Mu’aawiyah (رضي الله عنه) is the Sahaabee Sakhr Bin Harb Bin Umayyah Bin ‘Abd Shams Bin ‘Abd Manaaf Bin Qusay Bin Kilaab, Abu’Abdur Rahmaan. The Ameer of Al-Mu’mineen, and the King of Islaam. The Prophet (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) said:
“O Allaah! Bestow upon him the knowledge of the Book (i.e. the Qur’aan) and save him from torment.”
[Reported by Imaam Ahmad in Fadaa ‘il As-Sahaabah, V. 2, p. 913.]
The checker said its Isnaad is hasan because of other narrations]. He also invoked Allaah saying:
“O Allaah! Make of him (i.e. Mu’aawiyah) a guide (to the truth), cause him to be rightly directed, and cause others to be rightly directed by him.”
[Reported by Imaam Ahmad, V. 5 #17438, and by At-Tirmithee. Al-A!baanee said it is saheeh (see Saheeh Sunan At-Tirmithee, #3018).]
He was one of the Sahaabah who recorded the Revelation.
Contrary to many false reports, Mu’aawiyah (رضي الله عنه) did not seek to take over the Khilaafah from ‘Ali (رضي الله عنه).
Shaykh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah, Imaam Ath-Thahabee, At-Tabaree, and many other scholars from the Salaf asserted that Mu’aawiyah (رضي الله عنه) used to acknowledge that ‘Ali is better than him and that he [Mu’aawiyah] does not deserve the Khilaafah. His position, however, was that he wanted ‘Ali to punish the assassins of ‘Uthmaan (رضي الله عنه) before he would give his loyalty to him. He thought that he was on the truth regarding this matter. ‘Ali on the other hand, conditioned that Mu’aawiyah must give the pledge of loyalty to him because he was the Khaalefah and that he thought it is wise to wait until he consolidates his power and then seek ‘Uthmaan’s assassins. ‘Ali had nothing to do with the killing of ‘Uthmaan. Based upon many authentic narrations and prophecies from the Prophet Ahlus-Sunnah consider to be on the side of the truth.
The fitnah was ignited by a group of dissidents known as As-Saba’iyyah whose leader, ‘Abdullah Bin Saba’, was a Jew who considered ‘Ali to be Allaah incarnate! Most of the Sahaabah kept themselves away from the fitnah and only a few, not exceeding thirty, shared in the fighting between the army of ‘Ali and Mu’aawiyah.
The Islamic rule at the time of Mu’aawiyah’s Kingdom was very strong whereby the Muslims ruled a vast area extending from Khurasaan in the East to the West African coast, and from Cyprus in the Mediterranean to the Yemen in the South. [See Tahqeeq Mawaaqif AsSahaabah Fee Al-Fitnah; Establishing the (True) Position of the Sahaabah During the Fitnah (i.e. Between ‘Ali and Mu’aawiyahby Dr. Muhammad Amakhzoon, V. 2, pp. 93-130, published by Daar Tayebah and Maktabat Al-Khawthar, Riyaadh, KSA, 1415/1994.]
The reason why that I have highlighted some of these important facts is that most of what had been written about this fitnah is either
a) fully historical and not authenticated,
b) compiled by orientalists, or
c) promoting baseless accounts by the Raafidhah (the rejectionists of the Shee ‘ah).
The fully documented and authenticated reports from the Muhadditheen regarding the fitnah gave us the true positions of the Sahaabah regarding this matter. An excellent source is Al- ‘Awaasim Minal Qawaasim by Abu Bakr Bin ‘Al-Arabi AI-Maalikee (not the infamous mystic Sufi Ibn ‘Arabi) with commentary by Muhib-ed-Deen AI-Khateeb, 5th edition, Maktabat AsSunnah, Cairo, 1408. See also Tahtheeb Siyar ‘Alaam An-Nubalaa’, V. 1, #257. And Allaah knows best.
Source: By Dr. Saleh as-Saleh in a footnote #66 in Al-Hawaa (Lowly Desires): 50 Matters to free Oneself from it – Imam Ibn al Qayyim
Related Link: https://abdurrahman.org/sahaba