Al-Hawaa (Lowly Desires): 50 Matters to free Oneself from it – Imam Ibn al Qayyim


It is said that Al-Hawaa is a hidden trap that one must not feel secure from. Ash-Sha’bee [34] said: “It is called Hawaa because it throws down its’ adherent.” In its general and unrestricted meaning, it demands ready pleasure without thinking about the outcome. It incites the immediate obtainment of lusts even though it is, sooner or later, the cause of greater sufferings. This life has an outcome before that of the Hereafter, and Al-Hawaa blinds its follower from giving notice to this.

Man’s Muroo’ah, [35] religion, and rationalism all forbid the pleasure whose outcome will be painful and prohibit lust whose legacy is sorrow and regret, each telling the self when it desires [pleasure and lust], “Don’t do it!” The self would obey the winner.[36] Don’t you see because of the weakness of the rationalistic restraint in a child, he prefers what he desires even though it may lead to his own destruction. On the other hand, the one who does not abide by the Deen prefers and likes what he desires even if it would lead to his destruction in the Hereafter because of the weakness in compliance to the Deen’s prohibitive code. The one who does not respect his Muroo’ah prefers what he likes even if he injures [or shatters] or even loses his Muroo’ah because of the weakness in adhering to its prohibitive code. What place does this hold in comparison with the saying of Ash-Shaafi’ee [37]: “If I knew that cold water would injure my Muroo’ah, I would not drink it.”

Since man has been distinguished from other forms of creation by being subjected to the trials of Al-Hawaa, and because at all times he encounters all kinds of events and occurrences, two references of judgment have been established in order to deal with him: The Deen and reasoning. He is always commanded to refer all of Al-Hawaa related incidents to these judges [Deen and reasoning] and to submit to their ruling. He should train himself to ward off Al-Hawaa whose consequences are safe in order to train himself to abandon Al-Hawaa, which have harmful consequences.

Let the reasonable person know that lust addicts reach a state in which they do not find pleasure therein. Yet, they are unable to give it up, because it becomes to them like an indispensable form of living.

That is why you see the alcoholic and Al-Jimaa’ [38] addict does not reach one tenth of the enjoyment achieved by those who sometimes infrequently drink [39] or engage in Al-Jimaa‘. However, it is the habit which requires that of him. Consequently, he drives himself into destructive paths to attain what is demanded by the habit. Had he been relieved from the Rayn [40] of Al-Hawaa, he would have known that he was miserable wherefore he anticipated happiness, depressed wherefore he thought he was glad, and in pain where from he sought pleasure. He is like a bird that was deceived by a grain of wheat, neither he was able to get it, nor he was able to free himself from the trap he got caught in.

So, if it is asked: “How could a person who fell in Al-Hawaa free himself from it?

The response is: “By the help and success granted by Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى), he will be able to liberate himself from Al-Hawaa by holding to the following matters:

1. A determined free will: having a vigilant care and sense of honor for himself, jealously protecting it.

2. A dose of patience making himself endure the bitter taste of the moment (i.e. the time his Hawaa is active).

3. Strength and self-determination that encourages him to drink that dose [of patience]. His courage is a moment of forbearance, and the best of living attained by an ‘Abd is through his perseverance.

4. Being aware of the splendid impression of the outcome and the cure achieved by that dose [of perseverance].

5. Being aware of the pain that exceeds the pleasure arising from following his Hawaa.

6. Keeping his good standing before Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) and in the hearts of Allaah’s ‘Ibaad. Certainly this is better and more beneficial to this than taking pleasure in following his Hawaa.

7. Preferring the joy of ‘Iffaah [41] and its honor and sweetness over the pleasure of disobedience and wrong-doing.

8. Having delight in overcoming his enemy and driving him away disgraced in his rage, grief, and worry, being unable to get hold of him as he wishes. In fact, Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) loves for His ‘Abd to abandon and enrage his enemy as He has said in his noble Book:

 وَلَا يَطَئُونَ مَوْطِئًا يَغِيظُ الْكُفَّارَ وَلَا يَنَالُونَ مِنْ عَدُوٍّ نَّيْلًا إِلَّا كُتِبَ لَهُم بِهِ عَمَلٌ صَالِحٌ

Nor they take any step to raise the anger of disbelievers nor inflict any injury upon an enemy but is written to their credit as a deed of righteousness. [Qur’aan,SooratAt-Tawbah. 9:120].

لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّار

That He may enrage the disbelievers with them (i.e. the Sahaabah). [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Falh, 48:29].

وَمَن يُهَاجِرْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ يَجِدْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُرَاغَمًا كَثِيرًا وَسَعَةً

He who emigrates [from his home] in the Cause of Allaah, will find on earth many dwelling places and plenty to live by. [Qur’aan, Soorat An-Nisaa’. 4:100],

Which means, “A place where he abandons and assails the enemies of Allaah.” The sign of true love is to enrage the enemies of the Beloved and to forsake them.

9. Contemplating the fact that he has not been created to [be a slave of] Al-Hawaa, but that he has been prepared for a great task that will not be achieved unless he disobeys his Hawaa, as it was said:

“Indeed they have prepared you for a task such that if you are aware of it (i.e. its importance and great outcome);

Then you would hold yourself above giving respect to the negligent.”

10. That he should not choose for himself a state such that the unintelligible animal is better than him. Indeed the animal is able by means of his natural instincts to distinguish between beneficial and harmful situations, preferring the beneficial above the harmful. For the same purpose, man has been endowed with the faculty of reason. If he does not differentiate between what hurts or benefits him, or, in the case he realizes this but prefers what is harmful to him, then the status of an unintelligible animal is better than his. The evidence for this lies in the fact that an animal takes a share of enjoyment in the taste of food, drinks, and sexual relations that is not attainable by man, and that it lives a comfortable life free from thought and worry. Hence it is driven to its slaughtering place preoccupied with its lusts [42] due to the lack of knowledge about the consequences. Man will not procure the same damage done to the animal because of the intensity of the preoccupying thought, and the weakness of the used male organ, and so forth. Had the attainment of what is desired been a virtue, the right of man, who is the pure extract of the world, to it would have not been diminished while making it abundant to the animals. In the augmentation of man’s share of reasoning, knowledge, and cognition is a substitute for that (i.e. animalistic lust).

11. Let him lead his heart through the consequences of Al-Hawaa and contemplate:

  • How many virtues were missed because of his disobedience? And how much Ratheelah (vices) did it make him commit?
  • How many meals became inaccessible because of few meals?
  • How often a pleasure caused the loss of many?
  • How often did a desire break a rank, lower a head, [43] render a good reputation bad, inherit blame, leave behind it humiliation and dishonor that water cannot wash away. Yet, the eye of the follower of Hawaa is blind!

12. The intelligent person should imagine the attainment of his desire, his condition after his wish was fulfilled, what did he miss, and what occurred to him?

“The most excellent of people is the one who does not embark upon a means to accomplish something [44]
Until he distinguishes (the evil,harms) that may be incurred by its consequences.”

13. The intelligent person should really imagine what would the situation of another person be after he fulfills his desire then think of himself as being in the same standing. Indeed, the judgment respect of a thing is the same as respecting the like.

14. He should give a thought as to what his self really demands from him regarding the thing he desires. He should then question his Deen and rationale about it, they will inform him that it is nothing.

‘Abdullaah Ibn Mas’oud [45] said:

If anyone of you admires a woman, let him remember Manatinaha…” [46]

15. He should keep himself far from the humiliation of Al-Hawaa because whenever someone obeys his Hawaa he will sense disgrace within himself. He should not be deceived by the force, assault, and pride of the followers of Al-Hawaa, for they have the most lowly internal character of men; they have mustered both arrogance and humiliation.

16. He should compare the safety of Deen, honor, and property, and rank to the attainment of the desired pleasure. He will not find any suitability whatsoever between them. Thus he should be aware that he is from the most ignorant of men if he would trade this (Deen, honor, property, rank, etc..) for that (i.e. Hawaa).

17. He should keep himself far from being under the subdual of his enemy, the Shaytaan, who, if he sees the ‘Abd in a state of weak determination and motivation and having an inclination towards his Hawaa, he would eagerly hope to overcome and possess him and control him with the bridle of Al-Hawaa leading him wherever he wants. And whenever he senses in him a strong determination, self-honor, and high motivation, he would not hope to get hold of him except secretly and by the way of deceit or circumvention. [47]

18. He should realize that Al-Hawaa does not associate with any affair except that it corrupts it. If it gets to the knowledge, it causes him to go to Bid’ah and Dhalaalah [48] and its follower will become from amongst Ahlul Ahwaa’ [49] If it affects Al-Zuhd [50], it will lead its adherent to Ar-Riyaa’ [51] and to stand in opposition to As-Sunnah.[52] If it gets in a legal judgment, it leads its follower to injustice and hinders him from the truth. If it gets to the division of Al-Qismah,[53] it changes from a just into an unjust division. If it gets to the decisions of Wilaayah [54] and ‘Azl [55] it leads its adherent to commit treason against Allaah  (سبحانه و تعالى) and against the Muslims whereby he puts in charge or removes from duty according to his Hawaa. If it enters into worship it will deviate him from obedience and means of closeness [to Allaah]. Thus it associates not with anything but renders it corrupt.

19. He should realize that there is no way for the Shaytaan to come in upon the son of Adam except from the gate of his Hawaa. He goes around him trying to find how to invade him so that he renders his heart and deeds corrupt. The only means of entrance he finds is that of Al-Hawaa, and so he creeps along with it like poison creeping in the body.

20. Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) has made Al-Hawaa an opposite to what He has revealed to His Messenger. He has made its following directly opposite to the following of His Messengers, and He classified mankind into two groups: The followers of Revelation and the followers of Al-Hawaa, And this is found in many places in the Qur’aan, as in His saying:

فَإِن لَّمْ يَسْتَجِيبُوا لَكَ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يَتَّبِعُونَ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ

And if they answer you not (i.e. do not follow the doctrine of Tawheed, nor follow you), then know that they only follow Ahwaa’ahum (i.e. their evil inclinations: lust, desire, etc.) [Qur’aan, Soorat AI-Qasas, 28:50].

وَلَن تَرْضَىٰ عَنكَ الْيَهُودُ وَلَا النَّصَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَتَّبِعَ مِلَّتَهُمْ ۗ قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللَّهِ هُوَ الْهُدَىٰ

And if you [O Muhammad] were to follow their [Jews and Christians] desires after what you have received of Knowledge (i.e. Qur’aan), then you would find neither a Waliy [protector or guardian] nor any helper against Allaah. [Qur’aan, Soorat Ai-Baqarah. 2-120].

And there are other Aayaat of similar meaning.

21. Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) likened the followers of Al-Hawaa to the most contemptible animals in form and in concept. Sometimes He compared them to a dog, as in His saying:

وَلَٰكِنَّهُ أَخْلَدَ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ ۚ فَمَثَلُهُ كَمَثَلِ الْكَلْبِ إِن تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْهِ يَلْهَثْ أَوْ تَتْرُكْهُ يَلْهَث

But he clung to the earth and followed his own vain desires. So his description is the description of a dog: If you drive him away, he lolls his tongue out, or if you leave him alone, he [still] lolls his tongue out. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-‘Araaf, 7:176].

Sometimes He compared them to wild donkeys:

كَأَنَّهُمْ حُمُرٌ مُّسْتَنفِرَةٌ
فَرَّتْ مِن قَسْوَرَةٍ

As if they were frightened [wild] donkeys. Fleeing from a hunter, or a lion, Or a beast Of prey. [Qur’aan, Soorat At-Muddaththir, 74:50-51].

Sometimes He changed their forms into that of monkeys and pigs.

22. The one who follows Al-Hawaa neither deserves to be obeyed, nor to be an Imaam or to be followed, because Allaah removed him away from Imaamah (leading as an Imaam) and forbade obedience to him. As to his removal, it is because Allaah said to His Khaleel [56] Ibraaheem:

إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا ۖ قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۖ قَالَ لَا يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ

“Verily, I am going to make you a leader [Prophet] of mankind.” [Ibraaheem] said: “And of my offspring [to make leaders].” [Allaah] said: “My Covenant includes not Ath-Thaalimeen (polythe’ists and wrong-doers).” [Qur’aan Soorat Al-Baqarah, 2:124).

Which means that “My Covenant regarding Imaamah (Prophethood, leadership, etc.) does not include a Thaalim (polytheist and wrongdoer}.” Anyone who follows his Hawaa is a Thaalim as Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) said:

بَلِ اتَّبَعَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا أَهْوَاءَهُم بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ

Nay, but those who do wrong follow their own Ahwaa’ahum Without knowledge. [Qur’aan, Soorat Ar-Room, 30:29].

The prohibition to obey the follower of Al-Hawaa because of Allaah’s (سبحانه و تعالى) saying:

وَلَا تُطِعْ مَنْ أَغْفَلْنَا قَلْبَهُ عَن ذِكْرِنَا وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ وَكَانَ أَمْرُهُ فُرُطًا

And obey not him whose heart We have made heedless of Our Remembrance, one who followed his Hawaa and whose affair [deeds] has been lost. [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Kahf, 18:28],

23. Allaah has made the one who follows Al-Hawaa at the same rank as that of the image-worshipper. He said in two places of His Book:

أَرَأَيْتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ إِلَٰهَهُ هَوَاهُ

Have you [O Muhammad] seen him who has taken as his Ilaah [god] his own Hawaa? [57] {Qur’aan,Soorat Al-Furqaan, 25:43].

Al-Hasan [58] commented: “He is the hypocrite; there is nothing that he desires except that he follows it.”

He also said: “The hypocrite is a slave of his Hawaa: there is nothing that he desires except that he commits it.”

24. Verily, Al-Hawaa is the Hithaar [59] of Hell-Fire which surrounds it, he who walks across it will fall in Hell, just as the Prophet  (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said in the hadeeth reported in As-Saheehain:

“Al-Jannah is surrounded by all kinds of disliked and undesirable things, while the Fire (Hell) is surrounded by all kinds of desires and passions.” [60]

And in the “Sunan” of At-Tirmithee in the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah which he attributed to the Prophet  (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) [he said]:

“When Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) created Al-Jannah and An-Naar [the (Hell) Fire], He send Jibreel to Al-Jannah and said: Go and look at it and at what I have prepared therein for its people. He went and looked at it and at what Allaah has prepared therein for its people, then came to Him and said: By Your Might, no one who hears of it will fail to enter it. He gave an order respecting it, and accordingly it was surrounded with undesirable things, and said [to Jibreel]: Go and look at it and at [the things] which I have prepared therein for its people. He went and looked at it, and found that it was surrounded with disliked and undesirable things, then came to Him and said: By Your Might, I am afraid that no one will enter it.

He, [Allaah] then said: Go to An-Naar and look at it and at [the things] which I have prepared therein for its people. [He went] and found that it was heaped up, one part upon another, then he came to Him and said: By Your Might, no one who hears of it will enter it. He gave a command respecting it, and it was surrounded with desirable things and passions and then said: Go back to it. He went and said: By Your Might, I am afraid that no one will remain who does not enter it.” [61]

25. It is feared that he who follows Al-Hawaa may become altogether detached from Eemaan (Faith) while being unaware. In fact, it has been confirmed that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

None of you is a true believer until his Hawaa is in accordance with what I have brought forth. ” [62]

The most dreadful thing I fear in regard to you is the seductive lusts in your bellies and in your private parts, and the misleading ways of Al-Hawaa” [63]

26. The following of Al-Hawaa is from the destructive sins. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Three [things} lead to safety and three cause destruction. Those that lead to safety are: fearing Allaah in secrecy and in the open, uttering the truth at times of satisfaction and anger, and moderation at times of poverty and wealth. As to the [three] that cause destruction, they are: the Hawaa being followed, niggardliness being obeyed, and conceitedness.” [64]

27. The opposing of Al-Hawaa inherits strength in the heart, tongue and body of [Allaah’s] ‘Abd. Some of As-Salaf (righteous predecessors) said: “The one who overcomes his Hawaa is like him who conquers a city by himself.” And in the authentic hadeeth attributed to the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) :

“The strong is not the one who overcomes the people by his strength, but the strong is the one who controls himself-while in anger.” [65]

Whenever he trains himself on opposing his Hawaa, he would gain additional strength to his own.

28. The most enriched in Al-Muroo’ah of the people is him who has the strongest opposition to his Hawaa. Mu’aawiyah [66] said:

Al-Muroo’ah is the abandonment of desires and passions, and the disobedience of Al-Hawaa. The following of Al-Hawaa weakens the Al-Muroo’ah, and its opposition strengthen it.”

29. There isn’t a day that passes except that Al-Hawaa and the mind fight within its follower. Whoever of them overpowers its master, it will expel the other and take full control; and the decision will be its. Abu Ad-Dardaa’ [67] said:

“When a man wakes up, both his Hawaa and deeds meet; if his deeds are in accordance with his Hawaa, then his day is an evil one; and if his Hawaa is pursuant to his deeds, then his day is a good one.”

30. Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) has made the wrong and the following of Al-Hawaa .associates of each other, and has made the right and the opposition of Al-Hawaa as associates. As some of As-Salaf said:

“If two affairs were dubious to you and you don’t know which one is right, then oppose the one close to your Hawaa for it is more likely that error is committed when Al-Hawaa is being pursued.”

31. Al-Hawaa is a disease and its remedy is in opposing it. Some learned men said:

“If you wish, I will inform you of your illness, and if you wish I will tell you of your remedy: Your disease is your Hawaa, and your treatment is to abandon and oppose it.” Bishr Al-Haafee, [68]  “All kinds of affliction are manifested in your Hawaa, and the complete healing is in your opposition of it.”

32. The Jihaad against Al-Hawaa, if it is not more important than the Jihaad against the Kuffaar, certainly it is not less in importance. A man told Al-Hasan Al Basree “O Abaa Sa’eed! What kind of Jihaad is the best? He said: “It is the Jihaad of your Hawaa” I heard my Shaykh [69] saying: “The Jihaad against one’s self and against Al-Hawaa constitutes the basis for the Jihaad against the Kuffaar and the Munaafiqeen (hypocrites), because one is unable to make Jihaad against them until he makes Jihaad against himself and his Hawaa first, so that he can go out to [confront] them.”

33. Al-Hawaa is Takhleel (disorder and confusion of the intellect) and opposing it is Himiyyah [70] It is feared for the one who became excessive in Takhleet and retired himself from Al-Himiyyah, that his disease [mental sickness] may cause him to fall in a state of Sara’.[71] ‘Abdul Malik Ibn Quraib [72] said: “I passed by a bedouin who was suffering from an intensive inflammation in his eyes and his tears were shedding on his cheeks. I said: “Why don’t you wipe off your eyes?”

He said: “The doctor prevented me from doing this, and there is no good in him who if urged to refrain [from doing something wrong] does not abstain, and if he is being commanded [to do something good] does not comply.” I said then: “Would you like something?” He said: “Yes! But I am in a state of Hitniyyah; the lusts of the people of [Hell] Fire overcame their Himiyyah, and thus they were destroyed.”

34. The pursuing of Al-Hawaa renders the doors of success closed for the ‘Abd, and opens for him the doors of failure. So you see him often repeating the [following statement]: “Had Allaah bestowed His success, then it [the affair] would have been as such and such,” while in fact he barred himself from the ways of success by pursuing his Hawaa. Al-Fudayyl Bin ‘lyaad [73] said; “Whoever has been overtaken by his Hawaa and by the following of lusts, the sources of success will be severed from him.”

One of the scholars said: “Al-Kufr [74] originates from four things: anger, lust, hope, and fear.” He then added, “I have seen two of them manifested: a man who got angry and then killed his mother, and another who fell in love and became a Christian…”

35. The one who stands by his Hawaa, his intelligence and mental perception will become corrupt because he acted unfaithfully towards Allaah in his mind and, consequently, Allaah perverted it for him. This is the way He deals with anyone who betrays Him in any affair: He renders it in a bad state for him.

36. The one who broadens for his self the scope of pursuing Al-Hawaa, will put it under restriction in his grave and on the Day of his Return, The one who restrains it by opposing Al-Hawaa, brings ease upon it in his grave and on the Day of his Return. Allaah pointed to this in His saying:

And their recompense shall be Al-Jannah and silken garments, because they were patient. [Qur’aan: Soorat Al-lnsaan, 76:12],

Since patience, which is holding oneself from pursuing Al-Hawaa, includes harshness and restrictions, accordingly Allaah will recompense them with the smoothness of silk and the wideness of Al-Jannah, Abu Sulaimaan Ad Daaraanee [75] commented on the above Aayah:

“Allaah shall recompense them for taking patience against lusts.”

37. The following of Al-Hawaa throws down the ‘Abd preventing him to stand up and walk with those saved on the Day of Resurrection, just like when his heart fell [in a state of Sara’] in this life which kept him from their company. Muhammad Bin Abee Al-Ward said:

“There is one of Allaah’s days when no one who pursues his Hawaa shall be saved of its evil. The slowest in his ability to stand up amongst those thrown down on the Day of the Resurrection is the one whose thrown in a state of Sara’ by his lusts…”

38. The pursuing of Al-Hawaa breaks up and weakens one’s resolution, and opposing [Al-Hawaa] solidifies and strengthens it. Resolution is the thing upon which one rides upon in his journey to Allaah and the Last Day. If that which is ridden became inactive, the traveler would almost be disabled to proceed in his journey.

Yahyaa Bin Mu’aath [77] was asked: “Who is most sound in resolution of men?” He answered: “The one who overcomes his Hawaa”

39. The parable of the one who follows his own whim is like that who rides on a tough, strong-tempered, Jamooh [78] horse without a bridle, about to be thrown down by his horse during its run or it would lead him to his death. A learned man said: “The most rapid means to ride onto Al-Jannnah is the Zuhd respecting this life, and the most rapid means to get on to An-Naar is the love of lusts. And him who boards his Hawaa, it will hastily take him to the valley of perdition.” Another said: “The most endowed with honor of the scholars is the one who flees with his Deen from this Dunya [79] and who is hard to be led to follow Al-Hawaa.” ‘Ataa’ [80] said: “The one whose Hawaa overtakes his rationale causing him to become affected with grief and agitation because of lacking the strength to be patient, would be put to shame.”

40. The Tawheed and the following of Al-Hawaa are two contrary matters: because Al-Hawaa is an idol, and each ‘Abd has an idol in his heart, the magnitude of which depends upon his Hawaa; Rather, Allaah sent His Messengers to destroy the idols and to call for His worship Alone, having no partners or associates. Nay, Allaah’s intent is not just to demolish the corporeal images and leave the images imbedded in the heart, but rather to destroy those in the heart first.

Al-Hasan Bin ‘AH Al-Muttawwi’ee [81] said:

“The idol of each person is his Hawaa, he who breaks it by the way of opposition deserves the title of honourableness.”

Just contemplate about the saying of AlKhaleel (Ibraaheem to his people [as Allaah said]:

مَا هَٰذِهِ التَّمَاثِيلُ الَّتِي أَنتُمْ لَهَا عَاكِفُونَ

What Are these images, to which you are devoted? [Qur’aan,Soorat Al-Anbiyaa’, 21:52],

and you will certainly find it identical to those images which the heart likes and devotes itself to and worships it besides Allaah. He, Allaah, said:

أَرَأَيْتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ إِلَٰهَهُ هَوَاهُ أَفَأَنتَ تَكُونُ عَلَيْهِ وَكِيلًا
أَمْ تَحْسَبُ أَنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ يَسْمَعُونَ أَوْ يَعْقِلُونَ ۚ إِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا كَالْأَنْعَامِ ۖ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ سَبِيلًا

Have you [O Muhammad] seen him who has taken his illaah (god) as his own desire? Would you be then a Wakeel [a protecting guide] over him? Or do you think that most of them hear or understand? They are only like cattle. Nay, they are even farther astray from the Path [i.e. even worst than Cattle] [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Furqaan, 25:43-44].

41. Opposing Al-Hawaa is the means to drive away diseases from the heart and from the body, and its following brings forth diseases to the heart and to the body. Heart diseases are all from following of Al-Hawaa. If you search for the causes behind diseases of the body, you will find that most of it are because of preferring Al-Hawaa over what should be abandoned.

42. The origin for the enmity, evil, and envy that occurs between people is from the following of Al-Hawaa. The one who opposes his Hawaa relieves his heart, body, and limbs, putting himself to ease and thus relieves others. Abu Bakr Al-Warraaq [83] said:

“When the Hawaa prevails, the heart turns dark and when it does so, the breast becomes straitened and when that happens, the moral character deteriorates and consequently people will hate him and he will hate them. Then think of the evil, enmity, neglect of rights, etc. that arise from this mutual hatred!”

43. Allaah has created in man an intellect and a Hawaa; whichever of the two becomes manifest, the other will hide, as Abu ‘Ali Ath- Thaqafee said;

“Whoever is overcome by his Hawaa, his intellect will be hidden from him. So, look at the end of him whose intellect is masked from him and became overpowered by something else.”

‘Ali Bin Sahl [84] said:

“The intellect and Al-Hawaa are in conflict. Success is the associate of the intellect and defeat is the associate of Al-Hawaa. The self stands between both; whichever of the two prevails, the self will side with it.”

44. Allaah has made the heart the king of the limbs and the place of the origination of knowledge, love, and ‘Uboodiyyah of Him. He tested him with two kinds of authority, two armies, two aids, and two sets of preparations. The truth, Zuhd, and guidance is one authority. Its aids are the angels, and its army is truthfulness and sincerity, and its preparation is in avoiding Al-Hawaa. The other authority is falsehood. Its aids are the Shayaateen and its troops and the preparation is the following of Al-Hawaa. The self stands between the two armies. The army of falsehood will have access to the heart only from its direction and frontier breaches, for it pervades the heart and aligns itself with its enemy against it (the heart) and thus the calamity will overtake it. It is the self, therefore, that offers its enemy from its own preparations, and opens for him the gate of the city and thus he enters and takes full control, and the heart takes the defeat.

45. The worst of enemies to man is his Shaytaan and his Hawaa, and the best friend he has is his intellect and his associate angel who gives him advice. If he follows his Hawaa, he gives his hand in surrender to his enemy, submitting himself as a captive to him, making him [the enemy] rejoice at his affliction, and causing displeasure to his friends and supporters. These are precisely the difficult moments of a calamity, wretchedness, the manifested divine decree of an evil ending, and the malicious joy of enemies. [86]

46. Each ‘Abd has a beginning and an end. He whose start is the following of AlHawaa, shall end up in a state of disgrace, humiliation, bereavement, and trials. What is being followed commensurate with the [‘Abd’s] degree of dependency upon his Hawaa. Rather, at the end, the followed turns to a suffering that agonizes him in his heart as one poet put it:

“Desires that were, at the age of youthfulness, sweet to those who wished
then, became a suffering at Al-Masheeb (an old age)” [87]

If you contemplate about the case of everyone who is in a bad and miserable state, you would find that it began with him embracing his Hawaa and giving it preference over his intellect. Anyone who begins by opposing his Hawaa and obeying the call of his Rushd,[88] his end will be that of honor, might, richness, and high rank before Allaah and before the people. Abu ‘Ali Ad-Daqqaaq89 said: “The one who controls his lust in his youthfulness, Allaah will honor him when he is in his age of maturity.” AlMuhallab Bin Abee Sufrah90 was asked: “How did you attain this status of yours? He said: “Through firm obedience and rebellion against Al-Hawaa.”

So these are the situations regarding the stand against Al-Hawaa in the beginning and in the end of one’s life in this world. With respect to the Hereafter, however, Allaah has made Al-Jannah the end for him who opposed his Hawaa and An-Naar the end for the one who followed his Hawaa [91]

47. Al-Hawaa is slavery to the heart, an iron chain round the neck, and a fetter to the leg. Its follower is a captive to everyone with a bad character. Thus whoever opposes it, liberates himself from slavery and becomes free, and takes off the chain round his neck and becomes in a state similar to that of a man belonging entirely to one master after belonging to many partners disputing one another.[92]

48. Opposing Al-Hawaa puts the ‘Abd in the rank of the one whose oath Allaah fulfills. The goals that He will accomplish for him will be many-fold that which he was unable to attain as a result of neglecting his Hawaa. He is like the one who relinquished a Ba’arah and was given a pearl as a compensation for it.

Whatever he is able to gain from the way of following Al-Hawaa is incomparable with what he looses from present and future benefits and from good living. So try to comprehend the stretching forth of the hand of Yoosuf, theSiddeeq95 in expenditure, the unconstriction with his tongue, the establishment of his feet [in power], and the rejoice that touched him after he came out of the jail because he restrained himself from the Haraam [unlawful].

49. Opposing Al-Hawaa entitles the honor in this world and in the Hereafter and self-esteem, outwardly and inwardly. Following it, however, lowers the rank of the ‘Abd in this life and in the Hereafter and humiliates him, outwardly and inwardly. When Allaah gathers mankind on one plane [on the Day of Resurrection], an announcer will call, “This day the people of generosity will be distinguished from those who amassed wealth. Now let the pious stand.” [97] They will stand and walk toward the place of honor while the followers of Al-Hawaa bending their heads down before Allaah] in the Mawqif [98] amidst the “heat of AI-Hawaa” its sweat and its suffering. The others [the pious] will be in the shade of the ‘Arsh. [99]

50. If you contemplate about the seven whom Allaah will shade in the shade of His ‘Arsh wherein there is no shade but His,[100] you will find that they deserved that shade because of their opposition to Al-Hawaa. Indeed the Imaam having authority and power will not be able to establish justice except by opposing his Hawaa. And with respect to the youth who prefers the sincere worship of Allaah over the urge of his youthfulness, had it not been for the opposition of his Hawaa, he would not be able to accomplish this state of worship. As to the person whose heart is attached to the mosques, the thing that drove him to this condition is the opposition of Al-Hawaa which invites him to the places of lusts. Concerning the person who gives charitable gifts secretly so that his left hand does not know what his right hand has given, had it not been for his subduing of his Hawaa, he would have not been able to attain this state.

And the person who was invited by a charming woman of noble birth [to have illegal sexual intercourse with her], feared Allaah and opposed his Hawaa. As to the one who remembers Allaah in seclusion and his eyes becomes flooded with tears for fearing Him, the thing that made him reach this state is the opposing of his Hawaa. Consequently, they were saved from being affected by the intense heat of the Al-Mawqif on the Day of Resurrection and the sweating therein. The people [adhering to] Al-Hawaa will experience the utmost degree of intense heat and sweating while they are still waiting to enter the “Prison of Al-Hawaa” Allaah is the One to be petitioned to grant us protection from the Ahwaa’ (Sing. Hawaa) of ourselves which are inclined to evil, and that He makes our Hawaa in accordance with what He loves and is acceptable to Him. He has power over all things, and He is most worthy of answering our petition.


[34] Ash-Sha’bee, ‘Aamir Bin Sharaaheel, Abu ‘Amr Al-Hamadaanee (21 (or 28)-105/642(650)- 724), the Imaam, trustworthy, and renowned Faqeeh (jurist). He met Ali Ibn Abee Taalib & and prayed behind him. He reported Ahaadeeth from Sa’d Ali Abee Waqaas, Abu Hurairah, Abee Sa’eed, ‘Aa’ishah, Ibn ‘Umar and others from the Sahaabah (radi Allaahu anhum)

[35] Muroo’ah: Moral goodness, comprising all virtues, especially manliness, valor, generosity, sense of honor, etc.

[36] The winner in the struggle between the call for prohibition by Muroo’ah, religion, or rationalism and the self’s inclination

[37] Imaam Ash-Shaafl’ee: (150/767-204/820): Muhammad Ibn Idrees Ash-Shaaf’ee, was born in Ghazza, Palestine, and traveled to Al-Madeenah in his youth to study under Imaam Maalik. He also studied in ‘Iraaq under Imaam Muhammad Ibn al-Hassan, the famous student of Imaam Abu Haneefah. Imaam Ash-Shaafi’ee holds the distinction of being the first Imaam to systematize the principles of Islaamic Law or Fiqh (Jurisprudence).

[38] Al-Jimaa‘: Legal sexual intercourse between a man and his wife.

[39] Islaam prohibits all forms of intoxication. The evil associated with alcoholic drinks is much greater than the little enjoyment that may be felt by few drinks. In fact the few drinks demand more of it until the person feels high. Then the demand grows to reach a state higher than with his first one. Addiction slowly creeps to destroy the drinker’s life and in many cases his family. Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) said:

They ask you [O Muhammad صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم] concerning alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: “In them is a great sin, and [some] benefit for men, but the sin of them is greater than their benefit.” [Qur’aan,SooratAl-Baqarah, 2:219].

[40] Rayn: Much dirtiness from rust, or simply, dirt, filth, etc.

[41] ‘Iffah: Abstinence from what is unlawful and base, virtuousness and decency.

[42] Eating, drinking, etc

[43] By reason of abasement

[44] And then regrets it.

[45] ‘Abdullaah Bin Mas’oud, the honorable companion who accepted Islaam early when Faatimah (the daughter of ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab radiAllaahu anhu) and her husband became Muslims. He was the first to openly recite the Qur’aan in Makkah. The Mushrikeen harmed him for his recitation. He prayed to the first Qiblah (Al-Quds, Jerusalem) and to the second and last Qiblah (Makkah). He migrated twice, once to Abyssinia (the first migration) and the second to Al-Madeenah. He attended the battle of Badr, Uhud and all the other confrontations with the Mushrikeen. The Khaleefah ‘Umar Ibn AI-Khattaab assigned him to teach Islaam to the people of Al-Khoofah in ‘Iraaq. Later ‘Uthmaan (radiAllaahu anhu) called him to Al-Madeenah where he died in the year 32/654. He was known for his great knowledge in Qur’aan and its Tafseer. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) attested to ‘Abdullaah’s knowledge.

[46] That is when he is inclined by his desire and lust to indulge in an unlawful act with her, let him remember something that may turn off his desire, like manatinaha: all forms of her menses and the odor associated with that. [I asked Shaykh Muhammad Bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaymeen about this explanation of Ibn Mas’oud’s saying and, alhamdulilaah, he affirmed it.]

[47] Especially at times of unawareness. ‘Abdullaah Bin Mas’oud said: “You are at a time when the truth leads Al-Hawaa and there shall come a time when Al-Hawaa will lead the truth. So, we seek refuge in Allaah from that time to come.” [See Al-Jaami’ li Ahkaam Al-Qur ‘aan by Al-Qurtubee (Beirut, Lebanon: Daarul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, 1413/1993), V. 19, p. 135.]

[48] Deviation from the right path.

[49] Ahlul-Ahwaa’ (The People of Corrupt Desires): The people who follow concepts of belief and methodologies of understanding and practices deviating from the right path, or from the truth, thus following their [corrupt] desires. [Some of their qualities are presented in the Appendix],

[50] Zuhd: To lead a pious life devoted to Allaah taking the least that is sufficient of the lawful things of life. It does not mean to abandon lawful means of earning, property, children, etc., nor exaggerating in performing acts of worship. [See a discussion on this subject in the Appendix],

[51] Ar-Riyaa’: Showing off, and not doing an action solely for the sake of Allaah.

[52] Mystic Sufism adopted ways of Zuhd that stand in direct opposition to the guidance of the Prophet’s Sunnah. [See the Appendix under Zuhd]

[53] Al-Qismah: Generally it refers to the division of property, shares, booties, profits, etc. In the Qur’aan it refers to the division of the deceased’s property in accordance with the laws of inheritance.

[54] Wilaayah: Appointing a person in charge of an office or an authority over a thing (town, district, country, province or the like).

[55] ‘Azl: Removal of someone from his office or exercise of authority.

[56] Khaleel, i.e. Allaah’s Khaleel: The one whom Allaah has distinguished by love and honor. Ibraaheem Al-Khaleel is Prophet Ibraaheem whom, like Prophet Muhammad (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) Allaah has distinguished by love and honor.

[57] The other place is in Soorat Al-Jaathiyah 45, Aayah 23.

[58] Al-Hasan Al-Basree is Al-Hasan Bin Abee Al-Hasan and his name is Abee Al-Hasan Yisaar Al-Basree Al-Ansaaree, born in Al-Madeenah (21/642). A learned Faqeeh, devout, and respected scholar. He died in Basra in 110/728.

[59] Hithaar: Anything forming a barrier, an obstruction, a partition, or a fence.

[60] An agreed upon hadeeth. [See Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V. 8, Hadeeth #494.]

[61] Reported by At-Tirmithee who said that it is “hasan-saheeh”.- It is also reported by An-Nasaa’ee and Abu Daawood. Shaykh Al-Albaanee concluded that it is authentic in Saheeh Al-Jaami’ #5210 and in Mishkaatul Masaabeeh #5696. The terminology “hasan-saheeh ” used by At-Tirmithee refers to one of two situations regarding the hadeeth:

1-That it is reported through one way of narration and there is a disagreement regarding the status of one narrator in the chain: Some consider him sound while others consider him “hasan,”

2-It is reported via two chains of narration, one “Hasan” and the other “saheeh”. (See Al-Haafith Ibn Hajar’s An-Nukal ‘Alaa Nuzhatin-Nalhar fee Tawdeeh Nukhbatul-Fikar (Dammaam, KSA: Daar Ibnul-Jawzee, 1414/1994)], pp. 93-94.

The “hasan” (fine) is itself authentic but does not reach the level of authenticity of the “saheeh”.

[62] Shaykh Muhammad Naasir-ud-Deen Al-Albaanee, may Allaah protect him, said: The Isnaad (chain of narration) of this hadeeth is weak because of the status of weakness of Nu’aim Bin Hammaad (a narrator). See Shaykh Al-Albaanee’s comments on Al-Tabreezee’s Mishkaatul Masaabeeh [Beirut, Lebanon: AI-Maktab Al-Islaamee, 1405/1985], V. l,p. 59. Al-Haafith Ibn Rajab observed another cause of weakness of this hadeeth in his commentary on An-Nawawee’s authentication of the same hadeeth. [See Ibn Rajab’s Jaami’ Al-‘Uloom wal Hikam (Beirut, Lebanon; Muassasatur-Risaalah, checked by Shu’ayeb Al-Ama’out and Ibraaheem Baajis, 1412/1991], V. 2, p. 394.

[63] Reported by Imaam Ahmad, and Al-Haithamee said: “It was reported by Ahmad, Al-Bazzaar, and At-Tabaraanee in his  Ma’aajim: As-Sagheer, Al-Awsat. and Al-Kabeer, and its narrators are ‘men of Saheeh1 [i.e. generally classified in the category of sound, reliable, or even less. This does not necessarily mean that the rest of conditions required to authenticate the Isnaad (chain of narration), not to mention the hadeeth itself, are usually met.] [See Shaykh Al-Albaanee’s introduction to Saheeh At-Targheeb war Tarheeb by AlMunthiree, pp. 43-50.]

[64] Al-Muhaddith Shaykh Muhammad Naasir-ud-Deen Al-Albaanee said that the hadeeth is hasan. See As~Silsi!ah As-Saheehah, #1802, and Saheeh Al-Jaami’, #3045.

[65] An agreed upon hadeeth, [See Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V. 8, Hadeeth #135.]

[66] Mu’aawiyah is the Sahaabee Sakhr Bin Harb Bin Umayyah Bin ‘Abd Shams Bin ‘Abd Manaaf Bin Qusay Bin Kilaab, Abu’Abdur Rahmaan. The Ameer of Al-Mu’mineen, and the King of Islaam. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“O Allaah! Bestow upon him the knowledge of the Book (i.e. the Qur’aan) and save him from torment.”

[Reported by Imaam Ahmad in Fadaa ‘il As-Sahaabah, V. 2, p. 913.]

The checker said its Isnaad is hasan because of other narrations]. He also invoked Allaah saying:

“O Allaah! Make of him (i.e. Mu’aawiyah) a guide (to the truth), cause him to be rightly directed, and cause others to be rightly directed by him.”

[Reported by Imaam Ahmad, V. 5 #17438, and by At-Tirmithee. Al-A!baanee said it is saheeh (see Saheeh Sunan At-Tirmithee, #3018).] He was one of the Sahaabah who recorded the Revelation.

Contrary to many false reports, Mu’aawiyah did not seek to take over the Khilaafah from ‘Ali Shaykh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah, Imaam Ath-Thahabee, AtTabaree, and many other scholars from the Salaf asserted that Mu’aawiyah used to acknowledge that ‘Ali is better than him and that he [Mu’aawiyah] does not deserve the Khilaafah. His position, however, was that he wanted ‘Ali to punish the assassins of ‘Uthmaan^ before he would give his loyalty to him. He thought that he was on the truth regarding this matter. ‘Ali on the other hand, conditioned that Mu’aawiyah must give the pledge of loyalty to him because he was the Khaalefah and that he thought it is wise to wait until he consolidates his power and then seek ‘Uthmaan’s assassins. ‘Ali had nothing to do with the killing of ‘Uthmaan Based upon many authentic narrations and prophecies from the Prophet Ahlus-Sunnah consider to be on the side of the truth.

The fitnah was ignited by a group of dissidents known as As-Saba’iyyah whose leader, ‘Abdullah Bin Saba’, was a Jew who considered ‘Ali to be Allaah incarnate! Most of the Sahaabah kept themselves away from the fitnah and only a few, not exceeding thirty, shared in the fighting between the army of ‘Ali and Mu’aawiyah.

The Islamic rule at the time of Mu’aawiyah’s Kingdom was very strong whereby the Muslims ruled a vast area extending from Khurasaan in the East to the West African coast, and from Cyprus in the Mediterranean to the Yemen in the South. [See Tahqeeq Mawaaqif AsSahaabah Fee Al-Fitnah; Establishing the (True) Position of the Sahaabah During the Fitnah (i.e. Between ‘Ali and Mu’aawiyahby Dr. Muhammad Amakhzoon, V. 2, pp. 93-130, published by Daar Tayebah and Maktabat Al-Khawthar, Riyaadh, KSA, 1415/1994.]

The reason why that I have highlighted some of these important facts is that most of what had been written about this fitnah is either a) fully historical and not authenticated, b) compiled by orientalists, or c) promoting baseless accounts by the Raafidhah (the rejectionists of the Shee ‘ah). The fully documented and authenticated reports from the Muhadditheen regarding the fitnah gave us the true positions of the Sahaabah regarding this matter. An excellent source is Al- ‘Awaasim Minal Qawaasim by Abu Bakr Bin ‘Al-Arabi AI-Maalikee (not the infamous mystic Sufi Ibn ‘Arabi) with commentary by Muhib-ed-Deen AI-Khateeb, 5th edition, Maktabat AsSunnah, Cairo, 1408. See also Tahtheeb Siyar ‘Alaam An-Nubalaa’, V. 1, #257. And Allaah knows best.

[67] Abu Ad-Dardaa’ is ‘Uwaymir Bin Zayed (or Bin ‘Aamir, or Bin ‘Abdullaah) Bin Qays, the Judge of Damascus, and one of the Sahaabah; the master of Qur’aanic recitation in Damascus before and during the Khilaafah of Uthmaan . He is known as the Hakeem (the wise man) of this Ummah. He was from the few amongst the Sahaabah who collected the Noble Qur’aan. He reported one hundred and ninety seven Ahaadeeth. It is reported that he died in the year 32 of Hijrah/652. [See Tahtheeb Siyar ‘Alaam An-Nubalaa’, V. 1, #172.]

[68] Bishr Al-Haafee is Bishr Bin Al-Haarith Bin ‘Abdur Rahmaan Bin ‘Ataa’ Bin Hilaal AI-Marwazee, the renowned, righteous, and trustworthy. A resident of Baghdaad. He died in 227/840 at an age of seventy six. [See Taqreeb At-Tahtheeb by Al-Haqfith Ibn Hajar, p. 168, checked by Abul Ashbaal Sagheer Ahmad Shaaghif AlPakistani, Daar AI-‘Aasimah, Riyaadh, KSA, I416.]

[69] Referring to Shaykh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah.

[70] Himiyyah: Guarding, prelecting, and absenting from what is harmful. In case of sickness it means, abstaining from things [including food] that are injurious.

[71] Sara‘: A well known state arising, in some cases, from mental disorder whereby the person falls to the ground in a state that resembles madness.

[72] ‘Abdul Maalik Bin Quraib Bin ‘Abdul Maalik Bin ‘Ali Bin Asmaa’, Abu Sa’eed Al-Baahilee, Al-Asma’ee, Al-Basree. A truthful Sim-nee; died in the 16th year of Hijrah and others said differently. He lived close to ninety years of age. [See Taqreeb At-Tahtheeb, p. 626.]

[73] AI-Fudayyl Bin ‘lyaad Bin Mas’oud At-Tameemee, Abu ‘All, the renowned, trustworthy, and an Imaam who devoted himself to the worship of Allaah. Originally from Khurasaan (a province in NE Iran). He became a resident of Makkaah and died in 187/803, or earlier. [See Taqreeb At-Tahlheeb, p. 786.]

[74] Al-Kufr here includes disbelief and Kufr which means ingratitude, being ungrateful for Allaah’s Ni ‘mah (Favour or Blessing).

[75] Abu Sulaimaan Ad-Daaraanee is ‘Abdur Rahmaan Bin Ahmad (or it is said ‘Abdur Rahmaan Bin ‘Atiyyah) born around 140/758. A great Imaam and the great Zaahid (see below) of his times. He related the hadeeth from Suiyaan Ath-Thawree and others. As safa (see below) who died in the year 215/831 or 205/821. [See Tahtheeb Siyar ‘AlaamAn-Nubalaa’by Imaam Ath-Thahabee, V. 1, #1592.]

[76] Muhammad Bin Abee Al-Ward, is Muhammad Bin Muhammad Bin’Eesa Bin ‘Abdur Rahmaan Bin ‘Abdus Samad Abul Hasan, known as Ibn Abee Al-Ward. He died in 263/847. See Ibnul Jawzee’s Safwat As-Sajwah [Cairo, Egypt: Daar As-Safa(lst edition) 1411/1990], V. 1, #281, p. 570.

[77] Yahya Bin Mu’aath Ar-Raazi, the Zaahid, the wise and the admonisher of his times. He died in Naisapoor in the year 258/872.

[See Tahiheeb Siyar ‘AlaamAn-Nubalaa’, V. 1, #2247 and Ath-Thahabbe’s Al-‘Ibar Fee Khabar Man Ghabar, V.I, p. 371, published by DaarAl-Kutub Al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon.]


He is considered a Sufi in the context of the early practice of sufism in which some of its followers were mostly interested in leading a pious life of Zuhd (an abstemious way of life), patience, clemency, sincerity, truthfulness, etc.. Overall they were close to the teachings of the Qur’aan and Sunnah, although some of them exaggerated and (or) introduced innovated forms of worship and concepts. [See Majmoo’ Fataawaa Shaykh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah, 10:366-367, and Ibnul Jawzee in Talbees Iblees, p. 156.]

Historically the process started in Basra, ‘Iraaq by the time when the majority of Taabi’ee (the followers of) At-Taabi’een passed away (Ibid, 10:358). Many of them used to wear woollen (suf) clothing a sign of disassociation from the wordly life. The first to establish a “house for the sufiyyah” was a man by the name of ‘Abdul Waahid Bin Zayed (Ibid, 10:359). In their works there is a blend of truth and falsehood. The majority of the scholars, including Imaam Shaafi’ee, Ahmad, Maalik, and others from Ahl-ul-Hadeeth, criticized their ways especially their so-called Samoa‘ [singing aimed to stimulating a state of Wajd (ecstasy)] and excessive worship. Whatever opposes the Qur’aan and Sunnah and the way of the Salafis to be rejected and whatever is in agreement is accepted because it is not innovated. The acceptance is not an approval of the terminology or the essence of Sufism in any of its stages. It remains to be remembered that it is not true that every pious and Zaahid Muslim is necessarily a Sufi. The Zuhaad (Sing. Zaahid) of the later times were more influenced by scholastic theology (Ilm Al-Kalaam) which began to creep into the Ummah following the translations of many of the philosophical concepts of the Hindus, Greeks, Romans, and Persians (Ibid, 10:367). Consequently, they deviated from the way of the Sahaabah and their followers from At-Taabi’een (Ibid, 10:358;366-367). It is known that Zuhd practices developed into organized forms of hunger, poverty, self-strive, seclusion, sleeplessness, wandering, handclapping, dancing, going to the markets in strange ways, abandoning the interest in hadeeth knowledge, and other extremes. Sufism further developed into a school of mysticism and corrupt creed and methodology. [See Talbees Iblees, pp. 156-165, published by Maktabat-ul Qur’aan, Cairo, Egypt.]

[78] Jamooh: A horse is called Jamooh when it overcomes its rider and runs away so as to be ungovernable by him.

[79] The life of this world with its temptations and means of seduction.

[80] ‘Ataa’ Bin Yasaar Al-Hilaalee, Abu Muhammad Al-Mudanee. A trustworthy and honourable Taab ‘iee known for his worship and admonitions. He died in the year 94/713 (or after). See Taqreeb At-Tahtheeb, p. 679, #4638.

[8l] AI-Hasan Bin ‘Ali Al-Muttawwi’ee: Within my resources, I didn’t find a biographical history for him.

[82] Abu Bakr Muhammad Bin ‘Umar Bin’Ali Bin Khalaf Bin Zanboor, known as AI-Hakeem (The wise man). Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdaadee said: “He was weak (in terms of Hadeeth transmission)”. He died in Baghdaad in 396/1006. [See Ibnul Jawzee’s Safawt AsSafwah, V.2, pp.351-352, #707. See also Al-‘/barbyAth-Thahabee, V.2, p. 189.]

[83] Abu ‘Ali Ath-Thaqafee is Muhammad Bin ‘Abd Al-Wahaab An-Naisapoori. He was an Imaam in most of the Islaamic disciplines, Muhaddith, Faqeeh, and an admonisher. According to Ash-Sha’raanee, he abandoned most of his knowledge and engaged in the “Sufi knowledge”! (Tabaqaat-M(Ftn.l6Q), 1:107). He died in 328/940. [See Al- ‘Ibar, V. 2, p. 3, and Tahtheeb Siyar ‘Alaam An-Nubalaa’, V. 2, #2996.]

[84] ‘Ali Bin Sahl Bin Al-‘Abbaas, the Imaam, Mufassir (scholar of Tafseer), the Zaahid, known for his devotion in worship. He died in 491/1098. [See Al-Muntakhab min Kitaab As-Siyaaq litaareekh Naisapoor, by Al-Haafith Taqyee-ed Deen As-Sayyzafeenee, p. 431, #1337. Published by Al-Maktabah At-Tijaariyyah, Makkah.]

“The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“There is none amongst you with whom is not an companion from amongst the jinn [devils]. They [the Sahaabah] said: “Allaah’s Messenger, with you too?” Thereupon he said: “Yes, but Allaah helps me against him and as such he surrendered [to Allaah in Islaam] and commands me not except for good. “

[Reported by Muslim. See Saheeh Muslim, V. 4, Hadeeth #6757.] In another narration by Muslim and Ahmad, the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم)  said:

“There is none amongst you with whom there is not an companion from amongst the jinn [devils] and an attache from amongst the angels.”

This companion from the angels may be different from those assigned by Allaah to write the record of deeds of the children of Adam. [See Al-Ashqar’s book ‘Aalam Al-Malaa’ikah AlAbraar (Kuwait, State of Kuwait: Maktabat Al-Falaah and Daar An-Nafaa’is, 1411/1991), p. 44.]

[86] These are the moments of difficulty which the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) used to seek refuge with Allaah from: Abu Huraira narrated that:

“he Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) used to seek refuge with Allaah from the difficult moments of calamity and from being overtaken by Ash-Shaqaa’ (wretchedness in the Hereafter or destruction etc.) and from being destined to an evil end, and from the malicious joy of enemies.”

Sufyaan (Bin ‘Uyainah) said: “This narration contained three items only, but I added one. I do not know which one that was.”[Reported by Al-Bukhaaree, Muslim, and An-Nasaa’ee. See Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree, V. 8, Hadeeth #358.]

[87] Al-Masheeb: The period of whiteness of the hair, or hoariness.

[88] Rushd: Maturity of intellect enabling the person lo follow a right course of action and providing a good management of affairs.

[89] Abu ‘Ali Ad-Daqqaaq is Al-Hasan Bin ‘Ali Bin Muhammad Bin Ishaaq Bin ‘Abdur Raheem Bin Ahmad, a Zaahid Sufi who excelled in fiqh, Islaamic Fundamentals, and Arabic language. According to some reports, he died around 406/1016. See Al-‘Ibar, V. 2, p. 212, and ShatharaatAth-Thahab,V.3,p. 180. Daar Ihyaa’ At-Turaath Al-‘Arabi.

[90] Al-Muhallab Bin Abee Sufrah is Thaalim Ibn Saariq Al-‘Aatakee Al-Azdee, Abu Sa’eed AI-Basree, One of the trustworthy leaders and heroes who was knowledgeable about war plans and strategies. He reported Hadeeth transmissions from ‘Abdullaah Bin ‘Amr Bin Al-‘Aas, Samrah Bin Jundhub, Ibn ‘Umar, Al-Baraa’ Bin ‘Aazib, and others from the Sahaabah [See Tahtheeb Siyar ‘AlaamAn-Nubalaa‘, V. 1, #532, and Taqreeb At-Tahtheeb, #6986.]

[91] Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) said:

فَأَمَّا مَن طَغَىٰ
وَآثَرَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا
فَإِنَّ الْجَحِيمَ هِيَ الْمَأْوَىٰ

Then, for him who Taghaa [transgressed all bounds, in disbelief, oppression, and evil deeds of disobedience to Allaah], and preferred the life of this world [by following his evil desires and lusts], verily, his abode will be Hell-Fire. [Qur’aan, Soorat An-Naazi’aal, 79:37-39).

He also said:

وَأَمَّا مَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ وَنَهَى النَّفْسَ عَنِ الْهَوَىٰ
فَإِنَّ الْجَنَّةَ هِيَ الْمَأْوَىٰ

But as for him who feared standing before his Rabb [Allaah], and restrained himself from impure evil desires and lusts, verily, Al-Jannah will be his abode. [Qur’aan, Soorat An-Naazi ‘aat, 79:40-41].

[92] Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) said:

ضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا رَّجُلًا فِيهِ شُرَكَاءُ مُتَشَاكِسُونَ وَرَجُلًا سَلَمًا لِّرَجُلٍ هَلْ يَسْتَوِيَانِ مَثَلًا ۚ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Allaah puts forth a similitude: A [slave] man belonging to many partners [like those who worship others along with Allaah] disputing with one another, and a [slave] man belonging entirely to one master [like those who worship Allaah Alone], Are those two equal in comparison? All the praises and thanks are due to Allaah! But most of them know not. [Qur’aan, Soorat Az-Zumar (39:29)].

[93] Ba’rah(Pl. Ba’r) A piece of animal dung. This signifies what is low.

[94] Signifying what is precious.

[95] The man of truth.

[96] In his eloquent and clear speech with the people.

[97] “This is from the Ghaybiyaat ( matters of Al-Ghayb) and it is not confirmed by an authentic evidence.”

[98] The standing before Allaah on the Day of Resurrection awaiting His Judgment.

[99] Know, may Allaah’s Mercy be upon you, that the shade sometimes is mentioned in relation to Allaah and sometimes in relation to His ‘Arsh. Many authentic narrations reported by Imaam Ahmad, Ad-Daarimee, Al-Baghawee, At-Tirmithee, Al-Haakira, At-Tabaraanee and others state that the shade is that of the ‘Arsh. As Al-Haafith Ibn Hajar explained, these narrations when related to the context of the agreed upon hadeeth: “Allaah will give shade to seven, on the Day when there would be no shade but His…” preponderates that the shade is that of the ‘Arsh.

Shaykh Muhammad Al-‘Uthaymeen commented that the Prophet’s statement: “On the Day when there would be no shade but His…” means that there would be no shade except that which He creates and that the belief that the shade is that of Allaah’s Essence is false, because this would imply that the sun is above Allaah the Most Majestic and Most High.

[See Fathul Baaree V. 2, p. 144, and Sifaatullaah Al-Waaridah Fil Kitaabi-wasSunnah, by ‘Alawee Bin ‘Abdul QaadirAs-Saqqaaf pp. 171-174, and Sharhul ‘Aqeedah Al-Waasitiyyah by Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Saalih Al-‘Uthaymeen, V. 2, p. 136.]

[100] The seven were mentioned in the hadeeth in which the Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:

“Allaah will give shade to seven, on the Day when there will be no shade but His. [These seven persons are]:

  • (1) a just ruler,
  • (2) a youth who has been brought up in the worship of Allaah [i.e. worships Allaah sincerely from his childhood},
  • (3) a man whose heart is attached to the mosques [i.e. he offers the five compulsory Salaat (prayers) in the mosques],
  • (4) two persons who love each other only for Allaah’s sake and they meet and part in Allaah’s Cause only.
  • (5) a man who refuses the call of a charming women of noble birth for illegal sexual intercourse with her and says: I am afraid of Allaah.
  • (6) a man who gives charitable gifts so secretly that his left hand does not know what his right hand has given [i. e. nobody knows how much he has given in charity}, and
  • (7) a person who remembers Allaah in seclusion and his eyes become flooded with tears, “

[Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim. The text is that of Al-Bukhaaree: Saheeh AI-Bukhaaree, V. 1, Hadeeth #629.]

SourceThe Dispraise of Al-Hawaa (Lowly Desire) – Imaam Ibn al Qayyim | Dr Saleh as Saleh

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