“And Worship your Lord until the Certainty comes to you” – Tafseer Ibn Katheer

Bismillaah

(وَاعْبُدْ رَبَّكَ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَكَ الْيَقِينُ )

(And worship your Lord until the certainty comes to you) (15: 99)

Al-Bukhari said: “Salim said, (This means) death.”’ This Salim is Salim bin Abdullah bin Umar.

Ibn Jarir also recorded from Salim bin Abdullah, (وَاعْبُدْ رَبَّكَ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَكَ الْيَقِينُ ) (And worship your Lord until the Yaqin comes to you.) He said, “Death.”

It is reported in the Sahih from Umm Al-Ala’- one of the women of the Ansar – that when the Messenger of Allah entered upon Uthman bin Mazun after he had died, Umm Al-Ala’ said, “May the mercy of Allah be upon you, Abu As-Saib. My testimony over you is that Allah has honored you.”

The Messenger of Allah said,

«وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ أَنَّ اللهَ أَكْرَمَهُ؟»

(How do you know that Allah has honored him)

I said, “May my father and mother be sacrificed for you, O Messenger of Allah! If not him, then who else

He said,

«أَمَّا هُوَ فَقَدْ جَاءَهُ الْيَقِينُ، وَإِنِّي لَأَرْجُو لَهُ الْخَيْر»

(As far as he is concerned, the death has come to him, and I hope for good for him.)

This is evidence that the meaning of this Ayah, (وَاعْبُدْ رَبَّكَ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَكَ الْيَقِينُ ) (And worship your Lord until the certainty comes to you.) is that acts of worship, such as prayer and the like, are obligatory on man so long as his mind is sound, so he should pray according to his best ability.

It was reported in Sahih Al-Bukhari from Imran bin Husayn that the Messenger of Allah said:

«صَلِّ قَائِمًا، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَسْتَطِعْ فَقَاعِدًا، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَسْتَطِعْ فَعَلَى جَنْب»

(Pray standing, and if you cannot, then sitting, and if you cannot, then on your side.)

From this we may understand that it is a mistake to interpret Yaqin (the certainty) as Marifah (“spiritual knowing”) as some of the Sufis do. According to them, when one of them attains the level of Marifah, they consider him to be free of these obligations. This is disbelief, misguidance and ignorance. The Prophets – peace be upon them – and their companions, were the most knowledgeable of people about Allah, about His rights, His attributes, and the glorification that He deserves. But at the same time, they were the people who worshipped Him the most, continuing in good deeds until the time they died. Therefore, what is meant by Yaqin here is death, as we have stated above.

To Allah be praise and thanks. Praise be to Allah for His guidance. It is to Him that we turn for help and it is in Him that we put our trust. He is the One Whom we ask to help us to reach the best of circumstances, for He is the Most Generous and Kind.

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer, Al-Hijr Ayah 99, Darussalam English Publications

Allaah hates not to be asked, and the son of Adam hates to be asked – Tafseer Ibn Katheer

The Command to call upon Allah By His grace and kindness

وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِي سَيَدْخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ دَاخِرِينَ

And your Lord said: “Call upon Me, I will answer you. Verily, those who scorn My worship they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!
( Soorah Ghafir 40:60)

Allah encourages His servants to call upon Him, and He guarantees to respond.

Sufyan Ath-Thawri used to say:

“O You Who love most those who ask of You, and O You Who hate most those who do not ask of You, and there is no one like that apart from You, O Lord.” 

This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim.

Similarly; the poet said:

“Allah hates not to be asked, and the son of Adam hates to be asked.”

Qatadah said that Ka`b Al-Ahbar said,

“This Ummah has been given three things which were not given to any nation before, only to Prophets.

(1) When Allah sent a Prophet, He said to him, `You are a witness over your nation.’ But you have been made witnesses over mankind;

(2) It was said to the Prophets individually, `Allah has not laid upon you any hardship in religion,’ but He said to this entire Ummah: (and﴿ Allahhas not laid upon you in religion any hardship) (22:78) and

(3) It was said to the Prophets individually; `Call upon Me, I will answer you,’ but it was said to this Ummah, (Call upon Me, I will answer you).”

This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Nu`man bin Bashir, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:

(Indeed the supplication is the worship. )” Then he recited,

(And your Lord said: “Call upon Me, I will answer you. Verily, those who scorn My worship they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!”).

This was also recorded by the Sunan compilers; At-Tirmdhi, An-Nasa’i, Ibn Majah, and Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.” It was also recorded by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i, and Ibn Jarir with a different chain of narration. Allah’s saying:

(Verily, those who scorn My worship) means, `those who are too proud to call on Me and single Me out,’

(they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!) means, in disgrace and insignificance. Imam Ahmad recorded from `Amr bin Shu`ayb from his father, from his grandfather that the Prophet said:

(The proud will be gathered on the Day of Resurrection like ants in the image of people, and everything will be stepping on them, humiliating them, until they enter a prison in Hell called Bulas. They will be fed flames of fire, and given for drink a paste of insanity dripping from the people the Fire.)”

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer, Dar-us-Salam English Publication

Benefit: O you who believe! If you obey and fear Allaah, He will grant you Furqan – Tafseer Ibn Katheer

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن تَتَّقُوا اللَّهَ يَجْعَل لَّكُمْ فُرْقَانًا وَيُكَفِّرْ عَنكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ

O you who believe! If you obey and fear Allaah, He will grant you Furqan, and will expiate for you your sins, and forgive you; and Allah is the Owner of the great bounty. (Al-Anfal 8:29)

Ibn `Abbas, As-Suddi, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Muqatil bin Hayyan and several others said that,

(Furqan), means, `a way out’;

Mujahid added, “In this life and the Hereafter.”

In another narration, Ibn `Abbas is reported to have said, `Furqan‘ means `salvation‘ or — according to another narration — `aid’.

Muhammad bin Ishaq said that `Furqan‘ means `criterion between truth and falsehood‘.

This last explanation from Ibn Ishaq is more general than the rest that we mentioned, and it also includes the other meanings.

Certainly, those who have Taqwa of Allah by obeying what He ordained and abstaining from what he forbade, will be guided to differentiate between the truth and the falsehood. This will be a triumph, safety and a way out for them from the affairs of this life, all the while acquiring happiness in the Hereafter.

They will also gain forgiveness, thus having their sins erased, and pardon, thus having their sins covered from other people, as well as, being directed to a way to gain Allah’s tremendous rewards,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَآمِنُوا بِرَسُولِهِ يُؤْتِكُمْ كِفْلَيْنِ مِن رَّحْمَتِهِ وَيَجْعَل لَّكُمْ نُورًا تَمْشُونَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

O you who believe! Have Taqwa of Allah, and believe in His Messenger, He will give you a double portion of His mercy, and He will give you a light by which you shall walk (straight). And He will forgive you. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful (57:28)

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer, Dar-us-salam English Publication

Benefit: Allah Wrongs Not Even the Weight of a Speck of Dust – Tafseer Ibn Katheer

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَظْلِمُ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ ۖ وَإِن تَكُ حَسَنَةً يُضَاعِفْهَا وَيُؤْتِ مِن لَّدُنْهُ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Surely! Allah wrongs not even of the weight of a speck of dust, but if there is any good (done), He doubles it, and gives from Him a great reward. (Surah An-Nisa , aayah 40)

Allah states that He does not treat any of His servants with injustice on the Day of Resurrection, be it the weight of a mustard seed or a speck of dust. Rather, Allah shall reward them for this action and multiply it, if it were a good deed. For instance, Allah said,

(And We shall set up balances of justice) Allah said that Luqman said,

(O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the weight of a mustard seed, and though it be in a rock, or in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth). Allah said,

(That Day mankind will proceed in scattered groups that they may be shown their deeds. So whosoever does good equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it.) The Two Sahihs recorded the long Hadith about the intercession that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri narrated, and in which the Messenger of Allah said,

(Allah then says, “Go back, and take out of the Fire everyone in whose heart you find the weight of a mustard seed of faith”) In another narration, Allah says,

(“Whosoever had the least, least, least speck of faith, take him out of the Fire,” and they will take out many people.) Abu Sa`id then said, “Read, if you will,

(Surely! Allah wrongs not even of the weight of a speck of dust).”

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer, Darussalam English Publication

The Story of Bal’am bin Ba’ura to whom Allaah gave His Ayat, but he threw them away – Tafseer Ibn Katheer

And recite to them the story of him to whom We gave Our Ayat, but he threw them away; so Shaytan followed him up, and he became of those who went astray.And had We willed, We would surely have elevated him therewith, but he clung to the earth and followed his own vain desires. So his parable is the parable of a dog: if you drive him away, he pants, or if you leave him alone, he (still) pants. Such is the parable of the people who reject Our Ayat. So relate the stories, perhaps they may reflect.Evil is the parable of the people who rejected Our Ayat, and used to wrong themselves. (Qur’an Al-A’raf 07, Verses 175-177)

`Abdur-Razzaq recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that Allah’s statement,(And recite to them the story of him to whom We gave Our Ayat, but he threw them away) “Is about Bal`am bin Ba`ura’ a man from the Children of Israel.”

Shu`bah and several other narrators narrated this statement from Mansur who got it from Ibn Mas`ud. Sa`id bin Abi `Arubah narrated that Qatadah said that Ibn `Abbas said, “He is Sayfi, son of Ar-Rahib.”

Qatadah commented that Ka`b said, “He was a man from Al-Balqla’ (a province of Jordan) who knew Allah’s Greatest Name. He used to live in Bayt Al-Maqdis with the tyrants.”

Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “He is Bal`am bin Ba`ura’, a man from Yemen whom Allah had given the knowledge of His Ayat, but he abandoned them.”

Malik bin Dinar said, “He was one of the scholars of the Children of Israel whose supplication was acceptable. They used to seek his lead in suplication in times of difficulty. Allah’s Prophet Musa sent him to the King of Madyan to call him to Allah. That king appeased him and gave him land and gifts, and he reverted from the religion of Musa and followed the king’s religion.”

`Imran bin `Uyaynah narrated that `Husayn said that `Imran bin Al-Harith said that Ibn `Abbas said, “He is Bal`am son of Ba`ura’.” Similar was said by Mujahid and `Ikrimah. Therefore, it is well-known that this honorable Ayah was revealed about a man from the Children of Israel in ancient times, according to Ibn Mas`ud and several others among the Salaf.

`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “He is a man from the city of the tyrants (Jerusalem) whose name was Bal`am and who knew Allah’s Greatest Name.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah also reported that Ibn `Abbas that he said, “When Musa and those with him went to the city of the tyrants (Jerusalem), the cousins of Bal`am and his people came to him and said, `Musa is a strong man, and he has many soldiers. If he gains the upper hand over us, we will be destroyed. Therefore, supplicate to Allah that He prevents Musa and those with him from prevailing over us.’ Bal`am said, `If I supplicate to Allah that He turns back Musa and those with him, I will lose in this life and the Hereafter.’ They kept luring him until he supplicated against Musa and his people, and Allah took away what he bestowed on him (of knowledge). Hence Allah’s statement,

(but he threw them away; so Shaytan followed him up).”‘ Allah said next,

(And had We willed, We would surely have elevated him therewith but he clung to the earth and followed his own vain desires.) Allah said,

(And had We willed, We would surely have elevated him therewith) from the filth of this earthly life through the Ayat that We gave him knowledge of,

(but he clung to the earth), he became interested in the adornment of this life and its delights. He indulged in the lusts of life and its joys and was deceived by it, just as life deceived others like him, without sound comprehension or a good mind. Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar narrated from Salim, from Abu An-Nadr that when Musa entered the land of Bani Canaan in the area of Ash-Sham (Greater Syria), the people of Bal`am came to him, saying, “This is Musa, son of `Imran with the Children of Israel. He wants to drive us out from our land, kill us and replace us with the Children of Israel. We are your people and have no other dwelling area. You are a person whose supplication is acceptable (to Allah), so go out and supplicate to Allah against them.” He said, “Woe to you! Here is Allah’s Prophet (Musa) with whom the angels and believers are! How can I supplicate against them when I know from Allah what I know” They said, “We have no other dwelling area.” So they kept luring and begging him until he was tempted by the trial and went on his donkey towards Mount Husban, which was behind the Israelite military barracks. When he proceeded on the Mount for a while, the donkey sat down and refused to proceed. He got off the donkey and struck it until it stood up again and he rode it. The donkey did the same after a little while, and he struck it again until it stood up… So he proceeded and tried to supplicate against Musa and his people. However, Allah made his tongue mention his people with evil and the Children of Israel with good instead of his people, who protested, “O Bal`am! What are you doing You are supplicating for them and against us!” He said, “It is against my will. This is a matter that Allah has decided.” He then said to them, as his tongue was made to loll out of his mouth, “Now I have lost this life and the Hereafter.” This Ayah was revealed about the story of Bal`am son of Ba`ura’

(And recite to them the story of him to whom We gave Our Ayat, but he threw them away.), until,

(perhaps they may reflect.) Allah said next,

(So his parable is the parable of a dog: if you drive him away, he pants, or if you leave him alone, he (still) pants.) Scholars of Tafsir have conflicting opinions regarding the meaning of this Ayah. Some scholars said that it refers to the end of Bal`am’s tongue which flickered out of his mouth, as in the story narrated from Ibn Ishaq, from Salim, from Abu An-Nadr. Therefore, his example is the example of the dog, its tongue pants regardless of whether it is driven away or not. It was also said that the meaning here is a parable of this man — and his like — concerning their misguidance, persisting the wrong path and not being able to benefit from faith or comprehend what they are being called to. So his example is that of a dog which pants whether it was driven away or left alone. The person described here does not benefit from the advice or the call to faith, just as if the advice and call never occurred. Allah said in another Ayah,

(It is the same to them (disbelievers) whether you warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe.)(2:6) and,

(Whether you ask forgiveness for them (hypocrites) or ask not forgiveness for them — (and even) if you ask seventy times for their forgiveness — Allah will not forgive them.) (9:80) and similar Ayat. It was also said that the meaning here, is that the heart of the disbeliever, the hypocrite and the wicked is weak and devoid of guidance. Therefore, it keeps faltering. Similar was narrated from Al-Hasan Al-Basri.

(So relate the stories, perhaps they may reflect) Allah said next to His Prophet Muhammad ﷺ ,

(So relate the stories, perhaps they may) the Children of Israel, who have knowledge ot the story of Bal`am and what happened to him when Allah allowed him to stray and expelled him from His mercy. Allah favored him by teaching him His Greatest Name, by which, if He is asked, He will grant, and if He is called upon, He answers. But Bal`am used it in disobedience to Allah and invoked Him against His own party of the people of faith, followers of His servant and Messenger during that time, Musa, the son of `Imran, peace be upon him, whom Allah spoke to directly,

(perhaps they may reflect.) and avoid Bal`am’s behavior, for Allah has given the Jews knowledge and made them superior to the bedouins surrounding them. He gave them the description of Muhammad ﷺ which would allow them to recognize him, as they recognize their own children. They, among people, have the most right to follow, aid and support Muhammad ﷺ , in obedience to their Prophets who informed them of him and commanded them to follow him. Therefore, whoever among them defies the knowledge in their Books or hides it from the servants, Allah will place disgrace on him in this life, followed by humiliation in the Hereafter. Allah said,

(Evil is the parable of the people who rejected Our Ayat.) Allah says, evil is the example of the people who deny Our Ayat in that they are equated with dogs that have no interest but to collect food and satisfy lusts.’ Therefore, whoever goes out of the area of knowledge and guidance, and seeks satisfaction for his lusts and vain desires, is just like a dog; what an evil example. The Sahih recorded that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said,

(The evil example is not suitable for us: he who goes back on his gift is just like the dog that eats its vomit.) Allah’s statement,

(and they used to wrong themselves.) means, Allah did not wrong them, but they wronged themselves by rejecting guidance, not obeying the Lord, being content with this life that will soon end, all the while seeking to fulfill desires and obey lusts.

(178. Whomsoever Allah guides, he is the guided one, and whomsoever He sends astray, — then those! They are the losers.)

Allah says, whomever He leads aright, then none can lead him to misguidance, and whomever He leads astray, will have acquired failure, loss and sure misguidance. Verily, whatever Allah wills occurs; and whatever He does not will, does not occur. A Hadith narrated from `Abdullah bin Mas`ud reads,

(All praise is due to Allah, Whom we praise and seek help, guidance and forgiveness from. We seek refuge with Allah from the evils within ourselves and from the burden of our evil deeds. He whom Allah guides, will never be misled; and he whom He misguides, will never have one who will guide him. I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah without partners and that Muhammad ﷺ is His servant and Messenger.)

The complete Hadith was collected by Imam Ahmad and the collectors of Sunan and others.

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer , Darussalam English Publication

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/inspirational/

O Messenger of Allah! Give me permission to commit Zina (unlawful sex)

“Come not near to unlawful sex. Verily, it is Fahishah (immoral sin) and an evil way.” –  Surah No.17 Al-Isra , Aaayat 32

Allah says, forbidding His servants to commit Zina or to approach it or to do anything that may lead to it:

(And come not near to unlawful sex. Verily, it is a Fahishah (immoral sin)) meaning a major sin,

(and an evil way.) meaning, a terrible way to behave.

Imam Ahmad recorded Abu Umamah saying that a young man came to the Prophet ﷺ and said, “O Messenger of Allah! Give me permission to commit Zina (unlawful sex).” The people surrounded him and rebuked him, saying, “Stop! Stop!” But the Prophet ﷺ said,

(Come close) The young man came to him, and he ﷺ said,

(Sit down) so he sat down. The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Would you like it (unlawful sex) for your mother) He said, “No, by Allah, may I be ransomed for you.” The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Neither do the people like it for their mothers.) The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Would you like it for your daughter) He said, “No, by Allah, may I be ransomed for you.” The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Neither do the people like it for their daughters. ) The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Would you like it for your sister) He said, “No, by Allah, may I be ransomed for you.” The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Neither do the people like it for their sisters.) The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Would you like it for your paternal aunt) He said, “No, by Allah, O Allah’s Messenger! may I be ransomed for you.” The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Neither do the people like it for their paternal aunts.) The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Would you like it for your maternal aunt) He said, “No, by Allah, O Allah’s Messenger! may I be ransomed for you.” The Prophet ﷺ said,

(Neither do the people like it for their maternal aunts.) Then the Prophet ﷺ put his hand on him and said,

(O Allah, forgive his sin, purify his heart and guard his chastity.) After that the young man never paid attention to anything of that nature.

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer (Surah No.17 Al-Isra , Aaayat 32), Darussalam English Publication

Related Link : https://abdurrahman.org/category/islam/zinaa-adultery-fornication/

The Story of Uzayr witnessing how the Resurrection of Dead occurs – Tafseer Ibn Katheer

“Or like the one who passed by a town in ruin up to its roofs. He said: “How will Allah ever bring it to life after its death” So Allah caused him to die for a hundred years, then raised him up (again). He said: “How long did you remain (dead)” He (the man) said: “(Perhaps) I remained (dead) a day or part of a day.” He said: “Nay, you have remained (dead) for a hundred years, look at your food and your drink, they show no change; and look at your donkey! And thus We have made of you a sign for the people. Look at the bones, how We bring them together and clothe them with flesh.” When this was clearly shown to him, he said, “I know (now) that Allah is able to do all things.” (Qur’an 2.259)

Allah’s statement,

(Have you not looked at him who disputed with Ibrahim about his Lord) means, “Have you seen anyone like the person who disputed with Ibrahim about his Lord” Then, Allah connected the Ayah,

(Or like the one who passed by a town in ruin up to its roofs) to the Ayah above by using `or’.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Ali bin Abi Talib said that the Ayah (2:259) meant `Uzayr. Ibn Jarir also reported it, and this explanation was also reported by Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim from Ibn `Abbas, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Sulayman bin Buraydah.

Mujahid bin Jabr said that the Ayah refers to a man from the Children of Israel, and the village was Jerusalem, after Nebuchadnezzar destroyed it and killed its people.

(in ruin) means, it became empty of people. Allah’s statement,

(up to its roofs) indicates that the roofs and walls (of the village) fell to the ground. `Uzayr stood contemplating about what had happened to that city, after a great civilization used to inhabit it. He said,

(Oh! How will Allah ever bring it to life after its death) because of the utter destruction he saw and the implausibility of its returning to what it used to be. Allah said,

(So Allah caused him to die for a hundred years, then raised him up (again).)

The city was rebuilt seventy years after the man (`Uzayr) died, and its inhabitants increased and the Children of Israel moved back to it. When Allah resurrected `Uzayr after he died, the first organ that He resurrected were his eyes, so that he could witness what Allah does with him, how He brings life back to his body. When his resurrection was complete, Allah said to him, meaning through the angel,

(“How long did you remain (dead)” He (the man) said: “(Perhaps) I remained (dead) a day or part of a day.”)

The scholars said that since the man died in the early part of the day and Allah resurrected him in the latter part of the day, when he saw that the sun was still apparent, he thought that it was the sun of that very day. He said,

(“Or part of a day. ” He said: “Nay, you have remained (dead) for a hundred years, look at your food and your drink, they show no change.”)

He had grapes, figs and juice, and he found them as he left them; neither did the juice spoil nor the figs become bitter nor the grapes rot.

(And look at your donkey!), “How Allah brings it back to life while you are watching.”

(And thus We have made of you a sign for the people) that Resurrection occurs.

(Look at the bones, how We Nunshizuha) meaning, collect them and put them back together. In his Mustadrak, Al-Hakim, recorded that Kharijah bin Zayd bin Thabit said that his father said that the Messenger of Allah read this Ayah,

(how We Nunshizuha.) Al-Hakim said; “Its chain is Sahih and they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not record it.” The Ayah was also read,

(نُنْشِرُهَا)

“Nunshiruha” meaning, bring them back to life, as Mujahid stated.

(And clothe them with flesh. )

As-Suddi said, ” `Uzayr observed the bones of his donkey, which were scattered all around him to his right and left, and Allah sent a wind that collected the bones from all over the area. Allah then brought every bone to its place, until they formed a full donkey made of fleshless bones. Allah then covered these bones with flesh, nerves, veins and skin. Allah sent an angel who blew life in the donkeys’ nostrils, and the donkey started to bray by Allah’s leave.” All this occurred while `Uzayr was watching, and this is when he proclaimed,

(He said, “I know (now) that Allah is able to do all things,”) meaning, “I know that, and I did witness it with my own eyes. Therefore, I am the most knowledgeable in this matter among the people of my time.”

Source: Tafseer Ibn Kathir, Surah Baqarah, Ayah 259, Dar-us-salam English Publication

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Scholars Biographies: Al-Haafiz Ibn Katheer

THE BIOGRAPHY OF AL-HAAFIZ IBN KATHEER

He is: the Imaam, the Haafiz, the Shaikh of the Muhadditheen, the Historian, the Explainer of the Qur·aan, `Imaaduddeen Abul-Fidaa· Ismaa`eel ibn `Umar ibn Katheer ibn Daw· ibn Katheer ibn Zar`, al-Qurashee; al-Busrawee, then ad-Dimashqee, the jurist, ash-Shaafi`ee. [1]

He was born in Mijdal, a village to the east of Busraa-which is a town in the province of Damascus, in the year 701 H, where his father was a Khateeb.

After the death of his father he moved, along with his brother Kamaaluddeen `AbdulWahhaab, to Damascus, in the year 707 H. He memorized the whole of the Qur·aan at the age of ten, and he read the different recitations,
and he excelled in tafseer.

He married Zaynab the daughter of al-Haafiz Abul-Hajjaaj al-Mizzee, and he closely accompanied him and learned from him. He gave great attention to the science of hadeeth, and qualified under him in it. He also accompanied Shaikhul-Islaam Taqiyyuddeen Ibn Taimiyyah and was a special student of his and defended him, and he followed him upon many of his opinions. He used to deliver verdicts in accordance with his view concerning the question of the three simultaneous divorces, that they count as a single divorce, and he was put to trial on account of this and suffered harm.

He gave attention to memorising the texts; and to awareness of the chains of narration, the hidden defects in narrations, the narrators, and to history, to the extent that he excelled in all of that whilst he was still a youth. He delivered verdicts, taught and debated. He excelled in Fiqh, Tafseer, and Arabic Grammar. He closely studied the narrators and the hidden defects in narrations.

He became the Shaikh of the Saalihiyyah School, after the death of adh-Dhahabee; and the Shaikh of Daarul-Hadeeth al-Ashrafiyyah for a short while after the death of as-Subkee. Then this was taken from him after it was seized by Kamaaluddeen al-Ma`arree.

HIS SCHOLARLY STATUS:

Ibn Katheer had prominent status as is clear from the institutions of knowledge he headed; and the mosques in which he taught; and the works of Tafseer, History, and Hadeeth that he authored.

As for the schools that he took charge of, then they were: The Ashrafiyyah School of Hadeeth, the school of as-Saalihiyyah, the school of an-Najeebiyyah, the school of at-Tankaziyyah, and the school of an-Nooriyyah al-Kubraa.

These were schools sought after by the students of knowledge from the east and the west, and their Shaikhs and teachers had high status. None were allowed to teach in them except those who were firmly grounded in knowledge and whose position amongst the scholars was established. Therefore, the scholars respected him and the hearts of the students of knowledge were attentive to him.

As for the mosques in which he delivered his lessons, then the most famous of them were “alJaami` al-Amawee”, the mosque of Ibn Hishaam, the Jaami` of Tankaz, the Jaami` of alFooqaanee-and he used to deliver the Khutbah in it also.

This being in addition to his writings which have filled the earth with knowledge, and from which people have benefitted in his lifetime and after his death.

THE SCHOLARS PRAISE OF HIM:

adh-Dhahabee said: “The jurist, the muftee, the muhaddith… he gave special attention to the narrators, to the texts, and to acquiring knowledge of Fiqh. He elucidated, wrote works, debated, authored, explained (the Qur·aan), and attained precedence…” [2]

He also said: “The imaam, the jurist, the muhaddith, the singular and outstanding scholar… He was a jurist knowledgeable in various fields, a precise muhaddith, a critical and verifying explainer (of the Qur·aan). He produced beneficial works. He was well aware of Fiqh, and had good understanding of Arabic and the Fundamentals (of Fiqh). He memorized a good portion of the texts, of tafseer, and the narrators. He heard (narrations) from me, and had good memorisation.” [3]

Ibn Hajjee said: “I never came to him except that I benefitted from him, and I was his constant companion for six years.”

Ibn Habeeb said, as quoted from him by Imaam Ibn Hajr:[4] “He was an imaam, frequent upon tasbeeh [5] and tahleel [6], and he was at the head of the scholars of explanation (of the Qur·aan). He heard, gathered, and authored. People strove to listen to his sayings. He spoke in a manner that delighted, he narrated, and he brought benefit. The pages of his verdicts were sent to the lands, and he became famous for precision and verification. He attained leadership in knowledge in History, Hadeeth, and Tafseer.”

Abul-Mahaasin ad-Dimashqee said: “He delivered verdicts and taught. He debated and excelled in Fiqh, Tafseer, and Grammar. He carefully studied the narrators and the hidden defects of narrations.” [7]

al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr said: “He could bring a great deal to mind, and he joked in a fine manner. His works spread throughout the lands within his life-time, and the people derived benefit through him after his death.” [8]

al-`Aynee said, as quoted from him by Ibn Taghreebardee: “He was the example amongst the scholars and the great memorizers, and the reference point for the people of meanings and wordings. He heard, gathered, compiled, taught, narrated, and wrote works. He had an abundance of knowledge and awareness of Hadeeth, Tafseer, and History. He became famous for precision and verification. He attained the limit in knowledge of History, Hadeeth, and Tafseer; and he wrote many beneficial works.” [9]

HIS `AQEEDAH (CREED AND BELIEF):

He -rahimahullaahu ta`aalaa- was upon the `Aqeedah of the Salafus-Saalih (the Pious Predecessors). This is proven by his tremendous Tafseer, which is the most excellent tafseer that has made the `Aqeedah of the Salaf manifest. An example of that is his saying, in his explanation of His Saying -He the Most High:

[[Meaning: Then He ascended over the Throne]]:
[Sooratul-A`raaf (7): 54]

“Regarding this we follow the position of the Salafus-Saalih: Maalik, al-Awzaa`ee, athThawree, al-Layth ibn Sa`d, ash-Shaafi`ee, Ahmad, Ishaaq ibn Raahawaih, and others from the imaams of the Muslims, in the earlier and the later times: (and it is to let them pass)10 without saying how (takyeef),without declaring resemblance to the creation (tashbeeh), and without negating the attributes (ta`teel). Furthermore, what is immediately apparent to the minds of those who hold that the Creator resembles the creation is something negated for Allaah-the Most High, since nothing from the creation resembles Allaah:

[[Meaning: There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing]].” [Sooratush-Shooraa (42): 11]

HIS MOST PROMINENT TEACHERS:

Ibn Katheer studied under many famous major Shaikhs, and the most important of them are:

1) Shaikhul-Islaam Taqiyyuddeen Ahmad ibn `Abdil-`Azeem ibn `Abdil-Haleem ibn `AbdisSalaam ibn Taimiyyah, who died in 728 H. al-`Iraaqee said within his biography of Ibn Katheer: “He was an especially close student of Shaikh Taqiyyuddeen Ibn Taimiyyah, and he defended him, and he followed him upon many of his views.”

2) The Imaam, al-Haafiz, the Muhaddith of Shaam, Jamaaluddeen, Abul-Hajjaaj Yoosuf ibn az-Zakee `Abdir-Rahmaan al-Mizzee, who died in 742 H. Ibn Katheer closely accompanied him, and married his daughter.

3) The Imaam, al-Haafiz, the Muhaddith, the Historian of Islaam, Shamsuddeen, Aboo `Abdillaah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn`Uthmaan adh-Dhahabee, at-Turkumaanee in his origin, ad-Dimashqee. The author of beneficial works such as “Siyar A`laamin-Nubalaa·”, “Taareekhul-Islaam”, and “Meezaanul-I`tidaal”. He died in 748 H.

4) Abul-`Abbaas Ahmad ibn Abee Taalib ibn Ni`mah ibn Hasan ibn `Alee an-Najjaar, who was well-known as “Ibnush-Shahnah”. He lived for a hundred years, and died in 730 H.

HIS MOST PROMINENT STUDENTS:

1) Shihaabuddeen Abul-`Abbaas Ahmad ibn Hajjee ibn Moosaa ibn Ahmad, as-Sa`dee, alHusbaanee, ad-Dimashqee, al-Haafiz. The historian of Islaam. He produced many works, from them his explanation of “al-Muharrar” of Ibn `Abdil-Haadee. He died in 816 H.

2) Shihaabuddeen Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Hareeree, adDimashqee, who was well known as as-Sulaawee. He became the Qaadee of Ba`labek, and then the Qaadee of al-Madeenah, and then he moved around as a Qaadee for other places. He died in 765 H.

3) Abul-Mahaasin al-Husaynee, Muhammad ibn `Alee ibn al-Hasan ibn Hamzah ibn Hamd adDimashqee, who died in 765 H.

HIS MOST FAMOUS WORKS:

Ibn Katheer filled the Islamic library with beneficial works. Some of them have been printed, and others remain in manuscript form. The most important of his printed works are:

(i) “Tafseerul-Qur·aanil-`Azeem”,
(ii) “al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah”,
(iii) “Ikhtisaar `Uloomil-Hadeeth”,
(iv) “Fadaa·ilul-Qur·aan”,
(v) “Tuhfatut-Taalib bimukhtasar Ibnil-Haajib”,
(vi) “Ahaadeethut-Tawheed war-radd `alaa Ahlish-Shirk”,
(vii) “al-Fusool fee Seeratir-Rasool ”,
(viii) “Seerah `Umar ibn `Abdil-`Azeez”;

and he has many works that remain in manuscript form.

HIS DEATH:

Ibn Katheer -rahimahullaah- died on the day of Thursday, the 26th of Sha`baan, in the year 774 H, in Damascus, and he was buried therein.

Footnotes:

[1] Refer for his biography to:

(1) “Tadhkiratul-Huffaaz” (4/1508); (2) “al-Mu`jamul-Mukhtass” (no. 86); (3) “Dhayl Tabaqaatil-Huffaaz” of alHusaynee (p. 57); (4) “Dhayl Tabaqaatil Huffaaz” of as-Suyootee (p. 361); (5) “Tabaqaatush-Shaafi`iyyah” of alQaadee Shuhbah (no. 638); (6) “ad-Durarul-Kaaminah” of al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr (1/399); (7) “Inbaa.ul-Ghumr” of al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr (1/45); (8) “Shadharaatudh-Dhahab” of Ibnul-`Imaad (6/231); (9) “an-Nujoomuz-Zaahirah” of Ibnu Taghreebardee (11/123-124); (10) “al-Badrut-Taali`” of ash-Shawkaanee (1/153); (11) “Hadiyyatul- `Aarifeen” (1/215); (12) “ar-Raddul-Waafir” (no. 48); (13) “al-A`laam” of az-Ziriqlee (1/317); (14) “Mu`jamulMu·allifeen” (2/283).
[2] “Tadhkiratul-Huffaaz” (4/1508)
[3] “al-Mu`jamul-Mukhtass” (no. 86)
[4] “Inbaa.ul-Ghumr” (1/39)
[5] Saying “Subhaanallaah”: (I declare Allaah free of all imperfections). (transl.)
[6] Saying “Laa ilaaha illaallaah” (None has the right to be worshipped except Allaah). (transl.)
[7] “Dhayl Tadhkiratil-Huffaaz (no. 58)
[8] “Inbaa·ul-Ghumr” (1/39); “ad-Durarul-Kaaminah” (1/400)
[9] “an-Nujoomuz-Zaahirah” (11/123)
[10] An addition from the text of Tafseer Ibn Katheer. (transl.)

[Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank]

Source: www.alitisaambissunnah.wordpress.com

Day of Resurrection: The bodies will grow in their graves like seeds grow in the earth

And it is Allah Who sends the winds, so that they raise up the clouds, and We drive them to a dead land, and revive therewith the earth after its death. As such (will be) the Resurrection! ( Surah Faatir 35:09)

Evidence of Life after Death

Often Allah refers to the Resurrection by using the analogy of the earth coming back to life after it has died, as in the beginning of Surat Al-Hajj, where He urges His servants to draw the lesson of the former from the latter. For the earth is dead and lifeless, with nothing growing in it, then He sends to it clouds which bring water, which He sends down upon it,

(it is stirred (to life), and it swells and puts forth every lovely kind (of growth)) (22:5). So too, when Allah wishes to resurrect the bodies, He will send rain from beneath the Throne which will cover the whole earth, and the bodies will grow in their graves like seeds grow in the earth. It says in the Sahih:

(Every part of the son of Adam will disintegrate apart from the coccyx, from which he was created and from him he will be made anew.) Allah says:

As such (will be) the Resurrection!

According to the Hadith of Abu Raz0n: I said, O Messenger of Allah, how will Allah bring the dead back to life? What is the sign of that in His creation? He said:

(O Abu Razin, do you not pass through the valley of your people (and see it) arid and barren, then you pass through it (and see it) stirred (to life) and green) I said, `Yes.’ He said:

(Thus will Allah bring the dead back to life.)”

Source: Tafseer Ibn Kathir : Surah Faatir 35:09
(darussalam english publication)

Benefit: Righteous Deeds ascend to Allah – Tafseer Ibn Kathir

Tafseer Ibn Kathir : Surah Faatir 35:11
(darussalam english publication)

Righteous Deeds ascend to Allah

(To Him ascend the good words,) means, words of remembrance, recitation of Qur’an, and supplications. This was the view of more than one of the Salaf.

Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Mukhariq bin Sulaym said that “`Abdullah bin Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, said to them, “If we tell you a Hadith, we will bring you proof of it from the Book of Allah.

When the Muslim servants says, `Glory and praise be to Allah, there is no god worthy of worship except Allah, Allah is Most Great and blessed be Allah,’ an angel takes these words and puts them under his wing, then he ascends with them to the heaven. He does not take them past any group of angels but they seek forgiveness for the one who said them, until he brings them before Allah, may He be glorified.”

Then `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, recited:

(To Him ascend the good words, and the righteous deeds exalt it).”

Imam Ahmad recorded that An-Nu`man bin Bashir, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:

(Those who remember Allah and glory Allah by saying, `Glory be to Allah, Allah is most Great, all praise is due to Allah and La ilaha illallah, these words go around the Throne buzzing like bees, mentioning those who said them. Would one of you not like to have something with Allah mentioning him)”

This was also recorded by Ibn Majah.

(and the righteous deeds exalt it). Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said,

The good word is the remembrance of Allah, may He be exalted, which is taken up to Allah, and the righteous deed is the performance of obligatory duties. Whoever remembers Allah when doing an obligatory duty, his deed carries his remembrance of Allah and takes it up to Allah, may He be exalted. Whoever remembers Allah and does not perform the obligatory duties, his words will be rejected, as will his deed.

The Four Sacred Months – Tafseer Ibn Kathir

(36. Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein, and fight against the Mushrikin idolaters collectively as they fight against you collectively. But know that Allah is with those who have Taqwa.)

 Soorat at-Tawbah 9:36

The Year consists of Twelve Months

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Bakrah said that the Prophet said in a speech during his Hajj,

(The division of time has turned to its original form which was current when Allah created the heavens and the earth. The year is of twelve months, out of which four months are sacred: Three are in succession Dhul-Qa`dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (Ath-Thaniyah) and Sha`ban.”

The Prophet then asked, (What is the day today’) We said, “Allah and His Messenger know better. He kept quiet until we thought that he might give that day another name. He said (Isn’t it the day of Nahr) We replied, “Yes.” He further asked, (Which month is this) We again said, “Allah and His Messenger know better,” and he kept quiet and made us think that he might give it another name. Then he said,(Isn’t it the month of Dhul-Hijjah) We replied, “Yes.” He asked, (What town is this) We said, “Allah and His Messenger know better,” and he kept quiet until we thought that he might change its name. He asked, (Isn’t this the (Sacred) Town) We said, “Yes.” He said,

(Verily! Your blood, property and honor are sacred to one another like the sanctity of this day of yours, in this month of yours and in this city of yours. Verily, you will meet your Lord and He will question you about your actions. Behold! Do not revert to misguidance after me by striking the necks of one another. Have I conveyed It is incumbent upon those who are present to inform those who are absent, because those who are absent might comprehend (what I have said) better than some who are present.)

Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected this Hadith.

In a small book collected by Shaykh `Alam ad-Din As-Sakhawi, entitled, Al-Mashhur fi Asma’ Al-Ayam wash-Shuhur, he mentioned that Muharram is so named because it is a sacred month. To me, it was so named to emphasize its sacredness. This is because the Arabs would switch it around. One year they would say it was a sacred month, the following year they would say that it was not. The author said, “…and Safar is so named because they used to leave their homes during that month for fighting and traveling. When saying `Safir’ a place, it means to leave it… Rabi` Al-Awwal is called that because they used to do Irtiba` in it, that is to maintain one’s property… and Rabi` Al-Akhir, was so named for the same reasons. Jumada is called that because the water would dry up (Jamud) then….They say Jumada Al-Uwla and Al-Awwal, or Jumada Al-Akhar or Al-Akhirah. Rajab comes from Tarjib, meaning to honor. Sha`ban because the tribes would separate and return to their homes. Ramadan was so named because of the severity of the Ramda’ – that is – the heat, and they say that the branch Ramadat when it is thirsty…And the saying that it is a Name of Allah is a mistake, for there is no proof or support for that…”

The Sacred Months

Allah said,

(of them four are sacred). The Arabs used to consider these months sacred during the time of Jahiliyyah, except for a group of them called Al-Basl, who held eight months of the year to be sacred as way of exaggeration in religion.

The Prophet said,

(Three are in succession; Dhul-Qa`dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (Ath-Thani) and Sha`ban).

The Prophet said “Rajab of Mudar” to attest to the custom of Mudar, in saying that Rajab is the month that is between Jumada and Sha`ban, not as the tribe of Rabi`ah thought, that it is between Sha`ban and Shawwal, which is Ramadan in the present calendar. The four Sacred Months were made four, three in succession and one alone, so that the Hajj and `Umrah are performed with ease. Dhul-Qa`dah, the month before the Hajj month, was made sacred because they refrained from fighting during that month. Dhul-Hijjah, the next month, was made sacred because it is the month of Hajj, during which they performed Hajj rituals. Muharram, which comes next, was made sacred so that they are able to go back to their areas in safety after performing Hajj. Rajab, in the middle of the lunar year, was made sacred so that those coming from the farthest areas of Arabia are able to perform `Umrah and visit the House and then go back to their areas safely.

Allah said next,

(That is the right religion), that is the Straight Law, requiring implementing Allah’s order concerning the months that He made sacred and their true count as it was originally written by Allah. Allah said,

(so wrong not yourselves therein) during these Sacred Months, for sin in them is worse than sin in other months. Likewise, sins in the Sacred City are written multiplied,

(…and whoever inclines to evil actions therein (in Makkah) or to do wrong, him We shall cause to taste from a painful torment) 22:25. Similarly, sin in general is worse during the Sacred Months

`Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated that Ibn `Abbas said, Allah’s statement,

(Verily, the number of months with Allah…), is connected to

(so wrong not yourselves therein), “In all (twelve) months. Allah then chose four out of these months and made them sacred, emphasizing their sanctity, making sinning in them greater, in addition to, multiplying rewards of righteous deeds during them.” Qatadah said about Allah’s statement,

(so wrong not yourselves therein), “Injustice during the Sacred Months is worse and graver than injustice in other months. Verily, injustice is always wrong, but Allah makes things graver than others as He will.”

He also said,

“Allah has chosen some of His creation above others. He chose Messengers from angels and from men. He also chose His Speech above all speech, the Masajid above other areas of the earth, Ramadan and the Sacred Months above all months, Friday above the other days and Laylatul-Qadr (The Night of Decree) above all nights. Therefore, sanctify what Allah has sanctified, for doing so is the practice of people of understanding and comprehension.”

Fighting in the Sacred Months

Allah said,

(and fight against the idolators collectively), all of you,

(as they fight against you collectively.), all of them,

(But know that Allah is with those who have Taqwa), and know that initiating battle during the Sacred Months is forbidden. Allah said in other Ayat,

(O you who believe! Violate not the sanctity of the symbols of Allah, nor of the sacred month.) 5:2,

(The Sacred Month is for the Sacred Month, and for the prohibited things, there is the law of equality (Qisas). Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him) 2:194, and,

(Then when the Sacred Months have passed, kill the idolators…) 9:5. As for Allah’s statement,

(And fight against the idolators collectively as they fight against you collectively), it includes permission for the believers to fight the idolators in the Sacred Month, if the idolators initiate hostilities therein. Allah said in other Ayat,

(The Sacred Month is for the Sacred Month, and for the prohibited things, there is the law of equality (Qisas)) 2:194, and,

(And fight not with them at Al-Masjid Al-Haram, unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them.) 2:191.

As for the Messenger of Allah laying siege to At-Ta’if until the Sacred Month started, it was a continuation of the battle against Hawazin and their allies from Thaqif. They started the fighting and gathered their men for the purpose of conducting war. The Messenger of Allah marched to meet them and when they took refuge in At-Ta’if, the Prophet laid siege to them so that they descend from their forts, but they inflicted casualties on Muslims. The siege continued for about forty days, during which a Sacred Month began, and the siege continued for several days in that month. The Messenger broke the siege and went back (to Makkah). So fighting that carries over into it the Sacred Month is not the same as initiating warfare during it, Allah knows best.

Source: Tafseer Ibn Kathir, Soorat at-Tawbah 9:36, Dar-us-salam english Publications

Clear Verses (Muhkam) and Unclear Verses (Mutashabihat) in Qur’an – Shaykh Ibn Al-‘Uthaymeen | Dr. Saleh As Saleh [Audio|En]

Principles of Tafseer | Based upon the work of Shaykh Ibn Al-‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah

[Alternative Download Link]

Principles of Tafseer – Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen – Dr Saleh as Saleh [Audio|En]

Audio Sourcehttp://understand-islam.net/site/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=113&Itemid=59

Source for the Below: Tafseer ibn Kathir , Surah Al Imran , Darussalam eng Publication

It is He Who has sent down to you the Book. In it are verses that are entirely clear, they are the foundations of the Book; and others not entirely clear. So as for those in whose hearts there is a deviation (from the truth) they follow (only) that which is not entirely clear thereof, seeking Al-Fitnah, and seeking its Ta’wil, but none knows its Ta’wil except Allah. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: “We believe in it; all of it is from our Lord.” And none receive admonition except men of understanding.)  (They say): “Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate (from the truth) after You have guided us, and grant us mercy from You. Truly, You are the Bestower.” (Surah Al Imran Verse 7-8)

The Mutashabihat and Muhkamat Ayat 

Allah states that in the Qur’an, there are Ayat that are Muhkamat, entirely clear and plain, and these are the foundations of the Book which are plain for everyone. And there are Ayat in the Qur’an that are Mutashabihat not entirely clear for many, or some people. So those who refer to the Muhkam Ayat to understand the Mutashabih Ayat, will have acquired the correct guidance, and vice versa. This is why Allah said,

(They are the foundations of the Book), meaning, they are the basis of the Qur’an, and should be referred to for clarification, when warranted,

(And others not entirely clear) as they have several meanings, some that agree with the Muhkam and some that carry other literal indications, although these meaning might not be desired.

The Muhkamat are the Ayat that explain the abrogating rulings, the allowed, prohibited, laws, limits, obligations and rulings that should be believed in and implemented. As for the Mutashabihat Ayat, they include the abrogated Ayat, parables, oaths, and what should be believed in, but not implemented.

Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar commented on,

(In it are verses that are entirely clear) as “Containing proof of the Lord, immunity for the servants and a refutation of opponents and of falsehood. They cannot be changed or altered from what they were meant for.” He also said, “As for the unclear Ayat, they can (but must not) be altered and changed, and this is a test from Allah to the servants, just as He tested them with the allowed and prohibited things. So these Ayat must not be altered to imply a false meaning or be distorted from the truth.”

Therefore, Allah said,

(So as for those in whose hearts there is a deviation) meaning, those who are misguided and deviate from truth to falsehood,

(they follow that which is not entirely clear thereof) meaning, they refer to the Mutashabih, because they are able to alter its meanings to conform with their false interpretation since the wordings of the Mutashabihat encompass such a wide area of meanings. As for the Muhkam Ayat, they cannot be altered because they are clear and, thus, constitute unequivocal proof against the misguided people. This is why Allah said,

(seeking Al-Fitnah) meaning, they seek to misguide their following by pretending to prove their innovation by relying on the Qur’an — the Mutashabih of it — but, this is proof against and not for them. For instance, Christians might claim that ﴿`Isa is divine because﴾ the Qur’an states that he is Ruhullah and His Word, which He gave to Mary, all the while ignoring Allah’s statements,

(He ﴿`Isa﴾ was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him.) ﴿43:59﴾, and,

(Verily, the likeness of `Isa before Allah is the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then (He) said to him: “Be!” and he was.) ﴿3:59﴾.

There are other Ayat that clearly assert that `Isa is but one of Allah’s creatures and that he is the servant and Messenger of Allah, among other Messengers.

Allah’s statement,

(And seeking for its Ta’wil,) to alter them as they desire. Imam Ahmad recorded that `A’ishah said, “The Messenger of Allah recited,

(It is He Who has sent down to you the Book. In it are verses that are entirely clear, they are the foundations of the Book; and others not entirely clear,), until,

(Men of understanding) and he said,

(When you see those who argue in it (using the Mutashabihat), then they are those whom Allah meant. Therefore, beware of them.)”

Al-Bukhari recorded a similar Hadith in the Tafsir of this Ayah ﴿3:7﴾, as did Muslim in the book of Qadar (the Divine Will) in his Sahih, and Abu Dawud in the Sunnah section of his Sunan, from `A’ishah; “The Messenger of Allah recited this Ayah,

(It is He Who has sent down to you the Book. In it are verses that are entirely clear,) until,

(And none receive admonition except men of understanding.)

He then said,

(When you see those who follow what is not so clear of the Qur’an, then they are those whom Allah described, so beware of them.)”

This is the wording recorded by Al-Bukhari.

Only Allah Knows the True Ta’wil (Interpretation) of the Mutashabihat 

Allah said,

(But none knows its Ta’wil except Allah.)

Similarly, as preceded in what has been reported from Ibn `Abbas, “Tafsir is of four types: Tafsir that the Arabs know in their language; Tafsir that no one is excused of being ignorant of; Tafsir that the scholars know; and Tafsir that only Allah knows.” Scholars of Qur’an recitation have different opinions about pausing at Allah’s Name in this Ayah. This stop was reported from `A’ishah, `Urwah, Abu Ash-Sha`tha’ and Abu Nahik.

Some pause after reciting,

(And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge) saying that the Qur’an does not address the people with what they cannot understand. Ibn Abi Najih said that Mujahid said that Ibn `Abbas said, “I am among those who are firmly grounded in its Ta’wil interpretation.” The Messenger of Allah supplicated for the benefit of Ibn `Abbas,

(O Allah! Bestow on him knowledge in the religion and teach him the Ta’wil (interpretation).)

Ta’wil has two meanings in the Qur’an, the true reality of things, and what they will turn out to be. For instance, Allah said,

(And he said: “O my father! This is the Ta’wil of my dream aforetime!”.) ﴿12:100﴾, and,

(Await they just for it’s Ta’wil On the Day (Day of Resurrection) it’s Ta’wil is finally fulfillled.)(7:53) refers to the true reality of Resurrection that they were told about. If this is the meaning desired in the Ayah above ﴿3:7﴾, then pausing after reciting Allah’s Name is warranted, because only Allah knows the true reality of things. In this case, Allah’s statement,

(And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge) is connected to His statement,

(say: “We believe in it”) If the word Ta’wil means the second meaning, that is, explaining and describing, such as what Allah said,

((They said): “Inform us of the Ta’wil of this”) meaning its explanation, then pausing after reciting,

(And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge) is warranted. This is because the scholars have general knowledge in, and understand what they were addressed with, even though they do not have knowledge of the true reality of things. Therefore, Allah’s statement,

(say: “We believe in it”) describes the conduct of the scholars. Similarly, Allah said,

(And your Lord comes, and the angels, in rows.) ﴿89:22﴾ means, your Lord will come, and the angels will come in rows.

Allah’s statement that the knowledgeable people proclaim,

(We believe in it) means, they believe in the Mutashabih.

(all of it is from our Lord) meaning, both the Muhkam and the Mutashabih are true and authentic, and each one of them testifies to the truth of the other. This is because they both are from Allah and nothing that comes from Allah is ever met by contradiction or discrepancy. Allah said,

(Do they not then consider the Qur’an carefully Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have found therein many a contradiction.) ﴿4:82﴾.

Allah said in his Ayah ﴿3:7﴾,

(And none receive admonition except men of understanding. ) meaning, those who have good minds and sound comprehension, understand, contemplate and comprehend the meaning in the correct manner. Further, Ibn Al-Mundhir recorded in his Tafsir that Nafi` bin Yazid said, “Those firmly grounded in knowledge are those who are modest for Allah’s sake, humbly seek His pleasure, and do not exaggerate regarding those above them, or belittle those below them.”

Allah said that they supplicate to their Lord,

(Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate (from the truth) after You have guided us.) meaning, “Do not deviate our hearts from the guidance after You allowed them to acquire it. Do not make us like those who have wickedness in their hearts, those who follow the Mutashabih in the Qur’an. Rather, make us remain firmly on Your straight path and true religion.”

(And grant us from Ladunka) meaning, from You,

(Mercy) with which You make our hearts firm, and increase in our Faith and certainty,

(Truly, You are the Bestower)

Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir recorded that Umm Salamah said that the Prophet used to supplicate,

(O You Who changes the hearts, make my heart firm on Your religion.)

He then recited,

(“Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate (from the truth) after You have guided us, and grant us mercy from You. Truly, You are the Bestower.”)

From the Fruits of Studying the Seerah of our Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم – Dawud Burbank [Short Clip|En]

Al-Fusool fee Seerat-ir-Rasool (sallAllaahu’alaihiwasallam) – Chapters from the Life of the Messenger by al-Imaam, al-Haafiz, Ismaa’eel ibn ‘Umar ibn Katheer al-Qurashee [701 – 774H]

These audio lessons are a translation of the above book by the famous scholar Ibn Katheer, along with side points discussing the authenticity of the narrations mentioned, as well as other beneficial narrations. An extremely valuable resource given the lack of authentic material on the subject of the life of our beloved Prophet (sallAllaahu’alaihiwasallam).

Translated by Abu Talhah Dawud ibn Ronald Burbank.

Posted with the permission of Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah.

How Abdullaah ibn Salaam (رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ) became Muslim – Compiled and Translated by Dawud Burbank

[From “Saheehus-Seeratin-Nabawiyyah’ (pp.80-81), Shaikh al-Albaanee – rahimahullaah’s- verified edition of al-Haafiz Ibn Katheer -rahimahullaah’s- “as-Seeratun-Nabawiyyah’.]

From `Awf ibn Maalik al-Ashja`ee, who said:

“The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) went off one day, and I was with him, until we entered a synagogue of the Jews (in al-Madeenah, on a festival day of theirs, and they disliked our entering upon them), and he said (to them):

<< O assembly of Jews! Show me twelve men who will bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and Allaah will remove from every Jew beneath the sky the Anger which He has upon them.>> He said: So they remained silent; no one responded to him. Then he repeated it, but no one responded to him. So he said:

<< You have refused, but, by Allaah ! I am indeed ‘al-Haashir’ (the Prophet after whom the people will be gathered), and I am ‘al-`Aaqib’ (the final Prophet), and I am ‘an-Nabiyyul-Mustafaa’ (the chosen Prophet): whether you believe or reject the truth.>>

Then he departed, and I was with him, until (when) we had almost left, a man behind us said: “Stay as you are, O Muhammad!’ Then that man said: ” What sort of man do you people know me to be amongst you, O company of Jews?’ They said: “By Allaah! We do not know there to be any man amongst us who knows Allaah’s Scripture better than you; nor who has better understanding of the religion than you; nor than your father before you; nor than your grandfather before your father.’ He said: “Then I testify for him, by Allaah, that he is indeed the Prophet of Allaah, whom you find in the Tawraat [Torah].” They said: “You have lied!’ Then they rebutted his saying, and they said evil things about him, so Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said:

<< You people have lied. Your saying will never be accepted. Just now you were praising him with the good that you were praising him with; but when he believed you called him a liar, and said what you have said. Your saying will never be accepted. >>

He said: So we departed, and we were three: Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم), myself, and `Abdullaah ibn Salaam; and Allaah -the Most High- sent down regarding him:

“Say: Do you see: if this Qur·aan is from Allaah, and you reject it, and a witness from the children of Israa’eel testifies to its like, and believes in it; and you haughtily reject it; then Allaah does not guide the wrongdoing Disbelievers”  [ Sooratul-Ahqaaf (46): 10] [1]

[1] Shaikh al-Albaanee said: “Reported by Ahmad (6/25), and the additions are his; and by al-Haakim (3/415-416), and he said: “Saheeh to the standard of the two Shaikhs’! And adhDhahabee agreed with him! But it is only to the standard of Muslim, since al-Bukhaaree did not report the narrations of Safwaan ibn `Amr except in his “al-Adabul-Mufrad’.”

IMAAM AL-BUKHAAREE’S -rahimahullaah- NARRATION:

Imaam al-Bukhaaree narrated (no.3329): from Anas -radiyallaahu `anhu:

“Abdullaah ibn Salaam heard of the arrival of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) at AlMadeenah, so he came to him and said: “I am going to ask you about three things which nobody but a Prophet will know.’

He said: “What is the first of the signs of the Hour? And what will be the first food, which the people of Paradise will eat? And on account of what does a child resemble its father; and on account of what does a child resemble its maternal uncles?’

So Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: «Jibreel has just informed me of them.» He said: `Abdullaah said: “He is the enemy to the Jews from amongst the Angels.’ Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said:

«As for the first of the signs of the Hour, then it will be a fire, which gathers the people from the east to the west. As for the first food which the people of Paradise will eat, then it will be the extra lobe of the liver of the fish. As for the resemblance of the child, then when the man has intercourse with the woman and his semen outstrips the fluid of the woman, then the child will resemble him; and if her fluid outstrips, then the resemblance will be towards her.»

He said: “I testify that you are the Messenger of Allaah.’ Then he said: “O Messenger of Allaah! The Jews are a people who are great liars: if they know about my Islaam before you ask them, then they will lie about me to you.’ So the Jews came, and `Abdullaah ibn Salaam entered the house.

So Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: «What sort of a man is `Abdullaah ibn Salaam amongst you?» They said: “He is the most knowledgeable one of us, and the son of the most knowledgeable one from amongst us; and he is the best one of us, and the son of the best one of us.’ So Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: «What would you think if `Abdullaah were to accept Islaam?» They said: “May Allaah preserve him from that.’ So `Abdullaah came out to them and said: “I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah.’ So they said: “He is the most evil one of us, and the son of the most evil one of us’, and they spoke against him’.”

A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF `ABDULLAAH IBN SALAAM -radiyallaahu `anhu:

`Abdullaah ibn Salaam ibn al-Haarith, al-Israa·eelee, Aboo Yoosuf. He was previously a confederate of Banoo `Awf ibn al-Khazraj. He accepted Islaam when Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) came to al-Madeenah. He was present at the battle of the Trench (al-Khandaq), and the battles after it. He was present with `Umar at the conquest of Jerusalem, and at alJaabiyah. He died in al-Madeenah in 43 H. [[ ref. “Tahdheebut-Tahdheeb’ of al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr]] Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) bore witness that he will be a person of Paradise, as reported by al-Bukhaaree (no. 3812) and Muslim (no. 2483) from Sa`d ibn Abee Waqqaas -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “I never heard Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) say about anyone who still walked upon the earth that he was a person of Paradise, except `Abdullaah ibn Salaam. He said: And this Aayah came down concerning him:

“And a witness from the children of Israa·eel testifies to its like” [Sooratul-Ahqaaf (46): 10]

And at-Tirmidhee reported (no. 3804) from Mu`aadh ibn Jabal -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: I heard Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) say: << He will be the tenth of ten in Paradise.>> [ Declared “Saheeh’ by Shaikh al-Albaanee.]

[Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank]

[Download the original PDF]

Posted from: https://alitisaambissunnah.wordpress.com

The Goal of the Udhiyyah (Sacrifice) according to Allah is the Sincerity and Taqwa of His Servant

(37. It is neither their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah, but it is Taqwa from you that reaches Him. Thus have We made them subject to you that you may proclaim Allah’s greatness for His guidance to you. And give glad tidings to the doers of good.) – Suratul Baqarah

Allah says: this sacrifice is prescribed for you so that you will remember Him at the time of slaughter, for He is the Creator and Provider. Nothing of its flesh or blood reaches Him, for He has no need of anything other than Himself. During the time of Jahiliyyah, when they offered sacrifices to their gods, they would put some of the meat of their sacrifices on their idols, and sprinkle the blood over them. But Allah says:

(It is neither their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah,) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Jurayj said, “The people of the Jahiliyyah used to put the meat of their sacrifices and sprinkle the blood on the House, and the Companions of the Messenger of Allah said, “We have more right to do that.” Then Allah revealed the words:

(It is neither their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah, but it is Taqwa from you that reaches Him.) That is what He will accept and reward for, as mentioned in the Sahih,

(Allah does not look to your appearance or your colors, but He looks to your hearts and deeds.) And in the Hadith; (Indeed charity falls in the Hand of Ar-Rahman before it falls in the hand of the one asking.)

(Thus have We made them subject to you) meaning, `for this purpose We have subjugated the Budn for you,’

(that you may proclaim Allah’s greatness for His guidance to you.) means, that you may glorify Him for guiding you to His religion and His way which He loves and is pleased with, and has forbidden you to do all that He hates and rejects.

(And give glad tidings to the doers of good.) means, `give good news, O Muhammad, to those who do good,’ i.e., whose deeds are good and who remain within the limits prescribed by Allah, who follow that which has been prescribed for them, who believe in the Messenger and follow that which he has conveyed from his Lord.

(Note) The Udhiyyah is Sunnah Mustahabbah One animal is sufficient on behalf of all the members of one household. Ibn `Umar said, “The Messenger of Allah continued to offer sacrifice for ten years.” This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi. Abu Ayyub said: “At the time of the Messenger of Allah , a man would sacrifice a sheep on behalf of himself and all the members of his household, and they would eat from it and feed others, until the people started boasting ﴿by sacrificing more than one﴾ and things reached the stage that you see now.” This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who graded it Sahih, and by Ibn Majah. `Abdullah bin Hisham used to sacrifice one sheep on behalf of his entire family; this was recorded by Al-Bukhari. Concerning how old the sacrificial animal should be, Muslim recorded from Jabir that the Messenger of Allah said:

(Do not sacrifice any but mature animals, and if that is not possible, then sacrifice a young sheep.)

Source: Tafseer Ibn Kathir, Dar-us-Salam publications

The Heavens and the Earth weep when the Believer Dies – Tafseer Ibn Kathir

The Heavens and Earth weep when Believer Dies

Ibn Jarir recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “A man came to Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and said to him: `O Abu Al-`Abbas, Allah says,

( فَمَا بَكَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّمَآءُ وَالاٌّرْضُ وَمَا كَانُواْ مُنظَرِينَ )

(And the heavens and the earth wept not for them, nor were they given respite)do the heavens and the earth weep for anybody‘ He, may Allah be pleased with him, said,

`Yes, there is no one who does not have a gate in the heavens through which his provision comes down and his good deeds ascend. When the believer dies, that gate is closed; it misses him and weeps for him, and the place of prayer on earth where he used to pray and remember Allah also weeps for him.

But the people of Fir`awn left no trace of righteousness on the earth and they had no good deeds that ascended to Allah, so the heavens and the earth did not weep for them

Source : Tafseer Ibn Kathir : Surah Al-Dukhan, Verse 29

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Qiyamah : Ibn Kathir

 The Tafsir Ibn Kathir of Surat Al-Qiyamah (Chapter – 75)

Which was revealed in Makkah

[بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ]

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

[لاَ أُقْسِمُ بِيَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ – وَلاَ أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ – أَيَحْسَبُ الإِنسَـنُ أَلَّن نَّجْمَعَ عِظَامَهُ – بَلَى قَـدِرِينَ عَلَى أَن نُّسَوِّىَ بَنَانَهُ – بَلْ يُرِيدُ الإِنسَـنُ لِيَفْجُرَ أَمَامَهُ – يَسْـَلُ أَيَّانَ يَوْمُ الْقِيَـمَةِ – فَإِذَا بَرِقَ الْبَصَرُ – وَخَسَفَ الْقَمَرُ – وَجُمِعَ الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ – يَقُولُ الإِنسَـنُ يَوْمَئِذٍ أَيْنَ الْمَفَرُّ – كَلاَّ لاَ وَزَرَ – إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمُسْتَقَرُّ – يُنَبَّأُ الإِنسَـنُ يَوْمَئِذِ بِمَا قَدَّمَ وَأَخَّرَ – بَلِ الإِنسَـنُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ بَصِيرَةٌ – وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(1. Nay! I swear by the Day of Resurrection.) (2. And nay! I swear by An-Nafs Al-Lawwamah.) (3. Does man think that We shall not assemble his bones) (4. Yes, We are able to put together in perfect order the tips of his fingers.) (5. Nay! Man desires to break out ahead of himself.) (6. He asks: “When will be this Day of Resurrection”) (7. So, when Bariqa the sight.) (8. And the moon will be eclipsed.) (9. And the sun and moon will be joined together.) (10. On that Day man will say: “Where (is the refuge) to flee”) (11. No! There is no refuge!) (12. Unto your Lord will be the place of rest that Day.) (13. On that Day man will be informed of what he sent forward, and what he left behind.) (14. Nay! Man will be well informed about himself,) (15. Though he may put forth his excuses.)

The Oath about the Final Return on the Day of Resurrection and the Refutation against the Plots of the Thinkers

It has been mentioned previously on more than one occasion that if the thing that is being sworn about is something that is being negated, then it is permissible to use the word “La” (Nay) before the oath to emphasize the negation. Here, what is being sworn about is the affirmation of the final abode and the refutation against the claim of the ignorant that the resurrection of bodies will not occur. This is why Allah says,

[لاَ أُقْسِمُ بِيَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ – وَلاَ أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ ]

(Nay! I swear by the Day of Resurrection. And nay! I swear by An-Nafs Al-Lawwamah.) Qatadah said, “This means, I swear by both of these things.” This has also been reported from Ibn `Abbas and Sa`id bin Jubayr. Concerning the Day of Judgement, it is well known what it is. In reference to An-Nafs Al-Lawwamah, Qurrah bin Khalid reported from Al-Hasan Al-Basri that he said about this Ayah, “Verily, by Allah, we think that every believer blames himself. He says (questioning himself), `What did I intend by my statement What did I intend by my eating What did I intend in what I said to myself’ However, the sinner proceeds ahead and he does not blame himself.” Ibn Jarir recorded from Sa`id bin Jubayr that he said concerning Allah’s statement,

[وَلاَ أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ ]

(And nay! I swear by An-Nafs Al-Lawwamah) “He criticizes himself in good and bad.” Similar has been reported from `Ikrimah. Ibn Abi Najih reported from Mujahid: “He is sorry for what he missed (of good deeds) and he blames himself for it.” Allah said;

[أَيَحْسَبُ الإِنسَـنُ أَلَّن نَّجْمَعَ عِظَامَهُ ]

(Does man think that We shall not assemble his bones) meaning, `on the Day of Judgement does he think that We are not able to return his bones and gather them from their various places’

[بَلَى قَـدِرِينَ عَلَى أَن نُّسَوِّىَ بَنَانَهُ ]

(Yes, We are able to put together in perfect order the tips of his fingers.) meaning, `does man think that We will not gather his bones Surely, We will gather them and We are quite able to put together his fingertips. This means Our power is suitable to gather (and recreate) them, and if We wished We could surely resurrect him with more than what he originally had. We could make his Banan, which are the tips of his fingers, all equal (in length).’ Concerning Allah’s statement,

[بَلْ يُرِيدُ الإِنسَـنُ لِيَفْجُرَ أَمَامَهُ ]

(Nay! Man desires to break out ahead of himself.) Sa`id reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “This means to proceed forward.” Mujahid said about,

[لِيَفْجُرَ أَمَامَهُ]

(to break out ahead of himself.) “This means that he wants to proceed ahead following his own whims.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “This refers to the disbeliever who denies the Day of Reckoning.” Ibn Zayd said the same thing. Thus, Allah says after this,

[يَسْـَلُ أَيَّانَ يَوْمُ الْقِيَـمَةِ ]

(He asks: “When will be this Day of Resurrection”) meaning, he says when will the Day of Judgement be His question is only a question of denying its occurrence, and rejecting its existence. This is as Allah says,

[وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَى هَـذَا الْوَعْدُ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ قُل لَّكُم مِّيعَادُ يَوْمٍ لاَّ تَسْتَـَخِرُونَ عَنْهُ سَاعَةً وَلاَ تَسْتَقْدِمُونَ ]

(And they say: “When is this promise if you are truthful” Say: “The appointment to you is for a Day, which you cannot put back for an hour nor put forward.”) (34:29-30) Here Allah says,

[فَإِذَا بَرِقَ الْبَصَرُ ]

(So, when Bariqa the sight.) Abu `Amr bin Al-`Ala’ recited this Ayah as Bariqa with a Kasrah under the letter Ra, which means to be diminished. That which he (Abu `Amr) has said resembles the statement of Allah,

[لاَ يَرْتَدُّ إِلَيْهِمْ طَرْفُهُمْ]

(Their gaze returning not towards them.) (14:43) meaning, they will be looking this way and that way in horror. Their gaze will not be able to rest upon anything due to the severity of the terror on that Day. Others recited it as Baraqa with a Fathah over the letter Ra, and its meaning is close to the first recitation (Bariqa). The intent here is that the eyes will be dazzled, humbled, diminished, and humiliated on the Day of Judgement due to the severity of the horrors and the greatness of the matters that they will witness on that Day. Concerning Allah’s statement,

[وَخَسَفَ الْقَمَرُ ]

(And the moon will be eclipsed.) meaning, its light will go away.

[وَجُمِعَ الشَّمْسُ وَالْقَمَرُ ]

(And the sun and moon will be joined together.) Mujahid said, “They will be rolled up.” In explaining this Ayah, Ibn Zayd recited the following Ayat,

[إِذَا الشَّمْسُ كُوِّرَتْ – وَإِذَا النُّجُومُ انكَدَرَتْ ]

(When the sun is wound round and its light is lost and is overthrown, and when the stars fall.) (81:1,2) It has been reported from Ibn Mas`ud that he recited the Ayah as, (وَجُمِعَ بَيْنَ الشَّمْسِ وَالْقَمَرِ) (and the sun and the moon will be joined between each other.) Allah said,

[يَقُولُ الإِنسَـنُ يَوْمَئِذٍ أَيْنَ الْمَفَرُّ ]

(On that Day man will say:”Where (is the refuge) to flee”) meaning, the human will see these horrors on the Day of Judgement and he will want to flee. He will say, “Where (is the place) to flee to” This means, where is the escape or refuge Allah then says,

[كَلاَّ لاَ وَزَرَ – إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمُسْتَقَرُّ ]

(No! There is no refuge! Unto your Lord will be the place of rest that Day.) Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Sa`id bin Jubayr and several others of the Salaf said, “There will be no salvation.” This Ayah is similar to Allah’s statement,

[مَا لَكُمْ مِّن مَّلْجَأٍ يَوْمَئِذٍ وَمَا لَكُمْ مِّن نَّكِيرٍ]

(You will have no refuge on that Day nor there will be for you any denying.) (42:47) meaning, `there will be no place for you to hide.’ This is like what Allah says here,

[لاَ وَزَرَ]

(There is no refuge.) meaning, `there will be no place for you to seek shelter.’ Thus, Allah says,

[إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمُسْتَقَرُّ ]

(Unto your Lord will be the place of rest that Day.) meaning, the place of return and the final destination. The Deeds of Man will be placed before Him on the Day of Judgement Then Allah says,

[يُنَبَّأُ الإِنسَـنُ يَوْمَئِذِ بِمَا قَدَّمَ وَأَخَّرَ ]

(On that Day man will be informed of what he sent forward, and what he left behind.) meaning, he will be informed of all of his deeds, the old of them and the recent of them, the first of them and the last of them, the small of them and the large of them. This is as Allah says,

[وَوَجَدُواْ مَا عَمِلُواْ حَاضِرًا وَلاَ يَظْلِمُ رَبُّكَ أَحَدًا]

(And they will find all that they did, placed before them, and your Lord treats no one with injustice.) (18:49) Likewise, Allah says here,

[بَلِ الإِنسَـنُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ بَصِيرَةٌ – وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(Nay! Man will be well informed about himself, though he may put forth his excuses.) meaning, he will be a witness against himself, knowing full well what he did, even though he will try to make excuses and deny it. This is as Allah says,

[اقْرَأْ كَتَـبَكَ كَفَى بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا ]

((It will be said to him): “Read your book. You are sufficient as a reckoner against yourself this Day.”) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,

[بَلِ الإِنسَـنُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ بَصِيرَةٌ ]

(Nay! Man will be well informed about himself.) “His hearing, his sight, his two hands, his two legs and his limbs.” Qatadah said, “This means he is a witness against himself.” In another narration from Qatadah he said, “By Allah! If you wish to see him, you would see him as someone who sees the shortcomings of the people and their sins, yet he is heedless of his own sins.” It used to be said, “Verily, it is written in the Injil: `O Son of Adam, do you see the small splinters in the eye of your brother and disregard the tree stump that is in your eye, so you do not see it”’ Mujahid said,

[وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(Though he may put forth his excuses.) “This means, even though he argues in defense of it, he is a witness against it.” Qatadah said,

[وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(Though he may put forth his excuses.) “Even though he will try to make false excuses on that Day, they will not be accepted from him.” As-Suddi said,

[وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(Though he may put forth his excuses.) “This means his argument.” This is as Allah says,

[ثُمَّ لَمْ تَكُنْ فِتْنَتُهُمْ إِلاَّ أَن قَالُواْ وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ ]

(There will then be no Fitnah for them but to say: “By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others in worship with Allah.”) (6:23) Allah also says,

[يَوْمَ يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللَّهِ جَمِيعاً فَيَحْلِفُونَ لَهُ كَمَا يَحْلِفُونَ لَكُمْ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ عَلَى شَىْءٍ أَلاَ إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْكَـذِبُونَ ]

(On the Day when Allah will resurrect them all together; then they will swear to Him as they swear to you (O Muslims). And they think that they have something. Verily, they are liars!) (58:18) Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas:

[وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ]

(Though he may put forth his excuses.) “This is apologizing. Haven’t you heard that Allah said,

[لاَ يَنفَعُ الظَّـلِمِينَ مَعْذِرَتُهُمْ]

(The Day when their excuses will be of no profit to wrongdoers.) (40:52) and He says,

[وَأَلْقَوْاْ إِلَى اللَّهِ يَوْمَئِذٍ السَّلَمَ]

(And they will offer submision to Allah on that Day.) (16:87) and He says,

[فَأَلْقَوُاْ السَّلَمَ مَا كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ مِن سُوءٍ]

(Then they will (falsely) submit: “We used not to do any evil.”) (16:28) and their statement,

[وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ]

(By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others in worship with Allah.) (6:23)”

[لاَ تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ – إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْءَانَهُ – فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَـهُ فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْءَانَهُ – ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ – كَلاَّ بَلْ تُحِبُّونَ الْعَاجِلَةَ – وَتَذَرُونَ الاٌّخِرَةَ – وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَّاضِرَةٌ – إِلَى رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ – وَوُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ بَاسِرَةٌ – تَظُنُّ أَن يُفْعَلَ بِهَا فَاقِرَةٌ ]

(16. Move not your tongue concerning to make haste therewith.) (17. It is for Us to collect it and that it be recited.) (18. And when We have recited it to you, then follow its recitation.) (19. Then it is for Us to make it clear.) (20. But no! Rather you love the present life of this world,) (21. And neglect the Hereafter.) (22. Some faces that Day shall be Nadirah.) (23. Looking at their Lord.) (24. And some faces that Day will be Basirah,) (25. Thinking that some calamity is about to fall on them.)

How the Prophet received the Revelation

This is Allah teaching His Messenger how to receive the revelation from the angel. For verily, he (the Prophet ) was rushing in his attempts to grasp the revelation and he would be reciting the revelation with the angel while he was reciting it. Therefore, Allah commanded him that when the angel brings some revelation to him he should just listen. Allah would make sure to collect it in his chest, and He would make it easy for him to recite it in the same way that it was revealed to him. Allah would explain it, interpret it and clarify it for him. So the first phase was gathering it in his chest, the second phase was recitation and the third phase was its explanation and clarification of its meaning. Thus, Allah says,

[لاَ تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ ]

(Move not your tongue concerning to make haste therewith.) meaning, with the Qur’an. This is as Allah says,

[وَلاَ تَعْجَلْ بِالْقُرْءانِ مِن قَبْلِ إَن يُقْضَى إِلَيْكَ وَحْيُهُ وَقُل رَّبِّ زِدْنِى عِلْماً]

(And be not in haste with the Qur’an before its revelation is completed to you, and say: “My Lord! Increase me in knowledge.”) (20:114) Then Allah says,

[إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ]

(It is for Us to collect it) meaning, `in your chest.’

[وَقُرْءَانَهُ]

(and that it be recited.) meaning, `that you recite it.’

[فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَـهُ]

(And when We have recited it to you,) meaning, `when the angel has recited it to you from Allah,’

[فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْءَانَهُ]

(then follow its recitation.) meaning, `listen to it then recite it as he taught you to recite it.’

[ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ ]

(Then it is for Us to make it clear.) meaning, `after memorizing it and reciting it, We will explain it to you, clarify it and inspire you with its meaning according to what We intended and legislated.’ Imam Ahmad recorded from Ibn `Abbas that he said that the Messenger of Allah used to struggle very hard to grasp the revelation and he used to move his lips (rapidly with the recitation). The narrator, Sa`id, then said, “Ibn `Abbas said to me, `I will move my lips like the Messenger of Allah used to move his lips (in order to show you).”’ Then, the subnarrator said, “And Sa`id said to me, `I will move my lips like I saw Ibn `Abbas moving his lips (in order to show you).”’ Then Allah revealed,

[لاَ تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ – إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْءَانَهُ ]

(Move not your tongue concerning to make haste therewith. It is for Us to collect it and that it be recited.) Ibn `Abbas said, “This means He will collect it in his chest to recite it.

[فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَـهُ فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْءَانَهُ ]

(And when We have recited it to you, then follow its recitation.) meaning, listen to it and pay attention.

[ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا بَيَانَهُ ]

(Then it is for Us to make it clear (to you).) So after this, when Jibril would leave, he would recite it as Jibril had taught him to recite it.” This has also been recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. Al-Bukhari’s wording says, “So whenever Jibril would come to him he would be silent, and when Jibril had left he would recite it just as Allah, the Mighty and Sublime had promised him.”

The Cause of rejecting the Day of Judgement is Love of the World and Heedlessness of the Hereafter

Concerning Allah’s statement,

[كَلاَّ بَلْ تُحِبُّونَ الْعَاجِلَةَ – وَتَذَرُونَ الاٌّخِرَةَ ]

(But no! Rather you love the present life of this world. And neglect the Hereafter.) meaning, the only thing that has caused them to reject the Day of Judgement and oppose the true revelation and the Mighty Qur’an Allah revealed to His Messenger is that their only concern is the present worldly life. They are preoccupied and distracted from the Hereafter.

Seeing Allah in the Hereafter

Then Allah says,

[وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَّاضِرَةٌ ]

(Some faces that Day shall be Nadirah.) which comes from the word Nadarah, which means splendid, radiant, glowing, delighted with goodness.

[إِلَى رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ ]

(Looking at their Lord.) meaning, they will see Him with their very eyes. This is just as was recorded by Al-Bukhari in his Sahih,

«إِنَّكُمْ سَتَرَوْنَ رَبَّكُمْ عِيَانًا»

(Verily, you all will see your Lord with your own eyes.) The believers seeing Allah in the abode of the Hereafter has been confirmed in the authentic Hadiths from numerous routes of transmission with the scholars of Hadith. It is not possible to deny this or refuse it. Examples would be the Hadiths of Abu Sa`id and Abu Hurayrah, and they are both recorded in the Two Sahihs. They both mentioned that some people said, “O Messenger of Allah! Will we see our Lord on the Day of Judgement” The Prophet said,

«هَلْ تُضَارُّونَ فِي رُؤْيَةِ الشَّمْسِ وَالْقَمَرِ لَيْسَ دُونَهُمَا سَحَابٌ؟»

(Are you harmed by seeing the sun and the moon when there are no clouds beneath them) They replied, “No.” The Prophet then said,

«فَإِنَّكُمْ تَرَوْنَ رَبَّكُمْ كَذَلِك»

(Then you will surely see your Lord like that.) In the Two Sahihs it is recorded from Jabir that he said, “The Messenger of Allah looked at the moon on a night when it was full, and he said,

«إِنَّكُمْ تَرَوْنَ رَبَّكُمْ كَمَا تَرَوْنَ هَذَا الْقَمَرَ، فَإِنِ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَنْ لَا تُغْلَبُوا عَلَى صَلَاةٍ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَلَا قَبْلَ غُرُوبِهَا، فَافْعَلُوا»

(Verily, you will see your Lord just as you see this moon! So if you are able to avoid missing a prayer before the rising of the sun (Fajr prayer) or before its setting (`Asr prayer) then do so.)” Among the Hadiths, which Muslim was alone in recording, is a narration from Suhayb that the Prophet said,

«إِذَا دَخَلَ أَهْلُ الْجَنَّةِ الْجَنَّةَ قَالَ يَقُولُ اللهُ تَعَالى: تُرِيدُونَ شَيْئًا أَزِيدُكُمْ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ: أَلَمْ تُبَيِّضْ وُجُوهَنَا؟ أَلَمْ تُدْخِلْنَا الْجَنَّةَ وَتُنَجِّنَا مِنَ النَّارِ؟ قَالَ: فَيَكْشِفُ الْحِجَابَ، فَمَا أُعْطُوا شَيْئًا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْهِمْ مِنَ النَّظَرِ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ، وَهِيَ الزِّيَادَة»

(When the people of Paradise enter the Paradise, Allah will say, `Do you want me to give you anything extra’ They will say, `Haven’t you whitened our faces Haven’t you entered us into Paradise and saved us from the Fire’ Then He will remove the veil and they will not be given anything more beloved to them than looking at their Lord, and that will be the extra (Ziyadah).) Then he recited this Ayah,

[لِّلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُواْ الْحُسْنَى وَزِيَادَةٌ]

(For those who have done good is the best and extra (Ziyadah).) (10:26) Also among the Hadiths, which Muslim was alone in recording, is the Hadith of Jabir in which the Prophet said,

«إِنَّ اللهَ يَتَجَلَّى لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَضْحَك»

(Verily, Allah will appear before the believers while He is laughing.) This will take place on the open plains of the Resurrection place. In some of these Hadiths, it mentions that the believers will be looking at their Lord on the open plains and some mention that this will occur in the Gardens of Paradise. If it were not due to fear of taking up a lot of space, we would present all of these Hadiths with their routes of transmission and wordings from those that are in the Sahih collections, the collections of good narrations, the Musnad collections and the Sunan collections. However, we have mentioned this in separate places in this Tafsir, and Allah is the Giver of success. This issue is something that the Companions, the Successors and the Salaf of this nation have agreed upon, and all praise is due to Allah. It is something that is agreed upon between the Imams of Islam and the guides of all mankind.

Blackening of the Faces of the Disobedient People on the Day of Judgement

Allah says,

[وَوُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ بَاسِرَةٌ – تَظُنُّ أَن يُفْعَلَ بِهَا فَاقِرَةٌ ]

(And some faces that Day will be Basirah. Thinking that some calamity is about to fall on them.) These are the faces of the sinners that will be Basirah on the Day of Judgement. Qatadah said, “This means gloomy.” As-Suddi said, “Their (the faces) color will change.”

[تَظُنُّ]

(Thinking) meaning, they will be certain.

[أَن يُفْعَلَ بِهَا فَاقِرَةٌ]

(that some calamity is about to fall on them.) Mujahid said, “A disaster.” Qatadah said, “An evil.” As-Suddi said, “They will be certain that they are going to be destroyed.” Ibn Zayd said, “They will think that they are going to enter into the Hellfire.” This situation is similar to Allah’s statement,

[يَوْمَ تَبْيَضُّ وُجُوهٌ وَتَسْوَدُّ وُجُوهٌ]

(On the Day when some faces will become white and some faces will become black.) (3:106) Similarly Allah says,

[وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ مُّسْفِرَةٌ – ضَـحِكَةٌ مُّسْتَبْشِرَةٌ – وَوُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَلَيْهَا غَبَرَةٌ – تَرْهَقُهَا قَتَرَةٌ – أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْكَفَرَةُ الْفَجَرَةُ ]

(Some faces that Day will be bright. Laughing, rejoicing at the good news. And other faces, that Day will be dust-stained; darkness will cover them, such will be the disbelieving, wicked.) (80:38-42) Allah also says,

[وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ خَـشِعَةٌ – عَامِلَةٌ نَّاصِبَةٌ – تَصْلَى نَاراً حَامِيَةً ]

(Some faces, that Day will be humiliated. Laboring, weary. They will enter in the hot blazing Fire.) (88:2-4) until Allah says,

[وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَّاعِمَةٌ – لِّسَعْيِهَا رَاضِيَةٌ فِى جَنَّةٍ عَالِيَةٍ ]

((Other) faces that Day will be joyful. Happy with their endeavor. In a lofty Paradise.) (88:8-10) And there are other similar Ayat and discussions (in the Qur’an).

[كَلاَّ إِذَا بَلَغَتِ التَّرَاقِىَ – وَقِيلَ مَنْ رَاقٍ – وَظَنَّ أَنَّهُ الْفِرَاقُ – وَالْتَفَّتِ السَّاقُ بِالسَّاقِ – إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمَسَاقُ – فَلاَ صَدَّقَ وَلاَ صَلَّى – وَلَـكِن كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّى – ثُمَّ ذَهَبَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ يَتَمَطَّى – أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى – ثُمَّ أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى – أَيَحْسَبُ الإِنسَـنُ أَن يُتْرَكَ سُدًى – أَلَمْ يَكُ نُطْفَةً مِّن مَّنِىٍّ يُمْنَى – ثُمَّ كَانَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقَ فَسَوَّى – فَجَعَلَ مِنْهُ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالاٍّنثَى – أَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ بِقَـدِرٍ عَلَى أَن يُحْيِىَ الْمَوْتَى ]

(26. Nay, when it reaches to the collarbones.) (27. And it will be said: “Who can cure him”) (28. And he will think that it was the parting;) (29. And one shank will be joined with another shank.) (30. The drive will be on that Day to your Lord!) (31. So, he neither believed nor prayed!) (32. But on the contrary, he denied and turned away!) (33. Then he walked in conceit to his family admiring himself!) (34. Woe to you! And then woe to you!) (35. Again, woe to you! And then woe to you!) (36. Does man think that he will be left neglected) (37. Was he not a Nutfah of semen emitted) (38. Then he became an `Alaqah; then shaped and fashioned in due proportion.) (39. And made of him two sexes, male and female.) (40. Is it not so then, that He would be able to give life to the dead)

Certainty will occur at the Time of Death Allah informs of the condition at the time of death and what terrors it contains.

May Allah make us firm at that time with the Firm Statement. Allah says,

[كَلاَّ إِذَا بَلَغَتِ التَّرَاقِىَ ]

(Nay, when it reaches to the collarbones.) If we make the word “Kalla” negative, then this Ayah means, `O son of Adam! You are not able to deny that which I informed you of at that time (death). This will become something witnessed by you with your own eyes.’ If we consider the word “Kalla” to be a word of affirmation, then this would be the most obvious meaning. In this case it would mean that it is certainly true when the soul reaches the collarbones – meaning, `your soul will be pulled out of your body and it will reach your collarbones.’ This is similar to Allah’s statement,

[فَلَوْلاَ إِذَا بَلَغَتِ الْحُلْقُومَ – وَأَنتُمْ حِينَئِذٍ تَنظُرُونَ – وَنَحْنُ أَقْرَبُ إِلَيْهِ مِنكُمْ وَلَـكِن لاَّ تُبْصِرُونَ – فَلَوْلاَ إِن كُنتُمْ غَيْرَ مَدِينِينَ – تَرْجِعُونَهَآ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ ]

(Then why do you not (intervene) when (the soul of the dying person) reaches the throat And you at the moment are looking on, but We are nearer to him than you, but you see not, then why do you not if you are exempt from the reckoning and recompense, bring back the soul, if your are truthful) (56:83-87) Thus, Allah similarly says here,

[كَلاَّ إِذَا بَلَغَتِ التَّرَاقِىَ – وَقِيلَ مَنْ رَاقٍ ]

(Nay, when it reaches to the collarbones. And it will be said: “Who can cure him) `Ikrimah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “Meaning, who is the person who recites divine prayers of healing so that he may come and cure him” Abu Qilabah made a similar statement when he said,

[وَقِيلَ مَنْ رَاقٍ ]

(And it will be said: “Who can cure him) “This means who is the doctor that can cure him” Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and Ibn Zayd all have similar statements. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said concerning the Ayah,

[وَالْتَفَّتِ السَّاقُ بِالسَّاقِ ]

(And one shank will be joined with another shank.) “This is the last day of the days of this world and the first day of the days of the Hereafter. So there will be hardships that will meet (more) hardships, except for he whom Allah has mercy upon.” `Ikrimah said,

[وَالْتَفَّتِ السَّاقُ بِالسَّاقِ ]

(And one shank will be joined with another shank.) “The great matter (will be joined) with the great matter.” Mujahid said, “A test (will be joined) with a test.” Al-Hasan Al-Basri said concerning Allah’s statement,

[وَالْتَفَّتِ السَّاقُ بِالسَّاقِ ]

(And one shank will be joined with another shank. ) “These are your two shins when they are bound together.” In another narration from him (Al-Hasan) he said, “His two legs have died and they will not carry him while he used to walk around on them.” Concerning Allah’s statement,

[إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمَسَاقُ ]

(The drive will be on that Day to your Lord!) meaning, the place of return and the destination. This is that the soul ascends into the heavens and Allah says, “Return my servant to the earth, for verily, I have created them from it, I return them into it, and from it I will bring them out at another time.” This has been reported in the lengthy Hadith of Al-Bara’. Verily, Allah says,

[وَهُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ وَيُرْسِلُ عَلَيْكُم حَفَظَةً حَتَّى إِذَا جَآءَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ تَوَفَّتْهُ رُسُلُنَا وَهُمْ لاَ يُفَرِّطُونَ – ثُمَّ رُدُّواْ إِلَى اللَّهِ مَوْلَـهُمُ الْحَقِّ أَلاَ لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَهُوَ أَسْرَعُ الْحَـسِبِينَ ]

(He is the Irresistible (Supreme), over His servants, and He sends guardians over you, until when death approaches one of you, Our messengers take his soul, and they never neglect their duty. Then they are returned to Allah, their True Master. Surely, for Him is the judgement and He is the swiftest in taking account.) (6:61,62)

Mentioning the Case of the Denier

Allah says,

[فَلاَ صَدَّقَ وَلاَ صَلَّى – وَلَـكِن كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّى ]

(So, he neither believed nor prayed! But on the contrary, he denied and turned away!) This is to inform about the disbeliever who used to deny the truth in his heart in the abode of this worldly life, and he used to turn away from acting according to its way. Thus, there is no good in him, internally or externally. Therefore, Allah says,

[فَلاَ صَدَّقَ وَلاَ صَلَّى – وَلَـكِن كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّى – ثُمَّ ذَهَبَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ يَتَمَطَّى ]

(So he neither believed nor prayed! But on the contrary, he denied and turned away! Then he walked in conceit (full pride) to his family admiring himself!)(75:31-33) meaning, stubborn, cruel, obstinate, wanton, lazy, having no concern and doing no deeds. This is similar to Allah’s statement,

[وَإِذَا انقَلَبُواْ إِلَى أَهْلِهِمْ انقَلَبُواْ فَكِهِينَ ]

(And when they returned to their own people, they would return jesting.) (83:31) Allah also says,

[إِنَّهُ كَانَ فِى أَهْلِهِ مَسْرُوراً – إِنَّهُ ظَنَّ أَن لَّن يَحُورَ ]

(Verily, he was among his people in joy! Verily, he thought that he would never come back (to Us)!) (84:13,14) meaning, return.

[بَلَى إِنَّ رَبَّهُ كَانَ بِهِ بَصِيراً ]

(Yes! Verily, his Lord has been ever beholding him!) (84:15) Ad-Dahhak reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said,

[ثُمَّ ذَهَبَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ يَتَمَطَّى ]

(Then he walked in conceit to his family admiring himself!) “This means arrogantly.” Qatadah and Zayd bin Aslam both said, “Strutting.” Allah then says,

[أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى – ثُمَّ أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى ]

(Woe to you! And then woe to you! Again, woe to you! And then woe to you!) This is a definite warning and threat from Allah to those who disbelieve in Him and strut about when walking. This means, `you deserve to strut like this while you have disbelieved in your Creator and Maker.’ This is what is commonly said in this type of situation in order to mock and intimidate (someone). This is as Allah says,

[ذُقْ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْكَرِيمُ ]

(Taste you (this)! Verily you were (pretending to be) the mighty, the generous!) (44:49) Similarly, Allah says,

[كُلُواْ وَتَمَتَّعُواْ قَلِيلاً إِنَّكُمْ مُّجْرِمُونَ ]

(Eat and enjoy yourselves for a little. Verily, you are criminals.) (77:46) Allah also says,

[فَاعْبُدُواْ مَا شِئْتُمْ مِّن دُونِهِ]

(So worship what you like besides Him.) (39:15) And like Allah’s statement,

[اعْمَلُواْ مَا شِئْتُمْ]

(Do what you will.) (41:40) There are other examples of this as well. Abu `Abdur-Rahman An-Nasa’i recorded from Sa`id bin Jubayr that he said, “I mentioned to Ibn `Abbas,

[أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى – ثُمَّ أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى ]

(Woe to you! And then woe to you! Again, woe to you! And then woe to you!) He (Ibn `Abbas) replied, `The Messenger of Allah said this to Abu Jahl, then Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, revealed this Ayah.”’ Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from Qatadah that he said concerning Allah’s statement,

[أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى – ثُمَّ أَوْلَى لَكَ فَأَوْلَى ]

(Woe to you! And then woe to you! Again, woe to you! And then woe to you!) “It is a threat followed by a threat, just as you hear it. They claim that the Prophet of Allah grabbed the clothes of the enemy of Allah, Abu Jahl. The Prophet then said to him, `Woe to you! And then (again) woe to you! Again woe to you! And then (again) woe to you!’ At this the enemy of Allah, Abu Jahl, said, `Are you threatening me, O Muhammad By Allah! Neither you nor your Lord are able to do anything, and verily, I am the mightiest person walking between its (Makkah’s) two mountains.”’

Man will not be left neglected

Allah says,

[أَيَحْسَبُ الإِنسَـنُ أَن يُتْرَكَ سُدًى ]

(Does man think that he will be left neglected) As-Suddi said, “Meaning not resurrected.” Mujahid, Ash-Shafi`i and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam, all said, “Meaning, he will not be commanded and prohibited.” Apparently the Ayah includes both meanings. This means that he will not be left neglected in this worldly life, without being commanded and prohibited. He also will not be left neglected in his grave unattended to without being resurrected. Rather he will be commanded and prohibited in this life, and gathered back to Allah in the abode of the Hereafter. The intent here is to affirm the existence of the abode of the final return and to refute whoever rejects it from the people of deviance, ignorance and stubbornness. Thus, Allah uses the beginning of creation as a proof for the repetition of the creation in His saying,

[أَلَمْ يَكُ نُطْفَةً مِّن مَّنِىٍّ يُمْنَى ]

(Was he not a Nutfah of semen emitted) meaning, was not man a weak drop of sperm from a despised fluid known as semen, that is emitted from the loins into the wombs

[ثُمَّ كَانَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقَ فَسَوَّى ]

(Then he became an `Alaqah; then shaped and fashioned in due proportion.) meaning, he became a clot, then a lump of flesh, then he was formed and the soul was blown into him. Then he became a perfect creation with healthy limbs, as either a male or a female by the permission and decree of Allah. Thus, Allah says,

[فَجَعَلَ مِنْهُ الزَّوْجَيْنِ الذَّكَرَ وَالاٍّنثَى ]

(And made of him two sexes, male and female.) Then Allah says,

[أَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ بِقَـدِرٍ عَلَى أَن يُحْيِىَ الْمَوْتَى ]

(Is it not so then, that He would be able to give life to the dead) meaning, is not He Who made this perfect creation from this weak drop of sperm able to repeat that as He did originally And “the ability to repeat that” either refers to the origination only, or to both that and the process of perfecting it, according to two different views, as in Allah’s saying;

[وَهُوَ الَّذِى يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَهُوَ أَهْوَنُ عَلَيْهِ]

(And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it; this is easier for Him.) (30:27) The first view is more popular, and Allah knows best.

Supplication upon completing this Surah

Abu Dawud recorded from Musa bin Abi `A’ishah that he said, “A man used to pray on top of his house and whenever he recited,

[أَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ بِقَـدِرٍ عَلَى أَن يُحْيِىَ الْمَوْتَى ]

(Is it not so then, that He would be able to give life to the dead) he would say, `Glory to You, of course.’ So the people asked him about that and he said, `I heard it from the Messenger of Allah .”’ Abu Dawud was alone in transmitting this Hadith and he did not mention who this Companion was, but there is no harm in that. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Qiyamah, all praise and thanks are due to Allah.

The Tafsir of the Last Two Ayat of Surat Al-Baqarah : Ibn Kathir

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

The Last two Ayah of Surat ul Baqarah

The Messenger (Muhammad ) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allâh, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. They say, “We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers” – and they say, “We hear, and we obey. (We seek) Your Forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the return (of all).” (Al-Baqarah 2:285)

Allâh burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he is punished for that (evil) which he has earned. “Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error, our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did lay on those before us (Jews and Christians); our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear. Pardon us and grant us Forgiveness. Have mercy on us. You are our Maulâ (Patron, Suppor-ter and Protector, etc.) and give us victory over the disbelieving people.” (Al-Baqarah 2:286)

The Virtue of These Ayah

From Ibn ‘Abbas ” who said:
“While Jibra’eel (Gibrael) ” `May Peace be upon him’ was sitting with the Prophet !, he heard the opening of a gate above him. So he raised his head and said: `This is a gate from the shies that has opened today, which has never opened before this day.’ So an angel descended from it (the gate). So he Jibra’eel ” said: “This is an angel that has descended to the earth, which has never descended except today. He gave Salam and said: ‘Receive glad tidings [Oh Muhammad ! with two lights which have been given to you, that have never been given to a Prophet before you: The Opening of the Book (i.e. Surat Al- Fatihah) and the end of Surat Al-Baqarah. Never do you read a letter from either of the two (Surahs) except that you are given it.( Which means that you are given its reward (i.e. the reward of recitation)) (Reported by Muslim) (Taken from Mukhtasar Sahih Muslim with Shaykh AI-Albani’s editing, p.553, Hadith no. 2094.)

Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Allah said,

(Each one believes in Allah, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. (They say,) “We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers.”)

Therefore, each of the believers believes that Allah is the One and Only and the Sustainer, there is no deity worthy of worship except Him and there is no Lord except Him. The believers also believe in all Allah’s Prophets and Messengers, in the Books that were revealed from heaven to the Messengers and Prophets, who are indeed the servants of Allah. Further, the believers do not differentiate between any of the Prophets, such as, believing in some of them and rejecting others. Rather, all of Allah’s Prophets and Messengers are, to the believers, truthful, righteous, and they were each guided to the path of righteousness, even when some of them bring what abrogates the Law of some others by Allah’s leave. Later on, the Law of Muhammad, the Final Prophet and Messenger from Allah, abrogated all the laws of the Prophets before him. So the Last Hour will commence while Muhammad’s Law remains the only valid Law, and all the while a group of his Ummah will always be on the path of truth, apparent and dominant. Allah’s statement,

(And they say, “We hear, and we obey”) means, we heard Your statement, O our Lord, comprehended and implemented it, and adhered to its implications.

((We seek) Your forgiveness, our Lord) contains a plea and supplication for Allah’s forgiveness, mercy and kindness.

Allah’s statement,

(Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope) means, Allah does not ask a soul what is beyond its ability. This only demonstrates Allah’s kindness, compassion and generosity towards His creation. This Ayah is the Ayah that abrogated the Ayah that worried the Companions, that is, Allah’s statement,

(And whether you disclose what is in yourselves or conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it.)

This indicates that although Allah will question His servants and judge them, He will only punish for what one is able to protect himself from. As for what one cannot protect himself from, such as what one says to himself – or passing thoughts – they will not be punished for that. We should state here that to dislike the evil thoughts that cross one’s mind is a part of faith. Allah said next,

(He gets reward for that which he has earned) of good,

(And he is punished for that which he has earned) of evil, that is, concerning the acts that one is responsible for.

Allah then said, [mentioning what the believers said] while directing His servants to supplicate to Him, all the while promising them that He will answer their supplication:

(“Our Lord! Push us not if we forget or fall into error,”) meaning, “If we forgot an obligation or fell into a prohibition, or made an error while ignorant of its ruling.” We mentioned the Hadith by Abu Hurayrah, that Muslim collected, wherein Allah said, “I shall (accept your supplication).” There is also the Hadith by Ibn `Abbas that Allah said, “I did (accept your supplication).”

(Our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did lay on those before us (Jews and Christians),) means, “Even if we were able to perform them, do not require us to perform the difficult deeds as You required the previous nations before us, such as the burdens that were placed on them. You sent Your Prophet Muhammad , the Prophet of mercy, to abrogate these burdens through the Law that You revealed to him, the Hanifi (Islamic Monotheism), easy religion.” Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said that Allah said, “I shall (accept your supplication).” Ibn `Abbas narrated that the Messenger of Allah said that Allah said, “I did (accept your supplication).” There is the Hadith recorded through various chains of narration that the Messenger of Allah said,

(I was sent with the easy Hanifiyyah way.)

(Our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear) of obligations, hardships and afflictions, do not make us bear what we cannot bear of this.

(Our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear.)

We mentioned that Allah said, “I shall (accept your supplication)” in one narration, and, “I did (accept your supplication),” in another narration.

(Pardon us) meaning, between us and You regarding what You know of our shortcomings and errors.

(And grant us forgiveness) concerning what is between us and Your servants. So do not expose our errors and evil deeds to them.

(Have mercy on us) in what will come thereafter. Therefore, do not allow us to fall into another error. They say that those who commit error need three things: Allah’s forgiveness for what is between Him and them, that He conceals these errors from His other servants, and thus does not expose them before the servants, and that He grants them immunity from further error.” We mentioned before that Allah answered these pleas, “I shall,” in one narration and, “I did,” in another narration.

(You are our Mawla) meaning, You are our supporter and helper, our trust is in You, You are sought for each and every type of help and our total reliance is on You. There is no power or strength except from You.

(And give us victory over the disbelieving people) those who rejected Your religion, denied Your Oneness, refused the Message of Your Prophet , worshipped other than You and associated others in Your worship. Give us victory and make us prevail above them in this and the Hereafter. Allah said, “I shall,” in one narration, and, “I did,” in the Hadith that Muslim collected from Ibn `Abbas.

Further, Ibn Jarir recorded that Abu Ishaq said that whenever Mu`adh would finish reciting this Surah,

(And give us victory over the disbelieving people), he would say “Amin.”

The Story of the Boy and the King (from Surah Burooj) : Ibn Kathir

Imam Ahmad recorded from Suhayb that the Messenger of Allah said:Among the people who came before you, there was a king who had a sorcerer, and when that sorcerer became old, he said to the king, “I have become old and my time is nearly over, so please send me a boy whom I can teach magic.” So, he sent him a boy and the sorcerer taught him magic. Whenever the boy went to the sorcerer, he sat with a monk who was on the way and listened to his speech and admired them. So, when he went to the sorcerer, he passed by the monk and sat there with him; and on visiting the sorcerer the latter would thrash him. So, the boy complained about this to the monk. The monk said to him, “Whenever you are afraid of the sorcerer, say to him: `My people kept me busy.’ And whenever you are afraid of your people, say to them: `The sorcerer kept me busy.”’ So the boy carried on like that (for some time). Then a huge terrible creature appeared on the road and the people were unable to pass by. The boy said, “Today I shall know whether the sorcerer is better or the monk is better.” So, he took a stone and said, “O Allah! If the deeds and actions of the monk are liked by You better than those of the sorcerer, then kill this creature so that the people can cross (the road).” Then he struck it with a stone killing it and the people passed by on the road.

The boy came to the monk and informed him about it. The monk said to him, “O my son! Today you are better than I, and you have achieved what I see! You will be put to trial. And in case you are put to trial, do not inform (them) about me.”The boy used to treat the people suffering from congenital blindness, leprosy, and other diseases. There was a courtier of the king who had become blind and he heard about the boy. He came and brought a number of gifts for the boy and said, “All these gifts are for you on the condition that you cure me.” The boy said, “I do not cure anybody; it is only Allah who cures people. So, if you believe in Allah and supplicate to Him, He will cure you.” So, he believed in and supplicated to Allah, and Allah cured him.

Later, the courtier came to the king and sat at the place where he used to sit before. The king said, “Who gave you back your sight”The courtier replied, “My Lord.” The king then said, “I did” The courtier said, “No, my Lord and your Lord – Allah” The king said, “Do you have another Lord beside me” The courtier said, “Yes, your Lord and my Lord is Allah.” The king tortured him and did not stop until he told him about the boy. So, the boy was brought to the king and he said to him, “O boy! Has your magic reached to the extent that you cure congenital blindness, leprosy and other diseases”He said, ” I do not cure anyone. Only Allah can cure.” The king said, “Me” The boy replied, “No.” The king asked, “Do you have another Lord besides me”The boy answered, ” My Lord and your Lord is Allah.” So, he tortured him also until he told about the monk. Then the monk was brought to him and the king said to him, “Abandon your religion.” The monk refused and so the king ordered a saw to be brought which was placed in the middle of his head and he fell, sawn in two. Then it was said to the man who used to be blind, “Abandon your religion.” He refused to do so, and so a saw was brought and placed in the middle of his head and he fell, sawn in two. Then the boy was brought and it was said to him, “Abandon your religion.” He refused and so the king sent him to the top of such and such mountain with some people. He told the people, “Ascend up the mountain with him till you reach its peak, then see if he abandons his religion; otherwise throw him from the top.” They took him and when they ascended to the top, he said, ” O Allah! Save me from them by any means that You wish.” So, the mountain shook and they all fell down and the boy came back walking to the king. The king said, ” What did your companions (the people I sent with you) do” The boy said, “Allah saved me from them.” So, the king ordered some people to take the boy on a boat to the middle of the sea, saying, “If he renounces his religion (well and good), but if he refuses, drown him.” So, they took him out to sea and he said, “O Allah! Save me from them by any means that you wish.” So they were all drowned in the sea.

Then the boy returned to the king and the king said, “What did your companions do” The boy replied, “Allah, saved me from them.” Then he said to the king, “You will not be able to kill me until you do as I order you. And if you do as I order you, you will be able to kill me.” The king asked, “And what is that” The boy said, “Gather the people in one elevated place and tie me to the trunk of a tree; then take an arrow from my quiver and say: `In the Name of Allah, the Lord of the boy.’ If you do this, you will be able to kill me.” So he did this, and placing an arrow in the bow, he shot it, saying, “In the Name of Allah, the Lord of the boy.” The arrow hit the boy in the temple, and the boy placed his hand over the arrow wound and died. The people proclaimed, “We believe in the Lord of the boy!’’ Then it was said to the king, “Do you see what has happened That which you feared has taken place. By Allah, all the people have believed (in the Lord of the boy).”So he ordered that ditches be dug at the entrances to the roads and it was done, and fires were kindled in them. Then the king said, “Whoever abandons his religion, let him go, and whoever does not, throw him into the fire.” They were struggling and scuffling in the fire, until a woman and her baby whom she was breast feeding came and it was as if she was being somewhat hesitant of falling into the fire, so her baby said to her,”Be patient mother! For verily, you are following the truth!”)

Muslim also recorded this Hadith at the end of the Sahih. Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar related this story in his book of Sirah in another way that has some differences from that which has just been related. Then, after Ibn Ishaq explained that the people of Najran began following the religion of the boy after his murder, which was the religion of Christianity, he said, “Then (the king) Dhu Nuwas came to them with his army and called them to Judaism. He gave them a choice to either accept Judaism or be killed, so they chose death. Thus, he had a ditch dug and burned (some of them) in the fire (in the ditch), while others he killed with the sword. He made an example of them (by slaughtering them) until he had killed almost twenty thousand of them. It was about Dhu Nuwas and his army that Allah revealed to His Messenger :

(Cursed were the People of the Ditch. Of fire fed with fuel. When they sat by it. And they witnessed what they were doing against the believers. And they had no fault except that they believed in Allah, the Almighty, Worthy of all praise! To Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth! And Allah is Witness over everything.) (85:4-9)

This is what Muhammad bin Ishaq said in his book of Sirah — that the one who killed the People of the Ditch was Dhu Nuwas, and his name was Zur`ah. In the time of his kingdom he was called Yusuf. He was the son of Tuban As`ad Abi Karib, who was the Tubba` who invaded Al-Madinah and put the covering over the Ka`bah. He kept two rabbis with him from the Jews of Al-Madinah. After this some of the people of Yemen accepted Judaism at the hands of these two rabbis, as Ibn Ishaq mentions at length. So Dhu Nuwas killed twenty thousand people in one morning in the Ditch. Only one man among them escaped. He was known as Daws Dhu Tha`laban. He escaped on a horse and they set out after him, but they were unable to catch him. He went to Caesar, the emperor of Ash-Sham. So, Caesar wrote to An-Najashi, the King of Abyssinia. So, he sent with him an army of Abyssinian Christians, who were lead by Aryat and Abrahah. They rescued Yemen from the hands of the Jews. Dhu Nuwas tried to flee but eventually fell into the sea and drowned. After this, the kingdom of Abyssinia remained under Christian power for seventy years. Then the power was divested from the Christians by Sayf bin Dhi Yazin Al-Himyari when Kisra, the king of Persia sent an army there (to Yemen). He (the king) sent with him (Sayf Al-Himyari) those people who were in the prisons, and they were close to seven hundred in number. So, he (Sayf Al-Himyari) conquered Yemen with them and returned the kingdom back to the people of Himyar (Yemenis).

The Meaning of “Al Hamdulillah” (All Praise and Thanks be to Allah) : Tafseer Ibn Katheer Surah Fatiha

Al Hamdulillah
(All Praise and Thanks be to Allah)

The Meaning of Al-Hamd

Abu Ja`far bin Jarir said,

The meaning of (Al-Hamdu Lillah) (all praise and thanks be to Allah) is: all thanks are due purely to Allah, alone, not any of the objects that are being worshipped instead of Him, nor any of His creation. These thanks are due to Allah’s innumerable favors and bounties, that only He knows the amount of.

Allah’s bounties include creating the tools that help the creation worship Him, the physical bodies with which they are able to implement His commands, the sustenance that He provides them in this life, and the comfortable life He has granted them, without anything or anyone compelling Him to do so. Allah also warned His creation and alerted them about the means and methods with which they can earn eternal dwelling in the residence of everlasting happiness. All thanks and praise are due to Allah for these favors from beginning to end.”

Further, Ibn Jarir commented on the Ayah,

(Al-Hamdu Lillah), that it means, “A praise that Allah praised Himself with, indicating to His servants that they too should praise Him, as if Allah had said, `Say: All thanks and praise is due to Allah.’

It was said that the statement, (All praise and thanks be to Allah), entails praising Allah by mentioning His most beautiful Names and most honorable Attributes. When one proclaims, `All thanks are due to Allah,’ he will be thanking Him for His favors and bounties.”

The Difference between Praise and Thanks

Hamd is more general, in that it is a statement of praise for one’s characteristics, or for what he has done. Thanks are given for what was done, not merely for characteristics.

The Statements of the Salaf about Al-Hamd

Hafs mentioned that `Umar said to `Ali, “We know La ilaha illallah, Subhan Allah and Allahu Akbar. What about Al-Hamdu Lillah” `Ali said, “A statement that Allah liked for Himself, was pleased with for Himself and He likes that it be repeated.”

Also, Ibn `Abbas said, “Al-Hamdu Lillah is the statement of appreciation. When the servant says Al-Hamdu Lillah, Allah says, `My servant has praised Me.” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this Hadith.

The Virtues of Al-Hamd

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded that Al-Aswad bin Sari` said,

“I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Should I recite to you words of praise for My Lord, the Exalted, that I have collected’ He said,

(Verily, your Lord likes Al-Hamd.)

An-Nasa’i also recorded this Hadith.

Furthermore, Abu `Isa At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah recorded that Musa bin Ibrahim bin Kathir related that Talhah bin Khirash said that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The best Dhikr (remembering Allah) is La ilaha illallah and the best supplication is Al-Hamdu Lillah.)

At-Tirmidhi said that this Hadith is Hasan Gharib.

Also, Ibn Majah recorded that Anas bin Malik said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(No servant is blessed by Allah and says,`Al-Hamdu Lillah’, except that what he was given is better than that which he has himself acquired.)

Further, in his Sunan, Ibn Majah recorded that Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(A servant of Allah once said, `O Allah! Yours is the Hamd that is suitable for the grace of Your Face and the greatness of Your Supreme Authority.’ The two angels were confused as to how to write these words. They ascended to Allah and said, `O our Lord! A servant has just uttered a statement and we are unsure how to record it for him.’ Allah said while having more knowledge in what His servant has said, ‘What did My servant say’ They said, `He said, `O Allah! Yours is the Hamd that is suitable for the grace of Your Face and the greatness of Your Supreme Authority.’ Allah said to them, `Write it as My servant has said it, until he meets Me and then I shall reward him for it.)

Al before Hamd encompasses all Types of Thanks and Appreciation for Allah

The letters Alif and Lam before the word Hamd serve to encompass all types of thanks and appreciation for Allah, the Exalted.

A Hadith stated,

(O Allah! All of Al-Hamd is due to You, You own all the ownership, all types of good are in Your Hand and all affairs belong to You.)

Source: Tafseer Ibn Katheer – Surah Fatiha, Darusslam English Publication