Verily, the (human) Self is inclined to Evil, except when my Lord bestows His Mercy – Imam as-Sa’di | Abbas Abu Yahya

Bismillaah

Chapter 7: The Soul Inclines Towards Evil

The saying of Allaah Ta’ala:

إِنَّ النَّفْسَ لَأَمَّارَةٌ بِالسُّوءِ إِلَّا مَا رَحِمَ رَبِّي

<< Verily, the (human) self is inclined to evil, except when my Lord bestows His Mercy (upon whom He wills). >> [Yusuf: 53]

This is evidence for the description of the essence of the soul – it does not leave this description of inclining towards evil except with Allaah’s mercy and concern from Him, because the soul is oppressive and ignorant. Nothing comes from oppression and ignorance except every evil. Therefore, if Allaah has mercy on His slave and blesses him with beneficial knowledge and makes him follow a path of justice in his manners and his actions, then his soul loses this description, finds tranquility in the obedience of Allaah and His remembrance and does not command its companion except to do good, and this leads to the grace of Allaah and His reward. Allaah Ta’ala said:

يَا أَيَّتُهَا النَّفْسُ الْمُطْمَئِنَّةُ  ارْجِعِي إِلَىٰ رَبِّكِ رَاضِيَةً مَّرْضِيَّةً  فَادْخُلِي فِي عِبَادِي  وَادْخُلِي جَنَّتِي

<<(It will be said to the pious): ‘O (you) the one in (complete) rest and satisfaction! ‘Come back to your Lord, Well-pleased (yourself) and well-pleasing unto Him! ‘Enter you, then, among My honoured slaves, “And enter you My Paradise!’>> [Fajr: 27-30]

Therefore, it is upon the slave of Allaah to work on himself to rectify his soul, and to take this despised characteristic out of it, which is that the soul inclines towards evil. This is done by striving and having the best of manners, asking Allaah to be continuous upon that and repeating the following narrated supplication plentifully:

O Allaah guide me to the best of actions and manners, no-one guides to the best of them except You, and turn me away from evil actions and evil manners no-one can turn me away from their evil except You.

[Collected by Muslim & Tirmidhi]

[PS: Arabic version of the above supplication is added below by AbdurRahman.Org for memorization of this important supplication]

اللَّهُمَّ اهْدِنِي لِأَحْسَنِ الْأَعْمَالِ وَأَحْسَنِ الْأَخْلَاقِ لَا يَهْدِي لِأَحْسَنِهَا إِلَّا أَنْتَ

وَقِنِي سَيِّئَ الْأَعْمَالِ وَسَيِّئَ الْأَخْلَاقِ لَا يَقِي سَيِّئَهَا إِلَّا أَنْتَ


Posted with Permission from the brother, May Allaah bless him, ameen

Visit the below Link to read/download the 81 Page free PDF eBook:
Benefits Derived from the Story of Yusuf
By the Shaykh ‘Allama AbdurRahman bin Nasr as-Sa’adi | Translated by Abbas Abu Yahya
https://followingthesunnah.com/2016/07/26/benefits-derived-from-the-story-of-yusuf/

Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/translations/abbas-abu-yahya

O Messenger of Allah, make a ‘thāt al-anwāt’ for us like their ‘thāt al-anwāt’ – Kitāb at-Tawheed | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

[Souncloud Audio Link

Kitāb-ut-Tawheed : Chapter 9:
Whoever seeks Blessing through a tree,a Stone, or the like

عن أبي واقد الليثي، قال: خرجنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى حنين ونحن حدثاء عهد بكفر، وللمشركين سدرة يعكفون عندها وينوطون بها أسلحتهم، يقال لها: ذات أنواط، فمررنا بسدرة فقلنا: يا رسول الله أجعل لنا ذات أنواط كما لهم ذات أنواط فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: (الله أكبر! إنها السنن، قلتم ـ والذي نفسي بيده ـ كما قالت بنو إسرائيل لموسى: (اجعل لنا إلهاً كما لهم آلهة قال إنكم قوم تجهلون)  (لتركبن سنن من كان قبلكم

(رواه الترمذي وصححه )

Abū Wāqid al-Laythī said: “We went with Allah’s Messenger to Ḥunayn while we had just recently left disbelief. The mushrikīn had a lote tree which they used to frequent and hang their swords upon. They called it thāt al-anwāt (possessor of the medals of honor). Afterward, we passed by (another) lote tree, so we said:

‘O Messenger of Allah, make a thāt al-anwāt for us like their thāt al-anwāt.’

Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

«Allahu Akbar! This way that you have mentioned, by the One in whose Hand my soul is, is just like what the children of Isrā’īl asked Mūsā:

«O Mūsā! Make for us an ilahān (a god) as they have āliha (gods). He said: ‘Verily, you are a people who are behaving ignorantly.’» [Sūrah al-A’rāf (7):138]

You will follow the way of those before you.»

[Hadith Reported by at-Tirmithī no. 2181 and he graded it ḥasan ṣaḥīḥ. It is also recorded by others. Shaykh Al-Albānī graded it ṣaḥīḥ in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Jāmī’ no. 3601.]

Extracted From: Kitāb-ut-Tawheed – Dawud Burbank [Audio Series|En]
Mainly based upon Imam  AbdurRahman Al-Sadi’s explanation, which can be used as study aid while listening to the series. In addition, Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah also explains some Points from Shaykh Uthaymeen and other Imaams as well.

Kitāb at-Tawheed Book Study – https://abdurrahman.org/islamic-book-study/kitab-at-tawheed

Related Links:

Al-Lāt, Al-‘Uzza and Manāt : The Idols of Pagan Arabs – Kitāb at-Tawheed | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

[Souncloud Audio Link

Kitāb-ut-Tawheed : Chapter 9:
Whoever seeks Blessing through a tree,a Stone, or the like

Allah the Most Exalted said:

أَفَرَأَيْتُمُ اللَّاتَ وَالْعُزَّىٰ – وَمَنَاةَ الثَّالِثَةَ الْأُخْرَىٰ – أَلَكُمُ الذَّكَرُ وَلَهُ الْأُنثَىٰ – تِلْكَ إِذًا قِسْمَةٌ ضِيزَىٰ  – إِنْ هِيَ إِلَّا أَسْمَاءٌ سَمَّيْتُمُوهَا أَنتُمْ وَآبَاؤُكُم مَّا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ بِهَا مِن سُلْطَانٍ ۚ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَمَا تَهْوَى الْأَنفُسُ ۖ وَلَقَدْ جَاءَهُم مِّن رَّبِّهِمُ الْهُدَىٰ

«Have you then considered al-Lāt, and al-‘Uzzā (two idols of the pagan Arabs)? And Manaat (another idol of the pagan Arabs), the other third? Is it for you the males and for Him the females? That indeed is a division most unfair! They are but names which you have named, you and your fathers, for which Allah has sent down no authority. They follow but a guess and that which they themselves desire, whereas there has surely come to them the Guidance from their Lord!» [Sūrah an-Najm (53):19-23]

Extracted From: Kitāb-ut-Tawheed – Dawud Burbank [Audio Series|En]
Mainly based upon Imam  AbdurRahman Al-Sadi’s explanation, which can be used as study aid while listening to the series. In addition, Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah also explains some Points from Shaykh Uthaymeen and other Imaams as well.

Kitāb at-Tawheed Book Study – https://abdurrahman.org/islamic-book-study/kitab-at-tawheed

Related Links:

Mūsa said: “O my Rabb, teach me something through which I can remember You & supplicate to You” – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

[Souncloud Audio Link

Kitāb-ut-Tawheed : Chapter 2:

وعن أبي سعيد الخدري رضي الله عنه عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: (قال موسى: يا رب، علمني شيئاً أذكرك وأدعوك به. قال: يا موسى: قل لا إله إلا الله. قال: يا رب كل عبادك يقولون هذا. قال: يا موسى، لو أن السموات السبع وعامرهن غيري، والأرضين السبع في كفة، ولا إله الله في كفة، مالت بهن لا إله الله) [رواه ابن حبان، والحاكم وصححه].

Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (radi Allaahu anhu) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Musa (Moses) (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said: ‘O my Rabb, teach me something through which I can remember You and supplicate to You.’

Allah answered: ‘Say, O Musa, La ilaha ilIa-Allah‘.

Musa said: ‘O my Rabb, all your slaves say these words’.

Allah said: ‘O Musa, if the seven heavens and all they contain other than Me [01] (Ghairy) and the seven earths as well, were all put in one side of a scale and La ilaha ilIa-Allah put in the other the latter would overweigh them.'”  [02]

[This Hadith has been reported by Ibn Hibban, and Al-Hakim declared it Sahih].

[01] This phrase (Ghairy) is the exception from what is in the heavens. It should not be misunderstood that Allah is contained within the heavens or earth since He has described Himself in the Qur’an as the Transcendent, Most High, Above All, i.e. in 2:255, 20:5, 25:59 and many places elsewhere in His Book. Indeed the statement is another proof that Allah cannot be considered within the creation. 

[Translation and Footnotes [01] are taken from: Darusalam english publication]

[02] This ḥadīth was recorded by Ibn Ḥib-bān, al-Ḥākim, an-Nasā’ī in al-Yawm wal-Laylah, aṭ-Ṭabarānī in ad-Du’ā and al-Bayhaqī in al-Asmā’ waṣ-Ṣifāt. Al-Ḥākim graded it ṣaḥīḥ and ath-Thahabī was silent about it, usually indicating his approval. Similarly Ibn Ḥajar graded it ṣaḥīḥ in Fat.ḥ al-Bārī 11:208, it has a slightly different chain of narrators with aṭ-Ṭabarānī and Abū Ya’la about which al-Haythamī said (al-Majma’): “It is recorded by Abū Ya’la and its men are trustworthy, but among them there is some weakness.” Commenting on the chain of Ibn Ḥib-bān, ‘Alūsh (Tashnif al-Athān no. 927) says: “Its chain is weak, Darāj Abū Sumah is weak in his reports from Abū al-Haytham.” Ibn al-Munthir listed Darāj Abū Sumah among the narrators who the ḥadīth scholars differ over saying, “Abū Ḥātim declared him weak, as did ad-Dāraqutnī and others, Aḥmad said, “His ḥadīths are rejected,” an-Nasā’ī said, “Rejected.” Yet others considered him trustworthy like Yahyā b. Ma’īn (it seems that quotes from him are what al-Ḥākim depended upon according to al-Munthirī’s comments in at-Targhīb) and particularly at-Tirmithī in case he reports from Abū al-Haytham (as in this case)! Likewise he was quoted for support by Ibn Khuzaymah. Al-Albānī calls him the possessor and author of munākir (rejected ḥadīths) see al-Dā’īfah 1:294 and 254. Al-Albānī graded it weak in Da’īf al-Mawārid al-Zamān no. 295 , as did Muqbil b. Hādī in al-Mustadrak no. 1988.

There is however a more agreed upon authentic ḥadīth with different wording that gives much of the desired meaning for the context of this point. ‘Abdullāh b. ‘Amr b. al-‘Ās narrated that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said: «When death visited Allah’s Prophet Nūh (alaihissalam), he said to his son: “I shall narrate to you the will. I command you with two things and I forbid you from two things: I command with Lā ilāha illa Allāh. Surely if the seven heavens and the seven earths were placed on a pan of a scale, and Lā ilāha illa Allāh was placed on the other pan of the scale, they would give in to Lā ilāha illa Allāh» This ḥadīth was recorded by al-Bukhaaree in al-Adab al-Mufrad, Aḥmad, al-Bayhaqī in al-Asmā’, and also aṭ-Ṭabarānī according to al-Haythamī who said, “This isnād is ṣaḥīḥ.” Al-Albānī included it in aṣ-Ṣahīhah no. 134, and Shaykh Muqbil b. Hādī included Aḥmad’s ḥadīth in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Musnad minma Laysa fī aṣ-Ṣaḥīḥayn v. 1 p.544 and he said, “This ḥadīth is ṣaḥīḥ.”

[Footnote 02 is taken from English Publication of “Explanation of Kitab at-Tawheed” by Imam as-Sa’di]

Extracted From: Kitāb-ut-Tawheed – Dawud Burbank [Audio Series|En]
Mainly based upon Imam  AbdurRahman Al-Sadi’s explanation, which can be used as study aid while listening to the series. In addition, Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah also explains some Points from Shaykh Uthaymeen and other Imaams as well.

Kitāb at-Tawheed Book Study – https://abdurrahman.org/islamic-book-study/kitab-at-tawheed

Related Links:

Indeed Allah has forbidden for Hell the person who testifies Laa ilaaha illa Allaah – Kitab at-Tawheed | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

[Souncloud Audio Link

Kitāb-ut-Tawheed : Chapter 2:
The Excellence of Tawheed and the Sins it wipes away

ولهما في حديث عتبان:

فإن الله حرم على النار من قال: لا إله إلا الله يبتغي بذلك وجه الله

‘Itban (radi Allaahu anhu) narrated that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Indeed Allah has forbidden for Hell the person who testifies: ‘There is nothing worthy of worship in truth (no true God) but Allah’, seeking thereby nothing but Allah’s Face (pleasure).”

(Al-Bukhari, Muslim).

Extracted From: Kitāb-ut-Tawheed – Dawud Burbank [Audio Series|En]
Mainly based upon Imam  AbdurRahman Al-Sadi’s explanation, which can be used as study aid while listening to the series. In addition, Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah also explains some Points from Shaykh Uthaymeen and other Imaams as well.

Kitāb at-Tawheed Book Study – https://abdurrahman.org/islamic-book-study/kitab-at-tawheed

Related Links:

Allāh will admit him into Paradise, whatever his deeds might be – Kitāb at-Tawheed | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

[Souncloud Audio Link

Kitāb-ut-Tawheed : Chapter 2:
The Excellence of Tawheed and the Sins it wipes away

عن عبادة بن الصامت رضي الله عنه قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم:

من شهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، وأن محمداً عبده ورسوله، وأن عيسى عبد الله ورسوله وكلمته ألقاها إلى مريم وروح منه، والجنة حق، والنار حق أدخله الله الجنة على ما كان من العمل

[أخرجاه ]

Narrated Ubadah bin As-Samit (radi Allaahu anhu), that Allah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Whoever testifies that there is nothing worthy of worship in truth (no God) except Allah Alone, Who is without (peer or) partner, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, and that ‘Iesa (Jesus) is the slave of Allah, His Messenger, and His Word which He bestowed in Maryam (Mary) and a spirit (created) by Him, and that Paradise & Hell-fire are realities, Allah will admit him into Paradise, whatever his deeds might be.”

(Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 3252)

Extracted From: Kitāb-ut-Tawheed – Dawud Burbank [Audio Series|En]
Mainly based upon Imam  AbdurRahman Al-Sadi’s explanation, which can be used as study aid while listening to the series. In addition, Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah also explains some Points from Shaykh Uthaymeen and other Imaams as well.

Related Links:

Kitāb at-Tawheed Book Study – https://abdurrahman.org/islamic-book-study/kitab-at-tawheed

Explaining an Incredible Hadīth of ‘Ubādah Ibn as-Sāmit رضي الله عنه – Shaykh Abdur-Raḥmān Ibn Ḥasan Āli-Shaykh [PDF

The People Of The Book Turned Away From Their Covenant With Allaah – Imam as-Sa’dee

BismillaahThe People Of The Book Turned Away From Their Covenant With Allaah [1]

وَإِذْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَاقَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَتُبَيِّنُنَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَا تَكْتُمُونَهُ فَنَبَذُوهُ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ وَاشْتَرَوْا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۖ فَبِئْسَ مَا يَشْتَرُونَ

[[Meaning: And remember when Allaah took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture to make it clear to the people, and not hide it; but they cast it behind their backs, and they purchased thereby some paltry gain. So evil is that which they purchased.]] [Soorah Aali `Imraan (3): 187]


Shaikh `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Naasir as-Sa’dee- rahimahullaah-said in his Tafseer of the Aayah:

“The Covenant (al-Meethaaq) is the weighty, emphatic covenant; and Allaah-the Most High-took this Covenant from everyone to whom He gave the Book, and whom He taught knowledge to; that they should clarify to the people whatever they are in need of from that which Allaah taught him, and that they should not hide that, nor be miserly with them regarding it – particularly if they ask him about it, or when something occurs which necessitates that. So in such a situation it is obligatory upon everyone who possesses knowledge that he clearly explains it to the people, and clarifies the truth from falsehood. So as for those guided to correctness by Allaah, then they carry this out in the most complete manner, and they teach the people that which Allaah has taught them, seeking the Pleasure of their Lord, and out of compassion for the creation, and from fear of the sin of hiding the truth.

As for those who were given the Scripture, from the Jews and the Christians and their like, then they cast this agreement and this covenant behind their backs. They took no notice of it. So they hid the truth and they put forth falsehood. They boldly violated the prohibitions laid down by Allaah; and they neglected the rights of Allaah and the rights of the creation. Through concealing the truth they purchased a paltry gain- which is what they acquire, if they acquire anything, from positions of authority and trivial wealth; from their lowly ones- from those who follow their desires, and who give precedence to their desires over the truth.

فَبِئْسَ مَا يَشْتَرُونَ

[[Meaning: So evil is that which they bought]]:

since it is the most wretched exchange. They turned away from clarifying the truth, which is something which brings about eternal bliss, and religious and worldly benefits – the most tremendous and exalted goals. So they only chose that which is lowly and despicable over that which is lofty and precious because of their wretchedness and degradation, and because they are not fitting for anything other than that which they were created for.”


[1] Taken from “Tayseerul-Kareemir-Rahmaan fee tafseer Kalaamil-Mannaan” of Shaikh AbdurRahmaan ibn Naasir as-Sa’dee.

[Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank -rahimahullaah]

https://alitisaambissunnah.wordpress.com

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/knowledge

The Story of Yusuf: The Dream of the Two Young Men in the Prison – Imam as-Sa’di

Benefits Derived from the Story of Yusuf
Chapter 1: The Dream of the Two Young Men

As for the dream of the two young men, where one of them said:

وَدَخَلَ مَعَهُ السِّجْنَ فَتَيَانِ ۖ قَالَ أَحَدُهُمَا إِنِّي أَرَانِي أَعْصِرُ خَمْرًا ۖ وَقَالَ الْآخَرُ إِنِّي أَرَانِي أَحْمِلُ فَوْقَ رَأْسِي خُبْزًا تَأْكُلُ الطَّيْرُ مِنْهُ

‘Verily, I saw myself (in a dream) pressing wine.’ The other said: ‘Verily, I saw myself (in a dream) carrying bread on my head and birds were eating thereof.’  [Yusuf: 36]

They were kind to Yusuf so that he would inform them of the interpretation of their dream. This is due to what they witnessed of his being good to things and to the creation.

Yusuf –alayhi sallam- interpreted the dream of the one who saw that he was pressing wine to be that he would be saved from the prison and would return to his status of serving his master, so he would press grapes for his master, resulting in wine. He interpreted the other dream to be that person being killed, then crucified and birds eating from his head. As for the first dream then it came in a literal form. As for the other dream, then it came in the form of a similitude; that he would be killed, and even though he would have been killed, he would still be crucified and would not be buried until birds had eaten from his head.

This is an amazing insight, which gives precise meanings, as it is the custom that a person who is killed is buried straight away, such that it would not be possible for beasts and birds to eat from him. However, Yusuf –alayhi sallam- understood that this person would be killed and not buried quickly so that he reached this state.

This is the humiliation of that man, and his despicable, evil worldly destiny which causes the skin to tremble. He knew that this dream was real and would definitely take place. Yusuf said to them:

قُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ الَّذِي فِيهِ تَسْتَفْتِيَانِ
‘Thus is the case judged concerning which you both did inquire.’ [Yusuf: 41]

This is from his complete knowledge of interpreting dreams, which are not interpreted based on suspicion and delusion, rather they are interpreted upon knowledge and certainty.

As for the appropriateness of the interpretation of this dream, it is that birds do not come close to living things, rather they eat from the deceased if there is no one close to the dead body, and this takes place after the person has been killed and crucified.

From the perfection of Yusuf, his advice and his amazing intelligence is that he was careful in interpreting their dreams when they narrated them to him and he promised them that he would interpret the dreams at the earliest time. Yusuf said:

لَا يَأْتِيكُمَا طَعَامٌ تُرْزَقَانِهِ إِلَّا نَبَّأْتُكُمَا بِتَأْوِيلِهِ قَبْلَ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمَا

No food will come to you (in wakefulness or in a dream) as your provision, but I will inform (in wakefulness) its interpretation before it (the food) comes. [Yusuf: 37]

He promised them the interpretations before the first meal was to be brought for them from outside the prison so that they would be calm and eager to hear the interpretations. Yusuf did this so he would be able to give them Da’wah before he gave them the interpretations so that they would be more receptive to accepting the Da’wah to Allaah because calling them to Allaah was more important than interpreting their dreams.

He called them to Allaah using two means:

Firstly: through his own self, in how he was and in his beautiful description that made him reach this noble station.

Yusuf –alayhim as-Salaam- said:

ذَٰلِكُمَا مِمَّا عَلَّمَنِي رَبِّي ۚ إِنِّي تَرَكْتُ مِلَّةَ قَوْمٍ لَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَهُم بِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ كَافِرُونَ

وَاتَّبَعْتُ مِلَّةَ آبَائِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ ۚ مَا كَانَ لَنَا أَن نُّشْرِكَ بِاللَّهِ مِن شَيْءٍ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ مِن فَضْلِ اللَّهِ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى النَّاسِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَشْكُرُونَ

This is of that which my Lord has taught me. Verily, I have abandoned the religion of a people that do not believe in Allaah and are disbelievers in the Hereafter (i.e. the Kan’âniun of Egypt who were polytheists and used to worship the sun and other false deities).

‘And I have followed the religion of my fathers, – Ibraheem, Ishaaq and Ya’qoob, and never could we attribute any partners whatsoever to Allaah. This is from the Grace of Allaah to us and to mankind, but most men are not thankful.[Yusuf: 37-38]

The second matter: He called them through natural, real evidences.

He said :

يَا صَاحِبَيِ السِّجْنِ أَأَرْبَابٌ مُّتَفَرِّقُونَ خَيْرٌ أَمِ اللَّهُ الْوَاحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ

مَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِهِ إِلَّا أَسْمَاءً سَمَّيْتُمُوهَا أَنتُمْ وَآبَاؤُكُم مَّا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ بِهَا مِن سُلْطَانٍ ۚ إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلَّا لِلَّهِ ۚ أَمَرَ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

‘O two companions of the prison! Are many different lords (gods) better or Allaah, the One, the Irresistible? ‘You do not worship besides Him but only names which you have named (forged), you and your fathers, for which Allaah has sent down no authority. The command (or the judgement) is for none but Allaah. He has commanded that you worship none but Him, that is the (true) straight religion, but most men do not know.  [Yusuf: 39-40]

Indeed The One who is singled out with perfection from all angles, and with complete control over all the world, the upper and the lower, The One Who is deserving of complete worship, Who created the creation for His worship and He ordered them to do it, He has the command over His slaves in this world and the Hereafter. He is the One Whom it is necessary to worship Alone, other than Whom there are things that are worshipped which are deficient and of different types – those things which many people claim divinity for, but they do not have anything of the real meaning of divinity nor are they deserving of worship, rather they are titles which they have defined and names without any meanings.

So, Yusuf saw that calling them to Allaah was foremost rather than the interpretation of their dreams and it was more beneficial for them and other than them.


Posted with Permission from the brother, May Allaah bless him, ameen

Visit the below Link to read/download the 81 Page free PDF eBook:
Benefits Derived from the Story of Yusuf
https://followingthesunnah.com/2016/07/26/benefits-derived-from-the-story-of-yusuf/

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/translations/abbas-abu-yahya

Scholars Biographies: Shaykh ‘Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Naasir as-Sa’dee

BIOGRAPHY OF THE SHAIKH `ABDUR-RAHMAAN IBN NAASIR AS-SA`DEE -rahimahullaahu ta`aalaa

[Abridged from the book ‘ash-Shaikh `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Naasir as-Sa`dee wa juhooduhu fee tawdeehil-`Aqeedah’ of Shaikh `Abdur-Razzaaq `Abdil-Muhsin al-`Abbaad]

Firstly: His lineage.

He is the great scholar, the pious person, the Zaahid (one who abstained from the unnecessary things of this world), the jurist, the scholar of the principles of Fiqh. The great scholar of al-Qaseem, and our Shaikh, Aboo `Abdillaah `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Naasir ibn `Abdillaah ibn Naasir ibn Hamd Aal Sa`dee, from the tribe of Banoo Tameem.

Secondly: His birth.

He was born in `Unayzah, in al-Qaseem, on the twelfth of Muharram 1307H, and he lived as an orphan, without either of his parents.

Thirdly: His upbringing.

His father gave importance to his cultivation, and before his death he instructed his eldest son to look after him, and he took on the task of caring for him in the best manner. So he was equipped with a righteous environment, and with a great desire to seek knowledge, and he exerted in it day and night, day after day.

Fourthly: His characteristics.

(a) His physical characteristics: He was of medium height, his hair was dense; and he had a full, round face, and a dense beard. He was whitish in colour, with a reddish tinge. He had a handsome face, with light upon it, and a pure complexion.

(b) His manners: He was good-humoured, and beloved to the people on account of his good nature.

Anger would not be seen upon his face.

He had a great degree of humility and modesty, and he was amiable, to an extent that is rarely found. He was humble with the young and the old, the rich and the poor.

He had a high level of manners, decency, uprightness, and firm resolve in all his affairs. He abstained from the unnecessary things of this world, and was one who witheld (from asking). He had selfrespect, despite his possessing very little. He felt compassion towards the poor, the needy, and the strangers. He would give money to the poor and needy students, so that they could free themselves from preoccupation with seeking a livelihood.

He loved to bring about peace and rectification between the people. His clothing was moderate in fineness, and avoided conspicuousness.

Fifthly: His life in the field of knowledge.

His overriding concern in his life was to derive the benefit of knowledge, and to utilize his time for that. So he began with memorization of the Qur·aan at an early age, and he had memorized it proficiently by the age of eleven. Then he began acquiring the rest of the branches of Islamic knowledge.

He did not restrict himself whilst seeking knowledge to a single field of knowledge; rather he studied many fields: so he studied Tafseer, Hadeeth, Creed and Belief, Fiqh, Usool, Science of Hadeeth, the sciences of the language, and other than this.

The Shaikh gave a great deal of attention to the books of the two Shaikhs of Islaam: Ibn Taimiyyah and Ibnul-Qayyim; he devoted himself to reading and revising them, and to memorising and understanding them, and to writing and abridging them..

He first sat to teach at the age of twenty three, and he used to divide his time between learning and teaching. He would spend some time in reading to the scholars, and some time in sitting to teach the students. He would also spend some time in referring to the books, and in researching within them. He would not allow any of his time to be lost without his utilising it, to such an extent that teaching in his city fell to him, and all of the students relied upon him with regard to their education.

Sixthly: His Shaikhs.

(1) Shaikh Ibraaheem ibn Hamd ibn Jaasir (1241-1338 H). He was the first Shaikh whom he read to. He learned from him Tafseer and Hadeeth, and the Principles (Usool) of both of them.
(2) Shaikh Muhammad ibn `Abdil-Kareem ash-Shibl (1257-1343 H). He learned from him Fiqh, and its Principles, and the sciences of the Arabic Language.
(3) Shaikh Muhammad ibn ash-Shaikh `Abdil-`Azeez al-Muhammad al-Maani` (1300-1385 H). He learned from him the sciences of the Arabic Language.
(4) Shaikh Muhammad al-Ameen ash-Shanqeetee (1289-1351 H). He learned from him Tafseer, Hadeeth, Science of Hadeeth, and the sciences of the Language.

Seventhly: His students:

(1) Shaikh Muhammad ibn Saaalih al-`Uthaymeen. He took over from his Shaikh in the duty of Imaam of the Congregational Mosque of `Unayzah, and in teaching, admonishing, and delivering the khutbah.
(2) Shaikh `Abdullaah ibn `Abdir-Rahmaan al-Bassaam. Member of the Discretionary Committee in the Western Region.
(3) Shaikh `Abdul-`Azeez ibn Muhammad as-Salmaan. He studied in the Imaamud-Da`wah Institute in ar-Riyaad, and he followed the path of his shaikh in authorship.

Eighthly: His writings:

Shaikh Ibn Sa`dee -rahimahullaah- gave great attention to writing works. He produced many works in the different fields of Islamic knowledge. Some have been printed, while others are, as yet, unprinted. So from the printed works are:

1- ‘al-Adillatul-Qawaati` wal-Baraaheen fee Ibtaal Usoolil-Mulhideen’;
2- ‘al-Irshaad ilaa Ma`rifatil-Ahkaam’;
3- ‘Bahjatu Quloobil-Abraar wa Qurratu `Uyoonil-Akhyaar fee Sharh Jawaami`il-Akhbaar’, and it is presently being prepared and attended to;
4- ‘Tawdeehul-Kaafiyatish-Shaafiyah’;
5- ‘at-Tawdeeh wal-Bayaan lishajaratil-Eemaan’;
6- ‘at-Tanbeehaatul-Lateefah feemahtawat `alaihil-Waasitiyyah minal-Mabaahithil-Muneefah’;
7- ‘Tayseerul-Kareemir-Rahmaan fee Tafseer Kalaamil-Mannaan’;
8- ‘ad-Durratul-Mukhtasarah fee Mahaasin Deenil-Islaam’;
9- ‘Risaalah fil-Qawaa`idil-Fiqhiyyah’;
10- ‘Risaalah Lateefah Jaami`ah fee Usoolil-Fiqhil-Muhimmah’; and it is before your eyes, along with annotations upon it;
11- ‘Tareequl-Wusool ilal-`Ilmil-Ma·mool bima`rifatil-Qawaa`id wad-Dawaabit wal-Usool’;
12- ‘al-Fataawas-Sa`diyyah’.They were gathered after his death -rahimahullaahu ta`aalaa.
13- ‘al-Qawaa`idul-Hisaan li-Tafseeril-Qur·aan’;
14- ‘al-Qawlus-Sadeed fee Maqaasidit-Tawheed’;
15- ‘Manhajus-Saalikeen wa Tawdeehul-Fiqh fid-Deen’;
16- ‘al-Wasaa·ilul-Mufeedah lil-Hayaatis-Sa`eedah’.

Ninthly: His illness and death:

He fell ill in the year 1371 H, i.e. five years before his death, with the illness of high blood pressure and arteriosclerosis, and it would strike him time after time, and he bore it patiently, until he moved on to his Lord, at the time of Fajr, on Thursday the 22nd of Jumaadal-Aakhirah 1376 H – may Allaah forgive him, and his parents, and our parents, and all of the Muslims.

[Compiled by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank]

Source: www.alitisaambissunnah.wordpress.com

A Brief discussion of some points from the Creed of Ahlus-Sunnah – Imam al-Sa’di | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

[Souncloud Audio Link]

This short audio clip has been extracted from the Class#01 of audio series:
Kitaab-ut-Tawheed – Expl of Imam al-Sa’di – Dawud Burbank [Audio Series|En]

Types of Showing Off in Worship – Dr. Saleh As Saleh

If a person shows off in his worship, then this falls under four categories.

1. If showing off is the driving force behind doing the act of worship, then the worship is invalid. It is reported in the hadeeth qudsi that Allaah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) said,

“I am the One, One Who does not stand in need of a partner. If anyone does anything in which he associates anyone else with Me, I shall abandon him with one whom he associates with Allaah.” [3]

2. If a person begins his worship sincerely and showing off occurs later at which point he tries to stop showing off, then his worship is valid.

Otherwise, if he continues and does not attempt to ward it off, inclining towards it, then one examines whether the latter part of this worship depends on its earlier part or vice verse. For example, with salaah and wudhu, these worships would become invalid in this case.

On the other hand, if the worship is distinguished such that the parts are independent, then whatever occurred before showing off is valid, and whatever occurred after the person began to show off is invalid. For instance, a person gives $50 in charity sincerely. Later, he gives $500 to show off. His first donation is valid while the $500 are invalid.

3. If a person begins to show off after concluding the worship, then the worship is valid. However, this nullifies the reward for the worship.

Allaah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) said (in the translation of the meaning):

“O you who believe! Do not render in vain your Sadaqah (charity) by reminders of your generosity or by injury, like him who spends his wealth to be seen of men, and he does not believe in Allaah, nor in the Last Day. His likeness is the likeness of a smooth rock on which is a little dust; on it falls heavy rain which leaves it bare. They are not able to do anything with what they have earned. And Allaah does not guide the disbelieving people.”

Surah al-Baqarah (2:264)

4. The showing off is in the descriptive manner of the worship, not its origin. As such, the person initiates the action for the sake of Allaah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) but shows off in its description.

For instance, someone begins his salaah sincerely, but he hears someone come, at which point he begins to perfect his salaah more than normal. In this situation, all of that which he added to the sincere part of the salaah will have no reward.

Footnotes:
[3] Reported in Saheeh Muslim, (English translation no. 7114, book 42)

SourceAl-Qawaa’id wal-Usool al-Jaami’ah wal-Furooq watTaqaaseem al-Badee’ah an-Naafi’ah. The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh – The Beneficial, Eloquent Classifications and Differentiations. Foundation -5

By Sh. ‘Abdur Rahmaan ibn Naasir As-Sa’di (rahimahullaah) (d. 1376 A.H./1956 C.E.)

Discussion based upon: (1) Sh. Ibn Sa’di’s original explanation, (2) Our Sh. Muhammad ibn Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen’s Commentary, and (3) Full explanation by our Sh. (Dr.) Sami ibn Muhammad As-Sghair (summer 1427 A.H./2006 C.E.)

Posted from: http://understand-islam.net/site/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=195

Related Links:

Certainty is never annulled except by certainty; it can never be annulled by mere doubt – Shaykh As-Sa’di | Dr. Saleh As-Saleh

Al-Qawaa’id wal-Usool al-Jaami’ah wal-Furooq watTaqaaseem al-Badee’ah an-Naafi’ah

The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh
The Beneficial, Eloquent Classifications and Differentiations
Foundation -11

By Sh. ‘Abdur Rahmaan ibn Naasir As-Sa’di (rahimahullaah)

 

Discussion based upon:
1-Sh. Ibn Sa’di’s original explanation
2-Our Sh. Muhammad ibn Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen’s Commentary, and
3-Full explanation by our Sh. (Dr.) Sami ibn Muhammad As-Sghair (summer 1427 A.H./2006 C.E.)

[Download MP3] [Download PDF]

All Praise is due to Allaah, and may the salaah and salaam be on Prophet Muhammad, his household, the noble companions, and those who follow them until the Day of Resurrection. This is a continuation of the explanation of The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh – The Beneficial, Eloquent Classifications and Differentiations by Imaam ‘Abd ar-Rahman bin Naasir as-Sa’di (rahimahullaah).

Foundation eleven is entitled:

The asl (i.e. previous state or condition) remains in effect, and certainty is not annulled by mere doubt.

This great foundation covers many matters including:

1) Acts of worship
2) Salaah (prayer)
3) Zakaah
4) Fasting
5) Hajj
6) Nikaah (marriage)
7) Divorce

Evidence for Foundation 11

This foundation is established on the authentic hadeeth from ‘Abbaad bin Tamim ( radiyallaahu ‘anhu):

“My uncle (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) asked Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) about a person who imagined to have passed wind during the salaah. Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) replied: He should not leave his salaah unless he hears sound or smells something.’” [1]

Therefore, the person should not discontinue his prayer due to mere doubt. He should only leave when he is certain he has invalidated his state of purity.

Examples:

1) A person makes wudhu and later doubts whether he performed an act that would nullify it. In such a situation, the asl is the existence and continuity of purity. The fact that he thinks he may have done a ritual impurity is not to be considered as in origin, the person was in a state of purity. Certainty is never annulled except by certainty; it can never be annulled by mere doubt. Rather, it is strange that some people when they have doubts, they experience whispering which drives them to remove the doubt with certainty by intentionally invalidating their wudhu.

2) A person was certain that he was in a state of ritual impurity. Later, he doubts whether he made wudhu. In this case, the asl is that the state of ritual impurity remains in effect.

Therefore, the asl remains, and it does not cease except when there is certainty that renders it annulled.

Doubt in the Purity of an Object

Purity (at-tahaarah) is the origin of things (e.g. water, clothing, etc.); whenever someone doubts the purity of something, then he builds upon the asl that it is pure. For instance, if some water from a drain falls on him or he steps in moisture, then the origin is that this water is pure. However, if someone is sure filth has fallen on his garment but later doubts whether he washed it, then the asl is that the ritual impurity remains.

Doubt in the Number of Completed Rakaah in Salaah

In salaah, a person may doubt exactly how many rakaah he has performed. Such situations are divided into two categories: preponderance and total doubt. For example, if someone doubts how many rakaah he has already prayed (e.g. three or four units) but preponderates a certain number, then he builds on that preponderance and later makes two prostrations of forgetfulness (sujuud as-sahw).

The evidence for relying on preponderance came in the sunnah from the hadeeth of Abdullaah bin Masood (radhi Allaahu anhu):

“The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) prayed [and the subnarrator Ibrahim (rahimahullaah) said, ‘I do not know whether he prayed more or less than usual’], and when he had finished the prayers he was asked, ‘O Messenger of Allaah! Has there been any change in the prayers?’ He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, ‘What is it?’ The people said, ‘You have prayed so much and so much.’ So the Prophet bent his legs, faced the qiblah and performed two prostrations (of sahw) and finished his prayers with tasleem (by turning his face to the right and left saying: ‘As-salaamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullaah’). When he turned his face to us, he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, ‘If there had been anything changed in the prayer, surely I would have informed you, but I am a human being like you and liable to forget like you. So if I forget, remind me and if anyone of you is doubtful about his prayer, he should follow what he thinks to be correct (falyataharra as-sawab) and complete his prayer accordingly and finish it and do two prostrations (of sahw).’” [2]

However, when a person is in total doubt concerning how many rakaah he has already completed (e.g. two or three), then he builds upon certainty which is the lesser number; he then makes sujuud as-sahw.

Example:

1) A person is unsure whether he prayed three or four rakaah and is unable to determine which is more likely. He should therefore build on certainty which is the lesser number (i.e. three) and make sujuud as-sahw.

2) A person is not certain whether he prayed three or four rakaah but preponderates that he prayed four. He should therefore build on the preponderance (i.e. four rakaah) and make sujuud as-sahw.

In addition, preponderance is used to determine the number of completed rounds in tawaaf and walks in saa’ee between Safa and Marwah. For instance, if a person is in total doubt as to whether he completed six or seven walks in saa’ee, then he builds on certainty and considers it to be as if he made six trips. Similarly, if he is able to preponderate that it is the sixth walk, then he should consider it the sixth and bring the seventh. However, there is no sujuud as-sahw legislated for tawaaf or saa’ee given the weakness of the narration from ibn ‘Abbaas (radhi Allaahu anhu) that the tawaaf is salaah. This foundation also is applicable to washing a utensil seven times after a dog has licked it. If someone is entirely unsure whether he washed it three or four times, then he builds upon certainty, but if he is able to preponderate, then he builds upon that.

Doubt in the Number of Missed Prayers and Fasts

When making up missed prayers or days of fasting, the person builds on certainty. However, this can be problematic. For instance, someone is unsure whether he broke his fast three or four days in Ramadan. In principle, he is certain he broke it at least three times. However, this origin is opposed by another asl, which is the obligation to fulfill that which is binding upon one’s self. This can not be attained except by fasting four days.

Similarly, if someone does not know if he missed five salaah or six, then in origin he certainly missed at least five, but this is in opposition to the obligation to free one’s responsibility. This can not be fulfilled except by performing six. In this case, he brings that which is higher.

Doubt Concerning which Specific Prayer was Missed

If someone knows that he missed one salaah on a given day but does not remember which prayer (e.g. duhr, ‘asr, etc.), then there are the following opinions concerning that:

1) The person should pray all five prayers because it is possible the missed salaah is any one of them.

2) He should pray one salaah with four rakaah, another salaah with three rakaah, and one salaah of two rakaah. This is because the salaah of four rakaah would cover for duhr, ‘asr, and isha’ while the other two salaah would cover for maghrib and fajr respectively.

3) Our Shaykh, Muhammad bin Saalih al-Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah) said, “He should exert the effort until he preponderates which is the correct one.” If the person sincerely attempts to recall which salaah he missed, Allaah (subhaanallaahu wa ta’aalaa) will let him remember.

Doubt in Divorce

There are many different situations in which doubt in divorce can occur. They include:

1) A person doubts whether he uttered the statement of divorce at all. In this situation, the asl is that he did not say it, and the couple is still married. This is because the marriage is certain and is not annulled by mere doubt.

2) If someone doubts whether he conditioned the divorce on something, then the asl is that the divorce is unconditional.

3) Someone conditions his divorce on some matter. Later, he doubts whether the condition was fulfilled. The origin therefore is that it did not take place.

4) A person divorced his wife but is uncertain how many times he uttered the statement (i.e. once, twice or thrice). The asl is that he said it once.

5) A man has two wives (for example Hind and Fatimah), and he doubts which of his wives he uttered the divorce concerning. This matter should be decided by drawing lots. If the lot came on Fatimah, then she is divorced, and Hind remains his wife. If he later remembers he actually divorced Hind or found a paper documenting that, then he leaves Hind and returns Fatimah as long as the drawing of the lots and the accompanying decree was not issued by a judge (if it was performed by a judge, then it would be classified as the judge’s direct ruling). However, if Fatimah got married to someone else in the meantime, then the husband can not return Fatimah because she is now the right of her new husband unless he brings proof, such as a document with testimony, that the divorce was for Hind; in this case, Fatimah can return to him.

6) A person doubts whether his wife finished her waiting period. The asl is that she has not finished it and is still in her ‘iddah.

Doubt in Suckling

Concerning suckling, doubts affect whether or not there is prohibition (tahreem) to marry the wet nurse and her daughters. Cases include:

1) Doubt exists concerning whether a particular child nursed from a woman at all. The asl in this situation is that he did not.

2) Someone doubts whether he suckled from a woman five times or less than that. This person builds upon certainty, which is that he suckled on less than five occasions.

3) There is doubt around when a child suckled from a wet nurse. In this matter, the scholars have two opinions.

a. Some scholars hold that for tahreem to exist, the child must have suckled within the first two years. If there is doubt as to whether a child suckled from a woman within the first two years, then in principle the asl would be that he suckled within that period, which would entail tahreem. However, the scholars have explained that since this asl leads to tahreem, the origin is that there is no forbiddance.

b. Other scholars have mentioned that the condition for tahreem is whether the child suckled before or after weaning. If there is doubt as to whether the child suckled before or after weaning, then in principle the asl would be before weaning. However, just as with the other opinion, the scholars have explained that in origin there is actually no forbiddance in this case.

Thus, with either opinion, there is no tahreem.

4) A mother is certain that a woman in a particular household nursed her child but is unsure as to which specific woman did it. In this case, the tahreem is upon all of the women in the household. For example, if there are two women in that house, then both women and their daughters are haraam for him to marry.

5) A woman is certain that she nursed a child in a particular household but is unsure as to which child. Therefore, it is as if she nursed all of them. Hence, all of the boys of this house are prohibited from marrying her as well as her daughters, and they become mahaarim (pl. of mahram) for her and her daughters.

Doubt in the Hunting of Game

When a person is hunting game, doubt can exist concerning whether the animal was killed by his shot or some other cause. Such situations are divided into two categories.

1) No cause is found for the death of the animal other than the shot. Therefore, the meat is halaal.

Example: Someone says the basmalah and shoots an animal. He later finds the animal dead with no sign of another cause for its death. As such, the asl is the nonexistence of another cause, which makes the meat halaal.

2) Another cause is found for the animal’s death that is equally or close to equally as likely as the shot to have killed it. Therefore, the meat of the animal is haraam. This is proven by the hadeeth of Adi bin Hatim (radhi Allaahu anhu) that the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said,

When you set off your dog, recite the name of Allaah, and if it catches (game for you) and you find it alive, then slaughter it. If you find it dead and that (your dog) has eaten nothing out of that, (even then) you may eat it, but if you find along with your dog another dog and a kill has been made, then do not eat, for you do not know which of the two has killed it. And if you shoot your arrow, recite the name of Allaah, but if it (game) goes out of your sight for a day and you do not find on that but the mark of your arrow, then eat that it you so like, but if you find it drowned in water, then do not eat that.” [3]

Example: A person shot an animal, but the shot did not kill it immediately. The animal was later found dead in a pool of water. It can not be known whether the shot killed the animal or it drowned. Thus, as proven by the hadeeth of Adi (radhi Allaahu anhu), this meat is forbidden.

Conclusion

Under this foundation many matters fall; anyone that studies fiqh will surely be benefited by it and will be better able to relate matters to their principles and origins. In summary, the continuity of the asl remains whenever the existence of a cause to nullify it is doubted. Similarly, in every matter where there is a doubt about the number, we build on preponderance, and if there is no preponderance, then we build on certainty.

The eleventh foundation in Imaam ‘Abd ar-Rahman bin Naasir as-Sa’di’s book, al- Qawaa’id wal-Usool al-Jaami’ah wal-Furooq wat-Taqaaseem al-Badee’ah an- Naafi’ah (The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh – The Beneficial, Eloquent Classifications and Differentiations), is entitled:

The asl remains in effect, and certainty is not annulled by mere doubt.

All Praise is due to Allaah, and may the salaah and salaam be on Prophet Muhammad, his household, the noble companions and those who follow them until the Day of Resurrection.

Footnotes:

[1] Agreed upon. Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari (English translation vol. 1, hadeeth no. 139) and with a similar wording in Saheeh Muslim (English translation no. 702, book 3).

[2] Reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari (English translation vol. 1, hadeeth no. 394).

[3] Agreed upon. Reported in Saheeh Muslim (English translation no. 4741, book 21) and with a similar wording in Saheeh al-Bukhaari (English translation vol. 7, hadeeth no. 384, 385, 386, 392, 393, 394, & 395).

Posted from: Explanation of Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh of Shaykh Ibn Sa’di

The Means Take on the Same Rulings as their Aims – Shaykh As-Sa’di | Dr. Saleh As-Saleh

Al-Qawaa’id wal-Usool al-Jaami’ah wal-Furooq watTaqaaseem al-Badee’ah an-Naafi’ah

The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh
The Beneficial, Eloquent Classifications and Differentiations
Foundation -2

By Sh. ‘Abdur Rahmaan ibn Naasir As-Sa’di (rahimahullaah)

 

Discussion based upon:
1-Sh. Ibn Sa’di’s original explanation
2-Our Sh. Muhammad ibn Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen’s Commentary, and
3-Full explanation by our Sh. (Dr.) Sami ibn Muhammad As-Sghair (summer 1427 A.H./2006 C.E.)

[Download MP3] [Download PDF]

Basic Rulings and Foundations of Fiqh-2

All Praise is due to Allaah, and may the salaah and salaam be on Prophet Muhammad, his household, the noble companions and those who follow them until the Day of Resurrection. This is a continuation of the explanation of The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh – The Beneficial, Eloquent Classifications and Differentiations by Imam ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Naasir as-Sa’di (rahimahullaah).

Foundation two is entitled:

The means take on the same rulings as their aims.

What branches from this foundation is the following:

1) Whatever is required to fulfill an obligation is itself an obligation.
2) Whatever is required to fulfill a recommendation is itself recommended
3) Whatever leads to the establishment of a haraam (prohibition) is itself prohibited.
4) Whatever leads to the establishment of a makrooh (detested act) is itself detested.
5) Whatever follows-on from acts of worship and actions takes the same rulings as they do (i.e. worship and actions).

All of these stem from the second foundation, “The means take on the same rulings as their aims do.” In this comprehensive foundation, the phrase, “The means” refers to the methods and ways taken to achieve the aim or the cause that leads to the objectives; in addition, it implies the matters upon which the aims depend as well as what it entails from the existence of something and also the rulings’ conditions. If Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) and His Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم command a matter, then it is a command concerning the matter itself and also what is required to fulfill it; this is because the One Who legislated the rulings is al-‘Aleem (All Knowledgeable) al-Hakeem (All Wise) and knows rulings’ requirements, conditions, and fulfillments. Similarly, forbidding something means forbidding it in essence as well as all that leads to it.

Examples:

1) Walking to the congregational prayers, circles of knowledge or to uphold the ties of kinship as well as to visit the sick and to follow the funerals are parts of their respective acts of worship.

2) From the moment the person leaves his residence for Hajj, Umrah, or Jihaad in the cause of Allaah, he is in a state of continuous worship since these are means to the completion of those acts.

Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى : subhannahu wa taa’alaa) says (in the translation of the meaning):

It was not becoming of the people of Al-Madinah and the Bedouins of the neighborhood to remain behind Allaah’s Messenger (Muhamamd صلى الله عليه وسلم when fighting in Allaah’s Cause) and (it was not becoming of them) to prefer their own lives to his life. That is because they suffer neither thirst nor fatigue, nor hunger in the Cause of Allaah, nor they take any step to raise the anger of disbelievers nor inflict any injury upon an enemy but is written to their credit as a deed of righteousness. Surely, Allaah wastes not the reward of the Muhsineen. Nor do they spend anything (in Allaah’s Cause) – small or great – nor cross a valley, but is written to their credit, that Allaah may recompense them with the best of what they used to do (i.e. Allaah will reward their good deeds according to the reward of their best deeds which they did in the most perfect manner). [Surah at-Tawbah (9:120-121)]

The point of evidence in this verse is clear. Also, in the Sunnah, it is reported that the Prophet ( : sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said concerning the seeker of knowledge,

“Whoever pursues a path to seek knowledge, then Allaah will thereby make easy for him a path to Paradise” [1]

We ask Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) from His bounty.

Replete are the evidences from the authentic Sunnah concerning the reward of the person who walks to the congregational prayers; one example is the authentic hadeeth reported by Abu Hurairah who narrated that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said,

“Prayer offered in congregation is twenty-five times better than prayer offered at home or in the marketplace alone. If any one of you does wudoo’ and does it perfectly, then comes to the masjid for no other purpose than to pray, then he does not take a single step but Allaah raises him in status one degree thereby and removes one sin from him, until he enters the masjid.”

Likewise, concerning verse 12 from Surah Ya-Sin (in the translation of the meaning):

Verily, We give life to the dead, and We record that which they send before (them), and their traces [Surah Ya-Sin (36:12)]

some maintained that the phrase, “We record that which they send before (them), and their traces,” refers to the recording of their footsteps and of the deeds performed to conclude the acts of obedience or disobedience; in another interpretation, others asserted that this verse discusses that which is left behind from righteous deeds after one’s death, such as: beneficial knowledge, authorship, endowments, continuous charity, etc.

Therefore, the footsteps leading to the salaah are something that follows-on the worship. Correspondingly, the footsteps that lead to sin fall under the same ruling as the sins themselves do; as such, these footsteps would also be sins. The command to perform the salaah is a command to do the salaah as well as to do that, without which, the salaah would not be complete, such as the tahaarah (purification), placing a sutrah, facing the qiblah, learning the rulings of salaah, and the rest of the salaah’s conditions. The same applies to the other of the acts of worship. Thus, with this insight, the branches of this foundation that were mentioned previously become clear.

Additional Branches of This Foundation

1) The ‘ulama’ (scholars) said that if the time of a prescribed prayer commences upon someone who has no water available, then he should seek it in the places he hopes to find it. Likewise, it is required that he buys water or a sutrah in situations where he may not have them available. This is because whatever is required to fulfill an obligation is itself an obligation.

2) It is obligated for people to learn the industrial knowledge, small or great, that they need in their deen or dunyah. These skills will help reduce the people’s reliance on other nations, especially the kufar, through increased selfsufficiency. Beneficial knowledge is of two types.

a. The first type of knowledge is an individual obligation (fard ‘ayn); it includes all that which is needed by the person for his deen, worship, and transactions, each in accordance with his own condition. This is required of every legally and morally responsible, mature, and sane individual. Example: if a person has wealth then it is binding upon him to learn the rulings of Zakaat, otherwise it is not mandatory if he does not possess wealth. Similarly with respect to the one who wants to go for Hajj or want to be an Imaam. He must learn the related rulings, otherwise the knowledge thereof is of the second type (collective duty).

b. The second type of knowledge is a collective obligation (fard kifaayah); it includes all that which people need but is not required of them individually. Examples of communal obligations are: the learning of the different branches of knowledge, the adhaan, the lesser and greater leadership, enjoining that which is right, forbidding that which is evil, preparing the deceased for burial, the funeral prayer, carrying the body to the graveyard, the burial itself, agriculture, and irrigation. The performance of these is sought from the morally responsible collectively, not from every person individually.

3) The measures taken to earn that which is needed to establish the rights of the self, family, children, and animals fall under this principle. For instance, if a person does not have wealth and he fears his destruction, then saving the self is an obligation. Whatever is required to fulfill an obligation is itself an obligation; as such, the seeking of sustenance would be an obligation.

4) It is obligated to learn the evidences for the direction of the qiblah, time, as well as directions in general for those who need them.

5) The sharee’ah knowledge is of two types, objectives and means. The objectives are learning the Book and the Sunnah; the means to that is the Arabic sciences. This is because the knowledge of the Book and Sunnah is dependant upon knowing the Arabic sciences and cannot therefore be completed except through that. However, if someone learns Arabic to become a writer or a poet, then this is mubaah (allowable) and will be neither for him nor against him, as it is independent of the sharee’ah knowledge.

6) Every allowable matter taken to abandon an obligation or to perform a forbidden act is itself haraam (forbidden). This is because in this foundation, the means take on the same ruling as there aims. That is why it is forbidden to trade or buy after the second call for jumu’ah; Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) states.

O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salaat (prayer) on the day of Friday (Jumu’ah prayer), come to the remembrance of Allaah [Jumu’ah religious talk (Khutbah) and Salaat (prayer)] and leave off business (and every other thing), that is better for you if you did but know! [Surah al-Jumu’ah (62:9)]

Similarly, it is forbidden to indulge in trade if someone fears missing the time of the salaah or the congregational prayers. In addition, it is not permissible to sell something to one who intends to use it in a sinful manner. For example, selling weapons to the people of fitnah or bandits is forbidden. Likewise, one can not sell an ingredient that is used in alcohol preparation if you know it will be used for that purpose. Moreover, deceptive practices in transactions are forbidden if they lead to haraam, such as the trade in ‘eena (selling a commodity to another person for a deferred price due at a certain time while then buying the same commodity from him at a lesser price).

7) Those who take wealth through illegal means will be prevented from achieving what they intend. An example of this would be the deliberate killing of person to whom a bequest has been made or an heir. Likewise, the one who divorces his wife during an illness he fears is incurable will be treated in a manner opposite to his intention; as such, she will still inherit from him since the man only divorced her in order to deprive her of the inheritance. Also, one cannot treat his wife harshly in order to take back some of the mahr (bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage) by forcing her to resort to khula’. Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:

You should not treat them with harshness, that you may take away part of the Mahr you have given them. [Surah an-Nisa (4:19)]

Similarly, the husband should not send his wife to her parents’ house and leave her situation suspended in order to force her to seek khula’. In such situations, it is not permissible for him to take any of the mahr since anyone who hastens something before its proper time will be prevented from achieving what he intends.

8) If someone gives a gift out of bashfulness or fear, then it is obligatory that the gift to be returned to him.

9) This foundation includes the deceptive approach used by some to make the wife permissible for her former husband who had divorced her three times.

This is forbidden, and the person who engages in this is cursed. For example, if an individual instructs someone to marry his former wife whom he had divorced three times, with the intention of marrying her later, and that person makes a contract to marry her, this is in fact adultery, even though it takes the form of a contract.

10) Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) forbade all fawahish (evil things and sins) as well as all the means of approaching them when it is feared that the person may fall into haraam. For instance, being in seclusion with women who are legally unrelated to person as well as looking at the haraam are both forbidden. That is why the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

“That which is lawful is plain and that which is unlawful is plain, and between the two of them there are doubtful matters about which not many people know. Thus he who avoids doubtful matters clears himself in regard to his religion and his honor, but he who falls into doubtful matters falls into that which is unlawful, like the shepherd who pastures around a sanctuary, all but grazing therein. Truly every king has a sanctuary, and truly Allaah’s sanctuary is His prohibitions.”

11) The prohibition regarding that which instigates enmity and hatred between Muslims as well as the incitement to all that which encourages friendship and cooperation from sayings and actions are branches of this principle.

12) This foundation includes what Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) said concerning trusts; He (سبحانه و تعالى) affirmed (in the translation of the meaning):

Verily! Allaah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due. [Surah an-Nisa (4:58)]

This verse covers all types of trusts, such as what someone deposits with you, taking care of an orphan’s wealth, taking care of an endowment, etc. One of the means of rendering back the trusts to their people is by preserving them and spending upon them if they are creatures with souls (e.g. animals). Likewise, the one who is entrusted must not be negligent nor do to them that which is not permissible.

The Association between the Act and the Intention

Many of the branches previously mentioned are governed by their intentions. For instance, the deceitful act done with the intention of achieving something forbidden or to abandon an obligation is haraam. However, if deceit is used to extract lawful, permissible rights, then this is lawful and may even be commanded, except in cases where it may be harmful to the person; this is because the slave is ordered to take his rights in open ways, but also sometimes in hidden ways. This is clear when we examine the situation of Prophet Yusuf (‘alayhis salaam); Allaah spoke about him, saying (in the translation of the meaning):

So he [Yusuf (Joseph)] began (the search) in their bags before the bag of his brother. Then he brought it out of his brother’s bag. Thus did We plan for Yusuf (Joseph). He could not take his brother by the law of the king (as a slave), except that Allaah willed it. [Surah Yusuf (12:76)]

In addition, the same applies to methods taken to protect lives or wealth. An example of this is the case of Khidr and the ship, in Surah al-Kahf, where he made a hole in the boat in order to save it from the oppressive king who would have unlawfully taken over any working vessel. Therefore, such plots depend on their intention, good or bad.

Exclusion of Vows

Excluded from this foundation are vows due to a specific wisdom, particular to them. Vows of obedience are obligatory to fulfill. However, the making of the vow itself is makrooh (detested) as it does not bring good as the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said; rather, vows simply extract things from the miser. Similarly, they diminish and reduce sincerity. What Follows the Objective Takes the Same Rulings as Objective Itself Finally, in is as much as the means taken to reach the objectives inherit the same rulings as the objective itself, what follows or completes the aims also takes the same ruling as their aims do. Accordingly, going to perform good deeds as well as returning to the place of departure are acts of worship. That is why some of the companions said:

“I anticipate my return to my home from salaah as I anticipate my departure from my home for salaah.”

Conclusion

The second foundation in Imam ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Naasir as-Sa’di’s book, alQawaa’id wal-Usool al-Jaami’ah wal-Furooq wat -Taqaaseem al-Badee’ah anNaafi’ah (The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh – The Beneficial, Eloquent Classifications and Differentiations), is entitled: The means take on the same rulings as their aims do.

And Allaah, the Most High, Knows Best.

All Praise is due to Allaah, and may the salaah and salaam be on Prophet Muhammad, his household, the noble companions and those who follow them until the Day of Resurrection.

Saleh As-Saleh
Edited 27th Sha’baan, 1427 AH
20th Sept. 2006 C.E.

Footnotes:

[1] Part of a hadeeth reported in Saheeh Muslim (English Translation No. 6518, Book 35)
[2] In the wording of al-Bukhari, vol. 1, hadeeth no. 621. It is also reported by Muslim.
[3] Part of a hadeeth reported in Saheeh Muslim (English Translation No. 1599)

Prepared by Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullaah)

Transcribed by Br. Abu Abdullaah al-Amreeki, Jazaahullaahu Khairan, from live duroos in Paltalk’s “Understanding Islam 1” room. Text edited by sis Umm Ahmad al-Kanadiyyah, Jazaahaallaahu Khairan.

Posted from: Explanation of Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh of Shaykh Ibn Sa’di

Related Link: Does The Ends Justify The Means ? – Shaykh Salih Ali-Shaykh

Seeking The Forgiveness Of Allaah & His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم)

Bismillaah

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذ ظَّلَمُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ جَاءُوكَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُوا اللَّهَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ لَهُمُ الرَّسُولُ لَوَجَدُوا اللَّهَ تَوَّابًا رَّحِيمًا

If, when they had wronged themselves, they had come to you – O Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) – and had sought Allaah’s forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked for Allaah’s forgiveness for them, then they would have found that Allaah would have accepted their repentance and had mercy upon them. [Sooratun-Nisaa (4): 64]

Ibnul-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said:

“Since Allaah – the One free of all imperfections – knew that those to whom the Messenger was sent would certainly wrong themselves and follow their desires, He guided them to that which would repel the evil of that wrong and remove its causes. This lay in two things:

Firstly, there was something that they themselves were to do, which was to seek forgiveness of their Lord – the Mighty and Majestic.

Secondly, there was something for someone else to do, and this was that the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) should ask forgiveness for them when they came to him, submitted obediently to him and acknowledged their wrong-doing. So, if they were to do these two things, they would find that Allaah would accept their repentance and forgive them. He would accept their repentance, thus wiping away the effect of their sins and protecting them from their evils. In addition to this, He would grant them His Mercy, His favourable and fine treatment.

So, what share of this Aayah is there for a person who wrongs himself after the death of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) ? Does the use of the Aayah support those people who claim that the person should go to his (صلى الله عليه و سلم) grave; ask for forgiveness there, and for his intercession?

The reply is that, as for the share of the person who wrongs himself after the death of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) with regard to this Aayah, he should ask for Allaah’s forgiveness, with sincere repentance and this applies in every time and place. It is not a condition for the correctness of his repentance that he should go to his (صلى الله عليه و سلم) grave, and ask for forgiveness there. (By consensus- Ijmaa”).

As for going to his grave and seeking forgiveness there and seeking his intercession, using this Aayah as an evidence, then the Aayah does not indicate this in any sense at all. It only refers to going to him (صلى الله عليه و سلم) ; not going to his grave; nor does it state that he will seek forgiveness for them if they seek intercession from him after his death.

This is thus shown to be a false and futile argument which is further clarified by the fact that the Companions, those who of all people knew best about the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) , did not understand the Aayah in this way. So it is known that this is an innovation. That which is most frequently used as evidence by those who permit it, is the narration of al-`Utabee from an unknown Bedouin, even though we do not know any chain of narration for it. If this disconnected report, or it’s like, were a hadeeth or a report from a Companion, then it would not be permissible to use it as a proof, and its ruling would not be binding upon us because of its lack of authenticity. How then can it be permissible to use as proof for this a story that is not authentic, concerning a Bedouin who is unknown!? [1]

Shaikh ‘Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Naasir as-Sa`dee (rahimahullaah) said:

“Allaah said:

Meaning: If, when they had wronged themselves, they had come to you – O Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)

i.e. acknowledging their sins, and fully confessing them.

…and had sought Allaah’s forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked for Allaah’s forgiveness for them, then they would have found that Allaah would have accepted their repentance and had mercy upon them

i.e. He would have turned to them, forgiven their wrongdoing, and been Merciful to them; by accepting their repentance, guiding them to it and granting it to them, and rewarding them for it. This coming to the Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم) was something specific to his lifetime.

This is what the context indicates, because seeking forgiveness from the Messenger cannot occur except in his lifetime. As for after his death, then nothing can be sought from him; rather that would be shirk.” [2]

***

Footnotes:

[1] Tayseerul-‘Azeezil Hameed Sharh Kitaabit-Tawheed of Shaikh Sulaymaan ibn `Abdillaah ibn Muhammad bin `Abdul-Wahhaab (pp. 561-562)

[2] Tayseerul-Kareemir-Rahmaan fee tafseer Kalaamil-Mannaan of Shaikh “Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Naasir asSa”dee.

[Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank –rahimahullaah]

Posted from: www.alitisaambissunnah.wordpress.com

Related Links:

The Sharee’ah is Based Upon two Principles: Sincerity to Allaah & Following the Messenger – Imam as-Sa’di

Al-Qawaa’id wal-Usool al-Jaami’ah wal-Furooq watTaqaaseem al-Badee’ah an-Naafi’ah – The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh -The Beneficial, Eloquent Classifications and Differentiations

By Sh. ‘Abdur Rahmaan ibn Naasir As-Sa’di (rahimahullaah) (d. 1376 A.H./1956 C.E.)

Discussion based upon:
1-Sh. Ibn Sa’di’s original explanation
2-Our Sh. Muhammad ibn Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen’s Commentary, and
3-Full explanation by our Sh. (Dr.) Sami ibn Muhammad As-Sghair (summer 1427 A.H./2006 C.E.)

Prepared by Saleh As-Saleh rahimahullaah

Foundation five is entitled:

The sharee’ah is based upon two principles, sincerity to Allaah (subhaanallaahu wa ta’aalaa) the One who deserves to be worshipped Alone, and following the Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

Click the Link below to read or download the PDF

The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh 05 – Shaykh as-Sa’di – Dr Saleh as Saleh

Check other  Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh  at the link below

Explanation of Basic Rulings & Principles of Fiqh (Usuul ul Fiqh) – Shaykh Sa’adi – Dr. Saleh as Saleh

The fundamental principle concerning worship is prohibition & that of transactions, traditions is permissibility – Imam as-Sa’di

Al-Qawaa’id wal-Usool al-Jaami’ah wal-Furooq watTaqaaseem al-Badee’ah an-Naafi’ah – The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh
The Beneficial, Eloquent Classifications and Differentiations
By Sh. ‘Abdur Rahmaan ibn Naasir As-Sa’di (rahimahullaah) (d. 1376 A.H./1956 C.E.)

Discussion based upon:
1-Sh. Ibn Sa’di’s original explanation
2-Our Sh. Muhammad ibn Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen’s Commentary, and
3-Full explanation by our Sh. (Dr.) Sami ibn Muhammad As-Sghair (summer 1427 A.H./2006 C.E.)

Prepared by Saleh As-Saleh rahimahullaah

Foundation six is entitled:

The initial condition (al-Asl) concerning worship is prohibition; nothing is permitted except that which Allaah (subhaanallaahu wa ta’aalaa) and His Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) legislated.

The initial condition concerning transactions and traditions is permissibility, except that which Allaah (subhaanallaahu wa ta’aalaa) and His Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) made forbidden.

Click the Link below to read or download the PDF

The Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh 06 – Shaykh as-Sa’di – Dr Saleh as Saleh

Check other  Basic Rulings and Principles of Fiqh  at the link below

Explanation of Basic Rulings & Principles of Fiqh (Usuul ul Fiqh) – Shaykh Sa’adi – Dr. Saleh as Saleh

The Excellence of the One Who has Mercy upon the People – Imam as-Sa’adi

Imam AbdurRahman bin Nasr as-Sa’adi
Translated By Abbas Abu Yahya

From Jareer bin Abdullaah Radi Allaahu anhu who said: the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam said:

‫من لا يرحم الناس لا يرحمه الله

‘Whoever does not have mercy upon the people then Allaah does not have mercy upon him.’

Collected by Bukhari & Muslim

Shaykh AbdurRahman bin Nasr as-Sa’adi (d. 1376 A.H.) commented on this hadeeth saying:

‘The literal wording of the hadeeth indicates that the one who does not have mercy upon the people then Allaah does not have mercy upon him. The understanding of the hadeeth is that whoever has mercy upon the people, then Allaah has mercy upon him.

Just like the Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- said in another hadeeth:

‘الراحمون يرحمهم الرحمن. ارحموا من في الأرض؛ يرحمكم من في السماء

ar-Rahman (The Most Merciful) has mercy upon Merciful people. Have mercy upon those on the earth, and the One above the skies will have mercy upon you.’[1]

Therefore, the mercy a slave of Allaah has for the creation is from the greatest means by which the mercy of Allaah is acquired. From the effects of that mercy is goodness in the Dunyaa and goodness in the Hereafter. From the greatest means of Allaah’s mercy being blocked and prevented is if the slave of Allaah does not have mercy to the creation. The slave of Allaah is in great need and dire want of Allaah’s mercy, he cannot do without it for even the blink of an eye, and he cannot do without this mercy due to what it contains of blessings and repelling of punishment from the mercy of Allaah.

Consequently, when a person wants the mercy of Allaah to continue and increase, then he needs to implement all the means by which the mercy of Allaah is gained. All of these means are combined in the saying of Allaah Ta’ala:

إِنَّ رَحْمَتَ اللّهِ قَرِيبٌ مِّنَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

<< Indeed, the mercy of Allah is near to the doers of good. >> [Ara’af: 56]

They are doers of good (al-Muhsinoon) in the worship of Allaah, and they are al-Muhsinoon to the worshippers of Allaah. The Ihsaan (being good) to the creation has an effect from the effects of the mercy that the slave of Allaah has with the creation.

There are two types of mercy that the slave of Allaah has:

The First type: Natural & innate mercy

Allaah has granted some of His slaves this mercy.  He placed compassion, mercy and sympathy in their hearts for the creation.  These slaves of Allaah carryout what they are capable of in benefitting the people and this is what this mercy necessitates and they do so according to their capabilities. They are praised, and rewarded for what they do, and they are excused for that in which they fall short on, and perhaps Allaah wrote a reward for them, due to their truthful intentions even though their strength was not enough to carry out those actions.

The Second type is the mercy that a slave of Allaah acquires by following every path and means in order to characterize his heart with this mercy. The slave of Allaah knows that this description is from the most noble and most complete of manners and behavior.  He strives to characterize himself with it, and he is aware of the reward that Allaah has prepared for being merciful, and what he loses, if he is prohibited from this reward.  He desires excellence from his Lord, and he strives with all the different means to acquire that excellence.

The slave of Allaah knows that the reward is equivalent to the type of action carried out, and he knows that Allaah has ordained a religious brotherhood, and a love based on Eemaan between the Believers. Allaah ordered the believers to be brothers loving each other, and to eliminate everything that negates brotherhood from hatred, enmity and evil plotting.

The slave of Allaah continues to be acquainted with the means by which he acquires this noble characteristic of being merciful, and he exerts himself in implementing this characteristic so much so that he fills his heart up with this mercy, and sympathy for the creation. How great is this noble manner, and noble and complete characteristic.

The effects of this mercy, which is in the hearts, becomes evident upon the limbs and the tongue in striving to do good, righteousness and relaying benefits to the people, and to discontinue harm, and being compelling and offensive to the people.

The sign that shows the presence of mercy in the heart of the slave of Allaah is that he loves that goodness reaches all of the creation generally, and specifically to the Muslims, and he dislikes that evil and harm reaches them. And will be in relation to the level of love and dislike he has, and will be in relation to the level of mercy that he has.

Whoever is afflicted by the death of a beloved person or by other afflictions, and if his sadness upon that person or affliction is due to feeling merciful, then this sadness is praiseworthy, and it does not negate patience and seeking Allaah’s pleasure, this is because when the Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- cried due to the death of his grandson, Sa’ad said to him: ‘What is this O Messenger of Allaah?’

The Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- followed up his question with another statement and said:

‘هذه رحمة يجعلها الله في قلوب عباده، وإنما يرحم الله من عباده الرحماء’

‘This is mercy, which Allaah places in the hearts of His slaves.  Indeed those whom Allaah has mercy upon from His slaves are those who are merciful.’

[Collected by Bukhari & Muslim]

And likewise the Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- said at the death of his son Ibraheem:

‘القلب يحزن، والعين تدمع، ولا نقول إلا ما يرضي ربنا. وإنَّا لفراقك يا إبراهيم لمحزونون’

‘The heart is saddened, the eyes shed tears, but we only say that which pleases our Lord. And indeed we are saddened by your separation O Ibraheem.’

[Collected by Bukhari & Muslim]

Likewise having mercy upon young children and slaves, and making them happy is also from being merciful­.

As for not having concern for them and not having gentleness with them, then this is from coarseness, harshness and cruelty, just like some of the coarseness of the Bedouins when they saw the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- and his companions kissing their younger children, one of the Bedouins said:

‘I have ten children I did not even kiss one of them.’

The Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- said:

‘أو أملك لك شيئاً أن نزع الله من قلبك الرحمة؟’

‘How can I hold something for you, with Allaah has removed mercy from your heart?’[2]

Also, an example of being merciful is the mercy that the prostitute had when she gave water to a dog to drink, he was going to eat dirt due to extreme thirst, and Allaah forgave her due to that mercy.[3]

The opposite of that example is how a woman was punished due to her tying up a cat, she did not feed her or give her drink, nor did she leave her to eat from the leftovers on the earth, until that cat died.[4]

Additionally from this mercy is that which has been witnessed and experienced, and that is that whoever is kind to his animals by giving them food and drink and beneficial consideration, then Allaah blesses him regarding his animals, and whoever is evil to them, then he is punished in the Dunya before the Hereafter.

Allaah Ta’ala said:

مِنْ أَجْلِ ذَلِكَ كَتَبْنَا عَلَى بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنَّهُ مَن قَتَلَ نَفْسًا بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ أَوْ فَسَادٍ فِي الأَرْضِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَتَلَ النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا وَمَنْ أَحْيَاهَا فَكَأَنَّمَا أَحْيَا النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا

<<Because of that, We decreed upon the Children of Israel that whoever kills a soul unless for a soul or for corruption [done] in the land – it is as if he had slain mankind entirely. And whoever saves one – it is as if he had saved mankind entirely. >>

[Maidah: 32]

This is because the first heart has cruelty, harshness and evil, whereas the other heart has mercy and gentleness and compassion, and he is concerned with reviving all those people from whom he has the ability to revive, in comparison to the first heart which has cruelty, and is prepared to annihilate all the people.

We ask Allaah to place mercy in our hearts which will obligate us to follow all the ways that gain the mercy of Allaah, and that we sympathize with all the creation of Allaah due to this mercy. And that Allaah makes it a way of gaining Allaah’s mercy and His generosity; indeed He is the Bestower of goodness and the Most Kind.

[Taken from: ‘Bahtaja al-Qaloob al-Abraar wa Qarat Ayoon al-Akhbar’- Imaam as-Sa’adi p. 365 no.82]


[1] Collected by al-Humaidi in ‘al-Musnad’, Ibn Abee Shaybah in ‘al-Musanaf’, Ahmad, al-Marwazi in ‘al-Birr wa Silaah’, Darmi in ‘ar-Radd ala Jahmeeyah’, Bukhari in ‘Tareekh al-Kabeer’, Abu Dawood & Tirmidhi and many other scholars.

It was authenticated by Tirmidhi, Hakim in ‘al-Mustadrak’ & Dhahabi agreed with him, Albaani in ‘Silsilah al-Ahadeeth as-Saheehah’ No. 925, & many other scholars.

Benefits:

Al-Imam Ishaq bin Rahawayyah (d.238 A.H.) said:

‘Allaah Ta’ala said: <<The Most Merciful [who is] above the Throne established.>> [Taha: 5]. There is a consensus (Ijmaa) of the people of knowledge that Allaah isMustawaa’ (ascended) above the ‘Arsh (Throne), and He knows every single thing under the seven earths.’

Ad-Dhahabi commented on this statement in ‘al-‘Aloo’:

‘Listen –and turn – to this Imam and how this Imam conveyed a consensus of this noble issue, just like Qutaibah conveyed this consensus in his time.’

Qutaibah bin Sa’eed (d.240 A.H.) said:

‘The statement of the Imams of Islaam, the Sunnah and the Jammaah is that we know that our Lord is above the sevens, above His ‘Arsh (Throne), like He said: <<The Most Merciful [who is] above the Throne established.>> [Taha: 5]

Ad-Dhahabi commented on this statement in ‘al-‘Uloo’:

‘So this is Qutaibah, being a great trustworthy Imam, who conveyed a consensus of this issue. He had met Malik, Layth, Hammad bin Zayd, the senior scholars and he lived a long life and the memorizers of hadeeth used to crowd around at his door.’

[Taken from: footnotes from: ‘Bahtaja al-Qaloob al-Abraar wa Qarat Ayoon al-Akhbar’- Imaam as-Sa’adi p. 365 no.82]

 

[2] [Collected by Bukhari & Muslim from the hadeeth of Aeysha Radi Allaahu anha]

[3] [Collected by Bukhari & Muslim from the hadeeth of Abu Huriarah Radi Allaahu anhu]

[4] [Collected by Bukhari & Muslim from the hadeeth of Abdullaah bin Umar Radi Allaahu anhu]

Seeking Forgiveness: The Cure for Individuals and Societies – Al-Istiqaamah Magazine

Al-Istiqaamah Magazine, Issue No.8 – Shawwal 1418H / February 1998

Allaah – the Most High – said:

“Seek Allaah’s forgiveness for your sins, Indeed Allaah is Most-Forgiving, Most-Merciful.” [Soorah an-Nisaa 4:106].

“Whosoever does an evil action, or oppresses his ownself through sinning, then seeks Allaah’s forgiveness, will indeed find that Allaah is Most Forgiving, Most-Merciful.” [Soorah an-Nisaa 4:110].

Imaam as-Sa’dee (d.1376H)- rahimahullaah – said:

“Whosoever commits an act of disobedience and plunges himself into sin, but then sincerely does istighfaar (seeks Allaah’s forgiveness) for it – which involves:- [i] affirming that it is a sin, [ii] having regret for doing it, [iii] abstaining from it, and [iv] having a firm resolve not to do it again – then such is the person who has the promise of Allaah’s forgiveness and mercy – and indeed Allaah never breaks His Promise. So Allaah will forgive the sinner, purify him of his sin, and accept from him those righteous action that he had previously done [before committing the sin] …And know that [the term] ‘evil actions’ include, in general, all acts of disobedience, whether minor or major. They are called ‘evil actions’ because of the terrible punishments that they necessitate, and because of their evil effects upon the soul. Likewise [the term] ‘oppressing oneself through wrong-doing’ includes the oppression of committing Shirk (directing worship, or any form of worship, to other than Allaah), as well as the [other forms of injustices] which are lesser than it. These two terms have also been explained in a way whereby one is inclusive of the other.

Evil actions have also been explained here to mean evil actions against people with regards to their blood, property or honour. Oppressing oneself through wrong-doing has [also] been explained here to mean those sins and acts of disobedience that a person commits against Allaah. It is called oppressing oneself because the person’s soul or life is not actually his property so that he may do anything that he likes with it. Rather, this life, or soul, belongs to Allaah – the Most High – Who has given it to the person as a trust, and commanded him to be just and to cling to the Straight Path, both in words and deeds, and has taught this soul what has been commanded for it and the actions that it is required to perform. So a person who does not cling to this [Straight] Path is actually oppressing his ownself, acting treacherously, and swerving from the path of justice and fairness; the opposite of which is injustice and oppression.”1

The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

“Allaah – the Most High – said: O son of Aadam, so long as you call upon Me and hove hope in Me, I shall forgive you for what you have done, and I shall not mind. O son of Aadam, were your sins to reach the clouds of the sky and were you then to ask forgiveness of Me, I would forgive you. O son of Aadam, were you to come to me with sins nearly as great as the earth and were you then to face Me, ascribing no partner to Me in the worship of Me, I would bring you forgiveness as great as it.”2

Allaah – the Exalted – also said about istighfaar:

“Allaah will not punish them whilst you (the Prophet ‘alayhis-salaam) are amongst them, nor will He punish them whilst they seek Allaah’s forgiveness.” [Soorah al-Anfaal 8:33].

Allaah informs us that there are two factors which are the cause of safety from the terrible punishment of Allaah, and would continue to be so as long as they are present in the Ummah: [i] the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam being amongst them, and [ii] their seeking Allaah’s forgiveness.

Ibn ‘Abbaas radiallaahu ‘anhu said:
“There are two [causes] why the people remained safe, [i] the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam living amongst them, and [ii] their seeking Allaah’s forgiveness. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has now departed, so all that remains is seeking Allaah’s forgiveness.”3

Thus, the more negligent we become in seeking Allaah’s forgiveness, the more we open up the doors of Allaah’s punishment; both to ourselves as individuals and to the society as a whole. So – O Muslims – let us be mindful!


1. Tayseerul-Kareemur-Rahmaan (p. 164).
2. Saheeh: Related by at-Tirmidhee (no.3540), from Anas radiallaahu ‘anhu. It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in as-Saheehah (nos.127-128).
3. Related by Ibn Katheer in Tafseer Qur’aanul’Adheem, (2/317).

An-Nur (The Light): One of Allaah’s Names – Dr. Saleh as Saleh & Imam Ibn Kathir

Shaykh Abdur-Rahman ibn as-Sa’di :

The Light of the heavens and the earth, the One Who illuminates the hearts of the gnostics with knowledge of Him, faith in Him and His guidance. He is the One Who has lighted the heavens and the earth with lights that He has placed therein. His veil is light and were He to uncover it then the Face of the Glorious would burn everything from the creation that His Sight fell upon.

“Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His Light is as if there were a niche and within it a lamp, the lamp is in a glass, and the glass as if it were a brilliant star, lit from a blessed tree, an olive, neither of the east or of the west, whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself) even though no fire touches it. Light upon light! Allah guides to His Light whom He Wills. Allah sets forth parables for mankind, and Allah Knows everything.” (24:35)

Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullaah):

Excerpt:

Those who negate Allaah’s Attribute of An-Nur erred by thinking that if they would affirm the Attribute of An-Nur, it would mean that Allaah is the light falling upon walls and gardens, etc.! The fact however is that the created light is an effect of the Attribute of An-Nur. We know that Ar-Rahmah (Mercy) is an Attribute of Allaah established with Him. The rahmah (mercy) present on earth is an effect of Allaah’s Attribute of Ar-Rahmah separted from Him. The knowledge of the creature is a distinct and separate effect of Allaah’s Attribute of Knowledge. The saying of ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’oud does not mean or imply that the light on walls and on the surface of the earth is the essence of the Light of Allaah’s most honourable Face.”

Read the full article: Explaining the Meaning of An-Nur (The Light) One of Allaah’s Names – 16 Pages – by Dr. Saleh As-Saleh [PDF]

—-

Noorus-Samaawaati Wal-Ardh (Light of the Heavens and the Earth)

Allah says:as-s

“Allah is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth. the parable of His light is as if therewere a niche and within it a lamp; the lamp is in a glass, the glass as it were a brilliant star, lit from a blessed tree, an olive, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil would almost glow forth of itself, though no fire touched it. Light upon Light! Allah guides to His Light whom He wills. And Allah sets forth parables for mankind, and Allah is All-Knower of everything.” [An-Noor 24:35]

The Prophet Muhammad sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:

Oh Allah for You is the praise and You are the Light of the Heavens and the Earth and all therein… [Al-Bukhaari and Muslim]

This is a great Attribute since it describes the One Possessing Majesty and Honor and deserving of glorification and praise and Who if He were to remove the veil from His Noble Countenance all that would be exposed to it in the creation would be disintegrated and His Light would illuminate all the creation and it is the Light from his Countenance that brings light to all darkness and that lights up the Arsh, the Kursi and the seven levels of heaven, indeed all the universe.

His Light is of two types:

1. That which is perceived (hissee) such as the light that emanates from the universe and that would not exist without His light.
2. The spiritual (ma’nawee) which reaches the hearts and the hearing and the vision and that constitutes the light for the slaves in this life and the next.

“Allah guides with His Light whom He wills”. And just as Allah has mentioned, He is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth, He has also called His Book and His Messenger and the Revelation light. – As-Sadee

What must be avoided are the excesses of the Sufis who went too far and did not distinguish between Light as a description of the self and the light of faith and knowledge. Due to worshipping and deifying without complete knowledge some among them perceived the light that comes to the heart from the sincere worship of Allah meant that the person themselves became a part of Allah or had a part of Allah the Most Holy in them so much incorrect and ugly speech emanated from them due to delusion and ignorance in this regard and Allah is Most High and free from what they wrongly attributed to Him.

The people of knowledge however distinguished between the Light that is a part of Allah and His Attribute and the light given to the creation both perceived and spiritual. The believer who perfects his faith is given light in his heart from Allah so that he sees the reality of things and he can clearly distinguish between falsehood and truth until it becomes a part of his life and his power toward good in knowledge and action. He is cleared of doubts and confusion and gets knowledge and clarity and is freed from lusts and negligence and darkness. His speech and actions are characterized as light and he is surrounded by it, while the disbeliever or the hypocrite, the rebellious and unmindful wander about confused and in darkness and all this is due to what they have themselves done .

The Parable of the Light of Allah

[The following is from Tafsir Ibn Kathir]

`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said:

(Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth.) means, the Guide of the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth. Ibn Jurayj said: “Mujahid and Ibn `Abbas said concerning the Ayah:

(Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth.) He is controlling their affairs and their stars and sun and moon.” As-Suddi said concerning the Ayah:

(Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth.) by His Light the heavens and earth are illuminated. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “When the Messenger of Allah got up to pray at night, he would say:

(O Allah, to You be praise, You are the Sustainer of heaven and earth and whoever is in them. To You be praise, You are the Light of the heavens and the earth and whoever is in them. ) It was narrated that Ibn Mas`ud said, “There is no night or day with your Lord; the Light of the Throne comes from the Light of His Face.”

(The parable of His Light) There are two views concerning the meaning of the pronoun (His). The first is that it refers to Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, meaning that the parable of His guidance in the heart of the believer is

(as a niche) This was the view of Ibn `Abbas. The second view is that the pronoun refers to the believer, which is indicated by the context of the words and implies that the parable of the light in the heart of the believer is as a niche. So the heart of the believer and what he is naturally inclined to of guidance and what he learns of the Qur’an which is in accordance with his natural inclinations are, as Allah says:

(Can they who rely on a clear proof from their Lord, and whom a witness from Him recites it (can they be equal with the disbelievers)) [11:17]. The heart of the believer in its purity and clarity is likened to a lamp in transparent and jewel-like glass, and the Qur’an and Shari`ah by which it is guided are likened to good, pure, shining oil in which there is no impurity or deviation.

(as (if there were) a niche) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Muhammad bin Ka`b and others said, “This refers to the position of the wick in the lamp.” This is well-known, and hence Allah then says:

(and within it a lamp.) This is the flame that burns brightly. Or it was said that the niche is a niche in the house. This is the parable given by Allah of obedience towards Him. Allah calls obedience to Him as light, then He calls it by other numerous names as well. Ubayy bin Ka`b said, “The lamp is the light, and this refers to the Qur’an and the faith that is in his heart.” As-Suddi said, “It is the lamp.”

(the lamp is in a glass,) means, this light is shining in a clear glass. Ubayy bin Ka`b and others said, “This is the likeness of the heart of the believer.”

(the glass as it were a star Durriyyun,) Some authorities recite the word Durriyyun with a Dammah on the Dal and without a Hamzah, which means pearls, i.e., as if it were a star made of pearls (Durr). Others recite it as Dirri’un or Durri’un, with a Kasrah on the Dal, or Dammah on the Dal, and with a Hamzah at the end, which means reflection (Dir’), because if something is shone on the star it becomes brighter than at any other time. The Arabs call the stars they do not know Darari. Ubayy bin Ka`b said: a shining star. Qatadah said: “Huge, bright and clear.”

(lit from a blessed tree,) means, it is derived from olive oil, from a blessed tree.

(an olive,) This refers to the blessed tree mentioned previously.

(neither of the east nor of the west,) means, it is not in the eastern part of the land so that it does not get any sun in the first part of the day, nor is it in the western part of the land so that it is shaded from the sun before sunset, but it is in a central position where it gets sun from the beginning of the day until the end, so its oil is good and pure and shining. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented on:

(an olive, neither of the east nor of the west,) “This is a tree in the desert which is not shaded by any other tree or mountain or cave, nothing covers it, and this is best for its oil.” Mujahid commented on:

(neither of the east nor of the west, ) saying; “It is not in the east where it will get no sun when the sun sets, nor is it in the west where it will get no sun when the sun rises, but it is in a position where it will get sun both at sunrise and sunset.” Sa`id bin Jubayr commented:

(an olive, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself)) “This is the best kind of oil. When the sun rises it reaches the tree from the east and when it sets it reaches it from the west, so the sun reaches it morning and evening, so it is not counted as being in the east or in the west.”

(whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself), though no fire touched it.) `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said (this means) because the oil itself is shining.

(Light upon Light!) Al-`Awfi narrated from Ibn `Abbas that this meant the faith and deeds of a person. As-Suddi said:

(Light upon Light!) “Light of the fire and the light of the oil: when they are combined they give light, and neither of them can give light without the other. Similarly the light of the Qur’an and the light of faith give light when they are combined, and neither can do so without the other.”

(Allah guides to His Light whom He wills.) means, Allah shows the way to the ones whom He chooses, as it says in the Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad from `Abdullah bin `Amr, who said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah say:

(Allah created His creation in darkness, then on the same day He sent His Light upon them. Whoever was touched by His Light on that day will be guided and whoever was missed will be led astray. Hence I say: the pens have dried in accordance with the knowledge of Allah, may He be glorified.)”

(And Allah sets forth parables for mankind, and Allah is All-Knower of everything.) Having mentioned this parable of the Light of His guidance in the heart of the believer, Allah ends this Ayah with the words:

(And Allah sets forth parables for mankind, and Allah is All-Knower of everything.) meaning, He knows best who deserves to be guided and who deserves to be led astray. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said, “The Messenger of Allah said:

(Hearts are of four kinds: the heart that is clear like a shining lamp; the heart that is covered and tied up; the heart that is upside-down; and the heart that is clad in armor. As for the clear heart, it is the heart of the believer in which is a lamp filled with light; as for the covered heart, this is the heart of the disbeliever; as for the upside-down heart, this is the heart of the hypocrite, who recognizes then denies; as for the armor-clad heart, this is the heart in which there is both faith and hypocrisy. The parable of the faith in it is that of legume, a sprout that is irrigated with good water, and the likeness of the hypocrisy in it is that of sores that are fed by blood and pus. Whichever of the two prevails is the characteristic that will dominate.) Its chain of narrators is good (Jayyid) although they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not record it.

Taken From Tafsir ibn Kathir

Pride : A Barrier to Paradise : Shaykh Abdur-Rahmaan as-Sa’dee

[Taken from Bahjatul-Quloobul-Abraar (pp. 156-158)]Source: Al Istiqamah Magazine, Issue No.7 – Rabî’ ul-Awwal 1418H / July 1997

From ‘Abdullaah Ibn Mas’ood radi-Allaahu ‘anhu who related that Allaah’s Messenger sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam said:

Whoever has an atoms worth of kibr (pride) in his heart will not enter Paradise.” So a man said: What about a person who loves (i.e. takes pride in) wearing beautiful clothes and beautiful shoes? So he replied: “Indeed Allaah is beautiful and loves beauty. Kibr (pride) is to reject the truth, and to despise the people.” 1

So Allaah – the Most High – informs us that the Hellfire is the abode of those who have kibr (pride and arrogance). And we learn from the (above) hadeeth that: “Whoever has on atoms worth of kibr (pride) in his heart will not enter Paradise.” So this is a proof that kibr (pride) necessitates entry into the Hellfire and prevents entry into Paradise. And this comprehensive explanation that the Prophet sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam mentioned has clarified the meaning of kibr (pride) in the dearest possible manner. So he divided kibr into two types:-

[1] Pride against the truth: This is to reject the truth and not to accept it. So anyone who reject the truth is proud and arrogant – in accordance with what he reject of the truth. So it is obligatory upon everyone to humble themselves to the truth which Allaah sent His Messenger with, and which He sent down in His Book. As for those whose pride and arrogance prevents them from totally complying with the Messengers (i.e. having eemaan or faith in them and their message) – then they are kuffaar (unbelievers) who will dwell in the Hellfire for eternity. Since when the truth comes to them via the Messengers, who explain to them the signs and clear proofs, they reject it and are prevented from accepting it, due to the kibr that they harbour in their hearts. Allaah the Most High – said:

“Indeed those who argue about the Signs of Allaah without any authority having come to them, there is nothing in their hearts except kibr (pride). They will never accept the Prophet Muhammad sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam as a Prophet.” [Soorah Ghaafir (40):56]

As for those whose arrogance and pride prevent them from complying with parts of the truth – because it opposes their personal opinions or their whims and desires – then such people are not kuffaar (unbelievers), but such an action necessitates them being punished in accordance with what they have of kibr. This is why the Scholars are agreed that whenever the Sunnah (guidance and way) of Allaah’s Messenger sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam has been explained to anyone, then it is not lawful for him to turn away from it to the saying of someone else, whoever and whatever status he may have. So it is obligatory upon the seeker of knowledge to give complete and absolute precedence to the saying of Allaah and the saying of His Messenger sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam over and above the saying of anyone else, and that he should make that the basis to which he returns, and the foundation upon which he builds; following the guidance of the Prophet sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam, striving hard to understand what is intended from it, and following this, both inwardly and outwardly. When a person conforms to this great principle, then he has indeed reached goodness and excellence, and all his errors will be forgiven to him; since his overall objective is to follow that which has been prescribed upon him. So his errors are excused due to his striving his best to recognise and comply with the truth – and this is humbling oneself to the truth.

[2] Pride towards people: This type is to despise the people, and to look down upon them. This attitude arises when a person is amazed with his own self, thinks highly of himself, and thinks he is better than others. So this causes him to have kibr towards the creation, despise them, mock them, and to degrade them through both speech and action. Allaah’s Messenger sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam said:

“It is enough evil for a person to despise his brother Muslim.” 2

This is why the man asked: “What about a person who loves (i.e. takes pride in) wearing beautiful clothes and shoes?” Because he feared that this was the kibr which would be under the threat of punishment. So the Prophet sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam explained to him that this was not from kibr; since this person was one who complied with the truth, and was humble towards people, and that this was from the beauty that Allaah loves, for indeed Allaah – the Most High is beautiful in His Dhaat (Self), Sifaat (Attributes) and Af’aal (Actions), and He loves both outer and inner beauty.

As regards outer beauty, then it includes cleanliness of the body, clothes and place. As regards to inner beauty, then it is beautifying the character. This is why the Prophet sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam used to supplicate:

“O Allaah! Guide me to having beautiful manners and characteristics, no one can guide me to beautifying them except You. And turn away from me all evil actions and characteristics, no one con turn them away from me except You.” 3

And Allaah knows best.

FOOTNOTES

1. Related by Muslim in his Saheeh (1/65).

2. Related by Muslim (no.2564).

3. Related by an-Nasaa’ee (no.861). It was authenticated by al-Albaanee in his Sifatus-Salaah (p.93)