The World and its Allurements bears effect on a person’s eemaan by decreasing it – Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaak al-‘Abbaad

The World and its Allurements

This is the second external factor, which bears effect on a person’s eemaan by decreasing it.

Hence, one of the causes of the decrease and weakness of eemaan is to be engrossed with the transient things of this temporary worldly life; to occupy one’s time with it; be devoted to seeking it and to race after its pleasures, temptations and seductions.

Whenever the servants longing for this world intensifies and his heart becomes attached to it, his obedience will weaken and his eemaan will decrease accordingly. Ibn al-Qayyim, may Allaah have mercy upon him, says: “The extent of the servants desire for the world and of his pleasure with it determines his slackness towards obedience of Allaah and seeking the Hereafter.” [al-Fawaa’id, pg. 180]

Accordingly, Allaah, the Wise, the All-Aware, censured the world in His Book and made clear its vileness and wretchedness in many aayaat in the Noble Qur’aan, Allaah says:

اعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا لَعِبٌ وَلَهْوٌ وَزِينَةٌ وَتَفَاخُرٌ بَيْنَكُمْ وَتَكَاثُرٌ فِي الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَوْلَادِ ۖ كَمَثَلِ غَيْثٍ أَعْجَبَ الْكُفَّارَ نَبَاتُهُ ثُمَّ يَهِيجُ فَتَرَاهُ مُصْفَرًّا ثُمَّ يَكُونُ حُطَامًا ۖ وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانٌ ۚ وَمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا إِلَّا مَتَاعُ الْغُرُورِ

“Know that the life of this world is only play and amusement, pomp and mutual boasting among you, and rivalry in respect of wealth and children, just like the vegetation after rain, which pleases the tillers; afterwards it dries up and you see it turning yellow; then it becomes straw. But in the Hereafter there is a severe torment (for the disbelievers, evil-doers), and there is forgiveness from Allaah and (His) Good Pleasure (for the believers, good-doers), whereas the life of this world is only a deceiving enjoyment.”[Soorah al-Hadeed (57):20]

Allaah also says:

وَاضْرِبْ لَهُم مَّثَلَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا كَمَاءٍ أَنزَلْنَاهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فَاخْتَلَطَ بِهِ نَبَاتُ الْأَرْضِ فَأَصْبَحَ هَشِيمًا تَذْرُوهُ الرِّيَاحُ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُّقْتَدِرًا الْمَالُ وَالْبَنُونَ زِينَةُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَالْبَاقِيَاتُ الصَّالِحَاتُ خَيْرٌ عِندَ رَبِّكَ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ أَمَلًا

“And put forward to them the example of the life of this world, it is like the water (rain),which We send down from the sky. The vegetation of the earth mingles with it, and becomes fresh and green. But (later) it becomes dry and broken pieces, which the winds then scatter. And Allaah is Able to do everything. Wealth and children are the adornment of the life of this world. But the everlasting righteous deeds are better with your Lord, for rewards and better in respect of hope”[Soorah al-Kahf (18):45-46]

Allaah says:

وَفَرِحُوا بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا مَتَاعٌ …

“… and they rejoice in the life of the world, whereas the life of this world as compared with the Hereafter is but a brief passing enjoyment” [Soorah ar-Ra’d (13):26]

Allaah also says:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا وَرَضُوا بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَاطْمَأَنُّوا بِهَا وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِنَا غَافِلُونَ أُولَٰئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمُ النَّارُ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ

“Verily, those who hope not for their meeting with Us, but are pleased and satisfied with the life of the present world, and those who are heedless of Our Aayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.). Those, their abode will be the Fire, because of what they used to earn.” [Soorah Yoonus (10):7-8]

This contains the greatest warning to one who is pleased with the life of this world, is comforted by it, is heedless of the aayaat of Allaah and who does not hope to meet Him.

Furthermore, Allaah says in censuring those of the believers who are pleased with this world:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَا لَكُمْ إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمُ انفِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ اثَّاقَلْتُمْ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ ۚ أَرَضِيتُم بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا مِنَ الْآخِرَةِ ۚ فَمَا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ

“O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that when you are asked to march forth in the Cause of Allaah (i.e., Jihaad) you cling heavily to the earth? Are you pleased with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter? But little is the enjoyment of the life of this world as compared with the Hereafter.” [Soorah at-Tawbah (9):38]

The Prophet said:

“By Allaah, it is not poverty that I fear for you, but l fear that the world will be spread out for you just as it was spread out for those before you and then you will compete for it just as they competed for it and then you will be destroyed just as they were destroyed.” 

The hadeeth is agreed upon [i.e., both al-Bukhaaree and Muslim relate it. [t]. Al-Bukhaaree, (6/258, 7/320 Fath) and Muslim, 4/2273 from the hadeeth of ‘Amr Ibn ‘Awf, may Allaah be pleased with him]. In another wording of theirs, “… you will be distracted just as they were distracted.”

There are other such texts, which are great in number. Thus, one who wants his eemaan to have growth, strength, safety from weakness and decrement must strive against his soul in distancing himself from this world, its temptations, seductions and distracting amusements, and what a multitude they are.

This can only be achieved and become true after considering two matters:

The first: to consider and look at the world, its rapid termination, passing away and disappearance; its deficiency and vileness; the pains of competing against one another for it and coveting it and what this contains of agony, embitterment and adversity.

The end of all that will be disappearance and discontinuance along with the regret and sorrow that follows on from it. Thus, its seeker can never be free of anxiety and worry before he attains it or even when he actually achieves it and he can never be free of grief and distress after it passes on.

The second: to consider and look at the Hereafter and its approach and arrival that is inevitable; its perpetuity and eternity; the glory of what it is within it of blessings and joy; the disparity between such things and what is in this world. It is as Allaah said:

وَالْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ وَأَبْقَىٰ

“Although the Hereafter is better and more lasting” [Soorah al-A’laa (87):17]

They are blessings that are perfect and everlasting, whereas these (things of the world) are fantasies that are deficient, sporadic and transitory.

If one contemplates over these two matters and considers them and looks into them in a proper manner, this will direct him to prefer the Everlasting Hereafter to the transient world.

The greatest aid for him in fulfilling this is to take a look at the state of Messenger and his biography as well as his Companions. The fact that they renounced the world, turned their hearts away from it and discarded it. They never accustomed themselves with it and instead deserted it. They never inclined towards it and they regarded it to be a prison and not a heaven and thus, abstained from it in a true manner and if they had desired it they would have acquired every loved thing and arrived at every cherished matter from it. Indeed, the keys to the treasures of the world were offered to the Prophet but he rejected them. The world also poured out to the Companions but they did not opt for it and did not exchange their portion of the Hereafter for the world.

They knew that the world was a crossing point and passageway not a place of dwelling and settling, that it was a place of transit (‘uboor) and not a place of happiness (suroor) and that it was a summer cloud which will soon disperse and an apparition no sooner is it completed than is it on the brink of departure.

As Allaah has said:

أَفَرَأَيْتَ إِن مَّتَّعْنَاهُمْ سِنِينَ  ثُمَّ جَاءَهُم مَّا كَانُوا يُوعَدُونَ مَا أَغْنَىٰ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يُمَتَّعُونَ

“Tell Me, if We do let them enjoy for a number of years, then afterwards comes to them that (punishment) which they had been promised; all that with which they used to enjoy shall not avail them” [Soorah ash-Shu’araa’ (26):205-207]

He said:

وَيَوْمَ يَحْشُرُهُمْ كَأَن لَّمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلَّا سَاعَةً مِّنَ النَّهَارِ يَتَعَارَفُونَ بَيْنَهُمْ ۚ قَدْ خَسِرَ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِلِقَاءِ اللَّهِ وَمَا كَانُوا مُهْتَدِينَ

“And on the Day when He shall gather (resurrect) them together, (it will be as if) they had not stayed (in the life of this world and graves, etc.) but an hour of a day. They will recognize each other.” [Soorah Yoonus (10):45]

He also said:

وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ يُقْسِمُ الْمُجْرِمُونَ مَا لَبِثُوا غَيْرَ سَاعَةٍ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كَانُوا يُؤْفَكُونَ

“And on the Day that the Hour will be established, the Mujrimoon (criminals, disbelievers, polytheists, sinners, etc.) will swear that they stayed not but an hour…” [Soorah ar-Room (30):55]

Allaah is the one who is beseeched to aid us with eemaan and to protect us from trials and temptations, the apparent and hidden.

Posted from  the Book: Causes Behind the Increase and Decrease of Eemaan, by Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaak al-‘Abbaad. Al-Hidaayah Publications

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The Noble Qur’aan is one of the greatest fortifiers of eemaan and the most beneficial reasons behind its increase – Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaak al-‘Abbaad

Bismillaah

Reciting the Noble Qur’aan and Contemplating on it

This is one of the greatest branches of knowledge that can lead to the increase, stability and strengthening of eemaan.

Allaah has revealed His lucid Book to His servants as a source of guidance; mercy, light and glad tidings and as a remembrance for those who remember.

Allaah says:

وَهَٰذَا كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ مُبَارَكٌ مُّصَدِّقُ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ

“And this is a blessed Book that We have sent down, confirming that which came before it.” [Soorah al-An’aam (6):92]

Allaah says:

وَهَٰذَا كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ مُبَارَكٌ فَاتَّبِعُوهُ وَاتَّقُوا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ

“And this is a blessed Book that We have sent down, so follow it and fear (Allaah), that you may receive mercy.” [Soorah al-An’aam (6):155]

Allaah says:

وَلَقَدْ جِئْنَاهُم بِكِتَابٍ فَصَّلْنَاهُ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ هُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

“Certainly, we have brought to them a Book, which we have explained in detail, upon knowledge, as a guidance and a mercy to a people who believe.” [Soorah al-A’raaf (7):52]

Allaah says

وَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ تِبْيَانًا لِّكُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ…

“…And We have sent down to you the Book, as a clarification of everything, a guidance, a mercy and as glad tidings for the Muslims” [Soorah an-Nahl (16):89]

Allaah says:

كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ إِلَيْكَ مُبَارَكٌ لِّيَدَّبَّرُوا آيَاتِهِ وَلِيَتَذَكَّرَ أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ

(This is a) Book that We have sent down to you, full of blessings, so that they may ponder over its aayaat, and that those of understanding may remember.” [Soorah Saad (38):29]

Allaah says:

إِنَّ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ يَهْدِي لِلَّتِي هِيَ أَقْوَمُ وَيُبَشِّرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ الصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ أَجْرًا كَبِيرًا

“Verily, this Qur’aan guides to that which is most just and right, and gives glad tidings to the believers who work righteous deeds, that they shall have a great reward.” [Soorah al-Israa (17):9]

Allaah says:

وَنُنَزِّلُ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ مَا هُوَ شِفَاءٌ وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۙ وَلَا يَزِيدُ الظَّالِمِينَ إِلَّا خَسَارًا

“And We send down of the Qur’aan that which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe, and it increases the oppressors in nothing but loss.” [Soorah al-Israa (17):82]

Allaah says:

إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَذِكْرَىٰ لِمَن كَانَ لَهُ قَلْبٌ أَوْ أَلْقَى السَّمْعَ وَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ

“Verily, therein is indeed a reminder for him who has a heart or gives ear while he is heedful.” [Soorah Qaaf (50):37]

These noble aayaat contain mention of the excellence of the Noble Qur’aan, the Book of the Lord of the Worlds. The fact that Allaah made it blessed and a guidance for the worlds. He placed within it a cure for illnesses, especially, the illnesses and diseases of misconceptions and desires of the heart. He made it a source of glad tidings and mercy for the worlds and as a form of remembrance for those who remember. He made it a guide towards that which is most just and upright, and He mentioned aayaat and threats by which they may fear or would cause them to remember and reflect.

Thus, one who reads the Qur’aan, and ponders and reflects over its aayaat finds within it such knowledge and learning, which strengthen, increase and develop his eemaan. This is because he will come across within the discourse of the Qur’aan, a King, who possesses all dominion, for whom alone, is all praise. The reigns of all affairs are in His hand alone, they emanate from Him and return to Him. He has ascended above His throne and not a single secret in the regions of His dominion escapes Him.

He is aware of what is in the souls of His slaves, fully cognizant of their hidden and public deeds. Solely, He disposes of the affairs of the Kingdom.

He hears and sees, gives and withholds, rewards and punishes, and honors and abases. He creates and sustains, and gives life and causes death. He decrees, executes and disposes.

He invites His servants and directs them towards what constitutes their happiness and success. He entices them towards this, and warns them of what will cause their ruin.

He introduces Himself to them by His names and attributes. He woos them with His favors and blessings and reminds them of His favors upon them. He commands them with what entitles them to the completion of such favors and blessings and warns them of His vengeance. He reminds them of the honor He has prepared for them if they obey Him, and of the punishment He has prepared for them if they disobey Him.

He informs them of how He handles His awliyaa’ and His enemies, and of the outcome of both. He praises His awliyaa’ for their righteous actions and fine qualities. He censures His enemies for their bad deeds and distasteful characteristics.

He puts forward parables and provides numerous types of proofs and truths. He replies to the misconceptions of His enemies with the finest of answers. He gives credit to the truthful and denies the liar. He speaks the truth and guides towards the path.

He invites to the abode of peace and safety (i.e., Paradise). He mentions its description, its beauty and its bliss. He warns against the abode of destruction (i.e., the Hellfire re). He mentions its torment, its ugliness and its pains.

He reminds His slaves of their necessity towards Him, their dire need of Him, and that they can never be independent of Him ever for the blink of an eyelid. He informs them that He can dispense of them and of all creation, and that He Himself is the Rich and is not dependent on anything, whereas, everything besides Him is inherently in need of Him.

He makes known to them, that no one attains an atom’s worth or more of good except by His Favor and Mercy, and that no one attains an atom’s worth or more of bad except by His justice and wisdom. One witnesses from His speech, His reproach of His beloved in the most gracious of ways and despite that, He dismisses their mistakes and forgives their slips. He accredits their excuses, rectifies their corruption, defends and protects them. He is their victor, their guardian over their welfare and the one who delivers them from all difficulties. He is the One who will keep His promise to them, He is their only patron and protector. He is their true patron and protector and their victor over their enemies. How fire a patron and victor He is!

Hence, the servant never ceases to benefit from reflecting on the Book of Allaah. His heart bears witness to such types of knowledge that increase his eemaan and strengthen it.

How can this not be so? When he finds within the Qur’aan, a King who is glorious, merciful, generous and beautiful; this is His standing.

So how can he not love Him, compete to attain a nearness to Him or use up his energy in trying to show love for Him?

How can He not be more beloved to him than anything else? How can he not prefer His pleasure to anyone else’s pleasure?

How can he not be attached to His remembrance? How can his love for Him, his desire to meet Him and feeling close to Him not be his nourishment, strength and medicine, in that if he were to be bereft of this, he would become corrupt and ruined and would not benefit from his life? [Refer to al-Fawaa’id of Ibn al-Qayyim, pages 58-60]

Al-Aajurree, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: “Whoever contemplates His words, will know the Lord and he will know of His great power and capability, His immense favor upon the believers, and of the obligation upon himself to worship Him.

Accordingly, the person imposes this duty upon himself thereby being on his guard against that which his Generous Patron and Protector has warned of and coveting that which He has made desirous.

Whoever is of this description when reciting the Qur’aan or when listening to it when recited by another, the Qur’aan will be a cure for him. He becomes rich without money, he attains power and strength without kinsfolk and finds intimacy in that which others feel alienation towards.

His desire when opening a Soorah for recitation will be, ‘when will I accede to the admonition contained within what I recite?’ and his desire will not be, ‘when will I complete this Soorah?’

His aspiration is none other than, ‘When will I understand what Allaah is addressing me with? When will I restrain (from committing sins)? When will I take heed?’

This is because reciting the Qur’aan is worship and it is not to be done so in a state of heedlessness, and Allaah is the one who grants the tawfeeq towards that?” [Akhlaaq Hamlah al-Qur’aan, by al-Aajurree, page 10]

For this reason, Allaah, the Generous, orders His servants and encourages them to ponder over the Qur’aan, Allaah says:

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ ۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ غَيْرِ اللَّهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا

“Do they not then contemplate on the Qur’aan? Had it been from other than Allaah, they would surely have found therein much contradiction.” [Soorah an-Nisaa’ (4):82]

He says:

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ أَمْ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَا

“Do they not then contemplate on the Qur’aan, or are there locks upon their hearts?” [Soorah Muhammad (47):24]

Allaah proclaims that He only revealed the Qur’aan so that its aayaat would be pondered over, He says:

كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ إِلَيْكَ مُبَارَكٌ لِّيَدَّبَّرُوا آيَاتِهِ وَلِيَتَذَكَّرَ أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ

“(This is a) Book that We have sent down to you, full of blessings, so that they may ponder over its aayaat, and that those of understanding may remember.” [Soorah Saad (38):29]

Allaah also explains that the reason behind the lack of guidance for the one who deviates from the straight path is his disregard for reflecting on the Qur’aan and being too proud to listen to it, He says:

قَدْ كَانَتْ آيَاتِي تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ فَكُنتُمْ عَلَىٰ أَعْقَابِكُمْ تَنكِصُونَ مُسْتَكْبِرِينَ بِهِ سَامِرًا تَهْجُرُونَ أَفَلَمْ يَدَّبَّرُوا الْقَوْلَ أَمْ جَاءَهُم مَّا لَمْ يَأْتِ آبَاءَهُمُ الْأَوَّلِينَ

“Indeed, My aayaat used to be recited to you, but you used to turn back on your heels. With haughtiness, you talked evil about it (i.e., the Qur’aan) throughout the night. Have they not then pondered over the Word (i.e., the Qur’aan) or has there come to them what had not come to their fathers of old?” [Soorah al-Mu’minoon (23):66-68]

He mentions of the Qur’aan that it increases the believers in eemaan if they read it and contemplate on its aayaat, Allaah says:

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِذَا تُلِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُهُ زَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَانًا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ

“The believers are none other than those whose hearts feel fear when Allaah is mentioned. When His aayaat are recited to them, they (i.e., the aayaat) increase them in their eemaan and upon their Lord (alone), they rely.” [Soorah al-Anfaal (8):2]

Allaah relates about the righteous amongst the Ahl al-Kitaab, that when the Qur’aan is recited to them they fall upon their faces in humble prostration and in a state of weeping, and that it increases them in humility, eemaan and submission. Allaah says:

قُلْ آمِنُوا بِهِ أَوْ لَا تُؤْمِنُوا ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ مِن قَبْلِهِ إِذَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ يَخِرُّونَ لِلْأَذْقَانِ سُجَّدًا وَيَقُولُونَ سُبْحَانَ رَبِّنَا إِن كَانَ وَعْدُ رَبِّنَا لَمَفْعُولًا وَيَخِرُّونَ لِلْأَذْقَانِ يَبْكُونَ وَيَزِيدُهُمْ خُشُوعًا

“Say, ‘Believe in it (i.e., the Qur’aan) or do not believe (in it). Verily, those who were given knowledge before it, when it is recited to them, they fall upon their faces in humble prostration, and they say:” How perfect is our Lord! Truly, the promise of our Lord will be fulfilled:’ They fall upon their faces weeping and it adds to their humility.” [Soorah al-Israa’ (17): 107- 109]

He also informs that if He were to send down the Glorious Qur’aan upon a mountain, it would humble itself and rupture because of the fear of Allaah. He made this as a parable for the people to demonstrate to them the greatness of the Qur’aan. He says:

لَوْ أَنزَلْنَا هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ عَلَىٰ جَبَلٍ لَّرَأَيْتَهُ خَاشِعًا مُّتَصَدِّعًا مِّنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَتِلْكَ الْأَمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

“Had We sent down this Qur’aan on a mountain, you would surely have seen it humbling itself and rending asunder out of fear of Allaah. Such are the parables that We put forward to mankind that they may reflect.”[Soorah al-Hashr (59):21]

He described the Qur’aan as being the best of speech, parts of it resembling other parts and He repeated some of it so that it would be understood. He mentioned that the skins of the righteous shiver in fear and hope when they hear the Qur’aan. He says:

اللَّهُ نَزَّلَ أَحْسَنَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابًا مُّتَشَابِهًا مَّثَانِيَ تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ جُلُودُ الَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ ثُمَّ تَلِينُ جُلُودُهُمْ وَقُلُوبُهُمْ إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُدَى اللَّهِ يَهْدِي بِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ هَادٍ

“Allaah has sent down the best speech, a Book, its parts resembling each other in goodness and truth, oft repeated. The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it. Thereafter, their skin and hearts soften to the remembrance of Allaah. That is the guidance of Allaah. He guides with it whom He pleases and whomever Allaah sends astray, has no guide whatsoever.” [Soorah az-Zumar (39):23]

Allaah censures the believers for their lack of humility when listening to the Qur’aan and He cautions them to not resemble the disbelievers in this regard. He says:

أَلَمْ يَأْنِ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَن تَخْشَعَ قُلُوبُهُمْ لِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَمَا نَزَلَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ وَلَا يَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلُ فَطَالَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْأَمَدُ فَقَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۖ وَكَثِيرٌ مِّنْهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ

Has not the time come for the hearts of those who believe to be affected by Allaah’s reminder (i.e., the Qur’aan) and of the truth that has been revealed, and not to be like those who had been given the Book before, whereby the term was lengthened for them and their hearts became hard and many of them are rebellious. [Soorah al-Hadeed (57): 16]

These aforementioned aayaat contain the clearest indication of the importance of the Qur’aan, the required attention that has to be paid to it, its powerful effect upon the hearts, and that it is the greatest matter that increases eemaan, especially, if the recitation is performed upon contemplation, reflection and on trying to understand its meaning.

Ibn al-Qayyim, may Allaah have mercy upon him, says: “In short, there is nothing more beneficial for the heart than reading the Qur’aan with contemplation and reflection. The Qur’aan encompasses all the levels of the travelers, the conditions of the workers, and stations of those possessing knowledge. It is the Qur’aan that generates love, desire, fear, hope, repentance, reliance, pleasure, entrustment, gratitude, patience and the rest of the different states that are life to the heart and perfection of it. Likewise, it repels all the rebuked characteristics and actions that cause the corruption and ruin of the heart.

If people were to possess a realization of what recitation of the Qur’aan with contemplation contains, they would devote themselves to it at the expense of anything else. When the person reads it with reflection and he comes across an aayah that he is in need of, for the cure of his heart, he repeats it, even if he does so a hundred times or the whole night. Hence, to recite a single aayah of the Qur’aan with contemplation and reflection is better than reciting the Qur’aan to completion without any contemplation or reflection. It is also more beneficial for the heart and more conducive to attaining eemaan and tasting the sweetness of the Qur’aan …” [Miftaah Daar as-Sa’aaadah, page 204]

Muhammad Rasheed Ridaa states: “Know that strength of religion and culmination of eemaan and certainty does not come about except by reading the Qur’aan very often and listening to it upon contemplation with the intention of being guided by it and to act on its commands and prohibitions. The correct and submissive eemaan increases, strengthens, develops and its effects such as righteous actions and abandonment of disobedience and corruption, all arise in pro-portion to the contemplation of the Qur’aan. It also decreases and weakens in proportion to not contemplating on the Qur’aan.

Most of the Arabs only believed when they heard the Qur’aan and understood it. They did not conquer the lands, inhabit cities, nor did their population grow and their power become greater except because of the Qur’aan’s effective guidance.

Furthermore, the nobles of Makkah who opposed and stood in enmity, strove against the Prophet and tried to prevent him from conveying the message of his Lord by stopping him from reciting the Qur’aan to the people:

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَا تَسْمَعُوا لِهَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ وَالْغَوْا فِيهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَغْلِبُونَ

And those who disbelieve say, ‘Do not listen to this Qur’aan and make noise in the midst of it (being recited) so that you may overcome …‘” [Soorah Fussilat (41):26]

The weakness of Islaam since the Middle ages up to the point where most of its empire disappeared is only so because of the abandonment of the contemplation of the Qur’aan, of reciting it and acting by it.” [Mukhtasar Tafseer al-Manaar, 3/170]

Thus, the Noble Qur’aan is one of the greatest fortifiers of eemaan and the most beneficial reasons behind its increase.

It increases the eemaan of the slave in many diverse ways. Ibn as-Sa’dee says: “It increases it in many ways. Indeed, as for the believer, by simply reciting the aayaat of Allaah and becoming acquainted with the truthful information and fine rulings present within it, he attains an abundant goodness from the affairs of eemaan. How will it then be if he contemplates on it proficiently and understands its aims and secrets?” [At-Tawdeeh wa al-Bayaan li Shajarah al-Eemaan, Page 27]

However, one must know that the increase of eemaan that arises from the recitation of the Qur’aan does not happen unless one concentrates on understanding the Qur’aan, applying it and acting by it. The case is not that he simply reads it without understanding or contemplation, as many people who read the Qur’aan will find it to be their adversary and opponent on the Day of Judgment.

It has been affirmed on the Prophet – sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam – that he said: “Verily, Allaah raises up a people with this Book and He abases others.” [Related by Muslim, 1/559] It has also been affirmed that he (- sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam -) said: “… and the Qur’aan is either a proof for you or against you.” [Related by Muslim, 1/203]

So it is a proof for you and it increases your eemaan if you act by it or it is a proof against you and it decreases your eemaan if you neglect it and do not observe its boundaries.

Qatadah stated: “Not a single person sits down with this Qur’aan except that he then rises with either some increase or decrease.” [Related by Ibn al-Mubaarak in az-Zuhd, page 272, al-Aajurree in Akhlaaq Hamlah al-Qur’aan, page 73, al-Marwazee in Qiyaam al-Layl, Page 77 of the concise version. Al-Baghawee mentioned it in his Tafseer, 3/133]

Al-Hasan al-Basree says in clarifying the meaning of contemplating the Qur’aan: “… However, by Allaah, it is not by memorizing its letters and neglecting its boundaries. To the extent that one of them says, ‘I recited the whole Qur’aan and did not miss out a single letter!’ and by Allaah, he missed out the whole of the Qur’aan: no Qur’aan is seen in his character or deeds! To the point that one of them says, ‘Verily I can recite a Soorah with a single breath!’ By Allaah, these are not recites or scholars, they are not wise or pious. Whenever the recites are of this type, may Allaah not increase their like amongst the people!” [Related by ‘Abdur Razzaaq in his Musannaf 3/363, Ibn al-Mubaarak in az-Zuhd, page 274, al-Aajurree in Akhlaaq Hamlah al-Qur’aan, page 41, and al-Marwazee in Qiyaam al-Layl, Page 76 of the concise version]

May Allaah have mercy upon al-Hasan. I wonder as to what he would say if he witnessed the recites of our present time? Recites, who have been infatuated with being melodious, with correctly pronouncing the letters and flowering them, whilst they squander and neglect the limits.

In fact, the ears of the people when listening to the Qur’aan, also turn to the pronunciation of the words and the melody whilst neglecting to hearken or to contemplate on the word of Allaah.

In any case, there is no objection whatsoever to the tajweed of the Qur’aan, to recite it slowly and melodiously, and to render it in a fine way. The objection however, is in over burdening oneself and being obstinate in pronouncing the letters without paying any regard or attention to establishing the commands that were the reason for the revelation of the Qur’aan. To the extent that you do not see in many of them the fear brought about by the limits of Allaah, indeed, nor do you see within them application of the Qur’aan in character or deed.

You find a reciter amongst them, who has memorized the Qur’aan and who correctly pronounces the letters, shaving his beard or lengthening his lower garment. In fact, he may neglect performing prayer in its totality or in congregation, and other such sinful acts, to the extent that one of them – and Allaah’s help is sought – opened a music party for an immoral woman with aayaat of the Noble Qur’aan. He recited as an introduction to her singing, aayaat from the Noble Qur’aan!

The speech of our Lord is too great to be dishonored by the likes of such. It suffices me to repeat what al-Hasan, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said, ‘Whenever the reciters are of this type, may Allaah not increase their like amongst the people!’

Ibn al-‘Arabee mentioned, when describing the reciters of his time being preoccupied with reciting the words of the Qur’aan accurately while neglecting its rulings, and taking it up as a profession when the Qur’aan was only revealed to be acted by: “… but when this recitation became a profession, they beautified it and vied with it, spent their life – without any need for them – on it. One of them dies and he was able to raise the Qur’aan in speech as a pot is raised but he broke its meanings as a vessel is broken. Thus, he was not consistent with any of its meanings.” [Al-‘Awaasim min al-Qawaasim 2/486,within the book Aaraa’ Abee Bakr Ibn al-‘Arabee al-Kalaamiyyah by ‘Ammaar at-Taalibee]

Hence, the Muslim must learn how to derive benefit from the Qur’aan before he begins to recite it in order for its benefit to be achieved. Ibn al-Qayyim, may Allaah have mercy on him, mentioned in this respect a principle that is of great standing and enormous benefit. It is, “if you want to attain benefit from the Qur’aan, bring your heart together upon reciting or listening to it, and divert your hearing to it, and be present in front of it, in the manner of one who is present and spoken to by the One who spoke it, How perfect He is” [Al-Fawaa’id, page 5. Also, refer to al-Fataawa of Ibn Taymiyyah, I 6/48-51 and 7/236-237]

Whoever applies this principle and traverses upon this methodology when reciting the Qur’aan or when listening to it, will succeed with both knowledge and action. His eemaan will increase and it will establish itself like towering mountains, and Allaah is the One who is asked to give us the tawfeeq towards that and every good.

Furthermore, contemplation and reflection over the aayaat of Allaah are of two types: “Contemplation over it to arrive at the intended meaning of the Lord and contemplation over the meanings of what Allaah called His servants to reflect on. The first is contemplation over the Qur’aanic evidence and the second is contemplation over the witnessed evidence. The first is contemplation over His aayaat that are heard (i.e., the Qur’aan) and the second is contemplation over His aayaat that are witnessed (i.e., the universe and what it contains).” [Miftaah Daar as-Sa’aadah, page 204] This was stated by lbn al-Qayyim.

The discussion mentioned here centers on the contemplation of Allaah’s aayaat that are heard. As for reflection on His aayaat that are  seen and witnessed, discussion on this will follow shortly by the will of Allaah.

Posted from  the Book: Causes Behind the Increase and Decrease of Eemaan, by Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaak al-‘Abbaad. Al-Hidaayah Publications

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Reflecting on the Universal Signs of Allaah: One of the Causes for the Increase of Eemaan – Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaak al-‘Abbaad

Bismillaah

Reflecting on the Universal Signs (Aayaat Kawniyyah) of Allaah

For certain, contemplating over these signs, studying the diverse and amazing creations of Allaah such as the sky, the earth, the sun, the moon, planets and stars, night and day, mountains and trees, rivers and oceans and the many other creations of Allaah that cannot be enumerated, is without doubt one of the greatest causes for eemaan and the most beneficial reasons behind its fortification.

Contemplate the creation of the sky, look back up at it time after time. See how it is the greatest sign in its elevation and height, and in its extent and stationeries, whereby it does not climb up like fire or fall descending like a heavy object. It has no pillars and is neither connected from above. Rather, it is held by the might of Allaah.

Next, contemplate its evenness and levelness, there is no rift, split or fissure within it. It does not have any curvature or crookedness.

Then consider the color it has been given, which is the best of colors, the most agreeable to one’s sight and that which strengthens it the most.

Ponder on the creation of the earth and at its construction. You will notice that it is one of the greatest signs of its Maker and Originator. Allaah created it as a resting place and a bed. He made it subservient to His slaves. Allaah placed within it their livelihood and nourishment. He laid down pathways so that they may wander about the land in search for their needs and disposals. He established the earth firmly with mountains, making them pegs, protecting the earth from shaking along with its inhabitants and He expanded its sides and spread it out.

So He extended the earth, spread it out and enlarged it from all its sides. He made it a receptacle for the living, containing them from above as long as they are alive and He made it a receptacle for the dead, containing them from underneath when they die. Thus, its outer is a homeland for the living and its inner is a homeland for the dead.

Thereafter look at it when it is dead, barren and humbled. When Allaah sends down the rains upon it, it stirs and grows. Thus, it rises and turns green and produces every type of lovely growth. It brings forth wondrous vegetation in appearance and sensation, which are delightful to the onlookers and amicable to the feasters.

Next, consider how Allaah has perfected the sides of the earth with mountains that are unshakeable, towering, stern and solid. Consider how He has erected them so perfectly. How he elevated them and made them the most solid parts of the earth, so that they would not dwindle away with the stretch of years and continual succession of rain and wind. Rather, He perfected its creation, fortified its foundation and deposited within them such benefits, metals, minerals and springs, of which He desired.

Now ponder on this delicate and fine air that is held captive between the sky and earth. It is sensed through feeling when blown; its substance is felt and its form cannot be seen.

It runs between the sky and earth and the birds circle and fly in it, swimming with the aid of their wings just as the fish of the sea swim in water. Its sides and ripples collide against each other when in commotion just as the waves of the ocean clash.

Consider how Allaah forms with this wind, clouds that are held between the sky and earth. The wind excites the clouds causing them to rise and become dense, Allaah then combines them together and merges them. The winds then impregnate it; these winds are those that Allaah named lawaaqih, (i.e., impregnators [Refer to Soorah al-Hijr (15):22]). Allaah then drives it by the wind to the land in need of it.

When it rises and ascends above the land, its water falls upon it. Allaah dispatches the winds whilst the clouds are in the atmosphere; the winds scatter and separate the clouds so that they do not harm or destroy something if the water were to descend upon it in its entirety. Once the land takes its fill and need, the clouds leave off the land and disperse. Thus, these clouds water the earth and are carried by the winds.

Next, consider these oceans surrounding the land regions, which are gulfs of one great sea of water surrounding the whole earth such that even the lands, mountains and cities that are visible, are in relation to the water, like a small island in a massive ocean. The rest of the earth is submerged in water. If the Lord did not hold it with His power and will and if He did not hold back the water, it would overflow onto the lands and rise above it all.

Contemplate on the night and day; they are amongst the most amazing signs of Allaah. See how He made the night for resting and as a covering. It coats the world causing the cessation of activities. Animals retire to their dwellings and the birds to their nests. The souls relax and take rest from the pains of their labor and tiredness until when the souls are reposed and have taken sleep and now look forward to their livelihood and its disposal, the Splitter of the morning (Allaah) brings forward the day, His army giving glad tidings of the morning. It vanquishes that darkness and tears it asunder, unveiling the darkness from the world, thereafter, the inhabitants are able to see. The animals then circulate about the land and proceed to manage their livelihood and welfare and the birds depart from their nests.

What a returning and arising, which is so indicative of the capability of Allaah towards the major return!

Ponder on the condition of the sun and moon when rising and setting to establish the state of night and day. If it were not for the rising of the sun and moon, the affair of this world would become inoperative. How would the people attend to their livelihood and dispose of their affairs whilst the world upon them is dark? How would they take pleasure in their life with the absence of light? So:

تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ فِي السَّمَاءِ بُرُوجًا وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا سِرَاجًا وَقَمَرًا مُّنِيرًا وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ خِلْفَةً لِّمَنْ أَرَادَ أَن يَذَّكَّرَ أَوْ أَرَادَ شُكُورًا

“Blessed be He who has placed in the heaven huge stars and has placed therein a great lamp (i.e., the sun) and a moon giving light. He is the one who placed the night and day in succession, for such who desires to remember or desires to show his gratitude.” [Soorah al-Furqaan (25):61-62]

Examine the creation of the animals, with all their diverse characteristics, species, forms, usefulness, colors and endowed marvels. Some of them walk upon their bellies, some on two legs and some on four. Some of them have feet as weapons in the form of claws; some have beaks as weapons, like the eagle, vulture and the crow. Others have teeth as weapons and yet others have horns as weapons for use in defense of themselves.

Reflect and take heed in general from the setting of this world, the formation of its parts and the excellence of its arrangement and order, proving most cogently the perfection of the capability of its Creator and the perfection of His knowledge, wisdom, benevolence and delicateness.

If you do reflect on the world, you will notice it to be like a house that has been built and prepared with all of its apparatus, interests and all that it is in need of.

Thus, the sky is its roof that is hoisted above it. The land is its bed; it is a mat, bedding and an abode for the occupant. The sun and moon are two lamps that shine within it. The stars are lights, an adornment and guide for those who move about along the paths of this house. Gems and minerals are stored within it, like the provisions and storehouses that have been prepared and set; each and every thing of it is for its own specific purpose and use that befits it. All kinds of vegetation have been prepared for the purposes of the house. Varieties of animals have been laid out for its welfare, for mounting; providing milk; nourishment; clothing; enjoyment; employment and keeping guard.

Moreover, the human being has been declared as the king, being commissioned with all of this. He is the one who rules and disposes by his actions and commands.

Within all this, is the greatest sign and strongest proof of the Creator, the All-knowing, the Wise and fully cognizant, who has set proper measure and order for his creation in the finest way.

In fact, reflect and take heed in particular, from Allaah’s creation of yourself, O person.

Consider the start, middle and end of your creation. Look with all insight at the beginning of your creation, from a trickle of dirty despised fluid; whereby the Lord of all lords extracted this fluid from between the back-bone and ribs, guided it by His might with the narrowness of its channels and the diversity of its passages up until Allaah brings it to its abode and place of assembly.

See how Allaah united the male and female and placed love between them and how He led them with the chain of desire and love to come together, which is the cause behind the synthesis and formation of a child.

Look at how He predestined those two fluids despite the distance apart from each person. He brought them from the depth of veins and organs and gathered them to one place. He prescribed for them a firmly established dwelling. Air cannot get to it to spoil it; cold cannot get to it to harden or congeal it and no accidentals extend to it.

Allaah then transforms that white saturated trickle into a red clinging-like substance (that resembles a leech), which inclines towards a black color. Allaah then makes it into a chewed lump (of flesh) completely different to the clinging-like substance in its color, essence and form. Allaah then fashions it into bare bones without any clothing, which is contrary to the chewed lump in form, look, proportion, feel and color and so on, the stages of a person’s creation make a gradual process up until he emerges upon these forms that Allaah has fashioned him with; He originated for him, hearing, sight, a mouth, nose and the rest of the openings. He extended and spread out his legs and arms and separated their ends into fingers and toes and then further split them into phalanxes. He also assembled the inner organs such as the heart, stomach, liver, spleen, lungs, womb, intestines; each one has a proportion and benefit specific to it, so how perfect is, the One Who created (everything) and then proportioned (each thing appropriately) and Who measured and guided, Who said:

وَفِي أَنفُسِكُمْ ۚ أَفَلَا تُبْصِرُونَ

“And also in your own selves, will you not then see?” [Soorah adh-Dhaariyaat (51):21]

“All of creation, from the atom to the Throne, are connected pathways to acquiring knowledge of Allaah and are profound evidences pointing to His eternality. The Universe, in totality, is made up of tongues uttering the oneness of Allaah. The world, in its entirety, is a book, of which the letters of its particulars are read by the discerning, all according to the level of their insights.” [See Dhayl Tabaqaat al-Hanaabilah of Ibn Rajab, 1/307. This is a saying of ‘Uthmaan Ibn Marzooq al-Qurashee]

So, reflect on these and other signs, which Allaah has created within the Heavens and earth. Contemplation, close examination and meditation on these signs yield immense benefits in the strengthening and steadfastness of one’s eemaan, because he apprehends through these signs, the oneness of his King and Creator and His perfection. Consequently, his love, glorification and veneration of Allaah will increase as will his obedience, submission and humbleness before Him. These are amongst the greatest benefits resulting from this reflection.

Ibn al-Qayyim, may Allaah have mercy upon him, says:

“If you consider what Allaah has invited His servants to reflect on in His Book, it will impart you with knowledge of Allaah, of his oneness, His attributes of perfection and qualities of magnificence such as the extensiveness of His capability and knowledge and the perfection of His wisdom, mercy, benevolence, kindness, compassion, justice, pleasure, anger, reward and punishment. Thus, with this (all), He introduced Himself to His servants and encouraged them to reflect on His signs.” [Miftaah Daar as-Sa’aadah of Ibn al-Qayyim, page 204]

Ibn as-Sa’dee, may Allaah have mercy upon him, states:

 “… and one of the causes and incentives for eemaan is reflecting on the universe; on the creation of the heavens and earth and on the diverse types of creation contained within them; to look at the human himself and the attributes he possesses, for this is a strong incentive for eemaan.

This is because of the greatness of creation found within these present entities, which points towards the might, capability and greatness of their Creator.

It is also because of the prevalent beauty, order and perfection that baffles the learned, which point to the vastness of Allaah’s knowledge and the comprehensiveness of His wisdom and it is also because of the assorted benefits and abundant blessings that cannot be counted and are innumerable, which point to the magnitude of Allaah’s mercy, generosity and benevolence.

All of this calls to the glorification of its originator and maker, to gratitude of Him, to becoming attached to His remembrance and having sincerity of religion to Him alone; this is the spirit  and secret of eemaan.”

[At-Tawdeeh wa al-Bayaan, page 31. See or-Riyaad an-Naadhirah also by Shaykh as-Sa’dee, pages 238-280]

For this purpose, Allaah, al-Kareem, encourages His servants in His book to contemplate on these signs and indications and He directs them to study and reflect in many places within His Book. This is because of the many advantages for the slaves and the immense returns they attain from it. Allaah says:

إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَالْفُلْكِ الَّتِي تَجْرِي فِي الْبَحْرِ بِمَا يَنفَعُ النَّاسَ وَمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مِن مَّاءٍ فَأَحْيَا بِهِ الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ دَابَّةٍ وَتَصْرِيفِ الرِّيَاحِ وَالسَّحَابِ الْمُسَخَّرِ بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ

“Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, and the ships that sail through the sea with that which is of use to mankind, and the water which Allaah sends down from the sky and makes the earth alive therewith after its death, and the moving (living) creatures of all kinds that he has scattered therein, and in the veering of winds and clouds which are held between the sky and the earth, are indeed signs for people of understanding” [Soorah al-Baqarah (2):164]

Allaah says:

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ إِذَا أَنتُم بَشَرٌ تَنتَشِرُونَ

“And among His signs is that He created you from dust and behold, you are human beings, becoming widespread.” [Soorah ar-Room (30):20]

Allaah says:

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ خَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَثَّ فِيهِمَا مِن دَابَّةٍ ۚ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ جَمْعِهِمْ إِذَا يَشَاءُ قَدِيرٌ

“And among His signs is the creation of the heavens and earth, and of all the creatures He has dispersed within them. And He is ever-potent over assembling them all if He so desires” [Soorah ash-Shooraa (42):29]

Allaah also says:

أَفَلَا يَنظُرُونَ إِلَى الْإِبِلِ كَيْفَ خُلِقَتْ وَإِلَى السَّمَاءِ كَيْفَ رُفِعَتْ وَإِلَى الْجِبَالِ كَيْفَ نُصِبَتْ وَإِلَى الْأَرْضِ كَيْفَ سُطِحَتْ

“Do they not look at the camels: how they have been created? And at the heaven: how it is raised? And at the mountains: how they have been rooted and firmly fixed? And at the earth: how it has been spread out?”[Soorah al-Ghaashiyah (88):17-20]

There are other numerous similar aayaat in the Qur’aan, in which Allaah calls His servants to look at His signs and manifestations of his actions that represent the most supreme evidence of His oneness and singularity and for His might, will and knowledge. It is also evidence of His benevolence, gentleness and generosity. This is the greatest invitation of His servants towards having love of Allaah, thanking Him, glorifying Him, obeying Him and being attached to His remembrance.

In conclusion, it becomes evident that study and contemplation of the Universe remains as one of the greatest causes of eemaan and the most beneficial incentives for it.

Posted from  the Book: Causes Behind the Increase and Decrease of Eemaan, by Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaak al-‘Abbaad. Al-Hidaayah Publications

Related Links:

Explanation of the Pillars of Eemaan – Usool al-Thalaatha | Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lessons 33 (Part C), 34 , 35, 36 (PartA)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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The Pillars of Eemaan

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

قال : وأركانه ستة : أن تؤمن بالله ، وملائكته ، وكتبه ، ورسله ، واليوم الآخر ، وتؤمن بالقدر خيره وشره

Its pillars are six: to have eemaan in Allaah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day, and to have eemaan in Pre-Decree, the good of it, and the bad of it.[43]


[43Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

[Note: Shaykh Fawzan covers Difference between Pillars and Branches of Eemaan  before explaining the Pillars]

His saying: «Its pillars are six» meaning: it supports which it is established upon, and if they are absent, then it will be absent, or if one of them is absent, then it will be absent.

They are six pillars, and they are:

The first one: «To have eemaan in Allaah.» So, the first pillar is having eemaan in Allaah, and it includes the three categories of Tawheed: Eemaan that Allaah the Perfect and Most High is One, Unique, Alone, the Perfect Lord and Master whom everything depends totally upon, Who has no Partner in His Lordship, nor in His Right to worship, nor in His Names and Attributes.

The second one: «Eemaan in the Angels»Malaa.ika‘ (angels) is the plural of malak (angel). Its origin in the language is mal.ak (ملأك), so it was then made easier to pronounce and was said as ‘malak.’ The angels are beings created by Allaah in the world of the ghayb (hidden and unseen). Allaah created them to worship Him, and to carry out His commands, He the Perfect and Most High, within His dominion. They are different types; every type has a duty which it is entrusted with and which it carries out. They do not disobey Allaah regarding that which He commands them, and they do whatever they are commanded. So, from them, there are those who are entrusted with the revelation, and he is Jibreel `alaihissalaam. He is the noblest one from the angels; he is ar-Roohul-Ameen (the Trustworthy Spirit) and he is described as Shadeedul-Quwaa (the Mighty in Strength). And from them, are those entrusted with bearing the Throne:

الَّذِينَ يَحْمِلُونَ الْعَرْشَ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهُ

«Those who bear the Throne and those who are around it.» [40:7]

The Most High said,

وَالْمَلَكُ عَلَىٰ أَرْجَائِهَا ۚ وَيَحْمِلُ عَرْشَ رَبِّكَ فَوْقَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ ثَمَانِيَةٌ

«And the angels will be at its edges, and eight angels, will, on that Day, bear the Throne of your Lord.» [69:17]

The Throne is the most tremendous of the created things, and no one knows its greatness except for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. It will be carried by the angels – and this is a proof of the tremendous size of the angels, their great strength and their nature. He, the Most High said:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ فَاطِرِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ جَاعِلِ الْمَلَائِكَةِ رُسُلًا أُولِي أَجْنِحَةٍ مَّثْنَىٰ وَثُلَاثَ وَرُبَاعَ ۚ يَزِيدُ فِي الْخَلْقِ مَا يَشَاءُ

«All praise is for Allaah, the Creator and Originator of the heavens and the earth, the One who made His angel messengers with wings, – two, three, and four. He increases in creation whatever He wishes.» [35:1]

So, from them are those who have six hundred wings, such as Jibreel `alaihissalaatu wasalaam. No one knows their tremendous size except for Allaah, the Perfect and Most High:

بَلْ عِبَادٌ مُّكْرَمُونَ – لَا يَسْبِقُونَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ وَهُم بِأَمْرِهِ يَعْمَلُونَ

«Rather, they are honoured servants. They do not proceed Him in speaking, and they act upon His commands.» [21:26-27]

From them are those who are entrusted with the rain-drops and the plants, and he is Mikaeel. And from them are those who are entrusted with blowing the horn, and he is Israafeel. He will blow the horn and everything will perish. He, the Most High said:

وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَصَعِقَ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَن فِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَّا مَن شَاءَ اللَّهُ

«And the horn will be blown, and whoever is in the heavens and whoever is upon the earth, will swoon (drop down dead) except whomever Allaah wishes.» [39:68]

Then it will be blown for a second time, and the souls will return to their bodies:

ثُمَّ نُفِخَ فِيهِ أُخْرَىٰ فَإِذَا هُمْ قِيَامٌ يَنظُرُونَ

«Then it will be blown again and they will be standing, looking on» [39:68]

The souls will fly from the Qarn, which is the horn, back to their bodies, and they will enter into them and they will come to life by the Permission of Allaah, then they will proceed to the gathering place.

And from them are those who are entrusted with taking of the souls at the end of their lifespans, and he is Malak al-Mawt (the Angel of Death). He, the Most High, said:

قُلْ يَتَوَفَّاكُم مَّلَكُ الْمَوْتِ الَّذِي وُكِّلَ بِكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ تُرْجَعُونَ

«Say: The angel of death, who has been entrusted with you, will take your souls, then you will be returned to your Lord.» [32:11]

And he has with him assistance from the angels:

تَوَفَّتْهُ رُسُلُنَا وَهُمْ لَا يُفَرِّطُونَ

«Our Messengers (from the angels) take his soul, and they do not neglect their duty.» [6:61]

Meaning: they are the helpers for the angel of death.

And from them are those who are entrusted with the foetuses in the wombs. The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam said:

» إن أحدكم يجمع خلقه في بطن أمه أربعين يوما نطفة ، ثم يكون علقة مثل ذلك ، ثم يكون مضغة مثل ذلك ، ثم يرسل إليه الملك «

«The creation of each one of you is brought together in the abdomen of his mother for forty days as a sperm drop, then he will be a clinging clot of blood for the like of that, then he will be a piece of flesh for the like of that, then the angel is sent to him

[Hadith Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 3208 and Muslim no. 2643 from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Mas`ood, radiy Allaahu `anhu.]

And from them are those who are entrusted with recording the deeds of the descendents of Aadam. He, the Most High said:

وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَافِظِينَ  – كِرَامًا كَاتِبِينَ

«And there are watchers over you and there are honourable scribes writing down your deeds.» [82:10-11]

They stay with you throughout the night and the day.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

»يتعاقبون فيكم ملائكة بالليل ، وملائكة بالنهار «

«The angels of the night and the day come to you in succession

[Hadith Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 555 and Muslim no. 632 from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyallaahu `anhu.]

And they gather together at the Fajr and `Asr prayer. They bear witness for those people who pray with Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. Therefore, He, the Most High said:

إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا

«And the recitation of the Qur`aan in the Fajr prayer is witnessed.» [17:78]

Meaning: The angels attend it, the angels of the night and the angels of the day.

And from them are those who are entrusted with guarding the descendants of Aadam from disagreeable things; they guard them from calamities, from enemies, creatures; the wild animals, serpents or snakes, for as long as he lives, he has angels guarding him from dangerous things.

He may sleep between wild animals and snakes in open desert, (so) who repels the snakes, the wild animals and creatures from him? He has angels whom Allaah, He the Most High, has placed in their service. Allaah said with regard to them:

لَهُ مُعَقِّبَاتٌ مِّن بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ يَحْفَظُونَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ

«There are angels guarding him in succession, from in front of him and from behind him by the Command of Allaah.» [13:11]

Meaning: by the Command of Allaah, they guard the children of Aadam from disagreeable things and from dangers, until his lifespan draws to a close. So, when his lifespan comes to an end, they leave him. And that which Allaah has decreed to occur will occur, be it death or being stopped by something which leads to death.

And from them are angels who are entrusted with carrying out the commands in different areas of the heavens and the earth. No one knows them except for Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

From them are angels who seek out the gatherings of remembrance of Allaah and they attend them, just as Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihiwasallam said:

»ما اجتمع قوم في بيت من بيوت الله ، يتلون كتاب الله ، ويتدارسونه بينهم ، إلا نزلت  عليهم السكينة ، وغشيتهم الرحمة ، وحفتهم الملائكة«

«No people gather in a house from the houses of Allaah, reciting the Book of Allaah and studying it amongst them, except that (as-sakeenah) tranquility descends upon them, and mercy covers them, and the angels encircle them with their wings

[Hadith Reported by Muslim no. 2699 from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiy Allaahu `anhu]

There are angels who travel about upon the earth, seeking out the circles of the remembrance of Allaah and attending them.

[Hadith Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 6408 from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyallaahu `anh.]

No one knows all about the angels, their types and characteristics except for Allaah. However, as for what occurs in the texts of the Qur`aan and the authentic ahaadeeth of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, then we affirm it, and we believe it as our aqeedah (creed and belief) ; and whatever has not been mentioned to us, then we withhold from it, and we do not delve into it, because this is from `ilmul-ghayb (the knowledge of the hidden and the unseen) which we do not enter into, except with a proof.

So, having eemaan in the angels is a pillar from the pillars of Islaam.

Whoever denies the angels and says: “There are no angels (in existence) because we do not see them,” then this person will be a disbeliever, an apostate and heretic, and Allaah’s refuge is sought. This is because he does not have eemaan in the ghayb.

And likewise, the person who interprets the angels away and says: “The angels are just abstract things and not bodily beings; they are just thoughts or promptings which occur to a person. If they are good promptings, then they are angels, and if they are evil promptings, then they are devils,” this is a saying involving apostasy, and Allaah’s refuge is sought.

Unfortunately, this is found in Tafseerul-Manaar, it was quoted by Muhammad Rasheed Ridaa from his Shaykh Muhammad `Abdah. This is speech of the philosophers and it is baatil (false and futile). Whoever truly holds this as his creed and belief, he is a disbeliever. However, we hope that he was just quoting it, and he did not believe it, however, he quoted it without criticism, and that is dangerous. This is false and futile speech, and it is disbelief in the angels. We ask Allaah for safety and security.

So a person should not enter with his own intellect and thinking into this, nor should he quote anything from the philosophers and heretics with regard to anything from the affairs of the religion and the matters of `ilmul-ghayb. Rather, he should rely upon the Book and the Sunnah. This is what is obligatory. And he mentions in Tafseerul-Manaar that he was quoting from the book Ihyaa Uloom ad-Deen of al-Ghazaalee, and Allaah knows best. And the book Ihyaa Uloom ad-Deen of al-Ghazaalee contains terrible and calamitous things, and it contains some things from good and benefits, however, it contains a great deal of matters which can cause destruction, and it contains a great deal of poison. It is a book which is mixed up, its evil is more than its good. So therefore, it is not befitting that the beginner or the common person should look into it, unless he has the knowledge and ability to distinguish between the truth and falsehood.

And the angels are not abstract things as is said, rather, the angels have bodies and forms, they can take on different forms which Allaah gives them the ability to take on. Therefore, Jibreel `alaihis-salaam came to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam in the form of a man. So, Allaah gives them the ability to take forms for the benefit of the descendants of Aadam, because the descendants of Aadam are not able to see the angels in the form upon which Allaah created them. So, he came to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam in the form of a man out of kindness to the sons of Aadam. And they are not seen in their true forms and realities, except at the time of punishment. He, the Most High said:

يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ الْمَلَائِكَةَ لَا بُشْرَىٰ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلْمُجْرِمِينَ

«On the Day when they will see the angels, there will be no glad tidings on that Day for the criminals.» [25:22]

At death, the person will see them, he will see the angels of death, however, in this world and once he is alive, he does not see them because he is not able to see them. Allaah created them from light and He created the devils from Fire, just as occurs in the Qur`aan, and He created Aadam from earth, so Allaah has full ability over everything.

And the disbelievers believed that the angels are the daughters of Allaah. He the Most High said:

وَجَعَلُوا الْمَلَائِكَةَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ عِبَادُ الرَّحْمَٰنِ إِنَاثًا ۚ أَشَهِدُوا خَلْقَهُمْ ۚ سَتُكْتَبُ شَهَادَتُهُمْ وَيُسْأَلُونَ

«And they made the angels, who are servants of the Most Merciful, females. Did they witness their creation? Their testimony will be written and they will be questioned about it.» [43:19]

The third one: «Eemaan in his books» They are the Books which Allaah sent down to the Messengers for the guidance of mankind. We have eemaan that they are the speech of Allaah in reality, and we have eemaan in whatever Allaah named from them and in whatever He has not named. Allaah named to us from them the Tauraat, the Injeel, the Tremendous Qur`aan, the Zaboor, and the Scripture given to Ibraaheem and Moosaa. We have eemaan in them and we have eemaan in those that Allaah did not name to us from them.

So, eemaan in the previous scriptures is eemaan in general terms, whereas eemaan in the Qur`aan is eemaan in the details of everything contained in it. This is because it is our Book and was sent down to our Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. Whoever denies one aayah or one letter from its letters, then he is a kaafir and a murtad (apostate) who has left Islaam.

Likewise, whoever believes in a part of the Qur`aan and disbelieves in a part, then he is a kaafir, and one who believes in some of the scriptures and disbelieves in some, then he is a kaafir. Whoever says: “I believe in the Qur`aan, but I do not believe in the Tauraat and the Injeel,” then he is a kaafir.  Or says: “I believe in the Tauraat and the Injeel, but I do not believe in the Zaboor which was sent to Daawood `alaihissalaam,” then he is a kaafir. He, the Most High, said:

وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا

«And We gave the Zaboor to Daawood.» [4:163]

Or one who denies the scriptures of Ibraaheem, then he is a kaafir, because he has denied the truth of that which Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, said. He is denying His Messengers, so therefore, he is a kaafir, because he has denied a pillar from the pillars of eemaan. 

The fourth one: «Eemaan in his Messengers» Having eemaan in all of the Messengers, from the first of them to the last of them, those whom Allaah has named from them and those He did not name.  We have eemaan in all of them, and that they are Messengers of Allaah in truth. They came with the Message and they conveyed it to their nations. So, whoever disbelieves in a single Prophet, then he is a disbeliever in all of the Messengers, because of His saying, the Most High:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَّخِذُوا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ حَقًّا ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا  وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَلَمْ يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ أُولَٰئِكَ سَوْفَ يُؤْتِيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

«Those who disbelieve in Allaah and His Messengers and wish to make a distinction between believing in Allaah and His Messengers. They say: “We believe in some of them and we disbelieve in some,” and they wish to take a path in between. They are the disbelievers in truth. And We have prepared a humiliating punishment for the disbelievers. And those who truly believe in Allaah and His Messengers and do not differentiate in believing in any of them, to them He will soon give their rewards. And Allaah has always been One who Forgives Extensively and Bestows Mercy.» [4:150-152]

Therefore disbelieving in a single Prophet or a single Messenger is to disbelieve in all of them. He said:

كَذَّبَتْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ الْمُرْسَلِينَ

«The people of Nooh rejected the Messengers.» [26:105]

Even though they only rejected Nooh, their denial of Nooh became a denial of the rest of the Messengers. Likewise, whoever disbelieves in `Eesaa and Muhammad, such as the Jews, or whoever disbelieves in Muhammad, such as the Christians, then he is a disbeliever in all of them. There must be eemaan in all of the Messengers `alaihumusalaatu wasalaam, those whom Allaah has named from them and those He has not named.

Allaah has named some of them as occurs in Sooratul-An`aam:

وَتِلْكَ حُجَّتُنَا آتَيْنَاهَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ ۚ نَرْفَعُ دَرَجَاتٍ مَّن نَّشَاءُ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ ۚ كُلًّا هَدَيْنَا ۚ وَنُوحًا هَدَيْنَا مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِ دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُوسُفَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَهَارُونَ ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ وَزَكَرِيَّا وَيَحْيَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَإِلْيَاسَ ۖ كُلٌّ مِّنَ الصَّالِحِينَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَالْيَسَعَ وَيُونُسَ وَلُوطًا ۚ وَكُلًّا فَضَّلْنَا عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ

«And that was Our Proof which We gave to Ibraaheem against his people. We raise in degrees whomever We wish. Indeed, your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing. And We bestowed upon him Is-haaq and Yaqoob, We guided them all, and Nooh, We guided before, and from his descendants were Daawood, Sulayman, Ayyoob, Yusuf, Moosaa, and Haaroon. Likewise shall We reward the doers of good. And Zakariyyah, and Yahyaa, and Ilyaas, all of them were from the righteous. And Ismaa`eel, and al-Yas`aa, and Yoonus and Loot, all of them We gave excellence over the people of the world.» [6:83-86]

He mentioned a number of them together in these aayahs and in other aayahs. So, we have eemaan in those whom Allaah has named from them and we have eemaan in those whom Allaah has not named from them.

The fifth one: «The Last Day» Eemaan in the Last Day is the fifth pillar. The Last Day – what is meant by it is Yawm al-Qiyaamah (the Day of Resurrection). It is called the Last Day because it comes after the Yawm al-Awal (the First Day), and that is the Day of this world. This world is the First Day, and the Resurrection is the Last Day. Having eemaan in the Last Day is to have eemaan in whatever will occur after death from the punishment of the grave and its bliss and the questioning of the two Angels in the grave. Everything that will occur after the grave is a part of eemaan in the Last Day, likewise, eemaan in al-Ba`th (dead being brought to life), an-Nushoor (Resurrection), al-Mahshara (the Gathering Place), al-Hisaab (Reckoning), Waznul-A`maal (Weighing of the Deeds), asSiraat (Bridge over the Hell-Fire), al-Mizaan (the Balance upon which the good and bad deeds will be weighed), and al-Jannah (Paradise) and an-Naar (Fire). So the details of what will occur on the Last Day, we have eemaan in it – in general and with the specifics – beginning with death right until the inhabitants of Paradise settle in Paradise and the inhabitants of the Fire are in the Fire. Everything which is authentic in that regard, we have eemaan in it. We do not have any doubt at all about anything from it. Whoever doubts about anything from it, then he is a kaafir and a murtad upon Islaam – everything to which the term the Last Day applies and what is contained in it. 

The sixth pillar: «And to have eemaan in pre-decree, the good of it, and the bad of it.» You have eemaan that whatever occurs from this creation, from good or evil, from disbelief or true faith, from blessings or punishments, from ease or hardship, from sickness or health, from life or death – everything occurs in this creation is pre-decreed. It does not just occur like that. It is not just a matter which happens on its own, meaning: it just initially comes about, not being pre-decreed. So, you have eemaan that it all comes about with the decree and ordainment of Allaah. And you have eemaan that whatever befalls you would not have missed you and whatever missed you was not going to come upon you, and that this was by the ordainment of Allaah and His pre-decree. He, the Most High, said:

مَا أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِ أَن نَّبْرَأَهَا ۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ

«No calamity befalls on the earth nor in yourselves except that it was already written in a Book, before We created it. That is easy for Allaah.» [57:22]

This is eemaan with the pre-decree. 

Eemaan in pre-decree includes four levels, whoever does not have eemaan in all of them is not a believer in pre-decree.

The first level: Knowledge that Allaah has known everything, always. He knows what occurs, whatever has occurred and whatever will occur without end. So, Allaah knew it always before it was and before it occurred. He, the Perfect and Most High, knew it with His Eternal Knowledge – which is His Attribute – has always been and will be forever. This is the level of knowledge, whoever denies it is a kaafir. 

The second level: The level of writing down in the Lawh al-Mahfoodh (the Preserved Tablet). And it is that Allaah wrote down everything in the Preserved Tablet. Nothing occurs except that it was written down in the Preserved Tablet. There is nothing that occurs and it is not written there, therefore He, the Most High, said:

مَا أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ

«No calamity befalls on the earth nor in yourselves except that it was already written in a Book.» [57:22]

Meaning: the Preserved Tablet. Allaah wrote in it the decreed measures of everything. Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

» أول ما خلق الله القلم ، قال : اكتب ، قال : وما أكتب ؟ قال : اكتب ما هو كائن إلى يوم القيامة «

«The first thing that Allaah created was the pen.
He said: “Write.”
It said: “And what shall I write?”
He said: “Write whatever will occur until the Day of Resurrection.”»

[Hadith Reported by Aboo Daawood no. 3800, at-Tirmithee no. 2155 from a hadeeth of `Ubaadah ibn asSaamit, radiy Allaahu `anhu.] [Declared authentic by Shaykh al-Albaanee (rahimahullaah)].

So, whoever denies the writing and says: “Allaah knows everything, however He did not write anything down in the Preserved Tablet,” this person is a kaafir and an apostate who has left the religion of Islaam. 

The third level: Allaah’s Mashee.ah (Will) which is in effect. It is that Allaah, the Perfect, wishes a thing and wills it to occur. So, there is nothing that occurs except that Allaah wished and willed it to occur just as it is in the Preserved Tablet and just as He knew it, He the Perfect and Most High. He wills everything to occur at its time. He wills everything to occur at a certain time. Nothing occurs without the will of Allaah or without His wish. So, whoever says: “Things occur without Allaah wishing them to or without Allaah’s willing them to,” then he is a kaafir. 

The fourth level: The level of creating and bringing it into exist. Allaah created it everything. When He wishes and wills it, He, the Perfect and Most High, creates it and brings it about. So everything is something created by Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, and it is from the creation of Allaah. It is an action done by the servants and something earned by them [meaning deeds].

So these four levels, there must be eemaan in them, otherwise the person will not be a believer in pre-decree, the level of knowledge, writing, wish and will, and creation and the bringing into existence. It is essential to have eemaan in all of these. Whoever denies anything from them, then he is a kaafir and an apostate who has left the religion of Islaam, because he has denied a pillar from the pillars of eemaan, and it is eemaan in the pre-decree.


The Proof for the Pillars of Eemaan 

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

والدليل على هذه الأركان الستة قوله تعالى :

The proof for these six pillars is His saying He, the Most High:

لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ

«And righteousness is not that you turn your faces towards the East or the West; but rather, righteousness is the righteousness of those who have eemaan (truly believe) in Allaah, the Last Day, the Angels, the Books, and the Prophets.» [2:177]  [44]


[44] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The Shaykh having explained these pillars mentions the proof from the Qur`aan and Sunnah, because any matter from the matters of the religion, of worship, `aqeedah and the matters of legislated rulings, require a daleel (proof). If it does not have a proof, it will not be saheeh (correct). So, the Shaykh having mentioned the six pillars of eemaan, he mentions their proof from the Qur`aan firstly and then from the Sunnah.

From the Qur`aan is His saying, He the Most High:

.. لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ

« And righteousness is not that you turn your faces » [2:177]

Al-Birr (righteousness) is the doing of good which draws one closer to Allaah and leads to His Paradise. So, all actions of good are from al-birr. Al-Birr is a general word which covers all types of good and all types of acts of obedience. They all enter under the title of birr and under the title of taqwaa (dutifulness to Allaah).So, al-birr and taqwaa are comprehensive terms which gather all the characteristics of good.

His saying, He the Most High:

لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ

« And righteousness is not that you turn your faces towards the East or the West. » [2:177]

This is a refutation of the Jews who criticized the changing of the Qiblah (direction of the prayer) from Jerusalem to the honored Ka`bah. They criticized this and denied it along with their knowledge that they knew that it was true. However, they denied it as a case of obstinate rejection, haughtiness and envy towards the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi was allam and towards this nation.

Allaah, the Most High, says: It is not righteousness that you turn your faces in a certain direction from the directions without a command from Allaah. But rather, righteousness is obedience to Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. If He commands you with a command, it is obligatory upon you to comply with it. This is righteousness. So, if He commands you to face Jerusalem, then righteousness at that time is to face the direction of Jerusalem, because it was obedience to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Then, when He commands you to face the Ka`bah, righteousness is to face the Ka`bah. So, righteousness goes along with the command of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

You are slaves. It is obligatory upon you to comply. If Allaah commands you to face a certain direction, it is obligatory upon you to comply. But as for clinging in a bigoted manner to one certain direction, saying: “It is not correct except to face it,” then the meaning of this is the following of desires and tribalism. Whereas the true servant goes along with the commands of Allaah wherever they go. He does not raise any objection to the command of Allaah, since facing a direction after it has been abrogated will not be obedience to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. So, acting upon that which has been abrogated and leaving that which abrogates is not obedience to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, rather it is just obedience to desires and tribalism. So, righteousness is connected to obedience to Allaah; in whichever directions He turns you, you turn in that direction if you are true in your servitude to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

… لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ 

«And righteousness is not that you turn your faces towards the East or the West; but rather, righteousness is the righteousness of those who have eemaan (truly believe) in Allaah …» [2:177]


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:   

ودليل القدر قوله تعالى:

And the proof for pre-decree is His Saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ

«We have created all things in accordance with a predetermined measure.» [54:49] [45]


[45] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The proof for the sixth pillar from the pillars of eemaan is His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ

«We have created all things in accordance with a predetermined measure.» [54:49]

Meaning: Everything which Allaah created is predetermined in His Knowledge, His Writing, His Wish and Will, He the Perfect and Most High. It is not something which spontaneously occurs or something accidental, rather it is something preceded with the Knowledge of Allaah, written in the Preserved Tablet, and something preceded in the Wish and Will of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/belief/imaan-faith-pillars

Hadeeth of Jibreel : Islaam, Eemaan, Ihsaan & the Signs of the Hour – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lessons 37 (Part B) , 38 & 39
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

والدليل من السنة حديث جبريل المشهور:

»عن عمر  رضى الله عنه قال : بينما نحن جلوس عند رسول الله  صلى الله عليه وسلم  إذ طلع علينا رجل ، شديد بياض الثياب ، شديد سواد الشعر«

And the proof from the Sunnah is the famous hadeeth of Jibreel:

From `Umar radiyallaahu`anhu who said: «Whilst we were sitting with Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, a man came to us whose clothing was very white and whose hair was very black [48]


[48] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Speech with regard to Islaam, eemaan and ihsaan has preceded and the pillars of each level. The Shaykh (rahimahullaah) has mentioned the evidences for each level from the Qur`aan. All of that has preceded and finished.

Then, the Shaykh (rahimahullaah) mentioned a proof for these levels from the Sunnah, the Sunnah of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam; so he mentioned the hadeeth of Jibreel.

He [Jibreel] came to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam whilst he was with his companions. He came to them in the form of a man and he sat with the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, and asked him about Islaam, eemaan, and ihsaan. Then, he asked him about the Last Hour and its signs.

This is called the hadeeth of Jibreel or it is called the hadeeth of `Umar. It is a hadeeth which occurs through a number of chains of narration from a group of the companions, so it is an authentic hadeeth. The Shaykh (rahimahullaah) mentioned the narration of `Umar ibn al-Khattaab [1] of this hadeeth. There is variations in the wordings of the hadeeth in other narrations. However, the meaning is one and the same.

[1] Hadith Reported in Saheeh Muslim no. 8. Refer to Jaami` al-Uloom wal-Hikam of Ibn Rajab 1/93, second hadeeth.

«Whilst we were sitting with Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam» It was from their usual practice, may Allaah be pleased with them, that they would gather together in the presence of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam in the mosque, and that they would take knowledge from him and listen to his (sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam) answers when he responded to questions. So, whilst they were like that in their normal condition, a man entered upon them through the door.

A man «whose clothing was very white and whose hair was very black.» Meaning: Jibreel `alaihissalaam. He came in the form of this man and he did not come to them in his angelic form, because they would not have been able to look upon him in his angelic form.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

»لا يرى عليه أثر السفر ، ولا يعرفه منا أحد ، حتى جلس إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم  فأسند ركبتيه إلى ركبتيه ، ووضع كفيه على فخذيه ، وقال : يا محمد أخبرني عن الإسلام «.

«No signs of having traveled could be seen upon him and none of us knew him until he sat with the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. He placed his knees against his knees and placed his hands upon his thighs and said:

‘O Muhammad, inform me about al-Islaam.’»[49]


[49]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

«No signs of having traveled could be seen upon him and none of us knew him»: Meaning: from those who were present. This was something amazing: he had not arrived from a journey so that it could be said: “He is from other than the people of al-Madeenah.” Yet, they did not recognize him. He was not from the people of the city so that they could recognize him. So, they were confused about him. He was not someone who had come from a journey nor was he someone from the people of the town. If he had arrived from a journey, then the signs of having traveled would have appeared upon him, his clothing and his color, because the effects of traveling appear upon a traveler. No one from those present recognized him, so he was not from the people of the city. Yet he had not arrived from a journey. So what could this man be? This is what they found strange.

«He sat with the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam»: In front of him with the sitting of a student with his teacher.

«He placed his two knees against the two knees of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam»: Meaning: He was very close to him.

«He placed his two hands upon his thighs»: Meaning: Upon the thighs of the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.

So «he said: ‘O Muhammad’»: He addressed him by his name and he did not say: ‘O Messenger of Allaah.’ Perhaps he did that, `alaihissalaam, in order that the companions should think that he was from the people of the desert (i.e. Bedouin), because it was from the habit and custom of the people of the desert that when they used to address the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, they would do so by his name. This is because the people of the desert have their own nature and customs. And it was also an addition in rendering it something strange and obscure so that they would not recognize him.

«He said: ‘O Muhammad, inform me about al-Islaam‘»: Meaning: explain to me the meaning of AlIslaam.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

قال» : أن تشهد أن لا إله إلا الله ، وأن محمدا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم  وتقيم الصلاة ، وتؤتي الزكاة ، وتصوم رمضان ، وتحج البيت إن استطعت إليه سبيلا ، «فقال : صدقت ، فعجبنا له يسأله ويصدقه .

He said: «It is that you testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu `alaihiwasallam, and you establish the prayer, give Zakaah, fast Ramadaan, and perform Hajj (pilgrimage) to the House if are able to make your way to it.» He said: ‘You have spoken the truth.’

So we were amazed at him, asking him the question and then stating that he had spoken the truth.[50]


[50] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

«Islaam is that you testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu `alaihiwasallam, and you establish the prayer, give Zakaah, fast Ramadaan, and perform pilgrimage to the House if are able to make your way to it» The Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam mentioned to him the pillars of Islaam which are essential and are such that if they are implemented, Islaam is brought about. And whatever is extra to them from the other matters, then they are matters of completion. The Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam limited himself to an explanation of the pillars of Islaam since the shorter an answer is, the easier it will be for the student and the listener. It will be easy for him to memorize and preserve it. Whereas, if the answer is prolonged, it becomes difficult and confusing for those who are present, and perhaps most of them will not comprehend it. Therefore, this is a proof that a person who is questioned – it is befitting that he should strive to make an abridgement as far as he is able to and he should limit himself to that which is necessary. Otherwise, the fact is that Islaam is more than that. These are its pillars and its supports which it stands upon.

«He said: You have spoken the truth» This was a second amazing thing.

He said: «We were amazed at him, asking him a question and then saying that he had spoken the truth» It showed that he was a person of knowledge. He was not asking in the manner of a person who is ignorant, rather he was asking and he had knowledge as is shown by the fact that he said: «You have spoken the truth.» That proves that he was a person of knowledge. Therefore, why he did ask the question?


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

قال : فأخبرني عن الإيمان ، قال» :أن تؤمن بالله ، وملائكته ، وكتبه ، ورسله ،  واليوم الآخر ، وتؤمن بالقدر خيره وشره «، قال : صدقت.

He said: ‘Inform me about eemaan.’

He said: «It is that you have eemaan (truly believe) in Allaah, in His Angels, in His Books, in His Messengers, in the Last Day, and you have eemaan in the pre-decree, the good of it and the bad of it

He said: ‘You have spoken the truth.’ [51]


[51Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

«He said: ‘Inform me about eemaan.’ He said: «It is that you have eemaan (truly believe) in Allaah, in His Angels, in His Books, in His Messengers, in the Last Day, and you have eemaan in the pre-decree, the good of it and the bad of it»

The Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam mentioned to him the six pillars of eemaan after he mentioned the pillars of Islaam. 

Islaam and eemaan, when they are mentioned together, Islaam means outward actions and eemaan means inward actions, the actions of the heart and what occurs in it with regard to tasdeeq (affirmation) and `ilm (knowledge). Both Islaam and eemaan are essential together, Islaam being the outward actions and eemaan being the inward actions, because of his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam:

»الإسلام علانية ، والإيمان في القلب«

«Islaam is apparent and eemaan is in the heart[2]

If both are mentioned together, each one has a separate and specific meaning to it.

If one of them is mentioned on its own, the other one enters within it. If eemaan is mentioned on its own, Islaam enters within it. If Islaam is mentioned on its own, eemaan enters into it, because Islaam will not be correct without eemaan and eemaan will not be correct without Islaam. Both are essential.

They are inseparably linked, therefore they say: Islaam and eemaan are from those titles which when they come together, they separate, and when they occur singularly, they come together. Meaning: each of them enters into the other one, because they are inseparably linked and one cannot be separated from the other.

So, he asked him about the outward actions and about the inward actions. And he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam explained to him the pillars of both Islaam and eemaan.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

قال : أخبرني عن الإحسان ، قال» : أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه ، فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه  يراك ، «قال : فأخبرني عن الساعة ، قال» : ما المسئول عنها بأعلم من السائل.  «

He said: Inform me about ihsaan.

He said: «That you worship Allaah as if you were seeing Him, and even though you do not see Him, He, certainly, sees you

He said: ‘Inform me about the Last Hour.’

He said: «The one who is being asked about it does not know any better than the one who is asking[52]


[52] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He said: Inform me about ihsaan. He said: «That you worship Allaah…» It has already preceded that the person of ihsaan is the person who worships Allaah as if He were actually seeing Him, and upon certainty as if he were seeing Allaah. Or that he worships Him upon the basis of his being observed and he knows that Allaah sees him, therefore he perfects the action, because Allaah is observing him. So, the person of ihsaan worships Allaah, either seeing Him with his heart – and that is more complete – or upon the basis that he is being watched. And he knows that Allaah is seeing him in whatever place and with whatever action he is doing. This is Al ihsaan.

He said: ‘You have spoken the truth. Inform me about the Last Hour.’ Meaning: about the establishment of the Hour. When will it be? This question – the answer of it is not known to anyone, except to Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, because the establishment of the Hour – its appointed time is not known except to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

We know that the Hour will be established. We have no doubt about that. Whoever doubts that, then he is a disbeliever. We know that the Hour will be established and it will certainly occur. However, the time at which Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, will establish the Hour, He has not informed us about it and He has not explained it to us. He has kept it secret within His Knowledge. He the Most High said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ

«Allaah! With Him is the knowledge of the Hour.» [31:34]

And He, the Most High, said:

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ السَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرْسَاهَا ۖ قُلْ إِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِندَ رَبِّي ۖ لَا يُجَلِّيهَا لِوَقْتِهَا إِلَّا هُوَ

«They ask you about the Hour: ‘When will it come about?’ Say: ‘Its knowledge is with my Lord alone. None can reveal its time but He.’» [7:187]

He is the One who knows it, He the Perfect.

He, the Most High, said:

وَعِندَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لَا يَعْلَمُهَا إِلَّا هُوَ

«And with Him are the keys to the hidden and unseen, none knows them but He.» [6:59]

From it [the hidden and unseen] is the time and establishment of the Hour.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said to Jibreel: «The one who is being asked about it does not know any better than the one who is asking» Meaning: I and you are the same. We do not know when the Hour will be established. Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, did not make anyone aware of that, neither the Angels, the Messengers, nor anyone. Rather, He kept it secret in His Knowledge, He the Perfect and most High.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

قال : فأخبرني عن أماراﺗﻬا ، قال» : أن تلد الأمة ربتها«

He said: ‘Then inform me about its signs.’

He said: «That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress[53]


[53] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He said: ‘Then inform me about its signs’: (الأمارات) is the plural of (أمارة). It means the sign. As for (الإمارة) with the kasrah, then it means al-wilaayah (leadership). 

‘Inform me about its signs’: Meaning: the signs which indicate the closeness of its Establishment. Yes. The Hour has signs, and Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, has made them clear. From them are the smaller signs, from them are major signs and from them are the intermediate signs. And from them are signs which are very close to the Hour that will occur at its establishment. They will be close to its establishment. As for the other signs, then they come before that.

The scholars say: The signs for the hour are of three types: Smaller signs which come [quite some time] before it, intermediate signs, and major signs. The lesser and intermediate signs have already occurred or most of them have occurred. As for the major signs: the appearance of the Dajjaal, the descent of `Eesaa (`alaihissalaam), the emergence of the beast, and the emergence of Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj. These will occur at the actual establishment of the Hour and will quickly follow on in succession. 

He said: ‘Inform me about its signs’: Since its signs are known, the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam answered him and said: «That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress.» This is from the signs of the Hour. The slave girl [meaning] one who is owned and rabbataha means her female-owner (mistress).


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

»وأن ترى الحفاة العراة العالة رعاء الشاء يتطاولون في البنيان «.

«And that you will see barefoot, unclothed, destitute shepherds vying with each other in building tall buildings[54]


[54] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

«That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress.» The explainer said: Its meaning, and Allaah knows best, is that towards the end of time, there will be many captives or slaves taken, meaning: there will be many occurrences of intercourse with slave-girls, meaning: the owned slave-girls. They will give birth to daughters and the slave-girl’s daughter will be a free woman and she will be a mistress to her mother and an owner of her.

It is also said: Its meaning is that disobedience to parents will be abundant such that the daughter will act as if she is a mistress to her mother.

«And that you will see barefoot»: This is a second sign.

«Barefoot»: Those who have no shoes because of poverty and destitution.

«Unclothed» Those who do not have clothing.

«Destitute» The poor and needy people.

«Shepherds» (رعاء) is the plural of (راع), those who shepherd the sheep. In origin, those people are found in the desert areas, in their own dwellings and they move about from one place to another. But at the end of time, they will take residence in the cities and they will build tall palaces and towering buildings. This is from the signs of the Hour, when the desert people change and become modern and they start to vie with each other in tall buildings. They compete with each other in adorning them. This was not from their custom in any way. They will change to be rich people, having wealth and people who manifest it [i.e. what they have]. This is from the signs of the Hour.

And as you know, the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam did not speak from his own desires, just as you know today, how the condition of the people is. The peoples conditions have changed. The poor have turned into rich people having vast riches. The desert people have become modernized and they have competed in building tall buildings. This is in confirmation of the truth of what Allaah’s Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

قال : فمضى ، فلبثنا مليا ، فقال» : يا عمر أتدري من السائل ؟ «قلت : الله ورسوله أعلم ، قال» : هذا جبريل أتاكم يعلمكم أمر دينكم «

He said: Then he went away and we remained for some time. So he said: «O’ `Umar! Do you know who the questioner was?» I said: ‘Allaah and His Messenger know best.’ He said: «This was Jibreel, he came to you to teach you the affair of your religion[55]


[55] Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He said: Then he went away and we remained for some time: Meaning: for a short time. 

So the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam then said: «O `Umar! Do you know who the questioner was?» Do you [people] know who the questioner was?

In one narration the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

»علي بالرجل«

«Bring the man to me[3]

So, they looked for him, but could not find him. 

He said: «This was Jibreel, he came to you to teach you the affair of your religion.» The one who entered and asked these questions was Jibreel `alaihissalaam. He came in the form of a man, just as was described, in order to teach those present the affairs of the religion in the manner of question and answer.


This hadeeth proves a number of tremendous matters: 

Firstly: The religion is divided into three levels: Islaam, eemaan, and ihsaan, each level being higher than the one before it. Each level has pillars: The pillar of Islaam, the pillars of eemaan, and ihsaan is a single pillar. 

Secondly: It shows teaching by way of questions and answers. This is a teaching method which succeeds, because it is better for arousing attention and conveying knowledge if the person is questioned. His mind is therefore made ready and he seeks the answer. So, he seeks the answer and then he gives the answer to him, and he is desiring it, so this will establish it firmly. 

Thirdly: In the hadeeth there is a proof that whoever is asked about some knowledge and he does not know, then it is upon him to say: Allaah and His Messenger know best. He should refer knowledge back to the one who knows it. He should not speak with an answer when he does not know it and he should not make a guess. This is not permissible. The Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, when he was asked about the Hour, he said: «The one who is being asked about it does not know any better than the one who is asking.» And when he said to the Companions: «Do you know who the questioner was?» They did not know him, they said: Allaah and His Messenger know best.

This shows that with regard to matters relating to the Islaamic legislation and that of the religion, it is not permissible to speak about them based upon conjecture, because this will be a case of takalluf (unnecessary overburdening oneself). However, whoever has knowledge should respond and whoever does not have knowledge should say: ‘Allaah knows best.’ And whoever says: ‘I do not know,’ has given a response. 

Imaam Maalik (rahimahullaah) was asked forty questions and he gave an answer to six of them. With regard to the rest, he said: ‘I do not know.’ So questioner said to him: ‘I have come from such-and-such place. I have traveled and tired out my riding animal and you say: ‘I do not know?’ So he said: ‘Ride your animal and go back to the land which you came from and say: ‘I asked Maalik and he said: ‘I do not know.”

This is not a defect that when a person does not know an answer regarding matters of the Islaamic legislation that he should say: ‘I do not know.’ Even if he is a scholar. The Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said: «The one who is being asked about it does not know any better than the one who is asking

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, when he was asked certain questions and he did not possess revelation from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, he would wait until the revelation descended from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. Do you not recite [a number of times]: ‘They ask you about such-and-such. They ask you about such-and-such. Then say: ‘Such-and-such.’

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ ۖ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ

«They ask you about intoxicants and gambling. Say: “In them is a great sin.» [2:219]

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْأَهِلَّةِ ۖ قُلْ هِيَ مَوَاقِيتُ لِلنَّاسِ وَالْحَجِّ

«They ask you about the crescent moons. Say: “They are signs to mark time periods for the people and for the Hajj.“» [2:189]

So, the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam, when he was asked a question and he did not have an answer, he would wait until revelation came down to him from Allaah. So that should be even more the case with anyone else besides him. He should wait until he asks someone else or until he researches the matter in the books of the people of knowledge to attain the answer. As for being hasty, then this is extremely dangerous and it contains showing bad manners towards Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, since the one who gives the answer is answering about Allaah’s legislation. He is saying: ‘Allaah has made such-and-such permissible,’ or ‘He has made such-and-such forbidden,’ or ‘He has legislated such-and-such.’ So the matter is extremely dangerous. 

The fourth matter: The hadeeth contains a proof for the manners of the student. Jibreel was the noblest one of the angels, he sat in front of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and placed his knees against the knees of the Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and placed his hands upon his thighs and asked with good manners. This was in order to teach the people good manners with which they should adopt towards the scholars.

This is a part of what the hadeeth indicates and it contains. 

The fifth matter: It is an explanation of some of the signs of the Hour. He mentioned two signs: that the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress and some of the scholars say: its meaning «the slave-girl will birth to her mistress» is that disobedience and bad treatment towards the parents will be frequent at the end of time. So the daughter becomes as if she is one in charge of her mother, commanding her and forbidding her and being stern with her.

Footnotes:

[2] Reported by Imaam Ahmad as a hadeeth of Anas, radiyallaahu `anhu. [Shaykh al-Albaanee mentioned in his Da`eeful-Jaami` that this particular hadeeth is da`eef (weak). And in his explanation of at-Tahawiyyah, he said: Its chain of narration is weak, it contains `Alee ibn Mas`adah, about whom al-Uqayri said: He is from the du`afaah. Al-Bukhaaree said: He is a person of suspect. `Abdul-Haqq al-`Azdi said in his book al-Ahkaam al-Kubraa about this hadeeth: This hadeeth is not correctly preserved. And Allaah knows best.]

[3] Reported by an-Nasaa`eee in Sunan al-Kubraa as a hadeeth of Ibn `Umar, radiyallaahu `anhumaa. It has also been reported by Ibn Hib-baan and ad-Daaraqutnee as a hadeeth of `Umar ibn al-Khattaab, radiyallaahu `anhu. [Shaykh al-Albaanee (rahimahullaah) said in his checking of Ibn Hib-baan: [This addition], it is saheeh (authentic).

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/belief/imaan-faith-pillars

Belief in the Messengers – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 46 (Part C) & Lesson 47
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

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Belief in the Messengers

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:  

Allaah sent all of the messengers as bringers of good tidings and as warners, and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

رُّسُلًا مُّبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى اللَّهِ حُجَّةٌ بَعْدَ الرُّسُلِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

Messengers were sent as bringers of glad tidings and as warners so that the people should have no excuse with Allaah after the sending of the messengers. And Allaah is ever All Mighty, All Wise. [4:165] [74]


[74]:Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Eemaan in the Messengers is one of the six pillars of eemaan; he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said: 

Eemaan is that you truly believe in Allaah and in His Angels and in His Books and in His Messengers…”

[Hadeeth reported by al Bukhaaree (50) and Muslim (8,9 & 10) from the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radi Allaahu‘ anhu]

So having eemaan in the Messengers is one of the pillars of eemaan; so it is essential to have eemaan in all of the messengers, from the first of them to the last of them. So whoever denies a single messenger, then he is a kaafir (disbeliever) in all of them, just as He, the Most High, said: 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَّخِذُوا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا – أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ حَقًّا ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا

Those who disbelieve in Allaah and in His Messengers want to make a distinction between believing in Allaah and in His Messengers and they say, “We believe in some of them and we disbelieve in some.”And they wish to take a path in between that. They are the disbelievers in truth and We have prepared a humiliating punishment for the disbelievers. [4:150-151]

So there must be eemaan in all of the Messengers from the first of them to the last of them, those whom Allaah has named from them in His Book, and those He has not named. For the Messengers are many; and therefore there occurs in the hadeeth that they number:

“One hundred and twenty four thousand (prophets) and the messengers from them were three hundred and fifteen all together.”

[Hadeeth reported by Ahmad in his Musnad from the hadeeth of Aboo Umaamah al Baahilee radi Allaahu ‘anhu and declared to be saheeh by al Albaanee in as Saheehah (2668)]

So there were many messengers; from them were those whom Allaah named in His Book and from them were those He did not name. So it is obligatory upon us to have eemaan in all of them, from the first of them to the last of them.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

: وأولُهُمْ نوحٌ عليهِ السلامُ، وآخِرُهُم محمدٌ صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو خاتِمُ النَّبيينَ والدليلُ على أنَّ أوَّلُهُم نوح قوله تعالى

And the first of them was Nooh, ‘alaihissalaam, and the last of them was Muhammad sallAllaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam; and the proof that the first of them was Nooh, ‘alaihissalaam, is His saying, He the Most High:

إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ

We have sent you (O Muhammad), with Revelation, just as We sent Revelation to Nooh and to the prophets who came after him [4:163] 75


 [75]:Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

The proof that the first of them was Nooh is His saying, He the Most High:

… إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ

We sent revelation to you…

This was an address to the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam

 كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ ۚ وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَعِيسَىٰ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُونُسَ وَهَارُونَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا 

… just as We sent revelation to Nooh and the prophets who came after him; and We sent revelation to Ibraaheem and Isma’eel and Is-haaq and Ya’qoob and to the tribes (of Banu Israeel) and to ‘Eesaa and Ayyoob and Yoonus and Haaroon and Sulaymaan; and We gave the Zaboor to Daawud. [4:163]

Allaah mentioned a number of their names together in this aayah, just as He mentioned a number of their names together in the aayah from Soorah al An’aam:

 وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِ دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُوسُفَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَهَارُونَ

And from his descendants were Daawood and Sulaymaan and Ayyoob and Yoosuf and Moosaa and Haaroon… [6:84]

to the end of the aayaat.

So the first of them was Nooh  – ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam – as proven by His saying, He the Most High:

 .. وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ

And the prophets who came after him… [4:163]

Allaah sent him (Nooh) to his people when they went beyond the limits (ghuloo) concerning the righteous people after the people had been upon the religion of Tawheed from the time of Aadam ‘alaihissalaam for ten generations and they were upon Tawheed.

So when the people of Nooh came, there were amongst (those people) righteous men. Then when those righteous men died, the people grieved severely for them. So Satan seized the opportunity and said to them, “Make images of those righteous people and set them up in the places where you sit in order that when you see these images, you will remember their condition and you will gain enthusiasm upon worship.” So therefore they made images of those dead people and they set them up in the sitting places but they (these images) were not worshipped to begin with because of the presence of scholars who used to explain Tawheed to the people and used to criticize shirk.

Then when the people of knowledge died and the first generation passed away, a later generation came – and the scholars had died – Satan came and said to them, “Your forefathers only erected these images in order to worship them and they used to seek rain near them (these images).” So he made worship of them seem to be good, so they worshipped them besides Allaah.

So in this way, shirk came about upon the Earth; so Allaah therefore sent His Prophet Nooh  – ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam – calling them to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and seeking to return them to Tawheed, which was the religion of their forefather Aadam – ‘alaihissalaam.  However they (Nooh’s people) were obstinate and haughty:

وَقَالُوا لَا تَذَرُنَّ آلِهَتَكُمْ وَلَا تَذَرُنَّ وَدًّا وَلَا سُوَاعًا وَلَا يَغُوثَ وَيَعُوقَ وَنَسْرًا

And they said, “Do not forsake those objects that you worship! Do not forsake Wadd nor Suwaa’ nor Yaghooth nor Ya’ooq nor Nasr. [71:23]

Ibn ‘Abbaas said:

« هذه أسماء رجال صالحين ، صوروا صورهم ونصبوها على مجالسهم فآل ﺑﻬم الأمر إلى أن عبدوها من دون الله »

“These were the names of righteous men; they made images of them and they set them up in their sitting places, and this eventually led them to worshipping them besides Allaah.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree as narration 4920]

So when Nooh – ‘alaihissalaatu wassalaam – came to them and forbade them from worshipping them and he commanded them to worship Allaah, they said, “Do not abandon those objects that you worship; do not obey Nooh but rather continue upon your kufr and transgression and obstinacy!

This was the first shirk that occurred upon the Earth and its cause was the images. And therefore the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

« إن أشد الناس عذابا عند الله يوم القيامة المصورون »

“The people who will receive the severest punishment on the Day of Resurrection will be those who make images.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree (5950) and Muslim (2109) from hadeeth of ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood radi Allaahu ‘anhu]

And he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

« إن الذين يصنعون هذه الصور يعذبون يوم القيامة ، يقال لهم : أحيوا ما خلقتم »

Those people who make these images will be punished on the Day of Resurrection. It will be said to them, “Give life to that which you have created.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree (5951) and Muslim  (2108) from hadeeth of ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar  radi Allaahu‘ anhumaa ]

They will be commanded to breathe the spirit of life into these images; and this will be a case of ta’jeez (giving them a command to show their inability) and as a punishment for them, and Allaah’s refuge is sought. This is because making images is a route from the routes which lead to shirk, just as happened with the people of Nooh.

So the first of the Messengers was Nooh. And as for the seal of the Messengers and the last of them, then he was Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. He, the Most High, said:

مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ

Muhammad is not the father of any of your men but rather he is the Messenger of Allaah and the final one of the prophets. [33:40]

And he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

« وأنا خاتم النبيين لا نبي بعدي »

I am the seal of the Prophets; there will be no prophet after me.[6]

[Hadith Reported by Aboo Daawud (4252) and at Tirmidhee from hadeeth of Thawbaan radi Allaahu ‘anhu and declared saheeh by al Albaanee]

So through him, the Heavenly Messages were concluded. So no prophet will be raised and sent after him until the Hour is established. However his Sharee’ah (Revealed Law) will remain until the Hour is established and his religion will remain until the Hour is established, as has preceded.  So whoever claims Prophethood after Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam then he is a disbeliever; and whoever believes (this false claimant to Prophethood) then he (too) is a disbeliever in Allaah, because there will be no prophet after him sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.

And many people have claimed Prophethood after him; and Allaah has exposed them and has made their falsehood apparent. And from the last of them – in what we know – was al Qaadiyaanee, Ghulaam Ahmad al Qaadiyaanee, the Indian; the one who in the beginning claimed to be upon knowledge and worship, then he claimed that he was ‘Eesaa ibn Maryam, then he claimed Prophethood. And he now has followers who call themselves the Qaadiyaanees. And the Muslims have declared them to be disbelievers and they have shunned them and counted them as being a disbelieving sect  outside of Islaam. And they are a people who are shunned and banished – and all praise is for Allaah – from the lands of the Muslims. And they (the Qaadiyaanees) are active (in dawah). However their activities end in failure.

So, in summary, there will be no prophet after the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam. Whoever claims prophet hood after him, then he is a great liar, just as he sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

« لا تقوم الساعة حتى يبعث دجالون كذابون ، قريبا من ثلاثين كلهم يزعم أنه رسول الله »

“The Hour will not be established until dajjaals (great tricksters), great liars are sent, close to thirty, each one of them claiming that he is a messenger of Allaah.”

[Hadith Reported by al Bukhaaree (3609) and Muslim after the narration 2923 in the Book of Trials and Tribulations from the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radi Allaahu ‘anhu]

Those who claim falsely to be prophets are many but Allaah exposes their affair and uncovers them and shows how debased they are to the people. And whoever believes them, then he is a disbeliever because he is denying the Truth of what has been said by Allaah and His Messenger sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam and the consensus of the Muslims upon the fact that Prophethood was concluded with Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam.


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And Allaah sent a Messenger to every nation, from Nooh until Muhammad, commanding them to worship Allaah alone, and forbidding them from the worship of at-taaghoot and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

We certainly sent a messenger to every nation ordering them that they should worship Allaah (alone) and they should shun the Taaghoot [16:36] 76


[76]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

And his saying: “Allaah sent a messenger to every nation…”, Meaning: Allaah sent a messenger to every nation of mankind in order to establish the proof upon them so that they would not be able to say, “No bringer of good tidings nor any warner came to us!

And because of His saying, He the Most High: 

مَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّىٰ نَبْعَثَ رَسُولًا

We do not punish until We have sent a messenger. [17:15]

So Allaah sent a messenger to every nation from the previous nations, just as He, the Most High, said:

وَإِن مِّنْ أُمَّةٍ إِلَّا خَلَا فِيهَا نَذِيرٌ

There was not a previous nation except that Allaah sent a warner to them. [35:24]

However it is obligatory that we are aware of what was the call of the Messengers? The call of all the messengers, from the first of them to the last of them, was the call to tawheed as per His saying, He the Most High:

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

We certainly sent a messenger to every nation ordering them that they should worship Allaah (alone) and they should shun the taaghoot. [16:36]

So everything that is worshipped besides Allaah is Taaghoot, as will follow with regards to the types of the Taaghoots – that from their types is that which is worshipped besides Allaah whilst he is pleased with that, as will follow.

So the meaning of His saying, He the Most High:

 .. وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

And shun the Taaghoot…

means to keep away from worshipping the false objects of worship and the idols and the graves and the tombs; these are taaghoots. So the noble aayah proves that the call of the Messengers, all of them, was concentrated upon Tawheed from the first of them to the last of them.

Just as He, the Perfect and Most High, said:

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ

And We did not send any messenger before you except that We revealed to him that none has the right to be worshipped except Me so worship Me alone. [21:25]

And His saying:

يُنَزِّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةَ بِالرُّوحِ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ أَنْ أَنذِرُوا أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاتَّقُونِ

He (Allaah) sends down the angels with the Revelation from His Command to whomever He wishes from His servants ordering them, “Warn the people that none has the right to be worshipped except Me, so therefore fear and be dutiful to Me.” [16:2]

So the call of the Messengers, all of them, was to tawheed and to singling out Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, with worship and to forbidding shirk. This was the call of the Messengers.

Then after tawheed comes the Revealed Laws with regards to the halaal (permissible) and the haraam (forbidden). And the details of the Revealed Laws varied in accordance with the variation between the nations and the needs of the nations. And Allaah abrogated from them whatever He wished, and then all of them were abrogated through the Revealed Law of Islaam – the halaal and the haraam, the rulings and the acts of worship and the commands and the prohibitions.

As for the foundation (of the Revealed Laws) then it was tawheed; then this did not vary and it was not abrogated. This was a single religion; the religion of all the Messengers from the first of them to the last of them was one religion (in this respect) – just as He, the Most High, said:

لِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مِنكُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجًا

And for each people We laid down a prescribed law and a detailed way to follow. [5:48]

And the religion of tawheed is the worship of Allaah with that which He legislated at each time in accordance with its particular circumstances. So if a Revealed Law was abrogated then the people moved onto the new abrogating Law.

So whoever insists and remains upon that which has been abrogated, and avoids that which is abrogating, then he will be a disbeliever in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic because the religion which has been abrogated will not be a religion after its being abrogated. Rather it will only be religion before it was abrogated. So when it has been abrogated, then it will not be religion. The religion will be that which comes later (abrogates). Therefore the Revealed Law of Islaam abrogated whatever came before it from the Revealed religious laws.

So whoever remains upon Judaism or Christianity after the sending of Muhammad sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam then he is a kaafir (disbeliever) because he is acting upon a religion which has been abrogated, whose time has come to an end.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/Prophets-Messengers

Whoever Denies the Resurrection is a Disbeliever – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 46 (Part B)
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And whoever denies the Resurrection is a disbeliever, and the proof is His saying, He the Most High:

زَعَمَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَن لَّن يُبْعَثُوا ۚ قُلْ بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّي لَتُبْعَثُنَّ ثُمَّ لَتُنَبَّؤُنَّ بِمَا عَمِلْتُمْ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ

Those who disbelieve claim that they will not be resurrected. Say (O Muhammad), ‘Yes, by my Lord you will certainly be resurrected and then you will certainly be informed of the deeds which you did. And that is easy for Allaah. [64:7] [73]


[73]:Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

His saying: “Whoever denies the Resurrection is a disbeliever…” – because he has denied a pillar from the pillars of eemaan and because he is denying Allaah and to His Messengers and to His Books because Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, informed about the Resurrection and the Messengers informed about the Resurrection and the Books informed about the Resurrection. So whoever denies it then he is a disbeliever. And the proof is His saying, He the Most High: 

.. زَعَمَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا

Those who disbelieve za’ama claim…

Az –za’m means “a lie” ( a false claim)

أَن لَّن يُبْعَثُوا ..

…that they will not be resurrected. [64:7]

So the aayah proves that denying the Resurrection is kufr (disbelief). They say, “there is no resurrection after death” – the people of shirk and the worshippers of idols in the time of the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam used to dispute about the Resurrection.

أَإِذَا كُنَّا عِظَامًا نَّخِرَةً  – قَالُوا تِلْكَ إِذًا كَرَّةٌ خَاسِرَةٌ

“How can that occur when we have become crumbled bones?” They said, “That would be a return resulting in loss.” [79:11-12]

And they said:

مَن يُحْيِي الْعِظَامَ وَهِيَ رَمِيمٌ

“Who can give life to the bones when they have crumbled to dust?” [36:78]

And from their disputing was:

أَيَعِدُكُمْ أَنَّكُمْ إِذَا مِتُّمْ وَكُنتُمْ تُرَابًا وَعِظَامًا أَنَّكُم مُّخْرَجُونَ – هَيْهَاتَ هَيْهَاتَ لِمَا تُوعَدُونَ

“Does he (the Prophet Saalih) promise you that when you have become dust and bones that you will then be brought out anew from your graves? How far fetched, how far fetched is what you are being promised.” [23:35-36]

– to the rest of the sayings of the disbelievers from the previous nations and from the people of shirk in the time of the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. So whoever denies the Resurrection then he will be along with those disbelievers.

No one denies the Resurrection except for a disbeliever. And Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, has commanded His Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam to swear an oath by Him upon the Resurrection.

He said:

قُلْ بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّي 

Say,”Yes, by my Lord…”

This is an oath. 

لَتُبْعَثُنَّ ثُمَّ لَتُنَبَّؤُنَّ بِمَا عَمِلْتُمْ ..

“…you will certainly be resurrected (from your graves), and then you will certainly be informed of the deeds which you did (in the world).” [64:7]

This aayah is one of the three aayaat in which Allaah commanded His Prophet to swear an oath upon the Resurrection.

The first aayah is from Soorah Yoonus:

وَيَسْتَنبِئُونَكَ أَحَقٌّ هُوَ ۖ قُلْ إِي وَرَبِّي إِنَّهُ لَحَقٌّ ۖ وَمَا أَنتُم بِمُعْجِزِينَ

And they question you, “Is is true?” Say, “Yes, by my Lord, it is indeed true and you cannot render Allaah incapable.” [10:53]

The second is in Soorah Saba’:

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَا تَأْتِينَا السَّاعَةُ ۖ قُلْ بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّي لَتَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ ۖ لَا يَعْزُبُ عَنْهُ مِثْقَالُ ذَرَّةٍ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا أَصْغَرُ مِن ذَٰلِكَ وَلَا أَكْبَرُ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ لِّيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ

And those who disbelieve say, “The Hour will not come upon us.”

Say, “Yes, by my Lord, the Knower of the hidden and the unseen, it shall certainly come upon you. Not even the amount of the tiniest ant in the Heavens or the Earth escapes Him – nor anything smaller nor anything greater  – except that it is confirmed in a Clear Book.”

In order that He should reward those who believe and do righteous deeds. For them there will be forgiveness and generous provision. [34:3-4]

So Allaah commanded His Prophet to swear by Him upon the Resurrection and upon the establishment of the Hour.

And the third aayah is that which is with us from Soorah at Taghaabun:

زَعَمَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَن لَّن يُبْعَثُوا ۚ قُلْ بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّي لَتُبْعَثُنَّ ثُمَّ لَتُنَبَّؤُنَّ بِمَا عَمِلْتُمْ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ

“Those who disbelieve claim that Allaah will not resurrect them after death. 

Say (O Muhammad), ‘Yes, by my Lord you will certainly be resurrected (from your graves), and then you will certainly be informed of the deeds which you did (in the world).  And that is easy for Allaah.[64:7]

So the Wisdom behind the Resurrection is recompensing the servants for their deeds. And His saying, He the Most High:

…then you will certainly be informed… 

Meaning – that you will be informed of your deeds and recompensed for them.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series:
Sharh Usool-ith-Thalaathah – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank

Book Study Resources – Three Fundamental Principles

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/finaljourney

Eemaan (True Faith) in al-Ba’th (the Resurrection) – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool ath-Thalaathah : Lesson 45
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Belief in the Resurrection

Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

And after they have died, the people will be resurrected, and the proof is His saying:

مِنْهَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ وَفِيهَا نُعِيدُكُمْ وَمِنْهَا نُخْرِجُكُمْ تَارَةً أُخْرَىٰ

From the Earth We created you (O Mankind), and to it We shall return you (after death) and from it We shall raise you to life again. [20:55][70]


[70]: Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

He moved on, to another fundamental principle, which is eemaan (true faith) in al-ba’th (the Resurrection) – meaning that death alone is not what is wanted. We know and everyone knows – even the disbelievers and the atheists and the evil heretics – all of them know that death will certainly occur. No one denies death, because it is something which is experienced. However the important matter is the Resurrection after death; this is the point of disagreement between the believers and the disbelievers, the Resurrection after death. And it (the Resurrection) is the restoration of the bodies which have rotted away and become decayed bones and dust and which have separated in the Earth. They will be restored and rebuilt just as they were before, because the One who created them in the first place is fully able to bring them back again.

Then the souls will be blown into them, then they will move and proceed from the graves to the Mahshar (GatheringPlace) because of His saying, He the Most High:

يَوْمَ يَخْرُجُونَ مِنَ الْأَجْدَاثِ سِرَاعًا كَأَنَّهُمْ إِلَىٰ نُصُبٍ يُوفِضُونَ

On the Day when they will come out from the graves, they will be as if they are racing to a finishing post. [70:43]

And He, the Most High, said:

يَخْرُجُونَ مِنَ الْأَجْدَاثِ كَأَنَّهُمْ جَرَادٌ مُّنتَشِرٌ – مُّهْطِعِينَ إِلَى الدَّاعِ ۖ يَقُولُ الْكَافِرُونَ هَٰذَا يَوْمٌ عَسِرٌ

They will come forth from the graves as if they are scattered locusts, rushing towards the caller. [54:7-8]

No one will stay back. So this Resurrection is true, there is no doubt about it. And whoever denies it is a disbeliever in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. And having eemaan in the Resurrection is one of the six pillars of eemaan about which the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

“(Eemaan) is that you truly believe in Allaah and in His Angels and in His Books and in His Messengers and in the Last Day  and that you truly believe in Pre-decree, the good of it and the bad of it.”

[Reported by al Bukhaaree (50) and Muslim from the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radi Allaahu ‘anhu ]

So whoever does not truly believe in the Resurrection and in the Last Day, then he is a kaafir (a disbeliever) in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, even if he bears witness to ‘laa ilaaha ill Allaah’ and that ‘Muhammad rasool ullaah’ and even if he prays and fasts and performs Hajj and gives the Zakaat and does the actions of obedience. If he denies the Resurrection or doubts about it, then he will be a disbeliever in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

And the proofs for the Resurrection are many; from them is His saying, He the Most High:

.. مِنْهَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ

From it We created you…

Meaning: the Earth, when He created Aadam ‘alaihissalaam, the father of mankind.

.. وَفِيهَا نُعِيدُكُمْ

And to it We shall return you…

Meaning; after death, in the graves.

وَمِنْهَا نُخْرِجُكُمْ تَارَةً أُخْرَىٰ

And from it We shall bring you out again. 

This is the Resurrection.

So this aayah includes the beginning and the final return:

مِنْهَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ وَفِيهَا نُعِيدُكُمْ وَمِنْهَا نُخْرِجُكُمْ تَارَةً أُخْرَىٰ

From it We created you and to it We shall return you and from it We shall bring you out again. [20:55]


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said: 

Also the saying of Allaah, the Most High: 

وَاللَّهُ أَنبَتَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ نَبَاتًا – ثُمَّ يُعِيدُكُمْ فِيهَا وَيُخْرِجُكُمْ إِخْرَاجًا

And Allaah created you from the (dust of) the Earth, then He will cause you to return (to being dust) within the Earth, then He will bring you forth and restore you to life. [71:17-18] [71]


[71]  Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

.. وَاللَّهُ أَنبَتَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ نَبَاتًا

Allaah created you from the (dust of) the Earth…

When He created Aadam ‘alaihissalaam from it. 

.. ثُمَّ يُعِيدُكُمْ فِيهَا

Then He will return you to it…

Through death and the graves. 

وَيُخْرِجُكُمْ إِخْرَاجًا

And He will bring you out from it. [71:17-18]

This is the Resurrection. They will come out from the graves and they will proceed to the Mah-shar (the Gathering Place).

He, the Most High, said: 

قَالَ فِيهَا تَحْيَوْنَ وَفِيهَا تَمُوتُونَ وَمِنْهَا تُخْرَجُونَ

He said, “Upon the Earth you will live and upon it you will die and from it you will be brought out.” [7:25]

Meaning: you will live upon its surface and you will die upon it and you will come out from it for the Resurrection on the Day of Resurrection.

These are proofs from the Qur’aan for the Resurrection.

There is also to be found an intellectual proof from the Qur’aan itself and it is that the One who is able to bring the creation about initially is able to restore the creation even more so.

He, the Most High, said:

وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَهُوَ أَهْوَنُ عَلَيْهِ ۚ وَلَهُ الْمَثَلُ الْأَعْلَىٰ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

And He (Allaah) is the One who created the creation to begin with, then He restores it and that is even easier for Him. And for Him is the highest description in the Heavens and the Earth. And He is the All Mighty, the All Wise. [30:27]

The One who was able to bring the people into existence from non existence is able to restore them after death even more so. This is a proof which is textual and intellectual.

And from the proofs for the Resurrection is that which occurs to the Earth with regards to its being brought to life with plants. So you can see the Earth being dead, having no plants upon it, being barren. Then Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, sends down rain upon it, then He causes plants to grow which were dead stubble previously. Likewise the bodies which are within the Earth; they were stored within the Earth and Allaah will send down rain upon them and then the bodies will grow and become complete. And then the souls will be breathed into them. So indeed you see the Earth, how it can be dry and arid, but then it comes to life with that (vegetation) which grows from it.

Allaah, the Majestic and Most High – He is the One who gives life to the Earth after its death:

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنَّكَ تَرَى الْأَرْضَ خَاشِعَةً فَإِذَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهَا الْمَاءَ اهْتَزَّتْ وَرَبَتْ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِي أَحْيَاهَا لَمُحْيِي الْمَوْتَىٰ ۚ إِنَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

And from His signs is that you see the Earth dry and barren. Then when We send down water upon it, it rises and stirs to life with vegetation. The One who gives life to it will certainly give life to the dead. Indeed He has full ability over everything. [41:39]

So the One who has ability over giving life to the Earth after its death is able to give life to the bodies after their death because both are cases of coming to life after death.

And from the proofs for the Resurrection is that if were to be no Resurrection then that would necessitate that the creation of Mankind was meaningless because they (the people) live  –  the obedient, dutiful, believer in Allaah and His Messengers live;  and the disbeliever, the atheist, the evil heretic, the wicked tyrant, the arrogant one, the sinner live – all of them live and then they die, without this believer receiving anything from his reward or without this disbeliever and this evil heretic and this atheist and this tyrannical oppressor of the people receiving any of his recompense whatsoever?

So does this befit Allaah that He would leave the people in this manner without rewarding the people of eemaan for their eemaan, and the people who did good for their good, and the people of crimes and disbelief for their crimes and kufr? This would not befit the Wisdom of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, and therefore He said:

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُوا بِمَا عَمِلُوا وَيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا بِالْحُسْنَى

And to Allaah belongs whatever is in the Heavens and in the Earth, so that He will recompense those who did evil for what they did and He will reward those who did good with the best reward. [53:31]

And this will not occur except on the Day of Resurrection.

And likewise in His saying, He the Perfect:

أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ اجْتَرَحُوا السَّيِّئَاتِ أَن نَّجْعَلَهُمْ كَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَوَاءً مَّحْيَاهُمْ وَمَمَاتُهُمْ ۚ سَاءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ

And do those who commit evil deeds think that We will treat them just the same as those who believe and do righteous deeds in their life and in their death? Evil is the judgment that they make. [45:21]

And, He the Perfect and Most High, said:

أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ كَالْمُفْسِدِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الْمُتَّقِينَ كَالْفُجَّارِ

Shall We make those who truly believe and who do righteous deeds just like those who cause corruption upon the Earth? Or shall We make those who are dutiful to Allaah just the same as the wicked evil doers? [38:28]

And He, the Perfect and Most High, said:

أَفَحَسِبْتُمْ أَنَّمَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ عَبَثًا وَأَنَّكُمْ إِلَيْنَا لَا تُرْجَعُونَ

Do you think that We created you without purpose and that you will not be returned to Us? [23:115]

And He, the Most High, said:

أَيَحْسَبُ الْإِنسَانُ أَن يُتْرَكَ سُدًى – أَلَمْ يَكُ نُطْفَةً مِّن مَّنِيٍّ يُمْنَىٰ – ثُمَّ كَانَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقَ فَسَوَّىٰ – فَجَعَلَ مِنْهُ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالْأُنثَىٰ – أَلَيْسَ ذَٰلِكَ بِقَادِرٍ عَلَىٰ أَن يُحْيِيَ الْمَوْتَىٰ

Does man think that he will be left without having duties placed upon him? Was he not a drop of sperm emitted? Then he was a clot of blood and Allaah created him and fully formed him? And produced from him offspring, male and female? Is the One who did that not able to give life to the dead? [75:36-40]

And He rebutted the disbeliever who said,

مَن يُحْيِي الْعِظَامَ وَهِيَ رَمِيمٌ

Who will give life to the bones when they are decayed away? [36:78]

With His saying:

 قُلْ يُحْيِيهَا الَّذِي أَنشَأَهَا أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ خَلْقٍ عَلِيمٌ  – الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ الشَّجَرِ الْأَخْضَرِ نَارًا فَإِذَا أَنتُم مِّنْهُ تُوقِدُونَ

Say, “He who created him in the first place will give life to him; and He has full knowledge of every created thing. He who produces fire for you from the green tree, then you use it to light your own fires. [36:78-80]

The One who is able to bring out fire which burns from a fresh green tree – is He not able to give life to the dead?

And from the evidences for the Resurrection is using as evidence the creation of the Heavens and the Earth. So the One who created these tremendously huge and awesome created things is fully able to restore man to life because the One who is able to do something tremendous will be able to do something less, even more so.

He, the Most High, said:

أَوَلَيْسَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ بِقَادِرٍ عَلَىٰ أَن يَخْلُقَ مِثْلَهُم ۚ بَلَىٰ وَهُوَ الْخَلَّاقُ الْعَلِيمُ

Is the One who created the Heavens and the Earth not able to create the like of them? Yes, indeed! And He is the All Knowing Creator who creates again and again. [36:81]

And He, the Most High, said:

لَخَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَكْبَرُ مِنْ خَلْقِ النَّاسِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

The creation of the Heavens and the Earth is greater than the creation of mankind. However most of mankind do not know. [40:57]

So these are the evidences for the Resurrection which confirm that Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, will resurrect those who are in the graves and that He will recompense every doer of deeds in accordance with his deeds; if good, then with good and if evil, then with evil. So let the disbeliever disbelieve and let the wicked person and the evil heretic and the apostate be upon evil – because in front of him there lies the Resurrection and the Rising from death and the Recompensing and the Reckoning.

As for the believer, the one who is dutiful to Allaah, who worships Allaah and seeks to draw closer to Allaah, then his deeds will never be lost. For there is an appointment where Allaah will recompense him for his deeds and will give him multiplied reward and will give him things that he did not think of or expect.

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil-Wahhaab by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by  Daawood  Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

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Eemaan has 70 and odd branches, its highest of them is the saying of “Laa ilaaha illAllaah” – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh-ul-Usool-ith-Thalaathah : Lesson 32 – Part B
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

[Souncloud Audio Link


Imaam Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

The Second Level is Eemaan  

المرتبة الثانية : الإيمان : وهو بضع وسبعون شعبة ، فأعلاها قول : لا إله إلا الله ، وأدناها إماطة الأذى عن الطريق ، والحياء شعبة من الإيمان 

The second level is al-Eemaan (true faith) and it has seventy and odd branches, its highest of them is the saying of “Laa ilaaha illAllaah” and the lowest of them is removal of that which is harmful from the path; and al-hayaa (a sense of shame) is a branch of eemaan.[42]


[42] : Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzan’s Explanation :

Eemaan is more inclusive than Islaam, so every believer is a Muslim, but not every Muslim is a believer. So eemaan is more inclusive with respect to itself, and it is more specific with regard to its people.

Eemaan in the language is at-tasdeeq (to believe, to attest with the heart).

He the Most High, said upon the tongue of the brothers of Yoosuf:

 وَمَا أَنتَ بِمُؤْمِنٍ لَّنَا

Meaning: you won’t believe us. (12:17)

As for [the meaning of] eemaan in the legislation, then it is as explained by the people of the Sunnah and Jamaa`ah:

Speech of the tongue, belief of the heart, and action of the limbs.
It increases with obedience, and it decreases through sin.

It is with this explanation, a reality relating to the legislation, because realities are three: a reality which relates to the language, a reality with regards to the legislation, and a reality relating to people’s custom.

So the explanation of eemaan with this explanation is a reality relating to the legislation. So, eemaan moves from the meaning in language to the meaning in Islaamic legislation.

So, eemaan is: speech upon the tongue – there has to be speech and acknowledgment with the tongue. And it is belief in the heart, when a person speaks upon his tongue, he must be believing it in his heart, otherwise he will be just like the hypocrites, those who: 

 يَقُولُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِم مَّا لَيْسَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ

They say with their tongues that which is not in their hearts. [48:11]

And speech upon the tongue, and belief in the heart will not suffice, rather there must be action on the limbs also, and carrying out the obligatory duties is essential, and avoiding the prohibitions. So the person does the acts of obedience and he avoids the forbidden acts, all of this is from eemaan. With this definition, it comprises the whole of the religion. However, these acts of obedience and these many legislated duties, some of them are a part of the reality of eemaan, and some of them are things which are a completion of eemaan.

Eemaan has pillars and branches, and the Prophet sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam explained them in two hadeeth. He explained the arkaan (pillars) of eemaan in the hadeeth of Jibreel, and he explained the branches of eemaan in the hadeeth of «Eemaan is seventy and odd branches». This will follow in shaa’ Allaah.

Eemaan and Islaam, if they are mentioned together, then each of them has its own meaning. When only one of them is mentioned, then it enters along with the other. If they are mentioned together, then Islaam is explained to be the outward actions, and they are the five pillars of Islaam, and eemaan is explained to be the inward actions which are the six pillars, and their places are in the heart. All of these must be found together in a Muslim. The Muslim must be one who has eemaan and who establishes the pillars of Islaam and the pillars of eemaan – he must gather all of them.

He sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam said:

»الإيمان بضع وسبعون شعبة ، أو بضع وستون شعبة«

«Eemaan is of seventy and odd branches, or sixty and odd branches.» There are two narrations.

[Reported by al-Bukhaaree (9) with the wording «sixty and odd» and Muslim (35) with both wordings from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radi Allaahu `anhu.]

His saying «odd»: it is a number between three and nine. So if it is said: «ten and odd,» then it means a number between thirteen until nineteen, and if it is said «odd» on its own, then it means something between three and nine.

His saying «branches»: a branch is a part of the thing, meaning that the pillars have seventy and odd parts or sections.

His saying «the highest one of them»: meaning: the highest of the branches is the saying Laa ilaaha illaAllaah.  It is the head of Islaam and it is the head of eemaan, it is the first pillar, and it is the entry point of the religion.

His saying «the lowest one of them»: meaning: the last of them and the least one of them.

His saying «removing that which is harmful from the path»: meaning: removing that which is harmful from the path which is walked upon. And «that which is harmful» is everything which causes harm to the people, whether it be thorns, rocks, filthy things or refuse, everything which causes harm to people upon their path. And placing that which is harmful upon their path is forbidden, because the path is for those who wish to precede upon it, and harm impedes those who want to proceed, or puts them in danger, such as stopping his car upon the road, this is from causing harm – and letting water flow out from the house unto the path, this is from harm – and putting rubbish upon the pathway, this is from causing harm, whether it be upon the road, the town, or in the countryside – placing a rock, pieces of timber, iron upon the pathways of the people, digging holes in the roads of the people – all of this is from causing harm. So if a Muslim comes and removes this harm, and clears the path of it, then this is a proof for his eemaan. So, placing that which is harmful upon the path is from the branches of kufr, and removing harm from the path is from the branches of eemaan.

His saying «al-hayaa (true sense of shame is a branch of eemaan)»: al-hayaa is a characteristic which Allaah places in a person which leads him to carry out whatever will beautify and adorn him; and which prevents him from things which will contaminate and disfigure him. And al-hayaa which leads a person to perform that which is good, and to withhold from that which is evil is praiseworthy. As for shame or shyness which prevents a person from doing something good, from seeking knowledge, and from asking about things which are a problem to his understanding, then this is blameworthy shyness. This is because it is blameworthy embarrassment.

And the pillars of eemaan are many as you have come to know there are seventy and odd. Al-Imaam al-Bayhaqee wrote a large work in which he mentioned the branches of eemaan, it has an abridgment which has been printed.

From the proofs of the scholars that eemaan is speech upon the tongue, belief in the heart and action on the limbs is his saying sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam:

» أعلاها لا إله إلا الله «

« The highest of them is none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah. » This is a proof for sayings. And his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam:

» أدناها إماطة الأذى عن الطريق «

« And removal of that which is harmful from the path » is an action. It proves that actions are from eemaan. And his saying sallallaahu`alaihi wa sallam:

» الحياء شعبة من الإيمان «

« al-hayaa is a branch from eemaan .» This is something in the heart, al-hayaa is in the heart. This is a proof that eemaan is sayings upon the tongue, belief in the heart, and actions upon the limbs.

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The Spread of and Call to Irja’ Creed (Al-Murji’ah) – The Permanent Committee

Fatwa no. 21436

Q: Praise be to Allah Alone and peace and blessings be upon the Last Prophet. To continue,

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’ had read the letter received by his Eminence, the Grand Mufty (Islamic scholar qualified to issue legal opinions) from a number of inquirers whose names are registered at the Secretariat General of the Council of Senior Scholars nos.(5411) ,(1026), (1016),(1395), (1650), (1893), (2106) dated 7/11/1420, 7/2/1421, 7/2/1421, 3/8/1421, 17/3/1421, 25/3/1421, 7/4/1421 A.H., successively.

The inquirers asked many questions to the following effect: Lately, the idea of Irja‘ (a deviant conviction claiming that Faith is restricted to belief not deeds) has dreadfully spread. Many writers have been propagating it, depending on some incomplete quotations from the Shaykh of Islam Ibn Taymiyyah’s writings, something which leads many people to confusion with respect to the definition of Iman (faith). They try to exclude the element of deeds from the definition of Iman. They claim that anyone who abandons all deeds will still be saved (from Hellfire). This definitely facilitates the committing of sins, acts of Shirk (associating others with Allah in His Divinity or worship) and Riddah (apostasy) for people attain Iman in light of this conviction, even if they do not abide by religious obligations, avoid prohibitions, or act in accordance with Shari`ah (Islamic law). There is no doubt that this conviction has a severe effect on Islamic societies, issues of `Aqidah (creed) and worship. Therefore, I hope Your Eminence will reveal the reality of this conviction and its bad effects, and the truth that is based on the Qur’an and Sunnah (whatever is reported from the Prophet). I hope you will also verify the writings reported from Shaykh-ul-Islam so that all Muslims can be sure about and have knowledge of their religion.

A: After the Committee studied the inquiry, it answered as follows:

The mentioned sayings are attributed to Al-Murji’ah (a deviant Islamic sect claiming that Faith is restricted to belief not deeds) who exclude deeds from the definition of Iman. They claim that Iman is achieved by belief with the heart and utterance with the tongue, whereas the deeds, according to their view, are a condition for attaining perfection but are not considered a prerequisite for it. Thus, according to their conviction, anyone who believes with their heart and utters with their tongue will be a perfect Mu’min (believer), even if they abandon obligations and violate prohibitions, they will also be entitled to enter Jannah (Paradise) without observing any good deeds.

This has led to many null ideas, including the restriction of Kufr (disbelief) to denial of faith and Al-Istihlal (deeming what is Haram (prohibited) to be lawful) by heart. In fact, all these sayings are false, deviant and contradict the Qur’an, Sunnah and the way of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah (adherents to the Sunnah and the Muslim mainstream); the predecessors and successors.

However this opens the door to the people of evil and mischief to deviate away from their religion and be free from Allah’s (Glorified be He) commands, prohibitions, fear and reverence.

This also deactivates the concept of Jihad (struggling in the cause of Allah), enjoining good and forbidding evil.

Furthermore, this also equates between good and bad, obedient and disobedient people, a person who abides by Allah’s Shari`ah and the Fasiq (someone flagrantly violating Islamic law) who abandons His Commands and Prohibitions since deeds do not violate Iman as they claim.

This is why Imams of Islam concentrated on clarifying the falseness of this conviction and replying to its supporters in the past and the present. They also allocated a chapter for this issue in the books of `Aqidah and compiled complete books in this regard, such as the Shaykh of Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allah be merciful to him) and others.

Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allah be merciful to him) mentioned in Al-`Aqidah Al-Wasitiyyah:

“Among the fundamentals of Ahl-ul-Sunnah w-Al-Jama`ah is that Din (religion of Islam) and Iman are attained by words and actions and that Iman increases by acts of obedience and decreases by acts of disobedience.”

He also mentioned in his book Al-Iman:

“In this chapter, we find several sayings of the Salaf (righteous predecessors) and the Senior Scholars of Sunnah in explaining Iman. Sometimes they say: It is utterance and action and some others say: utterance, action and intention. Others say: Iman is utterance with the tongue, belief with the heart, and acts with organs. All these definitions are true.”

Moreover, he (may Allah be merciful to him) added:

“The Salaf strictly censured Al-Murji’ah for excluding actions from Iman. However, their claim that all people have the same degree of Iman is absolutely fraudulent. Belief, love, fear of Allah, knowledge, etc., of people vary from one person to another.”

He added:

“Regarding this basic origin, Al-Murji’ah deviated from what was clarified in the Qur’an, Sunnah, opinions of the Sahabah (Companions of the Prophet) and the Tabi`un (Followers, the generation after the Companions of the Prophet), rather they founded their opinion on their own understanding and linguistic interpretation [of texts]; this is certainly the manner of people of Bid`ahs (innovations in religion).”

Among the proofs that indicate that deeds are included in Iman and that they affect it positively or negatively is Allah’s saying,

The believers are only those who, when Allâh is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts and when His Verses (this Qur’ân) are recited unto them, they (i.e. the Verses) increase their Faith; and they put their trust in their Lord (Alone); Who perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât) and spend out of that We have provided them. It is they who are the believers in truth. (Qur’an – Surah Al-Anfaal  Verses: 2-4)

And

Successful indeed are the believers. Those who offer their Salât (prayers) with all solemnity and full submissiveness. And those who turn away from Al-Laghw (dirty, false, evil vain talk, falsehood, and all that Allâh has forbidden). And those who pay the Zakât. And those who guard their chastity (i.e. private parts, from illegal sexual acts) Except from their wives or (the slaves) that their right hands possess, – for then, they are free from blame; But whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors; Those who are faithfully true to their Amanât (all the duties which Allâh has ordained, honesty, moral responsibility and trusts) and to their covenants; And those who strictly guard their (five compulsory congregational) Salawât (prayers) (at their fixed stated hours). (Qur’an – Surah Al-Muminoon  Verses: 1-9)

In addition, the Messenger (peace be upon him) said,

Iman (Faith) has over seventy branches, the most superior of which is the declaration that there is no deity except Allah, and the lowest of which is the removal of (anything) harmful from the street, and modesty is a branch of Iman.

Shaykh-ul-Islam (may Allah be merciful to him) also mentioned inhis book Al-Iman:

“The origin of Iman is in the heart, including utterance and action. It is recognition of belief, love and submissiveness. Whatever rests in the heart should be manifest in action. If a person does not act in accordance to it, this indicates absence or weakness of Iman. This is why the visible deeds are a reflection of the Iman of heart and a confirmation to what exists in it. They constitute evidence of it and they are a branch and part of full Iman.”

He also says,

“Thinking of what Al-Khawarij and Al-Murji’ah say with respect to the meaning of Iman reveals that this includes disobedience of the Messenger. Obeying Allah (Exalted be He) and His Messenger (peace be upon him) denotes the perfection of Iman, and that Allah (Exalted be He) would never render a sinner to be a KafirSuppose that some people went to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and told him: ‘We believe in what you have brought us by our hearts and bear witness (that there is no deity except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah) with our tongues, but we do not abide by your commands and prohibitions; as we do not offer prayers, fast, perform Hajj or believe what is told to us; we do not return trusts, fulfill our promises, maintain the ties of kinship or observe any good acts which you ordained us; we drink intoxicants and commit incest and adultery; we kill as many people as we can of your Companions and Ummah (nation) and take their money; we may even kill you too and fight with your enemies against you.’ Can any rational person imagine that the Prophet (peace be upon him) would answer them by saying: ‘You are the perfect Mu’minun (believers) and you are the ones entitled to my intercession on the Day of Resurrection, and it is expected that none of you would enter Hellfire?’ On the contrary, every Muslim indisputably knows that the Prophet (peace be upon him) would have told them: ‘You are the most disbelieving people ever to what I came with’ and that he would have executed them if they had not repented.”

Ibn Taymiyyah also said:

“When the word of Iman is generally mentioned in the Qur’an and Sunnah, it is meant with dutifulness, piety, and religion as previously mentioned, for the Prophet (peace be upon him) declared that Iman has over than seventy branches, the best of which is to witness that there is no Deity but Allah, and the least is to remove harm from the road. Therefore, whatever pleases Allah falls under the meaning of Iman. All this is also included in the meaning of dutifulness when generally mentioned, and so are the Taqwa (fear/wariness of offending Allah) and the Din (religion of Islam). It was also narrated that when people asked about Iman, Allah revealed the following Ayah: It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and each and every act of obedience to Allâh, etc.) that you turn your faces .What is meant here is that Iman, which is accompanied by action, is praised, other than that which is devoid of it.”

This is what Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said about Iman; anyone who reports other than this on his authority will be inventing lies against him.

Whereas what was mentioned in the Hadith concerning the entrance of some people into Jannah despite that they had never done any good is not absolute to anyone who abandons deeds while being capable of doing them. Rather it is restricted to those who have excuses for abandoning deeds or for any other reason that is consistent with the objectives of Shari`ah.

After clarifying this issue, the Permanent Committee warns against arguing over the fundamentals of `Aqidah, because of the serious consequences resulting from this. It recommends resorting to the books of the Righteous Salaf and leading Muslim scholars which are based on the Qur’an, Sunnah and accounts of the Salaf.

It also warns against referring to any books that carry views opposing the original references, or modern books that are issued by authors who have not acquired knowledge through scholars or from original sources. Those people are intruders to this one great fundamental of `Aqidah. They adopt the views of Al-Murji’ah and falsely attribute them to Ahl-ul-Sunnah W-al-Jama`ah, causing confusion to people. They also wrongly ascribe these views to the Shaykh of Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allah be merciful to him) and other Imams of the Salaf through incomplete quotations. We advise them to fear Allah and to return to the Right Path, and not break the unity (of Muslims) by promoting this deviant belief. The Committee also warns Muslims against being tempted and falling into the trap of those opposing Ahl-ul-Sunnah W-al-Jama`ah. May Allah guide everyone to useful knowledge, righteous deeds and good understanding of the religion.

May Allah grant us success. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions.
Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’

Member – Member – Member – Chairman
Bakr Abu Zayd – Salih Al-Fawzan – `Abdullah ibn Ghudayyan – `Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah Al Al-Shaykh

Posted from: http://www.alifta.net
Fatwas of the Permanent Committee > Group 2 > Volume 2: `Aqidah > The Sects

Related Links:

Know that the Beginning of Islaam is Ash-Shahaadataan – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 50: Points 84-86
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

[84] And know that the beginning of Islaam is the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger.

[85] And that whatever Allaah says is just as He said and nothing can contradict what He says and He is true to what He has said.

[86] And to have eemaan (true faith) in all of the revealed laws.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

He rahimahullaah said, “And you should know, O Muslim, O taalib al-`ilm (seeker of knowledge),” meaning you should be certain and understand clearly “that the beginning, the first part of Islaam is the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah.” These two are the first pillar from the pillars of Islaam as occurs in the hadeeth of Jibreel in which Jibreel `alayhissalaam said to the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“Tell me about Islaam.” He said, “Islaam is that you testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah and that you establish the prayer and that you give the Zakaat and that you fast Ramadaan and that you perform Hajj to the house if you are able to make the way to it.”[1]

So Ash-Shahaadataan (the two testifications) are the first thing which mankind is to be called to. He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“I have been commanded to fight against the people until they say: “None has the right to be worshipped except Allaah”. So if they say it then they have rendered their blood and their property secure from me except on account of a right of Islaam and their reckoning will be with Allaah.”[2]

And when he (the Prophet) sent Mu`aadh to Yemen, he said to him:

“Indeed you are going to a people from the People of the Scripture, so let the first thing that you call them to be the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah.”[3]

So this is the first thing, which the people are to be called to because it is the entry point into the religion of Islaam. As for those who are lax about Tawheed and do not give importance to it from the companions of the various calls and the present day methodologies utilising da`wah, then this is contrary to this tremendous fundamental principle.

And what is required with regard to the two testifications is not just to pronounce them upon the tongue. Rather, what is required is to state them upon the tongue whilst being aware of their meaning and to act in accordance with what they necessitate. However, whoever testifies that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah then it will be accepted from him. So if he is then upright upon it then he is a Muslim but if something appears from him, which contradicts them then he will be an apostate.

And the meaning of the testification that Laa ilaaha illallaah, that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah is that you hold as your belief in your heart and that you state upon your tongue and you affirm and you acknowledge that none is deserving of worship (ibaadah) except for Allaah and that everything that is worshipped besides Him is false and futile. And worship of it is false and futile.

He, the Most High, said:

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرُ

That is because Allaah, He is the one who is truly deserving of worship and those whom they worship and invoke besides Him, that is false and futile. And Allaah is the Most High and Exalted One, the Incomparably Great One.(Sooratul-Hajj (22), aayah 62)

And the meaning of the testification Anna Muhammadur-Rusoolullaah; that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, is that you acknowledge outwardly and inwardly that he is the Messenger of Allaah. As for a person who states it upon his tongue but he does not acknowledge his messengership inwardly then this one is a munaafiq (hypocrite).

He, the Most High, said:

إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ قَالُوا نَشْهَدُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُهُ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لَكَاذِبُونَ

When the hypocrites come to you (Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam), they say, “We testify that you are the Messenger of Allaah.” And Allaah knows that you indeed are His Messenger and Allaah testifies that the hypocrites are certainly liars in their testifying. (Sooratul-Munaafiqoon (63), aayah 1)

 يَقُولُونَ بِأَفْوَاهِهِم مَّا لَيْسَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ

They say with their mouths that which is not in their hearts.
(Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 167)

So the meaning of the testification that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah; Muhammadur-Rusoolullaah is, in summary:

To obey him in whatever he commanded and to attest to the truth of whatever he informed of and to avoid whatever he forbade and prohibited and that Allaah should not be worshipped except with that which He legislated.

To obey him in whatever he commanded; so if the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam commanded a matter then you must comply with it.

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ ۗ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا

And it is not for a believing man nor for a believing woman when Allaah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any choice with regard to their affair. And whoever disobeys Allaah and His Messenger then he has strayed with a clear straying. (Sooratul-Ahzaab (33), aayah 36)

To attest to the truth of whatever he informed of; he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam informed about some affairs of the ghaib (the hidden and the unseen) of the past and the future. So, he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam is to be believed regarding whatever he informed of and he did not speak from desires.

إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَىٰ

It is just revelation sent to him. (Sooratun-Najm (53), aayah 4)

So, his sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam informing about something is something true and something certain. No doubt can come upon it if it is authentic from him sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam.

As for the phrase: “and to avoid whatever he forbade and prohibited,” avoiding whatever the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam forbade and prohibited, that is His saying, He the Most High:

وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ

And whatever the Messenger gives you then accept it and whatever he forbids you from, then desist and fear and be dutiful to Allaah. Indeed Allaah is severe in punishment. (Sooratul-Hashr (59), aayah 7)

“And that Allaah is not to be worshipped except with that which He legislated.” Whatever the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam legislated; conveying it from Allaah, the Majestic and Most High. And this negates innovations and newly introduced affairs and baseless practices, which the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam did not command. He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“Whoever does an action, which our affair is not in accordance with then it is rejected.”

“Whoever introduces into this affair of ours that which is not from it then it is rejected.”[4]

“And beware of newly introduced affairs.”

The saying of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“Adhere to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided orthodox Khulafaa· (Caliphs) who come after me. Cling onto it and bite upon it with your pre-molar teeth. And beware of the newly introduced affairs for every newly introduced affair is a bid`ah (innovation) and every innovation is a going astray.[5]

And every `ibaadah (worship), which the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam did not legislate then it is baatilah (false and futile) and there will be no reward in doing it. Rather, there will be sin in it because it is a bid`ah (innovation) and innovation takes a person further away from Allaah and will not draw him closer to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

His saying, “And you should know that the beginning of Islaam is the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger.” This is the first pillar and it is the entrance. Then after it comes the Salaah (prayer) then after it comes the Zakaat then fasting Ramadaan then Hajj to Allaah’s sacred house, then the rest of the duties and laws of the religion. All of them follow on from the two testifications; the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah.

His saying, “And that whatever Allaah said then it is just as He said and none can contradict what He has said and He is true to what He has said.” Whatever Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, said then it is just as He has said. No doubt can ever come upon it. Allaah, the Most High, said:

وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللَّهِ حَدِيثًا

And who is truer in speech than Allaah. 
(Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 87)

وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللَّهِ قِيلًا

And who is truer than Allaah in saying.
(Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 122)

Meaning: no-one is truer than Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. And if Allaah, the Perfect makes a promise (wa`d) then He does not break it.

وَعْدَ اللَّهِ ۖ لَا يُخْلِفُ اللَّهُ وَعْدَهُ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

The promise of Allaah, it is a promise of Allaah, Allaah does not break His promises. However, most of mankind do not know that Allaah will certainly carry out His promise. (Sooratur-Room (30), aayah 6)

So, when He makes a promise then He does not break His promise. And if He tawa`adah (threatens) something then He may pardon, He the Perfect and Most High. So there is a difference between al-wa`d (promises) and at-tawa`ud (threats). So al-wa`d (the promise), He never breaks a promise. And as for at-tawa`ud (a threat) that He has made; al-wa`eed (a threat) then Allaah, the Majestic and Most High may pardon and overlook and may not carry out the wa`eed (threat) as a mercy from Him, He, the Perfect, and as a favour from Him, He, the Perfect and Most High.

His saying, “And to have eemaan in all of the revealed laws.” It is obligatory to have eemaan (true faith) in all of the revealed laws, which Allaah sent down to His Messengers, all of them, in general with regard to those, which have been left unspecified and specifically with regard to those that have been mentioned specifically.

قُولُوا آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَمَا أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ

Say, “We truly believe in Allaah and in whatever was sent down to us and in whatever was sent down to Ibraaheem and Ismaa`eel and Ishaaq and Ya`qoob and to the tribes and whatever was given to Moosaa and `Eesaa and whatever the Prophets were given from their Lord. We do not make any distinction between any of them and we submit as Muslims to Him.(Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 136)

قُلْ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَالنَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ

Say, “We have eemaan (we truly believe) in Allaah and in whatever was sent down to us and in whatever was sent down to Ibraaheem and Ismaa`eel and Ishaaq and Ya`qoob and to the tribes and whatever was given to Moosaa and `Eesaa and to the Prophets from their Lord. We do not make any distinction between them and we are Muslims submitting to Him. (Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 84)

So, we have eemaan (we truly believe) in all of the divine laws sent down and we truly believe that Allaah, the Majestic and Most High legislates for each time whatever is suitable for it and then He abrogates that with another revealed law, which is suitable for those who come after them. So, when Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam was sent, he came with a revealed law, which was firmly grounded and will remain until the Hour is established. It will not be abrogated and it will never be changed. It is suitable for every time and place.

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by Muslim (8) from a hadeeth of `Umar ibn al-Khattaab radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[2] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (25) and Muslim (22) from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhumaa.

[3] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (1,395) and Muslim (19) from a hadeeth of Ibn `Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhumaa.

[4] Translator’s side point: The checking of this has preceded and as we had before, it is reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (2,697) and Muslim (1,718) from a hadeeth from the Mother of the Believers, `Aa`ishah radiyAllaahu `anhaa.

[5] This has already preceded the checking of this and as we had before, it is reported by Imaam Ahmad, Aboo Daawood, at-Tirmithee and Ibn Maajah. It was declared saheeh (authentic) by Shaykh Al-Albaaniyy.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

This world is an abode of Eemaan and Islaam – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 31 : Point 39
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

واعلم بأن الدنيا دار إيمان وإسلام وأمة محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم فيها مؤمنون مسلمون في أحكامهم ومواريثهم وذبائحهم والصلاة عليهم ولا نشهد لأحد بحقيقة الإيمان حتى يأتي بجميع شرائع الإسلام فإن قصر في شيء من ذلك كان ناقص الإيمان حتى يتوب واعلم أن إيمانه إلى الله تعالى تام الإيمان أو ناقص الإيمان إلا ما أظهر لك من تضييع شرائع الإسلام

And know that this world is an abode of eemaan (true faith) and Islaam and the nation of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam in it are believers and Muslims with regard to rulings, inheritance, slaughtering animals and with regard to praying the funeral prayer over them. And we do not bear witness for any of them that he is a true believer unless he fulfils all of the duties of Islaam. So if he neglects any of that then he will be deficient in eemaan until he repents and you should know that his eemaan is left to Allaah, the Most High, to judge whether he is complete in eemaan or incomplete in eemaan unless he manifests to you neglect of the Islaamic duties.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

His saying, “And you should know that this world is an abode of eemaan (true faith) and Islaam”, meaning Islaam and eemaan (true faith) are in this world; duniya, which is the abode of action. As for the aakhirah (Hereafter) and it is the abode of jazaa (recompense). So Islaam and eemaan are to be found in this world. As for one who dies on other than Islaam and eemaan then he is a kaafir, a disbeliever and it will not benefit him, that on the Day of Resurrection when he witnesses that which he disbelieved in, that he then believes in it or that he wishes to return and seeks from his Lord that he can return in order to believe.

He the Most High said:

وَلَوْ تَرَىٰ إِذْ وُقِفُوا عَلَى النَّارِ فَقَالُوا يَا لَيْتَنَا نُرَدُّ وَلَا نُكَذِّبَ بِآيَاتِ رَبِّنَا وَنَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ 

And if only you could see when they are held in the Fire and they will say, woe to us, would that we could be sent back into the world and then do not deny the signs of our Lord and so that we could be from the believers.  (Sooratul-An’aam (6), aayah 27)

And there is a distinction between Islaam and eemaan (true faith) because the deen (religion) is of three levels:

  1. Islaam
  2. Al-eemaan (true faith)
  3. Al-ihsaan (perfection of worship). – highest level

As occurs in the hadeeth of Jibreel and the broadest and widest of these three levels is the level of Islaam because Islaam is al-Istislaam bid-dhaahir (to surrender outwardly) and he may be a believer inwardly or he may be a hypocrite who is just submitting outwardly but  a disbeliever inwardly.

As for eemaan, it is not applied to the hypocrite; munaafiq, for the believer who is complete in his eemaan enters into it and the believer who is deficient in his eemaan enters into it.

And when they Islaam and eemaan are mentioned together then in that case Islaam means the outward rulings and what is meant by eemaan are the inner rulings.[1]

As occurs in the hadeeth of Jibreel that:

“Islaam is that you testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah and that you establish the prayer and that you give the zakaah and that you fast ramadaan and that you perform Hajj to the house.”

These are the outward actions; actions of the tongue and the limbs.

Jibreel said to the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“Inform me about eemaan (true faith).”

So he said:

“It is that you truly believe in Allaah and in His angels and in His books and in His Messengers, in the Last Day and that you truly believe in Al-Qadr (predecree), the good of it and the bad of it.[2]

These are the inward actions, in other words, the actions of the heart.

And Islaam and eemaan must be combined so if only one of them is mentioned then the other one enters within it. So if eemaan alone is mentioned then Islaam enters within it and if Islaam is mentioned then eemaan enters within it. And therefore, the People of Knowledge say Islaam and eemaan if they come together then they separate in meaning, when they are found separate then they come together, each one of them will have the meaning of both, meaning, in meaning just like the case of faqeer (the poor person) and al-miskeen (the destitute person), if they are mentioned together meaning in a text then the faqeer (the poor person) has a certain meaning and the word al-miskeen (the destitute person) has a separate meaning. When only one of them is mentioned then the other one enters within it.[3]

His saying, “and the nation of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam in it are believers and Muslims with regard to their rulings and with regard to their inheritance and with regard to the animals that they slaughter and with regard to the funeral prayer over them”, the nation of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam are Muslims and believers (mu`minoon) because whoever is a believer (a mu`min) then he will be a Muslim automatically. Whereas whoever is a Muslim then he may be a believer; a mu`min but he may be a hypocrite (munaafiq). However, as for correct Islaam then it must have eemaan along with it even if it is a small amount.

He the Most High said:

قَالَتِ الْأَعْرَابُ آمَنَّا ۖ قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُوا وَلَٰكِن قُولُوا أَسْلَمْنَا

The desert Arabs, bedouins said, “we have believed.” Say, “you are not believers but rather you should say aslamnaa (we have submitted).”  (Sooratul-Hujuraat (49), aayah 14)

His saying, “and the nation of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam in it are believers and Muslims with regard to their rulings and with regard to their inheritance”, the Muslim even if he is only such outwardly then he will have the ruling of the Muslims. They should ally themselves to him and if he dies, they should wash him and shroud him and pray the funeral prayer over him and bury him in the graveyard of the Muslims and whilst he is alive, they should love him and ally themselves with him and they have mercy amongst themselves and they behave as brothers between themselves. This is the nation of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam who said:

“The likeness of the believers with regard to the mutual love and mutual mercy and mutual compassion is the likeness of a single body. If one part of it has a complaint then the rest of the body suffers sleeplessness and feverishness on account of it.”[4]

And he `alayhis-salaatu was-salaam said:

“The believer to the believer is just like a solid structure each part of which supports the rest (and he interlaced his fingers).”[5]

So the  believers are brothers; ikhwaa.

He the Most High said:

ِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا

“The believers are but brothers.” (Sooratul-Hujuraat (49) aayah 10)

Brothers with regard to eemaan not in lineage.

His saying, “nation of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam are believers and Muslims with regard to their slaughtered animals”, the meat sacrificed by a Muslim is halaal (lawful) even if he is a faasiq (sinner) as long as he has not exited from Islaam then the meat that he has slaughtered is halaal (permissible) and the hypocrite if he slaughters also, then we will eat it based upon his being judged to be a Muslim as long as it does not become clear that he is a hypocrite; munaafiq.

He the Most High said:

إِلَّا مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ

Except for that which you (plural) slaughter. (Sooratul-Maa`idah(5), aayah 3)

This is an address to the Muslims and He made permissible the sacrifices of Ahl ul-Kitaab (People of the Book).

He the Most High said:

وَطَعَامُ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حِلٌّ لَّكُمْ

And the meat of those who were given the scripture is lawful for you. (Sooratul-Maa`idah(5), aayah 5)

Meaning the sacrificed animals because they sacrifice upon the legislated manner in accordance with what they have from the scripture. As for the animals sacrificed by the idol worshippers and the kuffaar (disbelievers) and the atheists and the apostates then we do not eat that because it is a sacrifice of a disbeliever (kaafir) and it is impure because the sacrifice of a disbeliever is dead meat. So it is impure on account of the disbelief since it is affected by the one who sacrifices it so it will be foul because the one who slaughters it is foul and it is affected by him and the fact that Allaah, the Majestic and Most High has permitted for us the slaughtered meat of the People of the Book specifically. This is a proof that the slaughtered meat of other than them is forbidden.

His saying, “and with regard to the funeral prayer over them”, the prayer is performed over every Muslim even if he was a sinner and a disobedient one or a hypocrite who did not make his hypocrisy apparent as long as he did not exit from Islaam then the prayer is performed for him and supplication is made for him and forgiveness is sought for him and he inherits from his close Muslim relative and his close Muslim relative inherits from him.

His saying, “And we do not bear witness for any of them that he is a true believer unless he fulfils all of the duties of Islaam”, meaning we do not declare anyone pure such that we say so and so is a mu`min (believer) because bearing witness for him that he is a believer (mu`min) is a witness that he may not be deserving of and therefore when  a man said to the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“Give something to so and so because he is a believer.”

Then he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“Our Muslim (or he is a Muslim).”

Then the person said:

“Give to so and so because he is a believer (from the booty).”

So he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“Our Muslim (or he is a Muslim).”[6]

So the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam intended by this that the person should not declare someone to be pure and perfect by saying he’s a believer. Rather, he should apply the general term to him and say he is a Muslim and he may be a Muslim who is firm upon Islaam and he may be a Muslim who has sins and acts of disobedience and deficiencies and he may be a hypocrite so you should not bear witness for him with completeness.[7]

His saying, “So if he neglects anything from that then he will be deficient in eemaan unless and until he repents”, the `aqeedah (creed and belief) of the Ahl ul-Sunnah W`al Jamaa`ah is that sins even if they are major sins (kabaa’ir) as long as they are less than shirk then they do not cause the Muslim to exit from Islaam or they do not exit him from the domain of eemaan. Rather, he will be a believer (mu`min) in accordance with his eemaan, a sinner in accordance with the level of his major sin or you say “he is a believer who is deficient in eemaan”.

His saying, “and know that his eemaan is left to Allaah, the Most High whether he is complete in eemaan or deficient in eemaan”, meaning we accept from him what is apparent and we entrust his hidden state to Allaah.

His saying, “unless he manifests to you neglect of the duties of Islaam”, meaning unless he commits something, which nullifies a person’s Islaam and from them is to neglect or abandon the religious duties of Islaam so then you will judge that he is guilty of apostasy just as if he abandoned the prayer deliberately or if he spoke with a word of disbelief such as abusing Allaah or abusing the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam or abusing the religion of Islaam for then you would judge that he is guilty of riddaa (apostasy) in accordance with what has become apparent. So whoever manifests something, which nullifies Islaam along with removal of any valid excuse and removal of any preventing factors and is he misinterpreting something or is he just blindly following someone else or is he jaahil (one who is totally ignorant), was he angry. For in that case, he will not be judged to be an apostate along with these preventing factors.

Footnotes:

[1] Side point: As occurs here in the text, “this world is a place of eemaan and Islaam”, when the two are mentioned together they separate in meaning. Islaam means the outward duties of Islaam; the prayers, the zakaat and so on and so forth whereas eemaan in that case refers to the inner actions and beliefs of the heart.

[2] Reported by Muslim (1), hadeeth of Umar Ibn al-Khattaab radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[3] Majmoo` Al Fataawa of Shaykh ul-Islaam ibn Taymiyyah Volume 7, page 551.

[4] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (6,001) and reported by Muslim (2,586) as a hadeeth of Nu’maan ibn Basheer radiyAllaahu `anhuma.

[5] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (481) and reported by Muslim (2,585) from a hadeeth of Aboo Moosaa al-Ash`ariyy radiyAllaahu `anh.

[6] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (27) and Muslim (150) as hadeeth of Sa`ad ibn Abee Waqqaas radiyAllaahu `anh.

[7] Side point: With regard to “We do not bear witness for anyone with the full reality of eemaan, Shaykh Saalih ibn Sa`ad As-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said: “What he means here by haqqeeqatul eemaan (true reality of eemaan), you shouldn’t bear witness for anyone that he has complete eemaan.”

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
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Eeman is belief of the heart, expression upon the tongue & action upon the limbs. It increases & decreases – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 21 : Point 24
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

And to have faith that eemaan is speech and action and intention and acting correctly. It increases and decreases. It increases as Allaah wishes and it can decrease until nothing remains of it.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

Al-eemaan in the language means at-tasdeequl- jaazim (definite affirmation) which is accompanied by faith and not affected by doubt. So it is said aamana lahu – meaning, ‘he believed him’.

You will not believe us
(Soorah Yoosuf (12), aayah 17)

Meaning: you will not believe us.

And Loot believed in him
(Sooratul-`Ankaboot (29), aayah 26)

He believed his paternal uncle Ibraaheem `alayhis-salaatu was-salaam.

As for eemaan (true faith) in the legislation then it is: belief of the heart and expression upon the tongue and action upon the limbs. It increases with obedience and it decreases with disobedience. It will not be eemaan except with these things combined.

So whoever believes with his heart, but does not believe with his tongue, then he will not be a believer. Because Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, said with regard to the disbelievers:

We know that what they say grieves you, however they do not hold you to be a liar, but rather the wrongdoers just outwardly reject Allaah’s signs. (Sooratul-An`aam (6), aayah 33)

And He said with regard to Fir`own:

And you know that no one sent down these signs except for the Lord of the heavens and the earth. (Sooratul-Israa· (17), aayah 102)

And He, the Majestic and Most High, said about the disbelievers who denied His signs:

And they denied them outwardly but they were certain of them in themselves, doing so as a result of their wrongdoing and haughtiness. (Sooratun-Naml (27), aayah 14)

So believing in the heart will not suffice, as is said by the Murji·ah; and it is not eemaan. And likewise eemaan upon the tongue also will not suffice, because this is the eemaan of the hypocrites, the munaafiqeen.

They (the hypocrites) say upon their tongues that which is not in their hearts (Sooratul-Fat.h (48), aayah 11)

And having belief in the heart and speech upon the tongue, these two will not suffice also, as is said by some of the Murji·ah. This is not sufficient. There must be action upon the limbs. So the person who believes in his heart and upon his tongue, however he does not pray ever, and nor does he fast, nor does he perform the obligatory Hajj, nor does he do any action from the actions at all, this is a disbeliever. Even if he believes upon his tongue and speaks (upon his tongue) and has belief in his heart and bears witness to that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. But however his leaving off action without any excuse, this will not make him a believer. Unless it is the case that he has left off action due to an excuse, such as a person who has been forced, or a person who forgets, or a person who is ignorant; and likewise the person who enters into Islaam and is not able to act, such that he accepts Islaam and then he dies in that condition. Then this person, his lack of action is not counted against him, because he was not able to act. And likewise the mentally handicapped; this person is not able to act. But as for the person who is able to act but he abandons it altogether, then he is not a Mu·min (not a believer).

Some of them add to the definition of eemaan, just as the author mentioned, a fourth matter: ‘following the Sunnah’. And they say eemaan is speech and belief and action and Sunnah, meaning, following the Sunnah, excluding by that the innovators, those who do not act upon the Sunnah, rather they only act upon newly introduced affairs. And this was mentioned by the author here in his saying, “and intention and acting correctly,” meaning acting upon the Sunnah. As for the person who does actions wrongly, acting upon innovations and false superstitions and newly introduced affairs, then he will not be a believer. [05]

‘And it increases through obedience.’ This is from the completion of the definition, that eemaan increases through obedience. And this is clear in the Qur·aan.

And Allaah increases those who are guided in guidance
(Sooratul-Maryam (19), aayah 76)

And when His ayaahs are recited to them, it increases them in eemaan
(Sooratul-Anfaal (8), aayah 2)

And so that those who believe can increase in eemaan
(Sooratul-Muddaththir (74), aayah 31)

This clearly shows that eemaan increases through obedience.

‘And it decreases through sin/disobedience to Allaah’. Because something which can increase, then it can also decrease. And also there occurs in the hadeeth that the person who does not refuse an evil with his heart, then there is no eemaan even to the level of a mustard seed beyond that.6 So this shows that eemaan can become so weak that it becomes like a mustard seed. And there occurs in the authentic hadeeth that there will come out from the Fire whoever has in his heart the slightest slightest mustard seed of eemaan. [07] So this proves that eemaan can become weak, until it is just like a mustard seed. And He the Most High said:

On that day they were closer to disbelief than they were to eemaan (Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 167)

With them their eemaan was weak, and it was closer to disbelief. So this shows that the eemaan can be so weak to the extent that a person can become closer to disbelief. And Allaah’s refuge is sought.

This is the meaning of his saying, “and it can decrease until nothing remains of it.” It can decrease until nothing remains from it. There may remain from it the amount of a mustard seed. And this will benefit the person on the Day of Resurrection. He will exit the Fire with it. And if there does not remain even a mustard seed, then he will be from the people of the Fire, those who will remain forever in it.

Footnotes:

[05] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said about this point (where Imaam al-Barbahaaree said that eemaan is: speech and action and niyyah [intention]), “ ‘Speech and action and belief’ and that is what the author rahimahullaah meant by his saying “and niyyah”, intention. So what is intended by niyyah is belief and attestation.”

[06] Reported by Muslim in his Saheeh as a hadeeth of `Abdullaahj

[07] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (no. 6565) and Muslim (no. 193) as a hadeeth of Anas radiyAllaahu `anhu

Transcribed by Fawad ibn `Abdul Fataah
Download PDF of Lesson 21

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

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Paradise and Hellfire are true and are already Created. They will never pass away – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 20 : Point 21
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

And to have eemaan that Paradise, al-Jannah, is true and the Fire, an-Naar, is true and that they are already created. The Paradise is in the seventh heaven and its ceiling is the Throne, al-`Arsh, and the Fire is beneath the seventh earth, the lowest one; and they are both already created. Allaah, the Most High, knew the number of the people of Paradise and who will enter it and the number of the people of the Fire and who will enter it. They will never pass away. They will both last along with Allaah always, for ever and ever. And Aadam `alayhis-salaam was in the everlasting created Paradise, and he was removed from it after he disobeyed Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

From the pillars of eemaan is to have eemaan in the Last Day with everything within it. And from that which will be within the Last Day is Paradise and the Fire, and they are the abode of recompense. So the true believers will be in Paradise which was prepared for the people of taqwaa, people who were fearful of Allaah and were dutiful to Him.And the disbelievers will be in the Fire which was prepared for the disbelievers. So these two are the abode of recompense; and this world is the abode of action with no recompense in it. So the Hereafter is the abode of recompense, and there is no action in that.

So whoever does not believe in Paradise and the Fire then he is a kaafir, a disbeliever, since it is essential that eemaan includes everything that is authentic with regard to the Last Day, and from that is the Paradise and the Fire. This is mentioned in the Qur’aan in different places. So the person who disbelieves in them or who explains them away, such as the Qaraamitah and the Baatiniyyah who explain them away, then they are disbelievers in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

So there must be eemaan in the Paradise and the Fire and that they are two real abodes; an abode for the people who were dutiful to Allaah and an abode for the disbelievers.

And these two will remain and they are present now, they are already created now, and they will remain and not pass away. He, the Most High, said with regard to the Paradise:

It is already prepared for those who are dutiful to Allaah.
(Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 133)

And He said with regard to the Fire:

Already prepared for the disbelievers
(Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 131)

The word ‘prepared‘, is a proof that it is already present and prepared, and it does not mean that it will be created later on, with the evidence that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam mentions some things which prove that Paradise and the Fire are already present. From them is his saying sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam,

“The severity of the summertime heat is from the breathing out of the Hellfire.” [01]

And he said with regard to the severity of cold in the winter,

“Allaah has given two breaths to the Hellfire: a breath in the summertime and that is the hottest that you experience, and a breath in the wintertime and that is the severity of the cold. So that is from the coldness of the Hellfire.” [02]

So this proves that they are both already present. And Paradise, likewise, is present. Allaah has already prepared it for the people of taqwaa (the dutiful ones). And He has appointed angels over both of them. And there occurs in a hadeeth of `Ubaadah ibn asSaamit radiyAllaahu `anhu that Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said,

“Whoever bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and that `Eesaa is the slave of Allaah and His Messenger, and a soul created by means of His word which He sent to Maryam, and a soul created by Him, and that Paradise is true, and the Fire is true, then Allaah will enter him into Paradise whatever his deeds were.” [03]

The witness for the topic here is in his saying,

“…and that Paradise is true and the Fire is true…”

And in the initial supplication of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam that he made in the night prayer, that he would say,

“The meeting with you is true, and your promise is true, and Paradise is true, and the Fire is true.” [04]

His saying, “and they are both already created”. Meaning, they are already created now. [05]

His saying, “Paradise, al-Jannah (literally the garden), is in the seventh heaven and its ceiling is the `Arsh, the Throne,” This is authentic in the hadeeth,

“In Paradise there are a hundred levels Allaah has prepared for those who fight Jihaad in Allaah’s cause. Between each of the two levels is the like of what is between the heaven and the earth. So if you ask of Allaah, then ask Him of al-Firdows, for it is the centre of Paradise and the highest part of Paradise. And above it is the Throne of the Most Merciful. And from it flow the rivers of Paradise”. [06]

This proves that Paradise is in heaven, in the highest of the heavens, `illeeyeen. He, the Most High, said:

But no, the book of the righteous is certainly in `illeeyeen (the highest [seventh] heaven) (Sooratul-Mutaffifeen (83), aayah 18)

The highest thing. And the Fire is in the lowest of the low places. He Most High said,

But no, the book of the wicked ones is certainly in sijjeen (the lowest of the seven earths). And what will explain to you what sijjeen is. (Sooratul-Mutaffifeen (83), aayahs 7-8)

His saying, “Allaah always knew the number of the people of Paradise and who will enter it.” Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, knew everything with His Eternal Knowledge. And from that is that He knew the people of Paradise and who will enter it. And He knew the people of the Fire and who will enter it. Nothing escapes His Knowledge, He the Perfect and Most High. He knew everything and He wrote it down in the Preserved Tablet.

His saying, “These two will never pass away.” Paradise and the Fire are two abodes that will remain and will never pass away. And this contains a refutation of those who think that the Paradise and the Fire will pass away, and who say, “So that nothing will share along with Allaah in remaining always.” And they are those who deny there having being continuous existence in the past and continuous existence in the future out of ignorance from them. And we say, there is indeed a difference between Allaah’s Remaining Forever and the remaining forever of Paradise and the Fire. The Remaining Forever of Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, is as befits Him. It is an Attribute from His Attributes, He, the Majestic and Most High. But as for the remaining of the Paradise and of the Fire then it is that Allaah will cause them to remain, and that Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, creates. So it is a remaining forever that is earned (given to them). Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, He is the One Who gives it ‘remaining forever’. But as for Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, then His Eternity and His Remaining Forever is an Attribute from His Attributes, sifatun thaateeyah, an Attribute of His Self.

His saying, “They will remain along with Allaah always,” The remaining of these two will be along with Allaah Remaining. And Allaah’s Remaining, there is no end to it. So likewise the remaining of the Paradise and the Fire, there is no end to them. And there is no resemblance between the two remainings and these two remaining forever/eternally, just like the rest of the attributes.

His saying, “for all time, forever.” ‘For all time, forever’ – this is for emphasis.

His saying, “and Aadam `alayhis-salaam, he was in the Paradise that will remain, the created one.” When Allaah created Aadam, and when He honoured him as He did, and when He manifested his virtue over the angels, then Iblees envied him for that and he refused to prostate to him. So he disobeyed Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, on account of envy and pride. So Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, said to Aadam:

Dwell you and your wife in Paradise and eat from it freely wherever you wish. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 35)

So Allaah caused them to dwell in Paradise as an honour to both of them. And this Paradise is in heaven. Then when Iblees beguiled Aadam, and Aadam ate from the tree which he had been forbidden from, then Allaah send Aadam down and He sent Iblees down to the earth.

We said get down from it all of you
(Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 38)

So they went down to the earth. And Allaah forgave Aadam because he repented to Allaah, he and his wife.

O our Lord we have wronged ourselves and if You do not forgive us and have Mercy upon us we will certainly be amongst the losers. (Sooratul- A`raaf (7), aayah 23)

And Aadam disobeyed his Lord and he erred. Then his Lord chose him and guided him to repent (Soorah TaaHaa (20), aayahs 121 – 122)

So Aadam and Howwaa· `alayhimas-salaam, they both turned to Allaah in repentance, so Allaah accepted their repentance. As for Iblees, then he persisted upon his error and he did not repent. And therefore Allaah banished him away from His Mercy and He cursed Him, and He made him a leader for every evil.

His saying, “So he was expelled from it after he disobeyed Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.” His being removed from Paradise was as a punishment for his sin. However he repented to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, as Allaah mentioned in the Qur’aan. [07]

Footnotes:

[01] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (no. 535 and no. 536) and Muslim (no. 615) from the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anh. The narration of al-Bukhaaree is from Aboo Hurayrah and Ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhum.

[02] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (no. 537) and Muslim (no. 617) as a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu

[03] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (no. 3435) and Muslim (no. 28)

[04] Reported by al-Bukhaaree as a hadeeth of Ibn `Abbaas radiyAllaahu `anhumaa (no. 6317) and Muslim (no. 769)

[05] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said,

“There are two matters of belief here, two matters which the people of the Sunnah affirm here. And these are two points which are denied by the Mu`tazilah and the Jahmeeyah and some sects from the people of innovation. And these points are: Firstly, that Paradise and the Fire are already present, already created. And secondly, that Allaah has written for both of them that they will remain forever.”

[06] This is reported by al-Bukhaaree (no. 2790) as a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[07] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said in his taped explanation,

“The texts which prove that Paradise and the Fire will remain without any end, that is proven in authentic texts:

They will remain therein forever (Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 57)

And there occurs in a hadeeth that death will be brought in the form of a ram, and it will be slaughtered between Paradise and the Fire. Then it will be said, “O people of Paradise, everlasting life with no death. And O people of the Fire, everlasting life with no death.” (Reported by al-Bukhaaree [no.4730] as a hadeeth of Aboo Sa`eed al-Khudree radiyAllaahu `anhu)

And there occurs with regard to Paradise:

They will have therein everlasting bliss (Sooratut-Towbah (9), aayah 21)

And there occurs with regard to the Fire:

And they will have everlasting punishment (Sooratul-Maa·idah (5), aayah 37)

Meaning forever/eternal. It will not come to an end. So this is the position of the Ahlus-Sunnah.”

Somebody asked Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee: “Is it correct that Ibnul-Qayyim used to say that the Fire will come to an end?”

The Shaykh made it clear that this is not correct from Ibnul-Qayyim that he said that the Fire will come to an end, as some people quote from him. But rather they have made a misunderstanding here of something that occurs in his book, Haadiyul-`Arwaah ilaa Bilaadil-`Afraah. In that book he mentions the different saying of the people with regard to whether the Fire will come to an end or not. He quotes six or seven different sayings from the people (what they say). Shaykh as-Suhaymee said, “What makes his position very clear is another of his books, al-Waabilus-Sayyib. In that book he makes his position very clear, that indeed the Hellfire will never come to an end. The Hellfire the abode of the disbelievers, the Paradise the abode of the believers and will never end.”

Transcribed by Fawad ibn `Abdul Fataah
Download PDF of Lesson 20

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/belief/imaan-faith-pillars/

Eemaan in the Prophets and in the Angels – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 19 : Point 20
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

The author Imam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said,

And to have eemaan in the Prophets and in the Angels.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

From that fundamentals of eemaan and the pillars of eemaan is to have eemaan in the malaa·ikah (Angels) and in the anbiyaa (Prophets). And this is as occurs in the hadeeth of Jibreel `alayhis-salaam, when he said to the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, “Inform me about eemaan (true faith). So he said,

“(It) is that you truly believe in Allaah and His Angels and in His Books and in His Messengers and in the Last Day and that you truly believe in pre decree, the good of it and the bad of it.” [01]

And there occurs in the Qur’aan,

Righteousness is not that you turn your faces either to the east or to the west. But rather righteousness is the righteousness of the one who truly believes in Allaah and in the Last Day and in the Angels and in the Book and in the Prophets. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 177)

And in His saying, He the Most High:

The Messenger believes in that which was sent down to him from his Lord and also the believers. All of them believe truly in Allaah and in His Angels and in His Books and in His Messengers. They say, we do not make any distinction in believing between any of His Messengers. And they say we hear and we obey. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 285)

Say, we truly believe in Allaah and in what was send down to us and in what was send down to Ibraaheem and Ismaa`eel and Is’haaq and Ya`qoob and to the Tribes and what Moosaa and `Eesaa were given and what the Prophets were given from their Lord. We do not make any distinction (with regard to believing) between any of them. And we submit as Muslims to Him. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 136)

So it is obligatory to have eemaan in the Angels, all of them. Those whom Allaah has named from them and those whom He has not named. And the malaa’ikah (the Angels) is the plural of malak. And they are species of being from the world of the hidden and the unseen. Allaah created them from light. Then as for the Jinn, then Allaah created them from fire. And as for mankind then Allaah created them from teen (clay) and then from a feeble fluid, just as Allaah the Perfect and Most High mentioned. So a person must have eemaan in the Angels all of them, those whom Allaah has named from them and those He has not named. We believe in all of them. As for one who believes in some of them and disbelieves in others, then he is a disbeliever in all of them (a kaafir). He the Most High said:

Say, whoever is an enemy to Jibreel, then he (Jibreel) brought it (the Qur’aan) down to your heart by the permission of Allaah, confirming that which came before it and a guidance and glad tidings for the believers. Whoever is an enemy to Allaah and to his Angels and to His Messengers and to Jibreel and to Meekaal then Allaah is an enemy to the disbelievers. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayahs 97 – 98)

So the person who disbelieves in a single Angel from the Angels, he is a disbeliever in all of the Angels. Such as the Jews, those who say, “Jibreel is an enemy to us. If the one who came down to Muhammad had been other than Jibreel, we would have obeyed him. However Jibreel came down to him and he is our enemy. So we will not believe in him.” [02] So therefore Allaah sent down this aayah. [03]

Say, whoever is an enemy to Jibreel, then he brought it down to your heart by the permission of Allaah (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 97)

So it (the Revelation) is not from Jibreel. Rather it is from Allaah, the Majestic and Most High. And Jibreel was only a messenger from Allaah entrusted with bringing the Revelation.

And amongst the deviant sects who ascribe themselves to Islaam are those who say that Jibreel betrayed his trust, because Messengership should have gone to `Alee. However, (they say) Jibreel betrayed his trust and gave it instead to Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. Their poet said, “The trustworthy one was treacherous (Jibreel) and he withheld it from Haydar,” meaning from `Alee.

The author said, “That we have eemaan in the Messengers (rusul) and in the Prophets (anbiyaa·).”

A Prophet (nabeey) is one who had a Revealed Way sent to him, but he was not commanded to convey it to others. Whereas a Messenger (rasool) was one who had a Revealed Way sent to him by Revelation and he was commanded to convey it.[04]

Whoever is an enemy to Jibreel, then he brought it down to your heart by the permission of Allaah (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 97)

So the difference between an-nabeey (Prophet) and ar-rasool (Messenger) is that a Messenger (rasool) is sent with a Revealed Way, sent down to him. Contrary to a Prophet (nabeey), for he is sent with a Revealed Way sent down to Messengers who came before him, like the Prophets of the Banoo Israa·eel (Children of Israa’eel); because they were sent with the message of Moosaa `alayhis-salaam, with the Towraat.

We sent down the Towraat which contained Guidance and Light by which the Prophets, those who submitted to Allaah, judged for the Jews and the rabbis and also the priests (Sooratul-Maa·ida (5), aayah 44)

So they judged by the Towraat which had been sent down to Moosaa `alayhis-salaam and they did not come with an independent Legislation. Contrary to a Messenger (rasool), for he comes with an independent Legislation and he is commanded to convey it. But as for a Prophet (nabeey), he is commanded to convey the Message from someone before him, and Revelation might be sent to him with regard to a specific matter. This is the difference.

Shaykh Muhammad Amaan al-Jaami` rahimahullaah said in his explanation of the Three Principles, “They disagree with regard to the difference between a Prophet (nabeey) and a Messenger (rasool). So some of them define it and say: a Prophet is one who is sent with a Message to act upon it, but he was not given the duty of calling to it. However the second definition is that a Prophet (nabeey) is one who was sent with a Message of someone who was before him and he does not have his own independent Message, as was the case with many Prophets from the Banoo Israa·eel. And the second definition is more befitting whereas the first one is what is famous.” (He goes on to mention that it is not befitting to say a nabeey is one who has Revelation but he does not have to convey it to anyone).

And whoever disbelieves in a single Prophet, then he is a disbeliever in all of them. He is a disbeliever even in the Prophet who he claims that he believes in, because the Prophets were all brothers. He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said,

The Prophets were brothers with different mothers. [05]

They were a single chain. Their way was one. So whoever denies a single one of them, then he is denying all of them, because what this one had, the other one had. All of them were Messengers from Allaah. So the person who claims that he believes in Moosaa, such as the Jews, but then disbelieves in `Eesaa and in Muhammad `alayhimus-salaatu was-salaam then those people are disbelievers (kaafiroon) in all of the Prophets, even in the Prophet who they claim they are believing in. And he was Moosaa `alayhis-salaam. Because the book which Moosaa came with contained a mention of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. He, the Most High said:

The one (the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) whom they find written down with them in the Towraat and in the Injeel. He commands them with the good and he forbids them from the evil. And he declares lawful for them the good and pure things. And he forbids the filthy and evil things for them. And he releases them from the burdens and the fetters that were upon them. So those who believe in him and honour him and aid him and who follow the Light which came down with him, then they will be the successful ones. (Sooratul-A`raaf (7), aayah 157)

Those to whom we gave the Scripture they know him (the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) just as they recognize their own sons. (Sooratul- Baqarah (2), aayah 146)

However envy (hasad) led them to disbelieve in Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam because they wanted that Prophethood should not depart from the Banoo Israa’eel. So therefore they sought to monopolize the bounty of Allaah.

Or do they envy the people for that which Allaah gave to them from His bounty. (Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayah 54)

So what led them do this was al-hasad (envy) and transgression. Otherwise they knew that he was indeed the Messenger of Allaah because they found him written in the Towraat and in the Injeel. Likewise `Eesaa `alayhis-salaam he foretold of the good news of the coming of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. He, the Most High said:

And remember when `Eesaa ibn Maryam said, O Children of Israa·eel, I am Allaah’s Messenger to you, confirming what came before me from the Towraat and giving news of the coming of a Messenger who will come after me whose name will be Ahmad. (Sooratus-Saff (61), aayah 6)

And who is this Messenger who came after `Eesaa? No Messenger came after `Eesaa, except for Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and his name was Ahmad and his name was Muhammad. He had many names. So the person who disbelieves in `Eesaa he is a disbeliever in all of them. And the one who disbelieves in Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam is a disbeliever in all of them. And therefore He, the Majestic and Most High, said:

The people of Nooh denied the Messengers
(Sooratush-Shu`araa· (26), aayah 105)

Even though the first of the Messengers was Nooh and they denied Nooh. However He said that they denied the Messengers, meaning those who came after him, because whoever denies one Messenger then he has denied all of the Messengers.

The people of `Aad denied the Messengers
(Sooratush-Shu`araa· (26), aayah 123)

Thamood denied the Messengers
(Sooratush-Shu`araa· (26), aayah 141)

The people of al-Aykah (people of Madyan) denied the Messengers (Sooratush-Shu`araa· (26), aayah 176)

So a person who disbelieves in one, he is a disbeliever in all of them.

Those who disbelieve in Allaah and in His Messengers and they wish to make a difference between believing in Allaah and in His Messengers and they say, we will believe in some and disbelieve in others. They want to take a way in between. They are the disbelievers in truth. (Sooratun-Nisaa· (4), aayahs 150 – 151)

Even though they believed in some of them, however believing in some is not sufficient. There must be eemaan in all of them, because they are all Messengers from Allaah. All of them came from Allaah the Perfect and Most High. The earlier ones of them foretold the later ones. And the later ones of them believed in the first ones `alayhimus-salaatu was-salaam. This is the position of the Muslims and of the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah.

Footnotes:

[01] Reported by Muslim in his Saheeh (no. 8) as hadeeth of Umar ibnul-Khattaab radiyAllaahu`anh.

[02] The like of this story was reported by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad, volume 1 page 274.

[03] Reported by al-Bukhaaree as a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Salaam that he said about Jibreel, “That is the enemy to the Jews from the Angels.” So therefore he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam recited this aayah.

[04] Translator’s side point: Some of the other scholars mention a slightly different definition, amongst them Shaykhul-Islaam ibn Taymeeyah in his book an-Nuboowaat, where he said:

“A Prophet (nabeey) is one whom Allaah the Most High has sent with a Revealed Way (Legislation) which Allaah commands him to convey to his own followers, but not to the opponents. Whereas a Messenger is one whom Allaah the Most High sent with Revelation (a Revealed Way) to call all of the people in his time to, whether they are opponents or those who agree with him, whether it is a new Revealed Way or one from before.”

[05] Reported by al-Bukhaaree in his Saheeh (no. 3443) and reported by Muslim (no. 2365) as a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu`anh. And the wording of al-Bukhaaree is: “The Prophets are [lit. paternal] brothers, their mothers are different, but their Religion is one.”

Transcribed by Fawad Abu Zaid Al Afghaani.
Download PDF of Lesson 19

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

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The Story of Uzayr witnessing how the Resurrection of Dead occurs – Tafseer Ibn Katheer

“Or like the one who passed by a town in ruin up to its roofs. He said: “How will Allah ever bring it to life after its death” So Allah caused him to die for a hundred years, then raised him up (again). He said: “How long did you remain (dead)” He (the man) said: “(Perhaps) I remained (dead) a day or part of a day.” He said: “Nay, you have remained (dead) for a hundred years, look at your food and your drink, they show no change; and look at your donkey! And thus We have made of you a sign for the people. Look at the bones, how We bring them together and clothe them with flesh.” When this was clearly shown to him, he said, “I know (now) that Allah is able to do all things.” (Qur’an 2.259)

Allah’s statement,

(Have you not looked at him who disputed with Ibrahim about his Lord) means, “Have you seen anyone like the person who disputed with Ibrahim about his Lord” Then, Allah connected the Ayah,

(Or like the one who passed by a town in ruin up to its roofs) to the Ayah above by using `or’.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Ali bin Abi Talib said that the Ayah (2:259) meant `Uzayr. Ibn Jarir also reported it, and this explanation was also reported by Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim from Ibn `Abbas, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Sulayman bin Buraydah.

Mujahid bin Jabr said that the Ayah refers to a man from the Children of Israel, and the village was Jerusalem, after Nebuchadnezzar destroyed it and killed its people.

(in ruin) means, it became empty of people. Allah’s statement,

(up to its roofs) indicates that the roofs and walls (of the village) fell to the ground. `Uzayr stood contemplating about what had happened to that city, after a great civilization used to inhabit it. He said,

(Oh! How will Allah ever bring it to life after its death) because of the utter destruction he saw and the implausibility of its returning to what it used to be. Allah said,

(So Allah caused him to die for a hundred years, then raised him up (again).)

The city was rebuilt seventy years after the man (`Uzayr) died, and its inhabitants increased and the Children of Israel moved back to it. When Allah resurrected `Uzayr after he died, the first organ that He resurrected were his eyes, so that he could witness what Allah does with him, how He brings life back to his body. When his resurrection was complete, Allah said to him, meaning through the angel,

(“How long did you remain (dead)” He (the man) said: “(Perhaps) I remained (dead) a day or part of a day.”)

The scholars said that since the man died in the early part of the day and Allah resurrected him in the latter part of the day, when he saw that the sun was still apparent, he thought that it was the sun of that very day. He said,

(“Or part of a day. ” He said: “Nay, you have remained (dead) for a hundred years, look at your food and your drink, they show no change.”)

He had grapes, figs and juice, and he found them as he left them; neither did the juice spoil nor the figs become bitter nor the grapes rot.

(And look at your donkey!), “How Allah brings it back to life while you are watching.”

(And thus We have made of you a sign for the people) that Resurrection occurs.

(Look at the bones, how We Nunshizuha) meaning, collect them and put them back together. In his Mustadrak, Al-Hakim, recorded that Kharijah bin Zayd bin Thabit said that his father said that the Messenger of Allah read this Ayah,

(how We Nunshizuha.) Al-Hakim said; “Its chain is Sahih and they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not record it.” The Ayah was also read,

(نُنْشِرُهَا)

“Nunshiruha” meaning, bring them back to life, as Mujahid stated.

(And clothe them with flesh. )

As-Suddi said, ” `Uzayr observed the bones of his donkey, which were scattered all around him to his right and left, and Allah sent a wind that collected the bones from all over the area. Allah then brought every bone to its place, until they formed a full donkey made of fleshless bones. Allah then covered these bones with flesh, nerves, veins and skin. Allah sent an angel who blew life in the donkeys’ nostrils, and the donkey started to bray by Allah’s leave.” All this occurred while `Uzayr was watching, and this is when he proclaimed,

(He said, “I know (now) that Allah is able to do all things,”) meaning, “I know that, and I did witness it with my own eyes. Therefore, I am the most knowledgeable in this matter among the people of my time.”

Source: Tafseer Ibn Kathir, Surah Baqarah, Ayah 259, Dar-us-salam English Publication

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Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah: Lesson 35  : Point [140-141]

140.Eemaan is one entity, and its people regarding it are the same. **
141.And variation in excellence between them is by fear and dutifulness, and by opposing desires, and by adhering to what has most right.

Quote from Shaykh Fawzan:

“This is a mistake. Because eeman is not one entity and its people are not all the same. Rather eeman varies in levels of excellence and it increases and it decreases, except in the view of the murji’ah”

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At-Ta`leeqaat Al-Mukhtasarah `alaa Matn Al-`Aqeedah AtTahaawiyyah. By Shaykh Saalih ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah, in 1426AH

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Commentary from Imam Ibn Baz (Source : alifta.net)

His statement, “Faith is the same for the faithful in terms of its basis” is disputable, even Batil (null and void), for the faithful are not the same in terms of faith. Rather, they vary considerably in faith. The faith of the messengers is not like that of others. Similarly, the faith of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs and the rest of the Sahabah (Companions of the Prophet), may Allah be pleased with them, is like not that of others. Likewise, the faith of Mu’mins (believers) is not like that of Fasiqs (people flagrantly violating Islamic law). Faith varies according to the awareness of Allah, His names, attributes, and Shari`ah (Islamic law), according to Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah (adherents to the Sunnah and the Muslim mainstream), unlike Al-Murji’ah (a deviant Islamic sect claiming that Faith is restricted to belief, not deeds) and those who follow them. Allah is the One sought for help.

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Eemaan (true faith) is the Belief of the Heart, Speech of the Tongue and Actions of the Limbs – Aqeedah Tahawiyyah | Dawud Burbank

Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah: Lesson 34  : Point [138]

138.And Eemaan (true Faith) is to affirm with the tongue,and to believe with the heart. **

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The Believer exiting from Eemaan – Aqeedah Tahawiyyah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah: Lesson 34  : Point [137]

137.And the servant does not exit from Eemaan except by denying that which entered him into it.

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At-Ta`leeqaat Al-Mukhtasarah `alaa Matn Al-`Aqeedah AtTahaawiyyah. By Shaykh Saalih ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah, in 1426AH

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Commentary from Shaykh Ibn Baz : ( from alifta.net)

This restriction should be considered. A disbeliever embraces Islam on the pronunciation of the Two Shahadahs (Testimonies of Faith) if he has not already pronounced them. If he has already pronounced them, he re-embraces Islam by Tawbah (repentance to Allah) for the cause for his disbelief. He may get out of the fold of Islam for many reasons other than ingratitude, as indicated by scholars in the Chapter on the Ruling on the Murtad (Apostate). Such causes include blasphemy against Islam or the Prophet, peace be upon him, or making a mockery of Allah, His Messenger, Book, or anything of His Shar` (Law) for Allah, Exalted be He, says: “Say, ‘Is it Allah and His verses and His Messenger that you were mocking?’ Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after you had believed.

One of the causes for disbelief is idolatry, supplicating to the dead, making Istighathah (beseeching for help) to them and the like, for this contradicts the testimony of “There is none worthy of Worship except Allah,” which indicates that worship is an exclusive right of Allah Alone.

Other causes for disbelief are making Du`a’ (supplication), Istighathah, Ruku` (bowing), Sujud (Prostration), slaughtering, making a vow, and the like to something other than Allah. He who does any of these things to something other than Allah, including idols, angels, Jinn (creatures created from fire), the dead, and other creatures, commits Shirk (associating others with Allah in His Divinity or worship) and does not act upon the testimony of “There is none worthy of Worship except Allah”.

All such acts bring one out of the fold of Islam, according to the Ijma` (consensus of scholars) of the scholars. These are not merely acts of ingratitude. The evidence for this is derived from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Prophet. There are many other acts that cause a Muslim to be declared a disbeliever and they are not then merely acts of ingratitude. Such acts are cited by the scholars in the Chapter on the Ruling on the Murtad. So you can refer to them. May Allah grant us success.

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We have eemaan in the Preserved Tablet (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz) and in the Pen (Al-Qalam), and whatever Allaah wrote in Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Lesson 27   : Point [105] 

 ونُؤْمِنُ باللَّوْحِ والقلمِ وبجميعِ مَا فيه قَدْ رُقِمَ‏‏‏‏‏

And we have eemaan in the Preserved Tablet (Al-Lawh) and in the Pen (Al-Qalam), and in everything which has been inscribed in it.

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The Explanation – Point [105]

This follows on from what preceded from the speech about Pre-ordainment and Pre-decree. And it has already preceded that from the levels of having eemaan (true faith) in Pre-ordainment and Pre-decree is having eemaan (true faith) in whatever He wrote in Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz (the Inscribed or Preserved Tablet).  And that is, that Allaah created the creation and the first thing that He created was the Pen (Qalam) and He said to it, “Write!” So it replied, “What should I write?” So He said, “Write whatever is going to happen until the Day of Resurrection.” So the Pen wrote down, by the command of Allaah for it to write down, whatever was going to happen until the Day of Resurrection, as occurs in the hadeeth.[1]

And no one knows how the Preserved Tablet (Al-Lawh) is, and how the Pen is, except Allaah. And they are two created things from the things which Allaah the Mighty and Majestic has created; we have eemaan in that. And so, therefore, the author said: “We have eemaan (true faith) in the Preserved Record and in the Pen, and in whatever has been inscribed in it.” Meaning: Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooz (The Preserved Tablet) and the writing that is in it.

And this is the second level from the levels of eemaan in Pre-ordainment and Pre-decree, and it is: eemaan in the writing in the Preserved Tablet.

End of explanation of point [105][2][3]

Footnotes

[1] This is a hadeeth reported by Aboo Daawood and At-Tirmidhee and Aboo Ya`laa from the statement of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, and it is also reported by Al-Bayhaqee as a statement of the Companion, which carries the ruling of being from the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. It was declared Saheeh by Shaykh Al-Albaanee rahimahullaah.

[2] Translator’s Side Point: Shaykh Muhammad ibn `Abdul `Azeez ibn Manee`, made a note on this point: We have eemaan in the Preserved Tablet; he said:

“Allaah, the Most High said,

Indeed, it is a Praiseworthy Qur·aan contained in a Preserved Tablet.
(Sooratul-Burooj (85), aayaat 21-22)

So, the Noble Qur·aan is written down in the Preserved Tablet, just as Allaah, the Perfect, mentioned. And Jibreel `alayhis-salaam heard it from Allaah and conveyed it to our Prophet Muhammad `alayhis salaatu was-salaam. So it was sent down from your Lord in truth, and He did not say ‘from the Preserved Tablet’. And there is no contradiction between its being in the Preserved Tablet and between its being sent down from Allaah, as was clarified by Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah. And Shaykhul-Islaam said also, that the Preserved Tablet is above the heavens and there occurs in a hadeeth that no one looks into it except Allaah, the Mighty and the Majestic.

I say: So this shows the misguidance of those who state that the soul of a person can see what is contained in the Preserved Tablet. This is just a statement from the philosophers and from the people of superstitious stories from the worshippers – whether righteous or unrighteous, as is their firm belief. So beware of it because it is a lie.

As for the Pen which is mentioned, then it is what Allaah created; and it wrote the measure of everything in the Preserved Tablet just as occurs in the hadeeth of `Ubaadah ibn AsSaamit reported by Aboo Daawood from the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam that he said,

‘The first thing that Allaah created was the Pen and He said to it, “Write!” So it said, “O my Lord, and what shall I write?” He said, “Write down the decreed measure of everything right until the Hour is established.”’

And the scholars disagree – was the Pen the very first thing that was created or was it the `Arsh (Allaah’s Throne)? They have two sayings in that regard. Ibn Al-Qayyim mentions both of them in his Nooniyyah and he preferred the view that the Pen was created after the `Arsh (Throne).”

[3] Translator’s Side Point: Shaykh Al-Albaanee rahimahullaah, he said on this point:

“I say, with regard to the Preserved Tablet, it is what is mentioned in the saying of Allaah, the Most High,

Indeed, it is a Praiseworthy Qur·aan contained in a Preserved Tablet.
(Sooratul-Burooj (85), aayaat 21-22)

And that is from the Ghayb (Hidden and Unseen) which it is obligatory that we have eemaan (truly believe) in it. And its true reality is not known except to Allaah. And the belief that some righteous people can look into what’s contained in it – this belief is kufr (unbelief) in the aayaat and ahaadeeth which clearly state that no one knows the Ghayb (Hidden and Unseen) except Allaah, the Most High.”

Translator’s Side Point: With regard to the point about which was created first: the Pen or the Throne, Shaykh Al-Albaanee (rahimahullaah), he said:

“The explainer (Ibn Abil-`Izz in his explanation of AtTahaawiyyah), he explained here, that the scholars differed whether the Pen was the very first thing created or the Throne (`Arsh). The scholars had two sayings in that regard and there is no third (saying). (Some of the scholars of the Sunnah said that Allaah’s Throne was first and then the Pen was created and some said that the Pen was created and then after that, Allaah’s Throne was created, and there is no third saying).”

Shaykh Al-Albaanee said:

“And in my view the most preferable one is the first (that the Pen was the very first thing created) as is clearly stated in my note (that he made for AtTahaawiyyah). And I say now, whether what is most correct is this or that, then this difference shows that the scholars are agreed that there was a first created thing. And the idea that created things came into creation and there is always something before it, they are contrary to this agreement (of the scholars).”

At-Ta`leeqaat Al-Mukhtasarah `alaa Matn Al-`Aqeedah At-Tahaawiyyah
By Shaykh Saalih ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan hafizahullaah
Pages 113-117 (Points 98-105)
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah, in 1426AH
Transcribed by Sideeqa Ali

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

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