At-Tayammum (Purification with Earth) – Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee | Dawood Burbank


Its Legislation:

He- the Most High- says:

“And if you are ill or upon a journey, or one of you comes from going to the toilet, or if you have had sexual intercourse with women and you do not find water, then perform tayammum with clean earth: and wipe your faces and your hands.” [Sooratul-Maa.idah (5):6]

And Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

“Clean earth is a purification for the Muslim even if he does not find water for ten years.” [1]

The causes which render it permissible:

It is permissible to perform tayammum when one is unable to use water, if he can not find it, or if he fears harm from using- it because of illness in the body or severe cold. From `Imraan ibn Husayn -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “We were along with Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) on a journey. So he led the people in the Prayer and then he saw a man who was keeping himself away. So he said:

“What prevented you from praying?” He said: “I was struck by janaabah and there was no water.” So he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: “Use the earth, for it will suffice you.” [2]

And from Jaabir -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “We went out on a journey, so a man from us was struck by a rock and it caused him a head injury. Then he had a wet dream, so he asked his companions: ‘Do you find any concession for me to perform tayammum?’ So they said: “We do not find any concession for you and you, and you are able to use water.” So he took a bath and he died. So when we came to Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) he was informed of that. So he said:

“They killed him, may Allaah kill them. Why didn’t they ask when they did not know? Indeed the cure for ignorance is to ask. It would have sufficed him to perform tayammum.” [3]

And from `Amr ibn al-`Aas -radiyallaahu `anhu- that when he was sent on the military expedition of Dhaatas-Salaasil he said: “I had a wet dream on a night which was severely cold, so I feared that if I took a bath I would die. So I performed tayammum, and then I led my companions in the Dawn Prayer. Then when we came to Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) they mentioned that to him. So he said:

“O `Amr did you lead your companions in Prayer when you were junub?” So I said: “I remembered the Saying of Allaah- the Most High:

“And do not kill yourselves indeed Allaah is ever Merciful to you.” [Sooratun-Nisaa· (4): 29]

So therefore I performed tayammum and then I prayed.” So Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) laughed, and he did not say anything.” [4]

What is ‘earth’ (as-Sa’eed)?

He said in ‘Lisaanul `Arab’ [5] : “The Sa`eed is the earth; it is said: pure earth, and it is said: it is every pure soil; and there occurs in the Revelation sent down:

“So perform tayammum with pure earth” [Sooratul Maa·idah (5): 6]

Aboo Ishaaq said: ‘as-Sa`eed is the face of the earth, and it is upon the person that he should strike his two hands upon the face of the earth, and not care whether the place has soil upon it or not. Because as-Sa`eed is not soil rather it is the face of the earth, whether that be soil or something else. He said: and if there is a land which is all rock, with no soil upon it, and the person performing tayammum strikes his hand upon that rock, then that would be purification if he wipes his face with it.’

The description of the tayammum:

From `Ammaar ibn Yaasir -radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)- who said: ‘I became junub and I did not find any water. Therefore I rolled around in the dust and I prayed. So I mentioned that to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and he said: “It would have sufficed you to do like this”, and the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) struck the ground with his two palms, and blew upon them. Then he wiped his face with them and his two hands.’ [6]

A point of benefit:

The principal with regard to tayammum is that it takes the place of the wudoo· So whatever is permissible to do in a state of wudoo·, then is permissible to do it with it (i.e. tayammum). And it is permissible to perform it before the time, just as that is permissible with the wudoo·; and the person can prayer whatever he wishes with it, just as he prays in a state of wudoo.

The things which break tayammum:

Tayammum is broken by that which breaks the wudoo·. It is also broken by the presence of water -for the person who couldn’t find it, and the ability to use it- for the one who was unable to use it; and whatever came before from his Prayer is correct, it is not necessary for him to repeat it.

From Aboo Sa`eed al-Khudree -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “Two men went out on a journey and it became time for the Prayer and they did not have any water with them. So both of them performed tayammum with pure earth and they prayed. Then they found water within the time. So one of them repeated the wudoo· and the Prayer, and the other one did not repeat. Then they came to Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and they mentioned that to him. So he said to the one who had not repeated: “You attained the Sunnah, and your Prayer suffices you.” And he said to the one who performed wudoo· and repeated: “You have the reward twice over.”’’ [7]

A point of benefit:

Whoever has a wound upon which he has wrapped a bandage, or a fracture which he has set, then having to wash that place falls away from him, and he does not have to wipe over it, nor perform tayammum for it.

The proof for that is the Saying of Allaah- the Most High:

“Allaah does not place a duty on any soul except that which it can carry out.” [Sooratul-Baqarah (2): 286]

And the saying of the Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) “When I command you with a matter, then do what you are able to do from it.” [8]

So everything which the person is unable to do falls away, by the text of the Qur’aan and the Sunnah, and to declare something else to be a replacement for it is legislation, and legislation is not binding except by a text of the Qur’aan or Sunnah; and there is nothing in the Qur’aan or the Sunnah to show that wiping upon a splint or upon ointment is a replacement for washing that which the person is not able to wash. So that saying falls away. [9]

The permissibility of performing tayammum with a wall: [10]

From Ibn `Abbaas-radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)-who said: “ I came along with `Abdullaah ibn Yasaar- the slave belonging to Maymoonah the wife of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) until we entered upon Aboo Juhaym ibn al-Haarith ibn as-Simmah al-Ansaaree.

So Abul- Juhaym said: The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) came from the direction of the well of Jamal [11], so he was met by a man who greeted him with Salaam, but the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) did not respond to him until he went to the wall, and wiped his face and two hands. Then he responded to his greeting of Salaam.” [12]


[1] Saheeh: [Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (322); at-Tirmidhee (1/81/124), Aboo Daawood ( 1/528/329), anNasaa·ee (1/171)-with wordings which are close.
[2]Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/477/344), Muslim (1/474/682), an-Nasaa·ee (1/171).
[3] Hasan: [Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (326)]; Aboo Daawood (1/532/332), and it contains an addition which is munkar, and that is “…and wipe or tie a piece of cloth upon his wound and then wipe over it. And wash the rest of his body.’’ Shamsul-Haqq said in ‘ `Awnul-Ma`bood’ (1/535): ‘The narration about combining tayammum and washing is not reported by anyone other than Zubayr ibn Khurayq, and he- along with the fact that he is not strong in hadeeth – has also contradicted the rest of those who report it from `Ataa· ibn Abee Rabaah. So the narration of the combination between tayammum and taking a bath is a narration which is weak, rulings cannot be established through it.’ And take note of the point of benefit which follows after one page.
[4] Saheeh: [Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (323), Aboo Daawood (1/530/330), Ahmad (2/191/16),al-Haakim (1/177).
[5] (3/254)
[6] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/455/347), Muslim (1/280/368), Aboo Daawood (1/514/317), an-Nasaa·ee (1/166).
[7] Saheeh:[Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (327), Aboo Daawood (1/536/334), an- Nasaa·ee (1/213).
[8] Saheeh: [Mukhtasar Muslim (639), Muslim (2/975/1337), an-Nasaa·ee (5/110).
[9] al-Muhallaa of Ibn Hazm (2/74).
[10] Whether it is made of clay or made of rock; whether it is painted or not painted .This verdict was given to me by our Shaikh al-Albaanee –rahimahullaah, and he said: “And your Lord is never forgetful” [Soorah Maryam (19): 64]
[11] A place close to al-Madeenah.
[12] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/441/337), Muslim (1/281/369) -in disconnected form, Aboo Daawood (1/521/325), an-Nasaa·ee (1/165).

Source : Al-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank . An excellent book on the rules and regulations of various acts of worship, with evidences from the Book and Sunnah. This chapter deals with water and aspects of purification, wudhoo, ghusl, the toilet etc

Related Link

How should the Sick person Purify Himself? – Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen

1. The Sick person is required to purify himself with water, performing ablution from minor impurity and Ghusl from major impurity.

2. If he is unable to purify himself using water, due to weakness or fear of increasing his illness, or delaying his recovery, then he may perform Tayammum.

3. The way to perform Tayammum is to strike the clean earth with his hands once, then wipe his whole face with them, then wipe his hands, one with the other.

4. If he is unable to purify himself, the another person should assist him in making the ablution, or performing the Tayammum.

5. If a certain part of the body which is to be purified is afflicted by a wound, he should wash it with water; but if washing it with water will cause harm to him, then he may wet his hand with water and then wipe over it. If wiping over it may also cause harm he may perform Tayammum for it.

6. If he has a severe fracture in any of his limbs, which is covered with a dressing or cast, he may wipe over it with water, instead of washing it, and it does not require Tayammum, because the wiping takes the place of washing.

7. It is permisable to make Tayammum using a wall, or anything else which is clean and contains dust. If the wall is covered with anything which is not from th earth such as paint, then one should not make Tayammum with it, unless there is dust over it.

8. If the Tayammum is not made on the earth or a wall or anything else containing dust, there is no objection to the collecting of dust in container or a hankerchief, in order to make Tayammum with it.

9. If a person performs Tayammum for prayer, and remains in a purified state until the time of the next prayer, then he may pray with the Tayammum he made before and he does not need to repeat it for the second prayer, since he remains purified and nothing has invalidated it.

10. The sick person is obliged to cleanse his body from all manner of impurity, but if he is unable to do so, he may pray as he is, and his prayer will be correct and he does not need to repeat it.

11 The sick person is required to pray in clean clothes, and if they became soiled, they must be cleaned or replaced with clean ones. If this is not possible, he may pray as he is, and his prayer will be correct and he does not need to repeat it.

12. The sick person is obliged to pray upon something clean and if it becomes soiled, he must wash it, change for something clean or cover it with something clean. If he is unable to do so, he may pray there, and his prayer will be correct and he does not need to repeat it.

13. It is not permissible for the invalid to delay the prayer due to his inability to achieve purification; rather, he should purify himself as much as he is able, then perform the prayer on time, even if there is some impurity on his body, his clothes or his place of prayer, which he is unable to remove.

Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-`Uthaymeen
Fatawa Islamiyah, Vol. 2, p23-25, Dar-us-Salam

Tayammum – Umdatul Ahkaam – Dr Saleh-As-Saleh [Audio|En]

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 36 – Chapter on Tayammum – Saleh-As-Saleh

Umdatul Ahkaam – Purification – 37 – Doing Tayammum to Lift Janaba – Saleh-As-Saleh

Sahih Bukhari : Book 7: Rubbing hands and feet with dust (Tayammum)

Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 7:

Rubbing hands and feet with dust(Tayammum)

Volume 1, Book 7, Number 330:

Narrated ‘Aisha:

(the wife of the Prophet) We set out with Allahs Apostle on one of his journeys till we reached Al-Baida’ or Dhatul-Jaish, a necklace of mine was broken (and lost). Allah’s Apostle stayed there to search for it, and so did the people along with him. There was no water at that place, so the people went to Abu- Bakr As-Siddiq and said, “Don’t you see what ‘Aisha has done? She has made Allah’s Apostle and the people stay where there is no water and they have no water with them.” Abu Bakr came while Allah’s Apostle was sleeping with his head on my thigh, He said, to me: “You have detained Allah’s Apostle and the people where there is no water and they have no water with them.

So he admonished me and said what Allah wished him to say and hit me on my flank with his hand. Nothing prevented me from moving (because of pain) but the position of Allah’s Apostle on my thigh. Allah’s Apostle got up when dawn broke and there was no water. So Allah revealed the Divine Verses of Tayammum. So they all performed Tayammum. Usaid bin Hudair said, “O the family of Abu Bakr! This is not the first blessing of yours.” Then the camel on which I was riding was caused to move from its place and the necklace was found beneath it.

Volume 1, Book 7, Number 331:

Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah:

The Prophet said, “I have been given five things which were not given to any one else before me.

1. Allah made me victorious by awe, (by His frightening my enemies) for a distance of one month’s journey.

2. The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying and a thing to perform Tayammum, therefore anyone of my followers can pray wherever the time of a prayer is due.

3. The booty has been made Halal (lawful) for me yet it was not lawful for anyone else before me.

4. I have been given the right of intercession (on the Day of Resurrection).

5. Every Prophet used to be sent to his nation only but I have been sent to all mankind.

Volume 1, Book 7, Number 332:

Narrated ‘Urwa’s father:

Aisha said, “I borrowed a necklace from Asma’ and it was lost. So Allah’s Apostle sent a man to search for it and he found it. Then the time of the prayer became due and there was no water. They prayed (without ablution) and informed Allah’s Apostle about it, so the verse of Tayammum was revealed.” Usaid bin Hudair said to ‘Aisha, “May Allah reward you. By Allah, whenever anything happened which you did not like, Allah brought good for you and for the Muslims in that.”

Al-Jurf and the time for the ‘Asr prayer became due while he was at Marbad-AnNa’am (sheep-fold), so he (performed Tayammum) and prayed there and then entered Medina when the sun was still high but he did not repeat that prayer.

Volume 1, Book 7, Number 333:

Narrated Abu Juhaim Al-Ansari:

The Prophet came from the direction of Bir Jamal. A man met him and greeted him. But he did not return back the greeting till he went to a (mud) wall and smeared his hands and his face with its dust (performed Tayammum) and then returned back the greeting.

Volume 1, Book 7, Number 334:

Narrated ‘Abdur Rahman bin Abza:

A man came to ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab and said, “I became Junub but no water was available.” ‘Ammar bin Yasir said to ‘Umar, “Do you remember that you and I (became Junub while both of us) were together on a journey and you didn’t pray but I rolled myself on the ground and prayed? I informed the Prophet about it and he said, ‘It would have been sufficient for you to do like this.’ The Prophet then stroked lightly the earth with his hands and then blew off the dust and passed his hands over his face and hands.”

Volume 1, Book 7, Number 335:

Narrated Said bin ‘Abdur Rahman bin Abza:

(on the authority of his father who said) ‘Ammar said so (the above Statement). And Shu’ba stroked lightly the earth with his hands and brought them close to his mouth (blew off the dust) and passed them over his face and then the backs of his hands. ‘Ammar said, “Ablution (meaning Tayammum here) is sufficient for a Muslim if water is not available.”

Volume 1, Book 7, Number 336:

Narrated ‘Abdur Rahman bin Abza:

that while he was in the company of ‘Umar, ‘Ammar said to ‘Umar, “We were in a detachment and became Junub and I blew the dust off my hands (performed the rolling over the earth and prayed.)”

Volume 1, Book 7, Number 337:

Narrated ‘Abdur Rahman bin Abza:

‘Ammar said to ‘Umar “I rolled myself in the dust and came to the Prophet who said, ‘Passing dusted hands over the face and the backs of the hands is sufficient for you.’ “

Volume 1, Book 7, Number 338:

Narrated ‘Ammar:

as above.

Volume 1, Book 7, Number 339:

Narrated ‘Ammar:

The Prophet stroked the earth with his hands and then passed them over his face and the backs of his hands (while demonstrating Tayammum).

Volume 1, Book 7, Number 340:

Narrated ‘Imran:

Once we were traveling with the Prophet and we carried on traveling till the last part of the night and then we (halted at a place) and slept (deeply). There is nothing sweeter than sleep for a traveler in the last part of the night. So it was only the heat of the sun that made us to wake up and the first to wake up was so and so, then so and so and then so and so (the narrator ‘Auf said that Abu Raja’ had told him their names but he had forgotten them) and the fourth person to wake up was ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab. And whenever the Prophet used to sleep, nobody would wake up him till he himself used to get up as we did not know what was happening (being revealed) to him in his sleep. So, ‘Umar got up and saw the condition of the people, and he was a strict man, so he said, “Allahu Akbar” and raised his voice with Takbir, and kept on saying loudly till the Prophet got up because of it. When he got up, the people informed him about what had happened to them. He said, “There is no harm (or it will not be harmful). Depart!” So they departed from that place, and after covering some distance the Prophet stopped and asked for some water to perform the ablution. So he performed the ablution and the call for the prayer was pronounced and he led the people in prayer. After he finished from the prayer, he saw a man sitting aloof who had not prayed with the people. He asked, “O so and so! What has prevented you from praying with us?” He replied, “I am Junub and there is no water. ” The Prophet said, “Perform Tayammum with (clean) earth and that is sufficient for you.”

Then the Prophet proceeded on and the people complained to him of thirst. Thereupon he got down and called a person (the narrator ‘Auf added that Abu Raja’ had named him but he had forgotten) and ‘Ali, and ordered them to go and bring water. So they went in search of water and met a woman who was sitting on her camel between two bags of water. They asked, “Where can we find water?” She replied, “I was there (at the place of water) this hour yesterday and my people are behind me.” They requested her to accompany them. She asked, “Where?” They said, “To Allah’s Apostle .” She said, “Do you mean the man who is called the Sabi, (with a new religion)?” They replied, “Yes, the same person. So come along.” They brought her to the Prophet and narrated the whole story. He said, “Help her to dismount.” The Prophet asked for a pot, then he opened the mouths of the bags and poured some water into the pot. Then he closed the big openings of the bags and opened the small ones and the people were called upon to drink and water their animals. So they all watered their animals and they (too) all quenched their thirst and also gave water to others and last of all the Prophet gave a pot full of water to the person who was Junub and told him to pour it over his body. The woman was standing and watching all that which they were doing with her water. By Allah, when her water bags were returned the looked like as if they were more full (of water) than they had been before (Miracle of Allah’s Apostle) Then the Prophet ordered us to collect something for her; so dates, flour and Sawiq were collected which amounted to a good meal that was put in a piece of cloth. She was helped to ride on her camel and that cloth full of food-stuff was also placed in front of her and then the Prophet said to her, “We have not taken your water but Allah has given water to us.” She returned home late. Her relatives asked her: “O so and so what has delayed you?” She said, “A strange thing! Two men met me and took me to the man who is called the Sabi’ and he did such and such a thing. By Allah, he is either the greatest magician between this and this (gesturing with her index and middle fingers raising them towards the sky indicating the heaven and the earth) or he is Allah’s true Apostle.”

Afterwards the Muslims used to attack the pagans around her abode but never touched her village. One day she said to her people, “I think that these people leave you purposely. Have you got any inclination to Islam?” They obeyed her and all of them embraced Islam.

Abu ‘Abdultah said: The word Saba’a means “The one who has deserted his old religion and embraced a new religion.” Abul ‘Ailya said, “The Sabis are a sect of people of the Scripture who recite the Book of Psalms.”

Volume 1, Book 7, Number 341:

Narrated Abu Wail:

Abu Muisa said to’Abdullah bin Mas’ud, “If one does not find water (for ablution) can he give up the prayer?” Abdullah replied, “If you give the permission to perform Tayammum they will perform Tayammum even if water was available if one of them found it cold.” Abu Musa said, “What about the statement of ‘Ammar to ‘Umar?” ‘Abdullah replied, “Umar was not satisfied by his statement.”

Volume 1, Book 7, Number 342:

Narrated Shaqiq bin Salama:

I was with ‘Abdullah and Abu Musa; the latter asked the former, “O Abu AbdurRahman! What is your opinion if somebody becomes Junub and no water is available?” ‘Abdullah replied, “Do not pray till water is found.” Abu Musa said, “What do you say about the statement of ‘Ammar (who was ordered by the Prophet to perform Tayammum). The Prophet said to him: “Perform Tayammum and that would be sufficient.” ‘Abdullah replied, “Don’t you see that ‘Umar was not satisfied by ‘Ammar’s statement?” Abu- Musa said, “All right, leave ‘Ammalr’s statement, but what will you say about this verse (of Tayammum)?” ‘Abqiullah kept quiet and then said, “If we allowed it, then they would probably perform Tayammum even if water was available, if one of them found it (water) cold.” The narrator added, “I said to Shaqrq, “Then did ‘Abdullah dislike to perform Tayammum because of this?” He replied, “Yes.”

Volume 1, Book 7, Number 343:

Narrated Al-A’mash:

Shaqiq said, “While I was sitting with ‘Abdullah and Abu Musa Al-Ash-‘ari, the latter asked the former, ‘If a person becomes Junub and does not find water for one month, can he perform Tayammum and offer his prayer?’ (He applied in the negative). Abu Musa said, ‘What do you say about this verse from Surat “Al-Ma’ida”: When you do not find water then perform Tayammum with clean earth? ‘Abdullah replied, ‘If we allowed it then they would probably perform Tayammum with clean earth even if water were available but cold.’ I said to Shaqiq, ‘You then disliked to perform Tayammum because of this?’ Shaqiq said,’Yes.’ (Shaqiq added), “Abu Musa said, ‘Haven’t you heard the statement of ‘Ammar to ‘Umar? He said: I was sent out by Allah’s Apostle for some job and I became Junub and could not find water so I rolled myself over the dust (clean earth) like an animal does, and when I told the Prophet of that he said, ‘Like this would have been sufficient.’ The Prophet (saying so) lightly stroked the earth with his hand once and blew it off, then passed his (left) hand over the back of his right hand or his (right) hand over the back of his left hand and then passed them over his face.’ So ‘Abdullah said to Abu- Musa, ‘Don’t you know that ‘Umar was not satisfied with ‘Ammar’s statement?’ “

Narrated Shaqiq: While I was with ‘Abdullah and Abu Musa, the latter said to the former, “Haven’t you heard the statement of ‘Ammar to ‘Umar? He said, “Allah’s Apostle sent you and me out and I became Junub and rolled myself in the dust (clean earth) (for Tayammum). When we came to Allah’s Apostle I told him about it and he said, ‘This would have been sufficient,’ passing his hands over his face and the backs of his hands once only.’ “

Volume 1, Book 7, Number 344:

Narrated ‘Imran bin Husain Al-Khuza’i:

Allah’s Apostle saw a person sitting aloof and not praying with the people. He asked him, “O so and so! What prevented you from offering the prayer with the people?” He replied, “O Allah’s Apostle! I am Junub and there is no water.” The Prophet said, “Perform Tayammum with clean earth and that will be sufficient for you.”

[ Index Page]

Tayammum – Al-Mulakhas Al-Fiqhi – Abu Muhammad al-Maghribee [Audio|En]

Abu Muhammad al-Maghribee (hafidhahullaah)
Audio Courtesy:

From the book Al-Mulakhas al-Fiqhi (A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence) by Sheikh Saaleh al-Fawzaan. The book of Salaah.

Listen / Download Mp3 Here  (Time 1:00:25)