub [in a state of sexual impurity] is allowed to perform Tayammum, based upon the above evidences. If he is able to wash the healthy areas of his body, he must do so and make Tayammum for the rest.

A sick person who is in a place in which he finds neither water nor dust, or anyone who can bring him either one of them, may pray whatever condition he is in, and he is not allowed to delay the prayer, as Allaah, the Most High say:

“So keep your duty to Allaah and fear Him as much as you can.” [Surah at-Taghabun 64:16]

6. An invalid afflicted with incontinence of urine, who is not cured by his treatment, must make ablution for every prayer after the start of its prescribed time, wash off any urine that has affected his body, and wear a clean garment for his prayer, if this is not a burden on him. But if it is, he is excused from it, based upon the Allaah Words:

“And (He) has not laid upon you in religion any hardship.” [Surah al-Hajj 22:78]

And His Words:

“Allaah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.”[Surah al-Baqarah 2:185]

And He says:

And the words of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

“If I order you to do something, do it as much as you cable.” [Al-Bukhari no.7288 & Muslim no.1337]

He must try to the best of his ability to prevent the spread of the urine to his clothes, or his body, or the place in which he will pray. And everything that invalidates ablution also invalidates Tayammum, and in addition, the ability to use water or its presence. And Allaah knows best.

Shaykh `Abdul-`Azeez Bin Baz
Fatawa Islamiyah, Vol. 2, p17-23, Dar-us-Salam

Menstruations (Hayd) : Umdatul Ahkaam – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 39 – Chapter on Hayd – Menstruations – part 1
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/umdatul-ahkaam-purification-39-chapter-on-hayd-menstruations-part-1-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 40 to 43 – Hayd – Menstruations – part 2
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/umdatul-ahkaam-purification-40-to-43-hayd-menstruations-part-2-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]

Source : Umdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Purifying From Filth of Dogs : Umdatul Ahkaam – Dr Saleh as Saleh

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 06 – Purifying From Filth of Dogs [mp3]
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/umdatul-ahkaam-purification-06-purifying-from-filth-of-dogs-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]

Narrated Abu Hurayrah: Allaah’s Apostle (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “If a dog drinks from the utensil of anyone of you it is essential to wash it seven times.” [Saheeh al Bukhaari, Volume 1, Book 4, Number 173; SaheehMuslim, Book 002, Number 0548]

And in another version from Muslim: using sand for the first time. [Saheeh Muslim, Book 2, Number 0549] And in another hadeeth reported in Muslim: On the authority of ‘Abdullaah Ibn Mughaffal who reported that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “When the dog licks the utensil, wash it seven times, and rub it with earth the eighth time” [Saheeh Muslim, Book 002, Number 0551]

Click the below link to read the explanation of above Hadith

Umdatul Ahkaam – H6 – Shaykh Uthaymeen – Dr Saleh as Saleh [PDF]

Cleaning Nose, Private Parts, Hands after sleep : Umdatul Ahkaam – Dr Saleh as Saleh

Bismillaah

Based Upon the Explanation of Our Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah)

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 04 – Explanation of Types of Purification

The Fourth Hadeeth

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (May Allaah be pleased with him), that Allaah’s Apostle (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said,

“If anyone of you performs ablution he should put water in his nose and then blow it out and whoever cleans his private parts with stones should do so with odd numbers. And whoever wakes up from his sleep should wash his hands three times before putting them in the water for ablution, because nobody knows where his hands were during sleep.”

And in a narration by Muslim:

“Let him take water into his nose, washing the nose by putting water in it”.

And in another narration: And he who makes ablution, then let him take water into his nose.” 

[Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 4, Number 163]

The Narrator

The narrator is Abu Hurayrah and some aspects of his biography have already been mentioned in hadeeth number two.

The Subject and Overall Explanation

The subject of this hadeeth is explaining and making known some types of purification. The meanings of some of the words:

Ithaa tawadhdha’a means“ If he starts his wudhuu’”
Wudhuu’ means “ablution”
Anf means “nose”
Istijmar means “cleaning the private parts with stones.”
Istinshaq means “drawing water into the nose.”

The overall meaning is that it is from the completion of Shari’ah and its care and concerns regarding purification, that it comprehensively dealt with the types of purification needed to complete such act of worship (the ablution). In this hadeeth, The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi was-sallam) spoke about three types of perfection of taharah and taking the precautionary measures regarding it.

1. Completing the taharah of the face in wudhuu’ by making istinshaq (drawing the water into the nose).

The person does this by himself; draws the water into the nose then blows it out to clean what’s therein.

2. In the istijmar (the cleansing of the private parts), this is to remove what comes out from these parts and from the perfection of this is that the person does this with odd numbers. So if it cleans the place by three times of cleansing then he holds. And if the place is cleansed by four times usage of the stones then he increases a fifth one in order to attain the witr – the odd number- and this is like many matters in Shari’ah that end up with witr – the odd number.

3. Concerns the washing of the hands after waking from sleep before immersing it in the water for ablution. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi was-sallam) commanded that this be done three times..

From the Benefits of this Hadeeth

1. Seeking to wash the inside of the nose and to clean it by blowing the water out is done before the washing of the face. It is from the completion of the face washing and therefore it is an obligation like the obligation of washing the face.

2. Seeking to disconnect the istijmar upon witr (the odd number) is done even if the cleansing takes place with even steps. What is obligatory is the cleansing, and the odd number is added as the perfection.

3. Seeking to wash the hands, of the person upon waking up, three times before immersing them in the utensil of water for ablution, or any utensil containing water or the like of liquids. The wisdom is that the person does not know where his hands were during sleep.

4. The good way of teaching by the Prophet (`alayhi salaatu was-salaam), where he linked the ruling to its wisdom so that the legally responsible person increases his eemaan by knowing the wisdom. Through this, the perfection of the Sharia’ah is manifested and its signs.

5. The comprehensibility and perfect state of the Shari’ah where it dealt with and gave high attention to the matters of purification and also taking precaution in these matters.

The Questions for this Hadeeth

  • What is the subject matter of this hadeeth?
  • What are the meanings of the following terms:
    a. Anf
    b. Istinshaq
    c. Istijmar
  • What is the ruling concerning istinshaq?
  • What is the obligation in istijmar?

Click the below Link to Download PDF

Umdatul Ahkaam – H4 – Shaykh Uthaymeen – Dr Saleh as Saleh [PDF]

Related Links:

 

Woe to dry heels because of Hellfire – Dr. Saleh as Saleh

Bismillaah

Narrated ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Amr ibnu-l’Aas and Abu Hurayrah and ‘Aa’ishah (May Allaah be pleased with them), who said that Allaah’s Apostle (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “Woe to dry heels because of Hellfire.” [Sahih Muslim, Book 002, Number 0473]

Click the below link to read the explanation of above hadith

Umdatul Ahkaam – H3 – Shaykh Uthaymeen – Dr Saleh as Saleh [PDF]

Listen/ Download Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 03 – Wudu Done Improperly

The Narrators

‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr ibnu-l’Aas ibn Waa’il al-Qurayshi. He was a devout worshipper, memorizing narrations from the Prophet (`alayhi salaatu wassalaam), but limited are the narrations from him. His narrations were not as many as those reported by Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with all of them), because he was a worshipper utilising much of his time in worship. As to his date of death; there is differences among the historians as to when and where did he die. It is reported from Imaam Ahmad, that he died at the end of Dhul-Hijjah the year 63 AH (may Allaah be please with him).

Abu Hurayrah was spoken about earlier.

‘Aa’ishah, Ummul-Mu’mineen (the mother of the believers), the daughter of Abi Bakr ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Aamir al-Qurayshi at-Taymee (may Allaah be pleased with her and her father), was born in Islaam and the Prophet (`alayhi salaatu was-salaam) married her in Makkah following the death of Khadeejah and before his marriage to Sawdah. The marriage contract was done when she was six and the commencement of the marriage took place in Madeenah when she was nine. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi was-sallam) died when she was eighteen years of age. The marriage of ‘Aa’ishah in knowledge and wisdom and understanding is well known. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi was-sallam) spoke about her saying: “The merits of ‘Aa’ishah and her excellence over the rest of women is like the excellence of ath-Thareed (a meat dish) over the rest of food. [Bukhaaree and Muslim].

Many used to consult with her concerning aspects of knowledge. She died in the city of Madeenah in the month of Ramadaan 58 years AH, after a life spent propagating much knowledge that benefited the Ummah. May Allaah be pleased with her.

The Subject and Overall Explanation

The subject of this hadeeth is improperly performing wudhuu’. As to the meanings of some of the words:

• waylun : This is a threat (wa’eed). And it is said that this could be a valley in Hellfire, and the other opinion is that it means punishment.

• Al-a’qaab – The plural of‘ aqib (heel). This refers to the heels which were left not completely wet in wudhuu’.

The overall meaning is that since taharah (purification) is one of the greatest and most important conditions for salaah, improperly doing it will take away from the salaah. That is why the Prophet (`alayhi salaatu was-salaam) warned against incompletion or improperly making the purification to the degree that he gave such a threat regarding improper handling of one of the parts upon which wudhuu’ is to be made; a threat of Punishment in Hell on that particular part. Why did the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi was-sallam) particularize the heels as the part? This is because it was the place where the wudhuu’ on it was not completed as in the hadeeth referring to this incident.

In the version reported by ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr he said: “We returned from Makkah to Madeenah with the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and when we came to some water on the way, some of the people were in a hurry at the time of the afternoon prayer and performed ablution hurriedly; and when we reached them, their heels were dry, no water had touched them. The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘Woe to (dry) heels, because of Hell-fire. Make your ablution thorough’.” [Muslim]. In another narration also by ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr who said: “The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) lagged behind us on a journey. We travelled (back) and we took him; and then came the time of the afternoon prayer, and as we were going to wipe our feet he (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) called out: ‘Woe to the heels because of Hell-fire’.” [Muslim]. So this is the reason behind the hadeeth, and in the version by Abi Hurayrah, he reported that: “Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saw a man who did not wash his heel and he remarked: ‘Woe to the heels because of Hell-Fire’.” [Muslim].

From the Benefits of this Hadeeth

1. It is obligatory to complete the wudhuu’ on each part of the parts of wudhuu’ thoroughly, leaving no dry spots.
2. There is a warning and a threat as to the one who neglects this and improperly handles it.
3. Since there is a threat, then negligence regarding this matter is a major sin.
4. Washing the feet in wudhuu’ is obligatory if they are uncovered.
5. Affirming the recompense on the actions. The recompense is related to the kind of action.

The Questions for this Hadeeth

1. Why is it that ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr ibnu-l’Aas did not report many narrations?
2. When did ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) die?
3. What is intended in this hadeeth?
4. True or False
a. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi was-sallam) died when ‘Aa’ishah was a teen.
b. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi was-sallam) particularized the heels because they are the places of accumulation of filth.
c. Washing the feet in wudhuu’ is mandatory if they are uncovered.
d. Negligence concerning any of the parts of wudhuu’ is from the minor sins.

Ghusl From Janaba – Umdatul Ahkaam – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 28 – Chapter on Ghusl From Janaba

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 29 – 30 – Ghusl from Janabah

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 31 – Sleep Junub – 32 – Wet Dream – part 1

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 31 – Sleep Junub – 32 – Wet Dream – part 2

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 33 – Semen on Clothes – 34 – 35 – Ghusl

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 23 – Chapter on Al-Madhee and the Like

Source: Umdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Toilet Etiquette: Umdatul Ahkaam – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 11 – Section on Sanitation
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/umdatul-ahkaam-purification-11-section-on-sanitation-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 12 – 13 – Direction to Face
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/umdatul-ahkaam-purification-12-13-direction-to-face-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 14 – Using Water to Clean Private Parts
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/umdatul-ahkaam-purification-14-using-water-to-clean-private-parts-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 15 – Using Left Hand to Cleanse Oneself
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/umdatul-ahkaam-purification-15-using-left-hand-to-cleanse-oneself-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 16 – Avoiding Being Soiled By Urine
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/umdatul-ahkaam-purification-16-avoiding-being-soiled-by-urine-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 05 – Urinating in Stagnant Water
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/umdatul-ahkaam-purification-05-urinating-in-stagnant-water-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]

Source: Umdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Wiping over the Khuff (Socks) : Umdatul Ahkaam – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 21 – 22 – Wiping over the Khuff

Source: Umdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Wudu of the Prophet : Umdatul Ahkaam – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 07 – Wudu of the Prophet – part 1

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 08 – Wudu of the Prophet – part 2

Source: Umdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Using the Siwaak : Umdatul Ahkaam – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 17 – Using the Siwaak – part 1
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/umdatul-ahkaam-purification-17-using-the-siwaak-part-1-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 18 – 20 – Using the Siwaak – part 2
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/umdatul-ahkaam-purification-18-20-using-the-siwaak-part-2-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]

Source: Umdatul Ahkaam – Book of Purification – Dr. Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Characteristics of Fitrah (Natural Disposition) – Dr. Saleh-As-Saleh [Audio|En]

1. Circumcision 2. Shaving the pubic hair. 3. Cutting the moustaches short. 4. Clipping the nails. 5. and depilating the hair of the armpits. (Sahih Al-Bukhaari, Hadeeth No. 779, Vol. 7)

Listen / Download Mp3 Here (Time 31:58)
[audio https://salafiaudio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/umdatul-ahkaam-purification-27-characteristics-of-fitrah-saleh-as-saleh.mp3]

Explanation of Umdatul Ahkaam

Sifat Wudoo’-in-Nabee (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) – Fahd ibn ‘Abdir Rahman ash-Shuwaib

Sifat Wudoo’-in-Nabee (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam)
A Description of How the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) Made Wudoo’
By Fahd ibn ‘Abdir Rahman ash-Shuwaib
Translated by Dawood Burbank al-Britanee.
Contents:

Introduction

Preface

Verily all praise is for Allaah, we praise Him and seek His aid and ask for His forgiveness, and we seek refuge with Allaah from the evils of ourselves and our evil actions. Whomever Allaah guides there is none who can misguide him, and whomever Allaah misguides there is none who can guide him, and I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah Alone, having no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger.

O mankind! Be dutiful to your Rabb (Creator, Master, Owner of All-Things), Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both, He created many men and women and, and fear Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights). and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allah is Ever an All-Watcher over you. [Sooratun-Nisaa’: Ayat 1]

O You who Believe! Fear Allah (by doing all that He has ordered and by abstaining from all that he has forbidden) as He should be feared. [Obey Him, be thankful to Him. and remember Him always] And do not die except in a state of Islam (as Muslims) with complete submission to Allah. [Sooratul-‘Imraan ayah: Ayat 102]

O You who Believe! Keep your duty to Allah and fear Him, and speak (always) the truth. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you of your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (saws) he has indeed a great achievement (i.e. he will be saved from the Hell-Fire and made to enter Paradise). [Sooratul-Ahzaab: Ayat 70-71]

As for what follows: Verily the most truthful speech is the Word of Allaah and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), and the worst of affairs are the novelties and every novelty is an innovation and every innovation is a going astray and every going astray is in the Fire.

I desired to write this as a completion for the treatises which are in circulation amongst the people today – about the different fields – especially of worship such as Prayer and Fasting, etc. – which have made easier that which is difficult as regards religious rulings and being guided thereby, as it maybe difficult these days for some to read, research and extract these rulings from their places within the source books – either because of the ignorance of the Muslims or laziness or other worldly problems. I sincerely advise all the Muslims to read and research until they come to know and understand their true Deen – and I wished to write this in order to complete the series of the types of worship, especially since no one has particularized this topic in a treatise – except what occurs within the books of reference as we have explained – but I have not found this in the form of a treatise.

My method for this treatise has been not to quote except what is authentic from the hadeeth of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) - if Allaah wishes – ordering it according to the order of the Wudoo of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), and I have commented on some of the points about which there is difference of opinion – stating that which is correct therefrom in our view after replying to the other opinions.

I ask Allaah to guide us to that which is proper – verily He is the One having authority over that and having the Power to do so.

The Definition of Wudoo

Wudoo in the Arabic Language:
Wudoo is the action, and wadoo the water used therefor – and it is also a verbal noun; or they are two forms of the same word, both meaning the verbal-noun and maybe both referring also to the water used.
Wudoo in the Sharee’ah:
Wudoo is using clean and cleansing (Tuhoor) water upon certain body parts as Allaah ta’ala has prescribed and explained.

The Prescription of Wudoo in The Kitaab And Sunnah:

Allaah ta’ala says: O Ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles [soorat-ul-Maa’idah, 5:7]

1. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: The Prayer of anyone of you breaching purification is not accepted unless he makes wudoo. [Al-Bukhaaree, (Fath ul-Baaree, 1/206), Muslim (no.225) and others].

2. Ibn ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu ‘anhumaa) said: Indeed I heard Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) say: Allaah does not accept Prayer without purification, nor Sadaqah from illegally attained wealth. [Muslim (1/160) and others].

3. Ibn ‘Abbaas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhumaa) said: Rasolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: Verily I have been ordered to make wudoo when I stand for Prayer. [Saheeh. Reported by Abu Dawood (no.3760); at-Tirmidhee (no.1848), and he declared it to be ‘hasan-saheeh’: an-Nasaa.ee (1/73). And Shaikh al-Albaanee declares it to be ‘saheeh’ (‘Saheeh ul-Jaami’, no.2333)].

4. Abu Sa’eed (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: The key to Prayer is purification, its ‘tahreem’[1] is the takbeer and its ‘tahleel’[2] is the giving salaam. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.60); at-Tirmidhee (no.3); Ibn Maajah (no.275) and others. Declared as ‘saheeh’ by Shaikh al-Albaanee: (‘Saheeh ul-Jaami’, no.5761)].


The Excellence of Wudoo

5. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu’alaihi wa sallam) said: Shall I not guide you to that by which Allaah wipes away the sins and raises the ranks? They said: Certainly O Messenger of Allaah! He said Completing the wudoo when it is a hardship, and many steps to the mosques and waiting for the [next] Prayer after the Prayer, that is ‘ar-Ribaat’ (defending the frontiers), that is ‘ar-Ribaat’ that is ‘ar-Ribaat’). [Reported by Muslim (1/151) and others].

6. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) reports that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said When the Muslim (or ‘Believing’) servant makes wudoo and washes his face then the sin of everything he looked at with his eye comes away with the water, or with the last drop of the water, and when he washes his hands then the sin of everything he stretched out his hands to comes away with the water, or with the last drop of the water. And when he washes his feet every sin which his feet walked towards comes away with the water or with the last drop of the water – so that he leaves clean (clear/pure) from sins. [Reported by Muslim (1/148) and others].

7. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) reports that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) came to the graveyard and said Peace be upon you, dwelling of Believing People and we will (all) if Allaah wills join you soon. I would have liked to have seen our brothers! They said: Are we not your brothers, O Messenger of Allaah? He said You are my Companions and our brothers are those who have not yet come! They said: How will you know those who have not yet come from your Ummah, O Messenger of Allaah? He said Have you not seen that if a man had a horse with a white blaze and hoof along with a totally jet-black horse, then would he not know his horse? They said: Certainly, O Messnger of Allaah. He said So they will come with white blazes and marks from the wudoo and I am present before them at the Hand (‘water-tank’) Indeed men will be driven away from my ‘water-tank’ as the lost camel is driven away from their gathering place. ‘Come on’. So it will be said: ‘Indeed they have made changes after you,’ so I will say: Be off, be off. [Muslim 249].

8. Abu Umaamah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said When a Muslim makes wudoo the sins he has committed come away from his hearing and from his sight and from his hand and from his feet, so when he sits he sits down having been forgiven. [Reported by Ahmad (5/252) and is hasan].

9. Abu Maalik al-Ash’aree (radhiAllaahu anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said Purification is half of Imaan. And ‘al-hamdu lillaah’ fills the Scales. And ‘subhaanAllaah’ and ‘al-hamdu lillaah’ fill whatever is between the heaven and the earth. And Prayer is a light. And Sadaqah is a clear proof. And Sabr (patience) is a shining light. And the Qur’aan is a proof for or against you. Every person starts the day dealing for his own soul so he either sets it free or destroys it. [Reported by Muslim (1/140) and others].

10. ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Whoever makes wudoo and makes it well, his sins come out from his body, even coming out from under his nails. [Reported by Muslim (3/133) and others].

11. ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Whoever makes wudoo like this – then all of his previous sins are forgiven – and his Prayer and his walking to the mosque are above and beyond that. [Reported by Muslim, 3/113].

12. Ibn ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu ‘anhumaa) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu’alaihi wasallam) said When one of you makes wudoo and makes it well, then goes out to the mosque – having no purpose except Prayer – then his left foot continues to wipe away his evil deeds and his right foot continually writes for him good deeds until he enters the mosque. And if the people knew what there was in the night prayer and Subh prayers – then they would come to them even if they had to crawl. [Reported by at-Tabraanee in ‘al-Mu’jam ul-Kabeer’. And Ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee declares it to be saheeh (As-Saheehah, no.454). And its meaning is reported by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim from the narration of Abu Hurairah].

13. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Whoever makes wudoo and makes it well then goes out – and then finds that the people have finished the Prayer – then Allaah gives him the same reward as one who had prayed it along with the people without diminishing any of their reward.[Reported by Abu Dawood (no.564) and an-Nasaa’ee (no.856) and others. Al-Albaanee declares it to be ‘saheeh’ (As-Saheehah, no.6039)].

14. Zaid ibn Khaalid al Juhanee (radhiAllaahu’anhu) relates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Whoever makes wudoo and makes it well, then prays two rak’ahs not letting his mind wander in them – then Allaah forgives him all of his previous sins. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.905) and others. Al-Albaanee declares it to be ‘hasan’ (As-Saheehah, no.6041)].

15. ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Whoever makes wudoo and makes it well, then prays two rak’ahs concentrating therein with his heart and his face – then Paradise is obligatory for him. [Reported by an-Nasaa’ee. Al-Albaanee declares it to be ‘saheeh’ (As-Saheehah, no.6062)].

16. ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: I heard Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) say Whoever makes wudoo for Prayer and completes the wudoo – then walks to the obligatory Prayer and prays it with the people – or with the congregation – or in the mosque – then Allaah forgives his sins. [Reported by Muslim (1/144) and others].

17. ‘Alee (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) relates that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Completing the wudoo when it is a hardship, and walking to the mosque, and waiting for the next prayer after the previous one (greatly) washes away the sins. [Reported by al-Haakim (1/132) who declared it to be saheeh to the standard of Muslim. And al-Haithumee said in ‘Az-Zawaa-id’: It is narrated by Abu Ya’laa and al-Bazzaar. And its narrators are up to the standard of Al-Bukharee],

18. Humraan ibn Abaan relates that ‘Uthmaan asked for water to make wudoo – then he mentioned how the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo . Then he said: The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said at the end of the hadeeth Whoever makes wudoo in the same way that I have just made wudoo then stands up and prays two rak’ahs, not thinking of other things, then his previous sins are forgiven. [Related by al-Bukhaaree (Fath ul-Baaree, 11/213) and Muslim (no.226) and an-Nasaa’ee ( 1/63)] .


The Components of Wudoo

An Niyyah (Intention)

This is the firm resolve of the heart to perform wudoo in obedience to the order of Allaah ta’ala and His Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimahullaah) said (Majmoo’at-ur-Rasaa-il il-Kubraa 1/243): “The place of the niyyah is the heart and not the tongue in all forms of ‘ibaadah – and that is agreed upon by all the Muslim scholars – Purification, Prayer, Zakaat, Sawm, Hajj, ‘Itq (freeing of slaves), Jihaad, etc. If he were to express with his tongue other than that which he intended in his heart – then what he intended is counted, not what he said. If he voiced the intention with his tongue and the intention was not in his heart, that will not count – by total agreement of all the scholars of Islaam – so the niyyah is the firm intention and resolve itself.”

19. As Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) himself explained in the hadeeth narrated by ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) in the Sahihain Verily the actions are by intention and there is for everyone only what he intended… [Fath-ul-Baaree, 1/9, and Muslim, 6/48].

At-Tasmiyyah (Mentioning Allaah’s Name)

20. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’ anhu) said that Rasoolullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said There is no wudoo for him who does not mention Allaah’s name upon it.[Reported by Ibn Maajah (no.399), At-Tirmidhee (no.26), Abu Dawood (no.101) and others. Ash-Shaikh al-Albaani says: hadeeth Saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaarni’, no.7444)].

Imam Ahmad in one of his two sayings is of the opinion that it is obligatory in wudoo, ghusl, and Tayammum. He was followed in this opinion by Abu Bakr, and it is the saying of al-Hasan (al-Basaree) and Imam Ishaaq – as reported by Ibn Qudaamah in ‘al-Mughnee’ (1/84) and their proof is this hadeeth.

Ibn Qudaamah adds: If we take the saying that it is obligatory, then the wudoo of one who deliberately leaves it is not correct as he has left an obligatory duty in Purification – just as if he had left the intention; and if he left it forgetfully then his purification is correct. (Al-Mughnee). And this is the saying that we regard as being correct.

As for Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimahullah) he held it to be obligatory if the related hadeeth was authentic – as occurs in his Kitaab-ul-Imaan – and the hadeeth is authentic, so therefore his opinion (rahimahullah) is that it is obligatory.

21. Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim report from Anas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) that some of the Companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) sought water for wudoo , so Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Does any of you have water? So he put his hand into the water and said Make wudoo in the name of Allaah. And I saw the water coming out from between his fingers until they all made wudoo . Thaabit said: “I said to Anas (radhiAllaahu’anhu): How many were there? He said: About seventy. [Al-Bukhaaree, 1/236, Muslim, 8/411, An-Nasaa’ee, V8].

As for the proof for that which we have stated – it is his (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) saying Make wudoo in the name of Allaah. As for those who say that it is only sunnah mu’akkadah then they base that upon the relative hadeeth being da’eef ( There is no wudoo … ). However since the hadeeth is saheeh as we have explained, then there remains no proof for them and the proof is with us, and Allaah Knows Best.

So it is therefore obligatory as we have shown, however the one who forgets should mention Allaah’s name when he remembers.

Washing the Hands

22. Humraan (radhiAllaahu’anhu) narrates that ‘Uthmaan called for water to make wudoo and washed his hands three times… then said: I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)make wudoo just as I have made wudoo . [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, and as preceded].

23. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said When one of you awakes from sleep then let him not enter his hand into the bowl/vessel until he washes it three times as he does not know where his hand has spent the night. [Al-Bukhaaree (Fath ul-Baaree, 1/229), Muslim and it is his wording, as al-Bukhaaree doesn’t report “three times”].

24. And in the hadeeth of’Abdullaah ibn Zaid (radhiAllaahu’anhu) he was asked about the wudoo of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), so he called for a bowl of water and made wudoo from it as the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo, and he poured out water from the bowl upon his hand and washed it three times. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, l/255), Muslim, 3/121].

25. Aus ibn Abi Aus reports from his grandfather (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam) make wudoo washing his hands three times. [Ahmad (4/9), An-Nasaa’ee (1/55) – with saheeh isnaad].

Al-Madmadah and Al-Istinshaaq

AL-MADMADAH: Is washing the mouth and moving the water around within it.

AL-ISTINSHAAQ: Is taking water into the nose and breathing it into its backmost part.

AL-ISTINTHAAR: Is expelling the water from the nose after istinshaaq.

Washing the Mouth and Nose Together with One Handful (of Water)

26. ‘Abdullaah ibn Zaid al-Ansaaree said that it was said to him: Perform for us the wudoo of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), so he called for a pot of water..until he said: So he washed his mouth and nose with a single handful and did that three times. [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim].

Washing the Mouth

27. In the hadeeth of ‘Amr ibn Yahyaa (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) he said: And he washed his mouth and nose using three handfuls of water. [Muslim, 3/123].

Al-Imam an-Nawawi says: And in this hadeeth is a clear proof for the correct opinion that the sunnah in washing the mouth and nose is that it should be with three handfuls of water – washing the mouth and nose [together] with each of them.

28. In the hadeeth of’Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu’anhaa) in which she describes the wudoo of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) that he said When you make wudoo then wash your mouth. [Al-Baihaqi says: ‘Its isnaad is saheeh.’ And it contains an addition to the previous hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah in Abu Dawood, no.l43].

Washing the Nose and Expelling the Water

29. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said When one of you makes wudoo then let him enter water into his nose, then expel it. [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/229), Muslim (no.237), Abu Dawood (no. 140)].

30. Exerting in sniffing in the water as long as you are not fasting is reported in the hadeeth of Laqeet (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: O Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), inform me of the wudoo . He said Complete the wudoo and rub between the fingers and excert in breathing in the water into the nose unless you are fasting. [Abu Dawood, no.l42; At-Tirmidhee, no.38; An-nasaa’ee, no.ll4; IbMaajah, no.407; and others]. (Declared as saheeh by Ibn Hibbaan and al-Haalcim, and adh-Dhahabee agreed to that. Also declared as saheeh by Ibn al Qaataan, An-Nawawi and Ibn Hajr. Refer to the footnote in al-Baghawi’s Sharh us-Sunnah: 1/417].

It is clear from these two ahaadith that washing the mouth and nose are both obligatory (waajib). Ibn Qudaamah says in ‘al-Mughnee’: Washing the nose and washing the mouth are both obligatory in both forms of purification – Ghusl and wudoo – as washing the face is obligatory in both of them in the established view of the madhhab; and it is the saying of Ibn al-Mubaarak, Ibn Abi Lailaa and Ishaaq, and it is reported from ‘Ataa.

Taking Water into the Nose with the Right Hand and Expelling it with the Left

‘Abd Khair said: We were sitting looking towards ‘Alee – as he made wudoo – and he entered into his mouth a handful of water with his right hand and washed his mouth and nose, then expelled it from his nose with his left hand – he did that three times, then said: Whoever would like to see the way of purification of Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) – then this is his purification. [Reported by ad-Daarimee. Ash-shaikh al-Albaanee says in his notes on al-Mishkaat: Its isnaad is saheeh].

Washing the Face

The face (wajh) is determined as being everything between the beginnings of the hair down to the cheeks and the chin, and up to the start of the ears including that which is between the beard and ear.

Allaah ta’ala says: O Ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. [soorat-ul-Maa’idah,5:7]

Humraan ibn Abaan narrates that ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) called for water to make wudoo and so mentioned the way in which the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo . Humraan said: Then he washed his face three times. [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/312), Muslim (no.226)].

Running Water Through the Beard with the Fingers

31. ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu’anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to run his (wet fingers) through his beard. [At-Tirmidhee (no.31), Ibn Maajah (no.430), Ibn Jaarood (p.43) and al-Haakim (1/14~) who declared its isnaad as saheeh as did Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibbaan. See the note in al-Baghagawi’s Sharh us-Sunnah, 1/421].

32. Anas (radhiAllaahu’anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu’alaihi wa sallam), when he made wudoo , used to take a handful of water and enter it below his chin and rub it through his beard and said This is what my Lord – the Great and Exalted – has ordered me to do. [Abo Dawood (no.145), al-Baihaqee (1/54), al-Haakim (1/149). Ash-Shaikh al-Albaani declares it to be saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaami’, no.4572)].

Some of the scholars have declared that entering water through the beard is obligatory and say: If he deliberately leaves it – then he must repeat the ( wudoo and) prayer. And this is the saying of Imam Ishaaq and Abu Thaur.

Most of the scholars however are of the opinion that the order is an order of desirability (istihbaab) and it is not obligatory – and that it is clearer that that which is obligatory is moving water through that part of the beard..so that it reaches the skin underneath. [Al-Khattaabee, 1/56].

Imam Ahmad and Laith and most of the scholars hold that moving water through the beard is obligatory when taking ghusl from Janaabah – and not obligatory in wudoo . [‘Aun al Ma’bood, 1/247].

Washing the Arms Including the Elbows

Note: The arms here which we are ordered to wash begin with the fingertips and hands – which are to be included in this washing – they being part of the arm (yad) which we are ordered to Wash in the aayah.

Allaah ta’ala says: O Ye who believe! When ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. [soorat-ul-Maa’idah,5:7]

Humraan ibn Abaan reports that ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu’anhu) called for water for wudoo and mentioned the Prophet’s (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) way of making wudoo – and Humraan said: Then he washed his right arm including the elbow three times, then the left in the same way. [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim as has preceded].

Regarding inclusion of the elbows in the washing of the arms – scholars have differed: Some of them saying that they must be included in this washing, and others saying that this is not so. And this difference of opinion is due to their disagreement over the meaning of the word “ilaa” (to) in the aayah – does it mean ‘up to/until’ or ‘up to and including’ ?

He who says that it means ‘up to’ does not include the elbows in the washing – just as Allaah ta’ala says: ... thumma 'atimmus-siyaama ilaa -llail: Then complete your fast till the night appears; [soorat-ul-Baqara, 2:187]. And this is the opinion of some of the companions of Imam Maalik.

Most scholars, however, hold the view that the meaning is ‘up to and including/along with’ – and thus include the elbows in the washing and use as their evidence Allaah ta’ala’s saying: ...wa yayazidkum quwwatan ilaa quwwatikum...: ...and add strength to your strength; [Soorat-ul-Hud 11:52]

33. The proof in this matter is the hadeeth of Nu’aim ibn Mijmar who said: I saw Abu Hurairah make wudoo – he washed his face and completed the wudoo , then washed his right hand until he reached the upper arm, then his left hand till he reached the upper arm” – then in the end of the hadeeth he said: “This is how I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) make wudoo . [Muslim, 1/246]

So, dear reader, it is clear from this hadeeth that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to wash the elbows further, he used to increase upon that and wash part of the upper arm.

34. Jaabir (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said that when the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallarn) made wudoo , he would pass the water over his elbows. [Reported by ad-Daaraqutnee (1/15), al-Baihaqee (1/56) and others – Ibn Hajr declared it to be hasan. And Ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee declared it to be saheeh (Saheeh ul-Jaami’, 4547)].

Wiping the Head and Ears and ‘Imaamah

1. Wiping over all of the head as Allaah ta’ala says: ...wamsahoo bi ru'oosikum...: …rub your heads (with water) [Soorat-ul-Maa’idah 5:7]

Ibn Qudaamah says in ‘al-Mughnee’: Some of the people who claim that that which is ordered to be wiped is part of the head only – claim that the (Baa) [in the verse] means “part of” as if He had said: “Wipe part of your heads”.’ However, we say that in His saying wamsahoo bi ru'oosikum the (Baa) is as if He said regarding Tayammum wamsahoo bi wujoohikum [Allaah ta’ala orders us to wipe the faces].

Therefore their saying that the (Baa) means “part of” is incorrect and unknown to the scholars of the language. Ibn Burhaan says: ‘He who claims that the “baa” means “part of” has declared before the scholars of the language that of which they have no knowledge. [al-Mughnee, 1/112].

Ash-Shaukaanee (rahimahullah) says in Nail-ul-Autaar: It is not established that it means “part of” and Seebawaih (one of the foremost scholars of the Arabic language) has denied that in fifteen places in his book. (Nail-ul-Autaar, 1/193).

35. In the hadeeth of’Abdullaah ibn Zaid (radhiAllaahu’anhu) is a further proof of the incorrectness of the saying that it means “a part of” – in that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) wiped his head with his two hands, moving them forwards and backwards – beginning with the front of the head and (wiping) with them up to his nape then he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) returned them to the place from which he began. [Al-Bukhaaree (al-Fath, 1/251), Muslim (no.235), at-Tirmidhee (no.28) and others].

2. Wiping the ears: The ruling for the ears is the same as that for the head.

36. And it is authentically reported that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said The two ears are a part of the head. [Reported by at-Tirmidhee, no.37; Abu Dawood, no.l34 and Ibn Maajah, no.444]. (Declared by ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee to be saheeh – as-Saheehah, 1/36 – and Imam Ahmad was of the view that wiping the ears has the same ruling as that for wiping the head.)]

As for those who hold the view that it is a sunnah they do not have any evidence except their regarding this hadeeth as being da’eef – it is however authentic due to a chain of narration which they did not come across and so the proof is with our saying – and Allaah Knows best.

And of the scholars who hold that they are part of the head are Ibn al-Musayyib, ‘Ataa, al-Hasan, Ibn Seereen, Sa’eed ibn Jubair and an-Nakha’ee and it is the saying of ath-Thauree and Ahl ur-Ra’y and Imams Malik and Ahmad ibn Hanbal.

Taking Fresh Water for the Head and Ears

37. Ash-Shaikh al-Albaanee says in ‘ad-Da’eefah’, no.995: There is not to be found in the Sunnah anything which obligates taking fresh water for the ears – therefore he should wipe them along with the water for the head – just as it is also permissible to wipe the head with the water remaining from that of the arms after washing them according to the hadeeth of Ar-Rabee’ bint Mu’awwidh that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) “wiped his head with water remaining in his hand”. [Reported by Abu Dawood and others with hasan isnaad].

The Way of Wiping

38. From ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Amr – about the way of performing wudoo – he said: Then he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) wiped his head and entered his two forefingers into his ears and wiped the backs of his ears with his thumbs. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.135), an-Nasaa’ee (no.140), Ibn Maajah (no.422) and authenticated by Ibn Khuzairnah].

Wiping Over the ‘Imaamah (Turban) Only

39. ‘Amr ibn Umayyah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) wipe over his turban and leather socks. [Reported by al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, 1/266) and others].

40. Bilaal (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu’alaihi wa sallam) wiped over the leather socks and the head cover. [Reported by Muslim, 1/159].

Wiping Over the Turban and Forelock

41. Al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) reports that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo and wiped over his forelock and over the turban and leather socks. [Reported by Muslim, 1/159].

Ibn Qudaamah says in ‘al-Mughnee’ (1/310); And if part of the head is uncovered and it is normally so, then it is preferable to wipe over that along with the turban – that is recorded from Ahmad: as the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) wiped over his turban and forelock – as occurs in the hadeeth of al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah.

As for caps/’prayer hats’, it is not permissible to wipe over them as Ahmad says for various reasons, from them: (1) They do not cover all of the head normally, nor are they tied around it. (2) There is no difficulty in their removal.

As for the woman’s head cover – it is permissible to wipe over it as Umm Salamah used to wipe over her head cover – as reported by Ibn al-Mundhir. (See’al-Mughnee’, 1/312).

Washing the Feet and Ankles

Allaah ta’ala says: ...wa arjulakum ilaal ka'bayn...: …and (wash) your feet to the ankles [Soorat-ul-Maa’idah 5:7] [thus ordering the washing of the feet and ankles].

42. Ibn ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu ‘anhumaa) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) fell behind us and then came upon us during a journey, then we found him and it was time for ‘Asr – so we began to make wudoo and wipe over our feet, so he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) called out at the top of his voice Woe to the ankles from the Fire. (two or three times) [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, 1/232) and Muslim, 3/128].

An-Nawawi says in his explanation of Sahih Muslim after mentioning the hadeeth: Muslim’s intention (rahimahullah) in quoting these hadeeth was to prove with it the obligation of washing the feet – and that wiping them is not sufficient.

43. In the hadeeth of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim from Humraan ibn Abaan that ‘Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu’anhu) called for water for wudoo and then mentioned the wudoo of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) – then Humraan said: Then he washed his right foot to the ankle three times and then his left foot to the ankle three times.

44. As Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) did in Muslim’s narration: “Then he washed his right foot till he reached the shin, then he washed the left foot till he reached the shin” and in the end of the hadeeth said: This is what I saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) do. [Muslim, 1/246].

From this hadeeth – O Brother Muslim – it becomes clear that the ankles enter into this washing as is clear from his saying ’till he reached the shin’.

45. Al-Mustaurad (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: When the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo he would enter the water between his toes with his little finger. [Reported by Abu Dawood (no.148), at-Tinnidhee (no.40) and Ibn Maajah (no.446). Declared as ‘saheeh’ by al-Albaanee].

As-San’aanee says in ‘Subul-us-Salaam’ after quoting this hadeeth: It is a proof for the obligation of wiping between the toes – and this also occurs in the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas which we have indicated – which is reported by at-Tirmidhee, Ahmad, Ibn Maajah and al-Haakim – and authenticated by al-Bukhaaree. And it is done by using the little finger. (See ‘Subul-us-Salaam’, 1/48).

46. And Laqeet ibn Sabarah said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa salam) said Complete the wudoo and wipe between the Asaabi’ (fingers and/or toes). [Abu Dawood (no.142), at-Tirmidhee (no.37), an-Nasaa’ee (no.114), Ibn Maajah (no.407), al-Hakim (1/148). Al-Albaanee says: Saheeh.]. As-San’aanee says: It clearly means both the fingers and toes and is shown clearly in the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas. [Subul-us-Salaam, 1/47].

The Reply to Those who Follow Wiping of the Feet Without Washing

(1) Wiping the feet when not wearing anything on the foot is not established from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). As for their using as a proof the reading of the Aayah:wamsahoo bi ru'oosikum wa arjulakum ilaal ka'bayn: rub your heads and your feet to the ankles…[soorat-ul-Maaidah 5:7] reading (arjulikum) – and saying that the feet are thus connected to (the command to wipe) the heads – and this is not correct, rather they are connected to (the order to wash) the hands. As for the reading of the word (arjulikum) with Kasra of the laam – as-San’aanee says That is for wiping over the leather socks – as is shown by the Sunnah – and this is the best interpretation for this particular recital. (As-Subul, 1/58).

(2) The Qur’aan is not to be explained according to the human intellect – especially in the matters of worship such as Salaat and wudoo , etc. – but by the Sunnah which explains this Pillar. And there are many such examples in the Qur’an which the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) explained by his sayings – and from this is the washing of the feet – and its proof from the Sunnah has preceded.

(3) If they wish to use the intellect then we say to them: The bottom of the foot has more right to be wiped than the surface (their saying being the wiping of the surface), and if they say: Then what about the socks? we say: That is established from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) just as washing the foot is also established in the Sunnah.

(4) Leaving out one of two verbs and sufficing with one of them, as the Arabs, when two verbs come together having similar meaning and are followed by things related to them, makes it permissible to mention only one of the two verbs and attaching those things relating to the second to those relating to the first which is mentioned – according to what the wording demands, until it is as if the two are partners with regard to the verb, as the poet said: I fed it with hay and cold water. And what is meant is: I fed it with hay and gave it cold water to drink.

(5) The saying of az-Zajjaj (a great scholar of the language): It is permissible that the wording (arjulikum) has the meaning of ‘wash the feet’ as the wording (ilal Ka’bain) conveys that meaning – as the mentioning of a limit suggests washing just as Allaah ta’ala says ilaal maraafiq [that is the limit of the elbows is for washing] however, if wiping were intended then there would be no need for mention of a limit just as Allaah ta’ala says wamsahoo bi ru’oosikum not mentioning any limit (for wiping the head) and further the term wiping can be used to mean washing. (Al-Mirqaat, 1/400).

(6) And further, the great majority of scholars have agreed that it is obligatory to wash the feet and that is reported – and reaches the level of mutawaatir from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) as al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr says; and further it is not established that any of the Sahaabah differed regarding that – except what is reported from ‘Alee, Ibn ‘Abbas and Anas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhum) – and it is established that they went back on that. (Al-Mirqaat. 1/400~.

47. And Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) reports that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) came to the graveyard and said ...they will come on the Day of Judgement with their blazes shining from the wudoo (It has preceded, no.7). Meaning the Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) will know from the traces of the washing, as for those who do not wash then he will not know them on the Day of Judgement.

Ibn Hajr says: And it is established that this shining of the faces, hands and feet are particular to the Muslim Ummah.


Other Aspects of Wudoo

The Siwaak

The SIWAAK is that which the mouth is brushed with. And it is also called the MISWAAK, the plural being: SOOK. And the siwaak comes from the Araak tree and it is a well-known tree. Abu Hanifah said: It is the best of the trees whose twigs are used for brushing the teeth… smelling of milk. Abu Ziyaad said: From it is taken there tooth-sticks – from its twigs and roots – and the best part for that is its roots, and it is broadly spreading..And Ibn Shameel: The Araak is a tall fine-shoot green tree with many leaves and branches, having weak wood and growing in hollows – miswaaks are taken from it, being one of the citrus trees. Its singular is Araak and its plural Araa-ik. (Lisaan-ul-‘Arab, 268).

It is mustahabb (desirable) to use the siwaak at many different times as is established from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) that he used to use the siwaak at every Prayer, and before reading the Qur’an, and before sleeping and when waking, and when the breath changes – whether fasting or not – or whether at the start of the day or in the afternoon, and it is a form of worship which is easy therefore observe it, O my Muslim Brother.

48. And also when making wudoo , as Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) narrates that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said If I did not fear to cause hardship to my Ummah I would have ordered them to use the siwaak with every wudoo. [Reported by at-Tirrnidhee (no.22) who said: Hasan Saheeh, and Maalik (no.123), Ahmad (4/116), Abu Dawood (no.37) and others. Al-Albaanee declared it to be saheeh (Takhree; ul Mishkaat, no.390)].

49. And ‘Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu’ anhaa) narrates that Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said The siwaak is a means of cleansing the mouth and pleasing the Lord. [Al-Bukhaaree reports it in mu’allaq form – connected by Ahmad, an-Nasaa’ee, Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibbaan].

Ad-Dalk (Rubbing the Water over the Body Parts):

This is part of the wudoo authentically reported from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). Al-Mustawrid ibn Shadad said: I saw Rasoolullah (sailallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) when he made wudoo rubbing his toes with his litle finger. [Saheeh as has preceded].

50. Abdullah ibn Zaid (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu’alaihiwasallam) made wudoo and said Rub in this way. [See Nail-ul-Autaar, 4/39].

51. He (radhiAllaahu’anhu) also narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo with two thirds of a mudd[3] (of water) and rubbed over his forearms. [Ibn Khuzaimah (no.118), and its isnaad is Saheeh – and al-Haakim (1/161) reports it by way of Yahyaa ibn Abi Zaa’idah].

Performing the Wudoo in the Order Mentioned in the Ayaah

As for what is narrated regarding the ‘order’ as mentioned in the Aayah, then there is nothing to contradict that – and this order is obligatory (waajib) and it is said: Sunnah. [See Fiqh al Imam Sa’eed ibn al Musayyib, 1/64].

As for what is related with regard to the Prophet’s wudoo (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) then it has been reported sometimes out of the regular order. And the proof is:

52. Al-Miqdaam ibn Ma’d Yakrib said: I came to the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) with water for wudoo , so he washed his hands three times, then washed his face three times, then washed his forearms three times, then washed his mouth and nose three times, then wiped his head and ears – their outsides and insides – and washed each of his feet three times. [Ahmad (4/132), Abu Dawood (1/19) with Saheeh isnaad. Ash-Shaukaanee (1/1~5) said: Its isnaad is good, and it is reported by ad-Diyaa in ‘al-Mukhtaarah’. And al-Albaanee records it in ‘as-Saheehah’, no.261] .

So this is a proof that he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) did not always stick to the regular order – and this is a proof that it is not obligatory – however, his sticking to it mostly shows that it is Sunnah. And Allaah Knows best.

As-Suyooti says as is reported from him in ‘Aun al Ma’bood’ ( 1/48): It is used as a proof – that is the aforementioned hadeeth – by him who says that sticking to the regular order in wudoo is not obligatory as he washed his mouth and nose after washing his arms.

The author of ‘Aun al Ma’bood’ says: This narration is ‘shaadh’[4] – and therefore not to be taken in contradiction to the established narrations which put the washing of the mouth and nose before the washing of the face.

I say: The difference of opinion between the scholars here is with regard to those parts of wudoo which are Sunnah. As for the obligatory duties – then they are according to the order mentioned in the noble Aayah, and the best thing is to perform all of the actions in the way mentioned in the majority of the ahaadeeth – and Allaah Knows best.

Al-Mawaalaat (Washing Each Part Directly After the Previous one – Leaving no Time Gap in Between)

Nothing other than this is established from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). It is however established that Ibn ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu’ anhu) urinated within the market, then made wudoo and so washed his face and hands and wiped his head, then he was called to pray over a Janazzah so he entered the mosque then wiped over his leather socks, then prayed over it. [Reported by Maalik (no.72) and al-Baihaqee (1/84). And ‘Ataa didn’t see anything wrong with leaving such gaps whilst making wudoo and it is the saying of al-Hasan, an-Nakha’ee and the better reported of the two sayings of ash-Shaafi’ee].

Beginning with the Right

That is washing the right hand before the left – and likewise the feet.

53. ‘Aaishah (radhiAllaahu ‘annaa) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to like to begin with the right in putting on shoes, combing his hair, in purification and in all of his affairs. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/235, Muslim (no.267) and others].

54. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu’anhu) narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said When you dress and when you make wudoo , then begin with the right. [Abu Dawood (4141), at-Tirmidhee (1766), an-Nasaa’ee (402). Al-Albaanee declares it to be saheeh].

Economizing in the Use of Water and not Being Wasteful

55. Anas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to make wudoo with a mudd (of water) and make ghusl with a saa’ or up to five mudds. [Muslim (1/156) and others]. A saa’ is equal to four mudds. ( A mudd is that amount of water which is held by the two hands cupped together.)

If you consider this hadeeth well, O my Muslim Brother, you would feel ashamed of what some people do these days – one of them opening the water tap and making wudoo and sometimes talking to his companion whilst the water is running out – what an excess in wastefulness! So he who does that should fear Allaah and remember this hadeeth and keep it in mind and follow the Sunnah with regard to using the water sparingly and not being wasteful – and here the true following of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is made clear and the true Muslim’s belief. It is from the Sunnah for the Muslim who wishes to make wudoo to have with him a container large enough for a mudd of water – in order to force himself to return to the following of the Sunnah.

The Du’aa After the Wudoo

56. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alahi wa sallam) said None of you makes wudoo and completes the wudoo then says:

Ashhadu anlaa ilaaha illallaahu wahdahu laa shareekalahu washhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasooluhu (I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and that Muhammad is His slave andMessenger) except that all eight Gates of Paradise are opened for him – so that he enters by whichever he pleases.[Reported by Muslim (no.234), Abu Dawood (no 169), at-Tirmidhee (no.55), an-Nasaa’ee (no.148), Ibn Maajah (no.470)].

And at-Tirmidhee adds an authentic addition to it:

Allaahumma aj’alnee minat-tawwabeen waj’alnee minal mutatahhireen (O Allaah, make me one of those who constantly repents toYou and of those who purify themselves.) [Declared as Sahih by al-Albaanee].

57. Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam)said Whoever makes wudoo then says upon finishing the wudoo:

Subhaanakallaahumma wa bihamdika ashhadu anlaa ilaaha illa anta astaghfiruka wa atoobu ilaika (I declare You free from all defects my Lord and all praise belongs to you and I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except You. I seek Your forgiveness and I turn to You) It is written in a parchment, then sealed and is not opened till Judgement Day. [Reported by Ibn ar-Sunnee in ‘Amal al Yaurn wal-l~ilah, no.30. Declared as Saheeh by al-Albaanee].

Washing Each Body-Part Once

68. Ibn ‘Abbaas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo (washing each part) once. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/226].

Washing Each Body-Part Twice

59. ‘Abdullaah ibn Zaid narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo (washing each part) twice. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath) 1/226].

Washing Each Body-Part Twice

60. In the hadeeth of’Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) recorded by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) washed each of the parts three times.

So from these ahaadeeth it becomes clear to us that, as is well-known to the large majority of scholars, washing each body-part once is obligatory – and the second and third washings are Sunnah – and it is better to do likewise following the Sunnah of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) [‘al-Majmoo’ of an-Nawawi, 1/229].

The Desirability of Making Wudoo for Each Prayer

Al-Haafiz says in ‘al Fath’ (1/172) in the question ‘Making wudoo without having broken it’:

61. Anas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) says: The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to make wudoo for every prayer. I said: What had you (the Sahaabah) used to do? He said: One wudoo was sufficient for us till such time as we broke it.

This hadeeth is an evidence that what is meant generally is the obligatory Prayer.

Al-Tahaawee says: It may be that that was obligatory upon him (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) particularly – then was abrogated on the Day of Fath by the hadeeth of Buraidah – meaning that which Muslim reports – that he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) prayed all the Prayers on the Day of Fath with one wudoo and that ‘Umar (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) asked him about that so he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said I did it deliberately. Or it may be that he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to do it out of desirability only, then feared that it might be thought to be obligatory and so left it to show the permissibility of that.

I say: The result is that making wudoo for every Prayer is mustahabb and praying all of the Prayers with one wudoo is permissible – and Allaah Knows best.

The One who is not Sure if he has Broken the Wudoo or not Relies upon that which he is Certain of

If he who knows that he has made wudoo then is not sure that he has broken it – then his wudoo remains. And he who knows that he has done that which breaks wudoo and doubts when he has made wudoo thereafter then he does not have wudoo . In each case he relies upon that which he is certain of before that which he has doubt about – and he throws the doubt away. And this is the saying of the great majority of scholars – and it is the saying of Abu Hanifah, ash-Shaafi’ee and Ahmad. [‘Al-Mughnee’, 1/193, and ~iqh ul Awaaa’ee, 1/56].

62. And the proof for this is what is established from Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said If one of you feels something in his stomach and he isn’t sure did anything (wind) come out of it or not – then let him not leave the mosque until he hears a sound or finds a smell. [Muslim (Sharh an-Nawawi, 4/51), ‘Aaridat-ul-Ahwadhee Sharh ut-Tirmidhee, 1/79].

So the hadeeth is a proof that things remain upon their original state until there is a certainty of a change in that, and doubt does not harm that – so he who is sure of having made wudoo and thinks that he may have broken it, then he remains upon wudoo .

A Man and Woman’s Washing from a Single Vessel

63. Ibn ‘Abbaas (radhiAllaahu ‘anhumaa) narrates that one of the wives of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) took a ghusl from Janaabah then saw Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) about to take a ghusl from the water remaining – so she informed him that she had made ghusl therefrom – so Rasoolulah said Nothing makes the water impure.[Reported by Abu Dawood (no.67), and an-Nasaa’ee (no.326), and at-Tirmidhee who declared it to be hasan saheeh, and Ibn Maajah (no.370)].

Ibn ‘Abd ul-Barr says: There is nothing in the Sharee’ah to prevent each of them washing with the water remaining from the other – either together or one after the other, and this is the saying of the scholars of the different lands and the great majority of scholars – and the ahaadeeth about it are Mutawaatir. (Al-Istidhkaar, 1/373).

Making Wudoo after Eating Camel Meat

64. Jaabir ibn Samurah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) narrates that a man asked Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam): Should I make wudoo because of the meat of sheep? He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said If you wish make wudoo and if you wish then do not make wudoo. He said: Should I make wudoo from the meat of the camel? He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Yes, make wudoo from the meat of the camel. He asked: May I pray in sheep-pens? He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Yes. He asked: May I pray in the stalls of camels? He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said No. [Reported by Muslim, 1/189].

Drying the Body Parts after Purification

‘Uthman ibn ‘Affaan, al- Hasan ibn ‘Alee, Anas ibn Maalik, al-Hasan al-Basree, Ibn Seereen, ‘Alqamah, al-Aswad, Masrooq, ad-Dahhaak, ‘Abdullaah ibn al Haarith, Abu Ya’laa, Abul Ahwas, Ash-Sha’bee, Ath-Thawree, Ishaaq, Ibn ‘Umar in a narration, and Abu Hanifah, Maalik, Ahmad, and the Shafi’ee Madhhab in one saying, all say that it is permissible after both wudoo and ghusl to dry the body-parts. And their evidence is what ‘Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) reports – she said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) had a cloth which he used to dry himself with after making wudoo . [Reported by at-Tirmidhee who declared it to be da’eef]. Then al Ainee states that an-Nasaa’ee records it in ‘al-Kunaa’ with saheeh isnaad.

I say: And it has other narrations which support and strengthen it. (See Fiqh al-Imam Sa’eed, 1/70). Al-Albaanee declares the hadeeth to be hasan. (Saheeh ul Jaami’, 4706).

65. Salmaan al-Faarsee narrates that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) made wudoo , then turned up a woollen cloak he had and wiped his face with it. [Reported by Ibn Maajah (no.468)]. In az-Zawaa’id it is said: Its isnaad is saheeh.

I say: In its isnaad is al-Wadeen ibn ‘Ataa who is sadooq but has a bad memory as al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr says in ‘Taqreeb ut-Tahdheeb’, so its isnaad is da’eef!! – but it is strengthened by the previous hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah to the level of hasan – and Allaah Knows best.

Some others hold it to be makrooh to dry the body-parts after Purification and their proof is:

66. What is established from Maimoonah (radhiAllaahu’anhaa) who described the Prophet’s (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) ghusl from Janaabah and said: Then I brought him a cloth but he refused it. [Al-Bukhaaree, and Muslim – and the word is his].

The Final word: Is that drying the body-parts is one of the desirable actions as shown by the hadeeth of Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) – as for the saying that it is makrooh then that is not acceptable as the saying of Maimoonah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) “but he refused it” does not amount to the fact that it is makrooh – and Allaah Knows best.


Those Things which Break Wudoo

(1) That Which Comes Out from the Two Private Parts (Front And Back):

Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said Allaah does not accept the prayer of any one of you having committed hadath until he makes wudoo. [Al-Bukhaaree (al Fath, 1/206) and Muslim (no.245)].

67. An-Nawawi says in ‘al-Majmoo’ (2/3) as for that which comes out of the two private parts – then it breaks wudoo according to Allaah ta’alas saying: Aw jaa'a ahadukum min al ghaa'it...: or one of you comes from offices of nature…[Soorat-ul-Maa’idah 5:7] along with his (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) saying There is no wudoo except from a sound or a smell. [Saheeh and has preceded (Saheeh ul Jaarni’ (7443)].

He adds: So that which comes out of the front or back part of a man or woman breaks the wudoo – whether excretion or urine or wind – or a worm or pus or blood or stones or anything else and there is no difference in that for something which happens normally or rarely.

(2) Sound Sleep[5]

68. ‘Alee ibn Abi Taalib (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said The eye is the drawstring for the anus, so he who sleeps then let him make wudoo. [Abu Dawood (no.203), Ibn Maajah (no.477), Ahmad. Declared as Saheeh by al-Albaanee].

In the hadeeth is an evidence that sleep does not in itself something that breaks wudoo , however the Purification is broken if it is possible for something to come out from the anus – however if that is restricted, e.g. by sitting flat on the earth, then that is not the case.

(3) Becoming Unconscious – Other than Sleep

That is the ‘intellect’ going away by any means because of insanirt or fainting or intoxication – as in this condition he does not know whether his wudoo is broken or not. This is the saying of the great majority of scholars. (Sharh Saheeh Muslim (4/74) and al-Mughnee (1/164)).

(4) Touching the Uncovered Private Parts

69. Abu Hurairah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said If one of you touches his penis and there is no veil between him and it nor any cover, then wudoo has become obligatory for him. [al-Haakim (1/138) and others]. (Al-Albaanee says: hadeeth Saheeh.)

(5) Touching the Penis

70. Busrah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said If one of you touches his penis then let him make wudoo. [At-Tirmidhee (1/18) who said it is hasan saheeh. And also declared as Saheeh by Ahmad, al-Bukhaaree and Ibn Ma’een (Lum’aat ut-Tanqeeh Sharh Mishkaat ul Masaabeeh, no.319). Others also narrate it as authentic].

71. Talq ibn ‘Alee (radhiAllaahu’anhu) said: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu’alaihi wa sallam) was asked about a man’s touching his penis. Should he make wudoo ? He (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said And is it except a part of him? [At-Tirmidhee (no.85) and he said: And this is the best of what is reported in this regard]. Al-Albaanee says: Its isnaad is Saheeh, and this (the view that it doesn’t break the wudoo) is established as being that of a group of the Sahaabah, from them: Ibn Mas’ood, ‘Ammaar ibn Yaasir, and because of these Imam Ahmad gave the choice between this and the one before it. Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah harmonized the two carrying the first to mean if he touched it with desire and this upon the touching without desire – and there is in this hadeeth that which gives that impression and it is his (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) saying ‘a part of him’. [Al-Mishkaat al Masaabeeh, notes on nos.3 19 and 320].

(6) Touching a Woman with Desire:

72. A man’s touching a woman without desire does not break the wudoo . ‘Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa) says: Rasoolullah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) prayed and I was lying in front of him as in front of a Janaazah, so when he wished to prostrate I pulled up my leg. [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim].

73. And in the same way a woman’s touching a man without desire does not break wudoo as is established from ‘Aa’ishah (radhiAllaahu ‘anhaa): I didn’t find the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) one night so I tried to find him with my hand – and my hand fell upon his feet which were raised up as he was making prostration. [Muslim (3/203) and an-Nasaa’ee (l/101)].

So we see from these two hadeeth that merely touching does not break the wudoo – and Allaah Knows best.

The author of’at-Ta’leeqaat us-Salafiyyah’ upon Sunan of an-Nasaa’ee (1/23) says concerning “he pushed me with his foot”: It is well-known that that is a touching without desire. And so the author uses it as a proof that touching without desire does not break the wudoo . As for the touching with desire – its proof is that the wudoo is not broken until a proof is established that it does indeed break it – and this is enough of a proof to show that it doesn’t break the wudoo for the one who holds that view – and above and beyond that is a further proof that it doesn’t break the wudoo is the hadeeth of kissing – as normally kissing is not free from touching with desire.

The author of ‘Aun al Ma’bood’ (1/69) says regarding her saying “he kissed me and did not make wudoo“‘ – It contains a proof that touching a woman does not break the wudoo as kissing is part of touching and the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) did not make wudoo (before praying). And this (that touching a woman even with desire doesn’t break the wudoo ) is the saying of ‘Alee and Ibn ‘Abbaas and ‘Ataa ibn Taawoos, and Abu Hanifah and Sufyaan ath-Thawree. And this hadeeth is (in itself) da’eef but is supported by other narrations. And it is mursal – however ad-Daaraqutnee joins it – and it is (therefore) an authentic (saheeh) hadeeth inshaaAllaah. (See Nasb ur Raayah, l/70).

The author of ‘al-Mughnee’ (1/190) says: The touching is not in itself something which breaks wudoo but breaks wudoo as it leads to prostratic fluid or semen being emitted – so the condition which leads to breaking of the wudoo is considered – and that is when there is desire.

Summary: That when a man and woman are safe from anything being emitted which breaks wudoo – then their wudoo is not broken; and it is preferable to be on the safe side, as they may not be safe from such emissions in the condition of desire – and Allaah Knows best.


Conclusion:

This is what Allaah ta’ala has made easy for us to gather together about the wudoo and its rulings, so we hope from Allaah the Most High, the All-Powerful, that we have been able to do justice to the subject – and we hope that any scholarly solicitous brother who comes across anything in our booklet which is incorrect to cover up and give sincere advice. And it is Allaah who grants success.

REFERENCES:

  1. Al Qur’an al Kareem.
  2. Fathul Baaree – Explanation of Saheeh ul Bukhaaree – by Ibn Hajr.
  3. Saheeh Muslim with an-Nawawi’s explanation.
  4. Sunan Abi Dawood.
  5. Sunan an-Nasaa’ee.
  6. Jaami’ ut-Tirmidhee.
  7. Sunan Ibn Maajah.
  8. Al-Musnad of Imam Ahmad.
  9. As-Sunan al Kubraa of aI-Baihaqee.
  10. Al-Mustadrak ‘alas-Saheehain by al-Haakim.
  11. Al-Muwatta with az-Zarqaanees explanation.
  12. Majma’ az-Zawaa’id by al-Haitumee.
  13. Nasb ur-Raayah of az-Zaila’ee.
  14. Kanz ul Ummaal.
  15. Al Mughnee wash-Sharh ul Kabeer- Ibn Qudaamah.
  16. Sharh us-Sunnah al Baghawee.
  17. Al-Majmoo’ of an-Nawawee.
  18. Al-Isbidhkaar of Ibn ‘Abd il Barr.
  19. Mirqaat ul Mafaateeh Sharh of Mishkaat ul Masaabeeh.
  20. Saheeh ul-Jaami’ us-Sagheer by Al-Albaanee.
  21. Da’eef ul Jaami’ us-Sagheer by al-Albaanee.
  22. Nail ul Autaar of ash-Shaukaanee.
  23. Subul us-Salaam of as-San’aanee.
  24. Fiqh us-Sunnah of Sayyid Saabiq.
  25. Minhaaj us-Sunnah of Ibn Taimiyyah.
  26. Tahdheeb-ut-Tahdheeb of Ibn Hajr.
  27. Fiqh of al Imam Sa’eed ibn al Musayyib.
  28. Fiqh of al Imam al Auzaa’ee.
  29. Lisaan ul ‘Arab of Ibn Manzoor.
  30. Mashaariq ul Anwaar.
  31. ‘Aun al Ma’bood explana~ion of Abi Dawood.
  32. ‘Aaridat-ul-Ahwadhee explanahon of at-Tirmidhee.
  33. Tafseer Ibn Katheer.
  34. Fath-ul-Qadeer by ash-Shaukaanee.
  35. Kitaab-ul-Imaan by Ibn Taimiyyah.
  36. Majmoo’at-ur-Rasaa’il il-Kubraa by Ibn Taimiyyah.
  37. At Tafseer ul Kabeer of Al Fakhr-ur-Raazee.
  38. Lum’aat ut-Tanqeeh – explanation of Mishkaat ul-Masaabeeh.
  39. At-Ta’leeqaat us-Salafiyyah upon Sunan of an-Nasaa’ee.

Footnotes

[1]That which makes normal actions, such as eating and talking, forbidden therein. again

[2]That which renders normal actions permissible

[3]The amount held by the two hands placed together.

[4]A narration whose isnaad is authentic but contradicts that which is better established.

[5]Khilaaf (difference) of Scholars – That sleep is in itself something which breaks wudoo. hadeeth “except from urine or excretion or sleep” … and further, thus hadeeth itself is a proof for this saying.

How to Make Wudhu (Ablution) – by Dr.Saleh as Saleh

Click the below link to read the PDF article

How to Make Wudhu Ablution -Dr Saleh as Saleh [PDF]

Al-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee

Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank (rahimahullaah)

An excellent book on the rules and regulations of various acts of worship, with evidences from the Book and Sunnah. This chapter deals with water and aspects of purification, wudhoo, ghusl, the toilet etc.

Al-Wajeez -The Book Of Purification – Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee – Dawood Burbank [PDF]

Posted with the permission from Abu Talha (rahimahullaah), courtesy of ittibaa.com

The below articles are extracted from the above e-book:

Explanation of Umdatul Ahkaam: Book of Purification – Dr. Saleh as Saleh

Explanation of Umdatul Ahkaam – by Saleh as Saleh Transcripts of the lectures on ‘umdatul ahkaam – Book of Purification

Umdatul Ahkaam – H1 – Shaykh Uthaymeen – Dr Saleh as Saleh
There is no action without intention

Umdatul Ahkaam – H2 – Shaykh Uthaymeen – Dr Saleh as Saleh
The prayer of a person who does hadath (passes, urine, stool or wind) is not accepted till he performs (repeats) the ablution

Umdatul Ahkaam – H3 – Shaykh Uthaymeen – Dr Saleh as Saleh
Woe to dry heels because of Hellfire

Umdatul Ahkaam – H4 – Shaykh Uthaymeen – Dr Saleh as Saleh
If anyone of you performs ablution he should put water in his nose and then blow it out and whoever cleans his private parts with stones should do so with odd numbers. And whoever wakes up from his sleep should wash his hands three times before putting them in the water for ablution, because nobody knows where his hands were during sleep.

Umdatul Ahkaam – H5 – Shaykh Uthaymeen – Dr Saleh as Saleh
None amongst you should urinate in standing water, and then wash in it.

Umdatul Ahkaam – H6 – Shaykh Uthaymeen – Dr Saleh as Saleh
If a dog drinks from the utensil of anyone of you it is essential to wash it seven times.

How to Make Wudu? – Step by Step Video Guide – Shaykh Muhammad Ramzaan [Video|Ar-En Subtitles]

Excellent One ! Must Watch !!

The Excellence of using Miswak (Tooth-Stick)

Imam Al-Nawawi’s Riyad-us-Saliheen
Chapter 215
The Excellence of using Miswak (Tooth-Stick)

1196. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Had I not thought it difficult for my Ummah, I would have commanded them to use the Miswak (tooth-stick) before every Salat.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

1197.  Hudaifah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Whenever the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) got up (from sleep), he would rub his teeth with Miswak (tooth-stick).
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

1198.  `Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) reported: We used to prepare for the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) a Miswak (tooth-stick) and the water for making Wudu’. Whenever Allah wished to awaken him from sleep at night, he (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) would brush his teeth with Miswak, make Wudu’, and perform Salat.
[Muslim].

1199.  Anas (May Allah be pleased with him)reported: The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “I stress upon you to use Miswak (tooth-stick).”
[Al-Bukhari].

1200. Shuraih bin Hani (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I asked `Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her): “What was the first thing which the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) would do when he entered his house?” She replied: “He would use Miswak (tooth-stick).”
[Muslim].

1201. Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I came to the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) once and noticed the tip of Miswak (tooth-stick) on his tongue.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

1202.  `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “The Miswak (tooth-stick) cleanses and purifies the mouth and pleases the Rubb.”
[An-Nasa’i and Ibn Khuzaimah].

1203. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “There are five acts which conform to the pure nature: Circumcision, removing of the pubic hair, clipping the nails, plucking the underarm hair and trimming the moustache.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

1204.  `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “There are ten demands of pure nature: trimming the moustache, letting the beard grow, using Miswak (tooth-stick), snuffing up water into the nose (in ablution), paring the nails, washing the bases of the finger joints; plucking the underarm hair, removing of the pubic hair and removing impurities with water from the affected part after a call of nature.”

The subnarrator said: I forgot the tenth but it might possibly be the rinsing of the mouth (in ablution).
[Muslim].

1205. Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Trim the moustaches and let the beard grow.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Questions Concerning Everyday Issues : Shaykh bin Bâz

Answered by the Noble Scholar and Muftee
Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez bin ‘Abdullaah bin Baaz [1]
Al-Istiqaamah Issue Issue No.2 – Safar 1417H / July 1996

INCREASING EEMAAN (FAITH)

[Q]: Firstly: I begin my question by seeking your advice that I may benefit from you with regards to how I may increase my eemaan (faith)?
Secondly: I wish to learn about the religion, however Islaamic books are very rare in my country (Algeria), except some books which are with some brothers – may Allaah reward them with goodness.
Thirdly: I work as a builder and the people that I work with do not really have sound faith and their speech is nothing more than gossip and obscenities.
Fourthly: I keep company with a brother whose beliefs are corrupt and who constantly speaks ill of the righteous and believing brothers and I feel very distraught about this. So I hope that you will direct me to a cure for this disease.

[A]: Firstly: We advise you to recite the Qur’aan frequently and that you increase in your hearing of it and in your recitation of it. Reflect and consider its meaning to the best of your ability and what you do not understand of it, then ask the people of knowledge of your country about it, or write to those outside of your country from the Scholars of Sunnah (Prophetic guidance).

We also advise you to increase in the dhikr (remembrance) of Allaah with such remembrances and supplications that are authentically related, such as saying laa ilahaa ilallaah (that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah), or saying subhaanallaah wal-hamdulillaah wa laa ilaha ilallaahu wallaahu akbar (declaring Allaah free from all imperfections, praising Him and declaring that none has the right to be worshipped except Him and that He is greater), and their like. For this purpose, we urge you to refer to books such as al Kalimut-Tayyib of Ibn Taymiyyah, al Waabilus-Sayyib of Ibn al-Qayyim, Riyaadhus-Saaliheen and al-Adhkaar both by Imaam an-Nawawee, and their like.

This is because the remembrance of Allaah increases eemaan (faith) and causes hearts to attain tranquility, as Allaah – the Most High – said: “Indeed in the remembrance of Allaah do hearts find tranquility.” [Soorah ar-Ra’dd 13:28].

Also preserve your five daily Prayers, your Fasting and the rest of your obligations – along with hoping in Allaah’s mercy and forgiveness and relying upon Him in all your affairs. Allaah – the Most High – said: “The Believers ate only those who, when Allaah is mentioned, feel a fear in the hearts, and when His Verses are recited to them, it increases their eemaan (faith), and they put their trust and rely upon Allaah alone. They are those who perform the Prayer and spend out of that which We have given them, they are Believers in truth. For them ate grades of dignity and nobility with their Lord, and also forgiveness and generous provisions.” [Soorah al-Anfaal 8:2-4].

Secondly: Islaamic books are easily found in every Muslim country, especially in public libraries and bookshops. So the one who seeks after them will find them. We advise you to refer to the people of knowledge of the Sharee’ah (Prescribed Law of Allaah) so that they may direct you to suitable books for you to read, borrow or buy. If there are any problems regarding this, then it is not fitting for us to stop answering your questions from the Pure Revelation – and We ask Allaah that He makes us firm in that, and only His help is sought.

Thirdly, Fourthly: It is upon you to keep good company and to sit in righteous gatherings in order to benefit from them and their manners and their knowledge and that they may assist you in cultivating obedience to Allaah. So be careful and beware of bad companionship, and evil gathering. Beware, so that they may not influence you, adversely affecting your morals and manners, such that you fall into ill-repute, or that they weaken your resolve and determination in fulfilling your religious obligations and the obligations to your family. Indeed, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam advised the Ummah to sit in good gatherings, and he warned them from the evil and foul gatherings, and he gave a noble example about this, when he said: “The example of a good companion and a bad companion is like that of a seller of musk, and the one who blows the blacksmith’s bellows. As for the seller of musk then either he will grant you some, or you buy some from him, or at the very least you enjoy a pleasant smell from him. As for the one who blows the blacksmith’s bellows, then either he will burn your clothes, or you will get an offensive smell from him.” This was related by al-Bukhaaree (4/323), from Abu Moosaa al-Ash’aree radiallaahu ‘anhu. 1

CONCERNING A WOMAN’S MAHR (DOWRY)

[Q]: I and many others have observed that many people are very excessive when it comes to the matter of the mahr (wedding dowry that is paid to the bride), and that they seek great amounts of mahr when it comes to the marriage of their daughters, and they stipulate as a condition the giving of other gifts to them, along with the mahr. This wealth that people demand in such cases, is it halaal (lawful) or haraam (unlawful)?

[A]: What is prescribed in the Sharee’ah is that the mahr should be a small amount and that people should not compete with each other in this regard, acting in accordance with the many ahaadeeth which are related about this. They should also help facilitate marriages and be keen in preserving the modesty and decency of the young Muslim men and women. And it is not permissible for the awliyaa (guardians of the brides-to-be) to demand and stipulate gifts for themselves, since they have no right at all in this matter. Rather the right belongs to the woman, and in some particular cases to the father. He may stipulate a condition as long as it does not harm the daughter, nor lead to the delaying of the marriage. However, if the father forgoes such a right then this is better and more preferable. Allaah – the One free from all defects – says: “And marry those amongst you who are single and also marry the pious of your male and female slaves. If they be poor, Allaah will enrich them out of His Bounty.” [Soorah an-Noor 24:32].

In the hadeeth of ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir radiallaahu ‘anhu, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “The best dowry is that which is easy.” This was narrated by Abu Daawood and al-Haakim who authenticated it. And once a woman offered herself to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam for marriage. However, one of his Companions desired to marry her, so the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said [regarding the mahr]: “Bring something, even if it be an iron ring.” So when he could not find even this, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married them for the dowry that the man would teach whatever of the Qur’aan he knew to her. 2

And the dowry of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam’s wives was five-hundred dirhams, which is equivalent to one-hundred and thirty riyaals today. And his daughters were married for the mahr of four-hundred dinaars, which is equivalent to one-hundred riyaals today. Allaah – the Most High – said: “Indeed in the Messenger of Allaah you have a most beautiful example to follow.” [Soorah al-Ahzaab 33:21].

So whenever the difficulties relating to marriage are lightened, then preserving the modesty and decency of young men and women becomes easier, shameful and evil deeds decrease, and the Ummah – as a result – will increase in number. However if this matter is made difficult, and people continue competing with each other with regards to the mahr (dowry), then the number of marriages will decrease, fornication will become more widespread and more young men and women will remain unmarried – except those whom Allaah saves.

So my sincere advice to all the Muslims, wherever they may be, is to facilitate the marriage process and to cooperate in this and make it easy. They should turn away from demanding excessive mahr and avoid unnecessary hardships and difficulties in the waleemah (wedding-feast). Rather, they should content themselves with a waleemah that is according to the Sharee’ah, in which the burdens and difficulties for the husband and wife are minimal. May Allaah improve and rectify all the affairs of the Muslims and may He give them the guidance and ability to cling to the Sunnah (Prophetic guidance) in all matters. 3

IMPURITIES UPON ONE’S CLOTHING WHILST PRAYING

[Q]: If a person finds some impurity upon his clothes after he has finished praying in it, does the Prayer have to be prayed again?

[A]: Whosoever prays, and is unaware that there are impurities upon his body or his clothes during the Prayer, but only realises after he has completed it, then his Prayer will be deemed as correct, according to the most correct position of the Scholars. Similarly, if he was aware of such impurities before the Prayer, but then forgot about this at the time of praying and did not remember except after the Prayer, then his Prayer likewise will be correct. Allaah – the Mighty and Majestic said: “Our Lord! Do not take us to task if we forget or fall into error.” [Soorah al-Baqarah 2:286]. It has been authentically related about Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, that one day he sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam led the people in Prayer, wearing his shoes. Then the angel Jibreel came to him during the Prayer and informed him that there was some dirt on his shoes. So the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam removed them and continued with his Prayer and he did not repeat the Prayer.4 This is part of the ease which Allaah – the One free from all defects – has given to His servants out of His Mercy for them. However, if a person forgets that he had passed wind, then prays in that state, he must – by ijmaa’ (consensus) of the Scholars – repeat his prayer again, when he remembers. This is due to the saying of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam: “The Prayer will not be accepted without purification nor will charity be accepted from wealth that is unlawful.” This has been related by Muslim in his Saheeh (1/140) and the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam’s saying: “The Prayer of any one of you who has released wind will not be accepted, until he makes wudhoo (ablution).” Related by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim. 5

SLAUGHTERING FOR OTHER THAN ALLAAH

[Q]: The slaughtering of sheep and other such animals at the graves of the pious people, for their sake and in order to please and draw closer to them, is a custom amongst my family. I have tried to prevent them from doing so, but it has only made them more resolute in doing so. I have said to them that this is shirk (associating partners in the worship) of Allaah. But they respond by saying: We only worship Allaah the way He deserves to be worshipped. However, we visit the graves of the awliyaa (the pious friends of Allaah) and supplicate to Allaah, through the right of the pious people, so that harm and difficulties may be averted from us. I have said to them that this is not from the religion, but they just tell me to leave them alone upon what they are doing. So what do you suggest should be the cure for such people, and what do you suggest I do to counter act this bid’ah (innovation)?

[A]: It is known from the evidences related in the Qur’aan and the Sunnah that sacrificing for other than Allaah, in order to draw close to other than Allaah – whether sacrificing for the jinns, awliyaa, idols or other than that from the creation – is an act of shirk and is an act of jaahiliyyah (pre-Islaamic ignorance) that was practiced by the mushriks (those who worshipped the pious men, jinns, angels, stones, statues, etc, along with worshipping Allaah). Allaah- the Mighty and Majestic – said: “Say: Indeed my Prayer, my sacrifce, my living and my dying are all for Allaah Lord of the worlds. No partner do I setup with Him in this, and this is what I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims.” [Soorah al-An’aam 6:162]. So Allaah – the Most Perfect – clearly explains in this verse that sacrificing to other than Allaah is like praying to other than Him. And Allaah – the Most High – said: “Indeed We have granted to the Prophet sallallaabu ‘alayhi wa sallam the Kawthar (a river in Paradise whose banks are lined with tents made from hollow pearls). Therefore turn in Prayer to your Lord and sacrifice to Him alone.” [Soorah al-Kawthar 108:1-2]. So Allaah – the One free from all defects – commanded His Prophet in these noble verses that he should pray only to His Lord and that he should sacrifice to only Him, which was opposite of what the mushriks did, in that they used to prostrate to other than Allaah and to sacrifice to other than Him. Allaah – the Most High – said: “And your Lord has commanded that you worship none but Him.” [Soorah al-Israa 17:23]. And He – the Most Perfect – said: “And they have not been commanded except to worship Allaah alone making the religion purely and sincerely for Him.” [Soorah al-Bayyinah 98:5]. And there are many other verses with the same meaning. So, since sacrificing is one of the acts of ‘ibaadah (worship), then it is obligatory to make this action purely and sincerely for Allaah alone, without directing it to other than Him. Also ‘Alee ibn Abee Taalib radiallaahu ‘anhu said that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “May Allaah curse the one who sacrifices to other than Allaah.” This has been related by Muslim in his Saheeh (no.765).

As for supplicating to Allaah and asking Him by the right of the awliyaa or by the right of His Messenger, or by the status of His Messenger – then this does not constitute shirk, but rather it is a bid’ah (innovation) which leads to shirk, in the opinion of the majority of Scholars. This is because du’aa (supplication) is an act of worship, and how it is to be done can only be known from the Revelation. And there is nothing authentically established from our Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to show the permissibility or validity of this type of tawassul (seeking the means of nearness to Allaah by invoking an intermediary) in which Allaah is asked through the right of His Prophet or the right of the awliyaa or any of His creation. So it is not permissible for any Muslim to innovate new forms of tawassul which has not been prescribed by Allaah, as He – the Most High – said: “Or do they have partners with Allaah who prescribe for them a religion which Allaah has not prescribed.” [Soorah ash-Shooraa 42:21]. And the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Whosoever introduces into this affair of ours that which is not from it, will be rejected”, and in another authentic narration: “Whosoever does an action that I have not commanded, it will be rejected.” 7 And the meaning of this is that such innovated actions will be rejected and not accepted from its doer. Thus it is obligatory for the Muslims to restrict themselves to only what Allaah has prescribed and to beware of what people have innovated into the religion. As regards the prescribed forms of tawassul then they are: tawassul (seeking the means of nearness to Allaah) through His Names and His Attributes and by righteous actions, and by one’s eemaan (faith) in Allaah and His Messenger, and other righteous and prescribed actions similar to this. 9


1. Fataawaa Lajnatud-Daa’imah lil-Buhoothul-‘Ilmiyah wal-Iftaa (3/185-187).
2. Related by Abu Daawood in his Sunan.
3. Al-Fataawa (1/168-169).
4. Saheeh: Related by Abu Daawood (no.650) and al-Bayhaqee (2/431), from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree radiallaahu ‘anhu. It was authenticated by an-Nawawee in al-Majmoo’ (2/189).
5. Fataawaa Muhimmah Tata’allaqu bis-Salaah (no.14).
6. Related by al-Bukhaaree (2/166) and Muslim (5/133), from ‘Aaishah radiallaahu ‘anhaa.
7. Related by Muslim (no.1817), from ‘Aaishah radiallaahu ‘anhaa.
8. Al-Fataawaa (1/17-18).

The Things that Nullify Wudoo : Shaikh ‘Abdul-Muhsin Al-‘Abbaad

His explanation of Shuroot as-Salaat of Imaam Ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab
Al-Ibaanah.com

The author (Imaam Muhmmad bin ‘Abdil-Wahhaab) stated: “The things that nullify (nawaaqid) the ablution are eight:

(1) Whatever comes out from the two private parts;
(2) Any foul impure substance that comes out from the body;
(3) Loss of consciousness (i.e. sleep/insanity);
(4) Touching a woman with sexual desire;
(5) Touching one’s private part with the hand, whether it is the frontal or rear (private part);
(6) Eating the meat of camels;
(7) Bathing a deceased person; and
(8) Apostating from Islaam, may Allaah protect us from that!”

The Explanation:

First: “Whatever comes out from the two private parts”: This refers to everything that comes out from the two private part areas, such as feces, urine, passing gas, blood, sperm, female ejaculation and so on. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Allaah does not accept the prayer of any of you if he releases (something) from his private parts, until he performs wudoo.” [Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (6954) and Muslim (537) from Abu Hurairah (radyAllaahu ‘anhu)]

Second: “Any foul impure substance that comes out from the body”: The scholars have differed concerning blood that is emitted from other that the two private parts – does it nullify the wudoo or not? Some of the scholars have taken the view that this does not cancel out the wudoo, since nothing has been authentically reported on the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) concerning that. Some other scholars have taken the view that it only cancels out the wudoo if a lot of this foul substance is emitted. This is the view that was reported on some of the Sahaabah and Taabi’een, and this is the same opinion that the author has preferred here, may Allaah have mercy on him. This is taking the view that is most cautious and more removed from differing. See al-Mughnee (1/247), the Majmoo’ Fataawaa of Shaikh Ibn Baaz, may Allaah have mercy on him (10/159) and the Fataawaa of the Permanent Committee for Verdicts (5/261).

Third: “Loss of consciousness (i.e. sleep/insanity)”: Wudoo is nullified by the loss of consciousness, whether due to insanity, drunkenness, fainting or deep sleep. As for the sleep in which one is drowsy and lightly dozes without him losing his sense of feeling, such as when one is sitting or standing and he dozes off, so his head bops back and forth, then he becomes conscious, this does not nullify the wudoo. Muslim reported in his Saheeh (376) from Anas (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) that: “The Companions of Allaah’s Messenger would sleep then pray without performing (new) wudoo.” The wording of this hadeeth as reported by Abu Dawood (200) states: “The Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would wait for the ‘Ishaa prayer to the point that their heads would bop around. Then they would pray without performing (new) wudoo.” This proves that the loss of consciousness does not nullify wudoo in itself, but rather that it is just the most likely scenario where one’s wudoo will be broken. What also proves this is the statement of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam): “The drawstring of the anus is the eyes. So whoever falls asleep must perform (a new) wudoo.” [Reported by Abu Dawood (203) from ‘Alee (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) and its chain of narration is sound. See Irwaa-ul-Ghaleel (113). An-Nawawee, Al-Mundhiree and Ibn as-Salaah have also been quoted as declaring it hasan (sound).]

Fourth: “Touching a woman with sexual desire”: The opinion preferred here by the author is just one of the three opinions that exist on this issue. The second view holds that touching a woman nullifies one’s wudoo absolutely without exception. The third view states that touching a woman does not break one’s wudoo in the absolute sense, regardless of whether it is done with sexual desire or not, so long as nothing is emitted (i.e. ejaculation) with desire. This (last) opinion is the most correct of all the opinions because of the lack of there being any authentic texts that indicate that this nullifies the wudoo. See the Fataawaa (10/132-138) of Shaikh Ibn Baaz, may Allaah have mercy on him.

Fifth: “Touching one’s private part with the hand, whether it is the frontal or rear (private part)”: This view that has been preferred here by the author is the view of the majority of the scholars, and it is the correct view. This is if the touch occurs without any barrier between the hand and the private part, regardless of whether one touches his own private part or the private part of someone else, or if the one being touched is young or old, dead or alive. This is based on the hadeeth narrated by Busrah bint Safwan (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who reported that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Whoever touches his penis must perform wudoo.” [Reported by At-Tirmidhee (82) and others and he said it was a “hasan saheeh hadeeth.” See Irwaa-ul-Ghaleel (116) and the Fataawaa of the Permanent Committee for Verdicts (5/263-266)]

Sixth: “Eating the meat of camels”: There are two opinions from the scholars concerning the wudoo of one who eats the meat of camels. The first is the view of the majority of the scholars, which is that one is not required to perform wudoo from eating their meat. The second view states that one is obligated to perform wudoo because of that regardless of whether the meat is raw or cooked. As for the milk that comes from camels and the juice (gravy) of their meat as well as the food that is cooked along with its meat, then these things do not nullify one’s wudoo. What proves that one is required to perform wudoo because of eating the meat of camels is the hadeeth of Jaabir bin Samurah (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) that a man once asked the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam): ‘Should I perform wudoo after eating the meat of sheep?’ He (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘If you wish, perform wudoo and if you wish do not perform wudoo.’The man then asked: ‘Should I perform wudoo after eating the meat of camels?’ He (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘Yes, perform wudoo from the meat of camels.’ The man asked: ‘Can I pray in the sheep stables?’ He (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘Yes.’ The man asked: ‘Can I pray in the camel resting areas?’ He (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘No.’ ” [Reported by Muslim (360)]

Then there is also the hadeeth of Al-Baraa bin ‘Aazib (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) in which he said: “The Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was asked about performing wudoo after eating the meat of camels, so he replied: ‘Perform wudoo from that.’ And he was asked about the meat of sheep, so he replied: ‘Do not perform wudoo from that.’ Then he was asked about praying in the resting area of the camels, so he replied: ‘Do not pray in the resting areas of the camels for indeed these places are from the devils.’ Then he was asked about praying in the sheep stables, so he replied: ‘Pray in them for indeed these areas are a blessing.’” [Reported by Abu Dawood (184) and others with an authentic chain of narration]

The fundamental principle with regard to a command (from the Prophet) is that that matter becomes an obligation. And the fundamental principle with regard to the mention of wudoo here is that it refers to the Islamic definition of wudoo. So this command is not to be interpreted as a recommendation nor is the wudoo here to be interpreted according to its linguistic meaning, which is washing the hands and rinsing. This is due to the lack of there being something that turns away this fundamental principle. See Irwaa-ul-Ghaleel (118). In his explanation of Saheeh Muslim, An-Nawawee mentioned the difference of opinion of the scholars concerning having to retake wudoo from the meat of camels, saying: “Ahmad bin Hanbal and Ishaaq bin Raahwaih reported two hadeeths concerning this – i.e. performing wudoo from the meat of camels – the hadeeth of Jaabir and the hadeeth of Al-Baraa. This is the view with the strongest proofs even if the majority of the scholars disagree with it.” Also refer to Majmoo’ Fataawaa of Shaikh Ibn Baaz (10/156-158), may Allaah have mercy on him, and the Fataawaa of the Permanent Committee for Verdicts (5/273-277).

Seventh: “Bathing a deceased person”: The scholars have differed into two opinions on the ruling of whether one is required to perform wudoo as a result of washing a dead person’s body. The first opinion is that it is obligatory to perform wudoo after washing the body of a deceased person, while the second states that it is just recommended. Ibn Qudaamah mentioned these two opinions in al-Mughnee (1/256) and inclined towards the view that it is recommended. Abu Dawood (3161) reported from the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah in marfoo’ form: “Whoever washes a dead person, should perform ghusl. And whoever carries his body, should perform wudoo.” Al-Albaanee mentioned it in Irwaa-ul-Ghaleel (144) and in the book Ahkaam-ul-Janaa’iz (53), quoting Ibn Al-Qayyim, Ibn Al-Qattaan, Ibn Hazm, and Ibn Hajr Al-‘Asqalaanee as declaring it authentic. He (i.e. Al-Albaanee) also mentioned that it most likely indicates its recommendation not its obligation, due to an authentic hadeeth in that regard from Ibn ‘Abbaas as well as a narration from Ibn ‘Umar, may Allaah be pleased with them.

If while washing the body, a person touches the private part of the person he is washing without there being a cover between him and the private part, he then becomes obligated to perform the wudoo for having touched the private part, not because he washed the deceased body. Also see the Fataawaa of Shaikh Ibn Baaz (10/165), may Allaah have mercy on him.

Eighth: “Apostating from Islaam, may Allaah protect us from that”: What the author, may Allaah have mercy on him, mentioned here from one losing his wudoo due to apostasy, is what Ibn Qudaamah attributed to the madh-hab of Imaam Ahmad in al-Mughnee (1/238). Furthermore, he attributed the view that apostasy doesn’t nullify the wudoo to the other three Imaams. So if a person performs wudoo and then apostates from Islaam, then returns back to it before committing one of the things that would break his wudoo, except apostasy, then he remains in his state of wudoo, according to the second opinion. So he is not required to repeat the wudoo. However, according to the first view, he is required to repeat the wudoo. But as for the opinion mentioned by the author, then it is the most cautious one and the farthest removed from differing, based on the statement of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam): “Leave that which makes you doubt for that which doesn’t make you doubt.”

Published: July 6,2005 | Modified: July 6, 2005