The Wudhoo (Ablution) – Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee | Dawud Burbank

PURIFICATION FOR THE PRAYER (AT-TAHAARAH LISSALAAT):

From Ibn `Umar –radiyallaahu `anhumaa– who said: I heard the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) say: <<Prayer will not be accepted without purification.>> [01]

Contents:

  • The Wudoo : It’s Description
  • The Conditions (Shuroot) of Wudoo for Its Correctness
  • Obligations (Faraa’id) of Wudoo
  • Sunnahs of Wudoo
  • The Things Which Nullify the Wudoo
  • That Which the Wudoo Is Obligatory for (What Is Forbidden for the Person Whose State of Purification Is Broken)
  • That Which the Wudoo Is Recommended For

THE WUDOO·:

Its description:

From Humraan-the mawlaa (freed-slave) of `Uthmaan: that `Uthmaan ibn `Affaan radiyallaahu `anhu– called for some water for wudoo and he performed the wudoo .

So he washed his hands three times; then he washed his mouth and washed out his nose; then he washed his face three times; then he washed his right arm up to and including the elbow three times; then he washed his left arm likewise; then he wiped his head; then he washed his right foot up to and including the ankle three times; then he washed the left one likewise.

Then he said: “I saw Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) perform wudoo with the like of this wudoo of mine. Then Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:Whoever performs wudoo like this wudoo of mine, and he prays two rak`ahs-not conversing with himself in them, then his previous sins will be forgiven for him.”” Ibn Shihaab said: “Our scholars used to say: This wudoo is the most complete wudoo which anyone can make for the Prayer.” [02]

THE CONDITIONS (SHUROOT) FOR ITS CORRECTNESS:

1- The intention (an-Niyyah):

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: Actions are but by intentions, [03] and it is not legislated to utter it in words, since it is not established from the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam).

2- Mentioning Allaah’s name (at-Tasmiyah):

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: There is no Prayer for the one who does not have wudoo, and there is no wudoo· for the one who does not mention Allaah’s name upon it.” [04]

3- Continuity (al-Muwaalaat):[05]

Because of the hadeeth of Khaalid ibn Ma`daan: [from one of the Companions of the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saw a man praying with a dry spot the size of a dirham, which water had not touched. So the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) ordered him to repeat the wudoo· and the Prayer. [06]

ITS OBLIGATIONS (FARAA’ID):

1- Washing the face, and from it is washing the mouth (al-Madmadah) and washing out the nose (al-Istinshaaq).
2- Washing the two arms up to the elbows.[07]
3- Wiping the whole of the head; and the ears are from the head.
4- Washing the feet up to and including the ankles: because of His Saying -He the Most High:

[..and your feet up to and including the ankles].
[Sooratul-Maa·idah (5):6]

[[Meaning: O you who believe! When you stand to pray, wash your faces and your arms up to and including the elbows, and wipe your heads,]]

As for the washing of the mouth (al-Madmadah) and the washing out of the nose (alIstinshaaq) being from the face, such that they are obligatory, then this is because Allaah -the Perfect- commanded the washing of the face in His Mighty Book; and it is established that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) continually practised that in every wudoo, and it was reported by all those who reported his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) wudoo· and explained its description. So this shows that the washing of the face which has been commanded in the Qur’aan includes washing the mouth and washing out the nose. [08]

And there occurs a command for the two of them in his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “When one of you performs wudoo, then let him put water into his nose and then let him blow it out.”,[09] and his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Exert in sniffing water into the nose, unless you are fasting”,[10] and his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “When you perform wudoo, then wash your mouth.” [11]

As for the obligation of wiping over the whole of the head, then this is because the command in the Qur’aan to wipe is left unspecified (mujmal). So the Sunnah is referred to for its clarification, and it is established in the two Saheehs and elsewhere that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) wiped the whole of his head. So this contains a proof that it is obligatory to wipe the head completely.

So then if it is said: It is established from a hadeeth of al-Mugheerah that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) wiped over his forelock and upon his turban (`imaamah), then the response is: he only restricted himself to wiping the forelock because he completed the rest of the wiping of the head upon the turban, and we hold this as our saying; and there is no proof in it for the permissibility of limiting the wiping to the forelock, or to a part of the head, without completing it upon the turban.[12]

So in summary it is obligatory to wipe the whole of the head; and the person who wipes may wipe upon the head only, or upon the turban only, or upon the head and turban. All of this is authentic and established.

As for the two ears being from the head, such that it is obligatory to wipe them, then it is because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “The two ears are from the head.” [13]

7- Rubbing the wetted fingers through the beard:

Because of the hadeeth of Anas ibn Maalik radiyallaahu `anhu that when Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed wudoo he used to take a handful of water and enter it under his chin, and he would rub it through his beard, and say “This is what my Lord -the Mighty and Majestic- has commanded.” [14]

8- Entering the wet fingers between the fingers and toes:

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Complete the wudoo·, and rub between the fingers and toes, and exert in entering water into the nose unless you are fasting.”[15]

ITS SUNNAHS:

1- The siwaak (tooth-stick):

From Aboo Hurayrah radiyallaahu `anhu who said: Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

“If it were not that I would make a difficulty upon my nation I would have commanded them to use the siwaak with every wudoo·.”[16]

2- Washing the hands three times at the beginning of the wudoo·:

Because of what is established from `Uthmaan -radiyallaahu `anhu, that when he showed how the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed wudoo·, he washed his hands three times.[17]

3- Combining the washing of the mouth and the washing of the nose three times, each with a single handful:

Because of what occurs in the hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Zayd -radiyallaahu `anhu when he taught the people how Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed the wudoo·: that he washed his mouth and washed his nose from a single handful, and he did that three times.[18]

4- Exerting in these two, for the one who is not fasting:

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Exert in sniffing water into the nose, unless you are fasting.”[19]

5- Giving precedence to the right side over the left side:

Because of the hadeeth of `Aa·ishah –radiyallaahu `anhaa-: “Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to like to begin with the right side, when putting on shoes, and when combing his hair, and in his purification, and in all his affairs.”[20]

And because of what occurs in the hadeeth of `Uthmaan, when he showed how the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed wudoo·: that he washed the right side and then the left.

6- Rubbing (water upon the body parts):

Because of the hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Zayd: that two thirds of a handful of water was brought to the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) so he rubbed his forearms.[21]

7- Washing three times:

Because of the hadeeth of `Uthmaan: that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed the wudoo, washing each part three times; and it is authentic that he (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) performed wudoo· washing each part once; and washing each part twice. [22]

And it is recommended to repeat the wiping of the head sometimes: because of what is authentic from `Uthmaan that he performed wudoo·, and he wiped his head three times, and he said: “I saw Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) perform wudoo· like this.”[23]

8- (Keeping to) the order (at-Tarteeb):

Since this was what Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) generally did, as is reported by those who reported his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) wudoo·.

However it is authentic from al-Miqdaam ibn Ma`deekarib: “That he brought some water for wudoo· for Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) So he performed wudoo·, and he washed his hands three times, and he washed his face three times; then he washed his forearms three times; then he washed his mouth and washed out his nose three times; then he wiped his head and his ears…”, the hadeeth.[24]

9- Making supplication (du`aa·) after it:

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying:

“There is not one of you who performs wudoo·, and completes the wudoo·, and then says:

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

(Ashhadu an laa ilaaha illallaah, wahdahu laa shareeka lahu, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan `abduhu wa rasooluhu)

‘I testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, having no partner; and I testify that Muhammad is His Slave and His Messenger’,

except that the eight gates of Paradise are opened for him: he may enter through whichever of them he pleases.”[25]

at-Tirmidhee added:

اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْنِي مِنَ التَّوَّابِينَ وَاجْعَلْنِي مِنَ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ

(Allaahummaj `alnee minat-Tawwaabeena waj`alnee minal- Mutatahhireen)

‘O Allaah! Make me from those who constantly repent, and make me from those who purify themselves.’[26]

And from Aboo Sa`eed that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Whoever performs wudoo· and says:

سبْحانَك اللَّهُمّ وبحَمْدكَ أشْهدُ أنْ لا إله إلا أنْت أسْتغْفِركَ وَأتَوبُ إليْك

(Subhaanakallaahumma wa bihamdika, ashhadu an laa ilaaha illaa Anta, astaghfiruka wa atoobu ilaika)

‘ I declare You free of all imperfections, and all praise is for You. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but you. I seek Your forgiveness, and I turn in repentance to You’,

then it is written upon a parchment, then it is sealed with a seal, and it is not broken until the Day of Resurrection.”[27]

10- Praying the two rak`ahs after it – because of the saying of `Uthmaan, after he taught them the description of the wudoo· of Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam)

“I saw the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) perform wudoo· with the like of this wudoo·, and the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said: “Whoever performs wudoo· with the like of this wudoo·; then he stands and prays two rak`ahs, not conversing with himself in them, then his previous sins are forgiven.”[28]

And from Aboo Hurayrah: that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said to Bilaal, at the time of the Dawn Prayer: “O Bilaal! Tell me about the action which you have done in Islaam which gives you the most hope, for I have heard your footsteps in front of me in Paradise.”

He said: “I have not done any action which gives me greater hope than the fact that I have never purified myself at any hour of the night or the day except that I prayer what was written for me to pray with that purification.”[29]

THE THINGS WHICH NULLIFY THE WUDOO·:

1. That which comes out of the two pathways (the genitals and the anus) from excrement, urine, and wind.

Due to the Saying of Allaah- the Most High:

[[Meaning: Or if one of you comes from the toilet]],
[Sooratul-Maa·idah (5):6]

and it is an expression which means relieving oneself.

And due to the saying of the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) “Allaah will not accept the Prayer of any one of you who breaks his purification until he performs wudoo·.”

So a man from Hadramawt said: “What is ‘breaking purification’ (hadath), O Aboo Hurayrah?’’ He said: “Breaking wind noiselessly or with a sound.’’[30]

It is likewise nullified by discharge of pre-seminal fluid (al-Madhee) and al-Wadee.[31]

From Ibn `Abbaas -radiyallaahu `anhu)maa- who said: “al-Manee, and al-Wadee and al-Madhee. As for al-Manee (semen) then it is that which necessitates taking a bath (ghusl). As for ‘al-Wadee’ and al-Madhee (pre-seminal fluid), then he said: Wash your penis, or the parts of your penis, and perform the wudoo as you would do for the Prayer.’’ [32]

2. Sleep which overwhelms, such that no consciousness remains with him, whether he is sitting with his buttocks firmly on the ground or not.

Because of the hadeeth of Safwaan ibn `Assaal who said: “Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to command us that when we were on a journey that we should not take off our leather socks for three days along with their nights, except from janaabah. [33] However from excrement, and urine, and sleep.” [34]

So the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) equated sleep with urinating and voiding excrement. From `Alee radiyallaahu `anhu who said “The eye is the tying string (wikaa·) for the anus (as-Sah), so whoever sleeps then let him perform wudoo·.”[35]

And the wikaa·, with a kasrah on the waaw, is the string which is used to tie a leather bag.

And the sah, with a fathah on the seen -which is without dots, and with a kasrah on the haah -which is without shaddah is the anus. And the meaning is that being awake is the tying-string for the anus, i.e. guarding that which is contained within it from coming out, since as long as he is awake he will feel that which comes out from it. [36]

3. Loss of consciousness through intoxication or illness:

Because unconsciousness through these causes is more profound than when it results from sleep.[37]

4. Touching the uncovered genitals, if it is done with desire:

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Whoever touches his penis, then let him perform wudoo·”[38]

And his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Is it not except a part of you.” [39] So it is just a part of you if there is no desire attached to the touching, because in this condition it is possible to see the resemblance of touching that part with touching any other part of the body. Contrary to when he touches it with desire, for then touching it will not resemble touching any other part, because that will not normally be connected to desire. And this matter is clear, as you can see.[40]

5. Eating camel meat:

Because the hadeeth of al-Baraa· ibn `Aazib -radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)- who said: Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said: “Perform wudoo· from camel meat, and do not perform wudoo· from meat of sheep.”[41]

And from Jaabir ibn Samurahradiyallaahu `anhu : That a man asked the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) Should I perform wudoo· from eating the meat of sheep?” He said: “If you wish then perform wudoo·, and if you wish then don’t perform wudoo·.” He said: “Should I perform wudoo· from the meat of camels. He said: “ Yes, perform wudoo· from the meat of camels.” [42]

THAT WHICH THE WUDOO· IS OBLIGATORY FOR (WHAT IS FORBIDDEN FOR THE PERSON WHOSE STATE OF PURIFICATION IS BROKEN):

1. The Prayer:

Because of His Saying, He -the Most High:

[[Meaning: O you who believe! When you stand up intending to pray, then wash your faces…]], the Aayah. [Sooratul Maa·idah (5):6]

Due to the saying of the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) that Allaah will not accept a Prayer without Purification.” [43]

2. Performing Tawaaf around the House:

Due to his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Tawaaf around the House is Prayer, except that Allaah has made speech permissible in it.”[44]

THAT WHICH THE WUDOO· IS RECOMMENDED FOR:

1. The remembrance of Allaah- the Mighty and Majestic:

Because of the hadeeth of al-Muhaajir ibn Qunfudh, that he gave the greeting of Salaam to the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) whilst he was urinating, and he did not respond to him until he had performed wudoo·. Then he responded to him, and he said:

“I was not prevented from responding to you except by the fact that I disliked to make mention of Allaah except upon purification..”[45]

2. Sleep:

Because of what al-Baraa· ibn Aazib -radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)- said: The Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

“When one of you go to your bed then perform wudoo as you would perform wudoo· for the prayer. Then lie down upon your right-hand side, then say:

“O Allaah I have submitted my soul to You, and I have turned my face to You, and I have entrusted my affair to You, and I have placed my dependence upon You, hoping and having fear in You. There is no shelter and no place of safety from You except towards You. O Allaah, I believe in Your Book which You sent down and in Your Prophet who You sent.”

So if you die on that night of yours , then you will be upon the fitrah (the true Religion), and make them the last things you speak with.”[46]

3. The Junub (The person who is in a state of Janaabah):

When he wants to eat or drink or sleep or repeat the act of intercourse: From `Aa·ishah- radiyallaahu `anhaa- that she said that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) when he was junub, and he wanted to eat or sleep, would perform wudoo· in the way in which he performed wudoo· for the Prayer. [47]

And from `Ammaar ibn Yaasir -radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)- that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) gave concession for the junub, when he wanted to eat or drink or sleep, that he could perform wudoo· in the manner in which he performs wudoo· for the Prayer.[48]

And from Aboo Sa`eedradiyallaahu `anhu from the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) that he said:

“When one of you has relations with his wife and then he wants to repeat, then let him perform wudoo·.”[49]

4. Before taking a ghusl (bath), whether it is one which is obligatory or one which is recommended:

From `Aa·ishah- radiyallaahu `anhaa- who said:

‘‘When Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to take a bath from janaabah he would begin with washing his hands. Then he would pour water with his right hand over his left hand and wash his genitals, then he would perform wudoo· in the manner in which he performed wudoo· for the Prayer.’[50]

5. Eating that which has been touched by fire (eating cooked food):

Because of the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrahradiyallaahu `anhu who said: I heard Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Perform wudoo· from that which has been touched by fire.”[51]

And it is taken to be a recommendation because of the hadeeth of `Ammaar ibn `Umayyah ad-Damree who said: I saw the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) cutting some meat from the shoulder of a sheep and he ate from it, then he was called to the Prayer. So he got up, and threw down the knife, and prayed and he did not perform wudoo·.[52]

6. For every Prayer:

Because of the hadeeth of Buraydah radiyallaahu `anhu who said: ‘The Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to perform wudoo· for every Prayer. Then, when it was the Day of the Conquest, he performed wudoo·, and he wiped over his leather socks, and he prayed the Prayers with a single wudoo·. So `Umar said to him: “O Messenger of Allaah! You have done something which you had not used to do.” So he said: “ I did it deliberately, O `Umar.”[53]

7. Every time that purification is broken:

Because of the hadeeth of Buraydah radiyallaahu `anhu who said Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) entered the morning one day, and he called for Bilaal, and said:

“O Bilaal on account of what have you preceded me in Paradise? Last night I entered Paradise and I heard the sound of your footsteps in front of me.”

Bilaal said: “O Messenger of Allaah! I have never given the adhaan except that I prayed two rak`ahs; and my purification was never broken except that I then performed wudoo·. So Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said: “Because of this.”[54]

8. From vomiting:

Because of the hadeeth of Ma`daan ibn Abee Talhah: from Abud-Dardaa·: that Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) vomited, so he broke his fast, and he performed wudoo·. He said: So I met Thawbaan in the mosque of Damascus, and I mentioned that to him. So he said: ‘He has spoken the truth. I poured the water out for him to make wudoo·.’[55]

9. Whoever carries a dead person:

Because of his (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Whoever washes a dead person, then let him take a bath; and whoever carries him, then let him perform wudoo·.”[56]

Footnotes:

[01] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (104); Muslim (1/204/224), at-Tirmidhee (1/3/1)

[02] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/204/226)-and this is his wording, al-Bukhaaree (1/266/164), Aboo Daawwood (1/180/ 106), an-Nasaa.ee (1/64).

[03] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/9/1), Muslim (3/1515/1907), Aboo Daawood (6/284/2186), at-Tirmidhee (3/100/1698), Ibn Maajah (2/1413/4227), an-Nasaa·ee (1/59).

[04] Hasan: Saheeh Ibn Maajah (320); Aboo Daawood (1/174/101), Ibn Maajah (1/140/399).

[05] Shaikh al-Fawzaan said in ‘Tasheelul-Ilmaam’ (1/147):

“The jurists say ‘al-Muwaalaat’ (continuity) is that the person does not delay washing a body part to such an extent that the previous one has dried-in a moderate amount of time. So if he delays it until the previous body part has become dry, then it is obligatory upon him to repeat (the whole wudoo) [transl.].

[06]Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 161); Aboo Daawood (1/296/175).

[07] ash-Shaafi`ee said in ‘al-Umm’ (1/25):

“The washing of the arms will not be sufficiently accomplished at all unless it includes everything which lies between the tips of the fingers up to the washing of the elbows; and it will not be sufficient until he washes the front, the back, and the sides of them; such that he washes them completely. If he leaves anything from this, even a small amount, it will not suffice.”

[08] as-Saylul-Jarraar (1/81)

[09] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (no. 443); Aboo Daawood (1/234/140), an-Nasaa·ee (1/66).

[10] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 129); Aboo Daawood (1/236/142)

[11] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 131); Aboo Daawood (1/236/144)

[12] Tafseer Ibn Katheer (2/24)-with slight paraphrasing.

[13] Saheeh: Saheeh Ibn Maajah (no. 357); Ibn Maajah (1/152/443)

[14] Saheeh: al-Irwaa· (no. 92); Aboo Daawood (1/243/145), al-Bayhaqee (1/54).

[15] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 129); Aboo Daawood (1/236/142)

[16] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (5317); Ahmad (1/294/171)

[17] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/204/226)-and this is his wording; al-Bukhaaree (1/266/164), Aboo Daawood (1/180/106), an-Nasaa.ee (1/64).

[18] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (no. 125); Muslim (1/210/235)

[19] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 129); Aboo Daawood (1/236/142)

[20] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/269/168), Muslim (1/226/268) and (11/199/4122), an-Nasaa.ee (1/78).

[21] Its chain of narration is ‘Saheeh’, Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah (1/62/118)

[22] Hasan Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no.124); al-Bukhaaree (1/258/158) from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn Zayd; and Aboo Daawood (1/230/136) and at-Tirmidhee (1/31/43) reported it from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah.

[23] Hasan Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood no.101); Aboo Daawood (1/188/110)

[24] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood: (no. 112); Aboo Daawood (1/211/121)

[25] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (143); Muslim (1/209/234).

[26] Saheeh: Saheeh at- Tirmidhee (no. 48); at-Tirmidhee (1/38/55)

[27] Saheeh: at-Targheeb (no. 220); al-Haakim (1/564); and there is nothing authentic concerning supplication during the wudoo

[28] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/204/226)-and this is his wording, al-Bukhaaree (1/266/164), Aboo Daawood (1/180/106), an-Nasaa.ee (1/64)

[29] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (3/34/1149), Muslim (4/1910/2457)

[30] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/234/no.135), al-Bayhaqee(1/117), Ahmad (2/75/352), and the basis of the hadeeth occurs with others without the addition: Muslim (1/204/no. 225),Aboo Daawood (1/87/60), and at-Tirmidhee (1/150/76).

[31] Wadee is a thick white fluid which may come out after urination (Fiqhus-Sunnah: 1/24)

[32] Saheeh:…al-Bayhaqee (1/115).

[33] The state resulting from sexual intercourse, wet-dreams, or orgasm, and which necessitates a bath (ghusl).(transl.)

[34] Hasan: Saheeh Sunanin-Nasaa.ee(123), Sunan at-Tirmidhee (1/65/69), Sunan an-Nasaa.ee (1/84).

[35] Hasan: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (386), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/161/477), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/347/200) with its like.

[36] Naylul-Awtaar: (1/242).

[37] Ibn al-Mundhir in ‘al-Awsat’ (1/155),and an-Nawawee in his explanation of Saheeh Muslim mention that there is consensus (ijmaa`) of the scholars that unconsciousness nullifies the wudoo (transl.)

[38] Saheeh: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (388), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/307/179), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/161/479), Sunan an-Nasaa·ee (1/100), Sunan at-Tirmidhee (1/55/no.82)-with the addition :” …so let him not pray until he has performed wudoo·.”

[39] Saheeh: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (392), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/312/180), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/163/483), Sunan an-Nasaa·ee (1/101), ), Sunan at-Tirmidhee (1/56/85).

[40] Tamaamul-Minnah (p. 103).

[41] Saheeh: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (401), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/315/182), Sunan at-Tirmidhee (1/54/81), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/166/494)-in abridged form.

[42]Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim: (no.146), Muslim (1/275/360).

[43] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (104); Muslim (1/204/224), at-Tirmidhee (1/3/1)

[44] Saheeh: [Saheehul-Jaami`is-Sagheer (3954)], Sunan at-Tirmidhee (2/217/967)

[45] Saheeh: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (28), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/34/17), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/126/350), Sunan an-Nasaa.ee (1/37), and he does not report the portion traced back to the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam )

[46] Agreed upon: Saheehul-Bukhaaree (11/109/6311), Muslim (4/2081/271).

[47] Saheeh: [Abridgement of Muslim (162), Muslim (1/248-22-305), Sunan an-Nasaa·ee (1/138), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/374/221)

[48] Saheeh: Sunan Abee Daawood (1/375/222). – Declared da`eef (weak) by Shaikh al-Albaanee because of a hidden defect (`illah) [Da`eef Sunan Abee Daawood: (no.29)] (transl.)

[49] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami`is-Sagheer (263), Muslim (1/249/308), Sunan Abee Daawood (1/371/217), Sunan atTirmidhee (1/94/141), Sunan an-Nasaa·ee (1/142), Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/193/587).

[50] Saheeh:[Abridgement of Muslim (155), Saheeh Muslim (1/253/316)

[51] Saheeh:[Abridgement of Muslim (147), Saheeh Muslim (1/272/352), Sunan an-Nasaa.ee (1/105)

[52] Saheeh: [Abridgement (148), Saheeh Muslim (1/274-93-355),

[53] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (142); Muslim (1/232/277), Aboo Daawood (1/292/171), at-Tirmidhee (1/42/61), anNasaa.ee (1/86)

[54] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (7894); at-Tirmidhee (5/282/3772)

The full answer of Bilaal as reported by at-Tirmidhee was: “O Messenger of Allaah! I never gave the adhaan except that I prayed two rak`ahs; and I never broke my purification except that I then performed wudoo, and I held that Allaah was due two rak`ahs from me.’’

[55] Its chain of narration is Saheeh: Tamaamul-Minnah (p.111); at-Tirmidhee (1/58/87), Aboo Daawood (7/8/2364)- and he does not have: “and he performed wudoo”

[56] Saheeh: al-Janaa·iz (53): Ahmad (2/145/486), Ibn Hibbaan (191/751), al-Bayhaqee (1/300), at-Tirmidhee (2/231/998), with its meaning; and what is apparent from the order is that it brings about obligation. However we do not say that because of the hadeeth of Ibn `Abbaas that the Prophet (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said: “You do not have to take the bath for washing your dead, when you have washed him; for your dead person is not impure. So it is sufficient for you to wash your hands.” It was reported by al-Haakim (1/386), and al-Bayhaqee (3/398). Slightly adapted from ‘Ahkaamul-Janaa·iz’ of al-Albaanee (p. 53)

SourceAl-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank .

An excellent book on the rules and regulations of various acts of worship, with evidences from the Book and Sunnah. This chapter deals with water and aspects of purification, wudhoo, ghusl, the toilet etc

Tahara Index Pagehttps://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

Moosaa’s call was directed to tawheed, NOT to gain rulership and authority – Shaykh Rabee’

Moosaa, the one to whom Allaah spoke directly, the strong and trustworthy.

We see that his call was directed to tawheed and carried the lights of guidance and wisdom. Moosaa was brought up and was raised in the palaces of the greatest tyrant who claimed divinity. He knew the various types of corruption, unbelief, tyranny, injustice and despotism from what he witnessed in the palaces. He saw things which it is difficult to imagine or think possible. He also saw the enslavement of his people, the Children of Israa’eel, and their humiliation, and their women taken as slaves, and the killing of their children, to such an extent that it surpassed any oppression known to mankind. Allaah, the Most High, says,

“Pharaoh exalted himself haughtily in the land, and divided its people into castes. He enslaved a group of them (i.e., the Children of Israa’eel), killing their sons and letting their women live. He was indeed one of the corrupt evil-doers.”[1]

The people of Pharaoh were also people of shirk and idol-worship without a doubt.

So how did Moosaa begin? Was his call directed to correction of the ‘aqeedah of this idolatrous nation? Or did it begin with a demand for the restoration of the rights of the Children of Israa’eel, and a struggle to gain rulership and authority from the hands of the tyrant, and at the head of them Pharaoh, who claimed divinity for himself?

The call of Moosaa was just like the call of his forefathers and brothers from the earlier Prophets. His Lord instructed him and inspired him with the principle of tawheed, and chose him to carry his revelation, and to establish worship of Him. Allaah, the Most High, says,

“Has not the story of Moosaa come to you? When he saw a fire and said to his family, ‘Remain where you are for I have seen a fire. Perhaps I can bring a fire-brand from it or find someone who can show us the way.’ So when Moosaa came to the fire his Lord called him, ‘O Moosaa, I am your Lord. Remove your shoes, indeed you are in the purified valley of Tuwaa. I have chosen you as My Messenger, so listen to and heed what I reveal to you. Indeed I am Allaah. None has the right to be worshipped but Me. So worship Me and do not worship anything else besides Me, and establish Prayer for My remembrance. Indeed the Final Hour is certainly coming, which I keep hidden from all except Myself, in order to reward each soul according to its good or bad deeds.’”[2]

So this was the beginning of his Messengership; he was inspired and ordered with the ‘aqeedah of tawheed. He was ordered to establish it in himself and to represent it in his life. Then he was entrusted with the duty of calling to this sublime principle and was sent by Allaah to the Pharaoh. Allaah furthermore explained to him the correct manner of giving da’wah and the wise way in which he was to face the Pharaoh. Allaah, the Most High, said: 

“Go to Pharaoh who has transgressed all bounds in his haughtiness, pride, unbelief, and say, ‘Will you not purify yourself from the sin of unbelief and be obedient to your Lord? And that I guide you to the worship of your Lord, so that you may submit fearfully to Him and obey Him.’”[3]

He also supported him with his brother Haaroon in order for the proof to be established to the utmost, and He taught them to use gentleness and mildness in da’wah since that is the best way to attain the guidance of those whom Allaah wishes to guide:

“Go both of you to Pharaoh, indeed he has transgressed beyond all bounds, and speak mildly with him that he might accept admonition and fear and be obedient to his Lord.”[4]

So they carried out the order of their Lord and called him to Allaah, hoping for him to be guided and purified, so that he should be one of those who fear Allaah and fear and beware of the evil consequences of shirk and oppression. But he did not respond to this wise and composed call. So Moosaa manifested the great signs and clear proofs of his Prophethood and the truthfulness of his Messengership. But the despotic tyrant Pharaoh merely increased in his transgression and rejection of the truth:

“But Pharaoh denied the signs which Moosaa came with and disobeyed his order for him to fear and obey his Lord. Then he turned away from what he ordered him (i.e., obedience to his Lord) and instead worked evil and corruption, and he gathered his people and his followers and said, ‘I am your lord, the most high.’ So Allaah seized him with punishment for his latter and his earlier saying.”[5] 

The Escalation of the Tyranny of the Pharaoh and how Moosaa and his People Faced it with Patient Perseverance and Forbearance

“The chiefs of Pharaoh’s people said, ‘Will you leave Moosaa and his people to cause mischief in the land when they have abandoned worship of you and worship of your gods?’ He said, ‘We will kill their sons and let their women live, and will have full power over them.’”[6]

So what was the sin of Moosaa and his people in the view of these criminals? No crime except that they called to the tawheed of Allaah and to remain firm upon it, and to disbelieve in Pharaoh and his idols. Then what was the response of Moosaa with respect to these disgraceful and outrageous transgressions which exceeded all bounds in its barbarity and ferocity?!

His response was to remain firm upon correct belief, and to have patience and forbearance, and to seek the aid of Allaah in facing these calamities. Then he awaited the good outcome, and victory as a consequence and a good fruit of this remaining firm and this patient perseverance.

“Moosaa said to his people, ‘Seeks Allaah’s help and be patient, the earth is Allaah’s, He gives it as a heritage to whom He pleases from His servants. The final outcome is in favour of those who fear Allaah by avoiding disobedience of Him and doing what He orders.’”[7]

Then when no hope that the Pharaoh and his people would believe remained, and the suffering which the Children of Israa’eel were subjected to increased in severity, the sole request which Moosaa made to the Pharaoh was that he should allow the Children of Israa’eel the freedom to leave the land of Egypt and emigrate to wherever Allaah willed that they should go, in order to save them from the torment inflicted upon them.

“So go to the Pharaoh, saying, ‘We are the Messengers sent by your Lord, to order you to free the Children of Israa’eel. So release them and cease tormenting them. Indeed we bring you a clear sign from your Lord, and peace and safety from Allaah’s punishment are for those who follow the guidance.’”[8]

It was a sublime call to the tawheed of Allaah containing light and wisdom. It was also accompanied by an eager desire for the guidance of those who were being called, and that they should be purified. It also contained a clear example of the utmost patience and forbearance in enduring great harm, and in facing tyranny and haughty oppression. It also shows the way to face the most difficult situations with wisdom and forbearance, whilst having the strongest hope in Allaah, that He will assist and grant victory to the Believers and destroy the unbelieving oppressors. Including clear lessons for those who make their call purely seeking the Face of Allaah and desire to rectify mankind and to turn to their Lord, and for them to be guided to His Straight Path.

Footnotes :

[1] Soorah al-Qasas (28):4.

[2] Soorah Taa Haa (20):9-15.

[3] Soorah an-Naazi’aat (79):17-19.

[4] Soorah Taa Haa (20):43-44.

[5] Soorah an-Naazi’aat (79):21-25.

[6] Soorah al-A’raaf (7):127.

[7] Soorah al-A’raaf (7):128.

[8] Soorah Taa Haa (20):47.

[Excerpted from the book : “The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah – that is the way of wisdom and intelligence” – by Shaykh Rabee hafidhahullaah, translated by Dawud Burbank rahimahullah]

Download the full PDF Book:
https://abdurrahman.org/dawah/methodology-of-the-prophets-in-calling-to-allaah/

The most important part of the call of the Messengers – Tawheedul-Uloohiyyah (Singling out Allaah with all Worship) – Shaykh Rabee

The Importance of Tawheedul-Uloohiyyah
(Singling out Allaah with all Worship)

I will discuss tawheed of Allaah with regard to worship (Tawheedul-Uloohiyyah) and its importance because of two reasons:

Firstly, that it is the most important part of the call of the Messengers presented to us in the Qur’aan, and because it was the reason for the continual struggle between them and their enemies, the proud and haughty, and the obstinate, in every nation. It has continued as the reason for conflict until this day, and perhaps it will continue as such until the Day of Resurrection, as a trial and test for the inheritors of the Messengers, and in order to raise their station.

Secondly, the most severe and dangerous deviation afflicting the Muslims in the east and the west is with regard to it, and this affects the majority of the ignorant amongst the Muslims and many of those who are educated and those who associate themselves with knowledge. So we will begin by presenting the calls of the Prophets in general, and then present the call of some of them in particular.

Allaah, the Most High, says,

“We sent a Messenger to every nation ordering them that they should worship Allaah alone, obey Him and make their worship purely for Him, and that they should avoid everything worshipped besides Allaah. So from them there were those whom Allaah guided to His religion, and there were those who were unbelievers for whom misguidance was ordained. So travel through the land and see the destruction that befell those who denied the Messengers and disbelieved.”[1]

Allaah, the Most High, says,

“We did not send any Messenger before you, O Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , except that We revealed to him that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, so make all of your worship purely for Him.”[2]

He, the Most High, says after mentioning a number of stories of the Prophets, alayhimus-salaatu was-salaam: 

“This religion of yours is a single religion, and I am your Lord, so worship Me alone.”[3] 

Allaah, the Most High, says:

“O Messengers, eat from the food which Allaah has made lawful, and do correct and righteous deeds. Indeed, I am fully aware of whatever you do. Indeed this religion of yours is a single religion, and I am your Lord so keep yourselves safe from My punishment by obeying Me.”[4]

Al-Haafidh Ibn Katheer said, “Mujaahid, Sa’eed ibn Jubayr, Qataadah and Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Zayd ibn Aslam said about the saying of Allaah, the Most High,  which means, ‘Your religion is one.’[5] Then the meaning of these two Aayaat occurs in the Sunnah in his (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   saying, “I am the closest of the people to ‘Eesaa ibn Maryam in this world and the Hereafter. The Prophets are brothers, their mothers are different, but their religion is one.”[6]

Also Allaah, the Most High, says about the Messengers who were firmest in determination (oolul-‘adham), alayhimus-salaatu was -salaam:

“Your Lord prescribed for you O people, the same religion which He prescribed for Nooh, and that which We revealed to you O Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ), and which He prescribed for Ibraaheem, and Moosaa, and ’Eesaa, that you should establish the religion, acting upon what is prescribed, and not split into sects with regard to it. It is intolerable to the polytheists that you call them to sincerely worship Allaah alone and reject worship of all else besides Him. But Allaah chooses for His religion whomever He pleases and He guides those who turn to Him in repentance and obedience, to act in obedience to Him, and to follow the guidance with which He sent His Messenger.”[7]

This was the call of all the Prophets, and at the head of them the Messengers who were firmest in determination. So the Prophets who numbered one hundred and twenty four thousand [8] followed a single methodology in their call, and began from a single starting point which is tawheed, the greatest issue and most important principle which they conveyed to all mankind, throughout the ages and despite their varying societies, lands and times.

This is a proof that this is the single way which must be followed in calling the people to Allaah, and it is something laid down by Allaah to be followed by all of His Prophets and their true and sincere followers. It is not permissible to change or replace it, nor to turn away from it.

Examples From the Calls of Some of the Messengers

Allaah, the Most High, has informed us about some of the individuals from the greater Prophets, and how they faced their people. We see that all of them proceeded upon the universal way laid down for them by Allaah and they followed the methodology established for all of them by Allaah. Not a single one of them is at variance with it. Allaah, the Most High, says,

“And We sent Nooh to his people saying, ‘I am a clear warner sent to you, that you should worship none besides Allaah. Indeed, if you do not make all your worship purely for Him I fear for you the torment of a painful Day.’ The chiefs of the disbelievers amongst his people said, ‘We see that you are but a man like ourselves and we do not see you followed except by the lowest of the people, in what is apparent to us. Nor do we see that you have any excellence over us, rather we think that you are a liar.’”[9]

Allaah, the Most High, says,

“And to ’Aad We sent Hood, saying, ‘O my people worship Allaah, making all of your worship purely for Him, since there is none besides Him having the right to be worshipped by you. Will you not fear your Lord?’ The leaders of those who disbelieved amongst his people said, ‘We see you upon error (due to your abandonment of our religion and worship of our gods) and we think that you are a liar (in claiming to be a Messenger from the Lord of the Worlds).’ He said, ‘O my People, I am not upon error, I am indeed a Messenger sent by the Lord of the Worlds. I convey to you the Message of my Lord and am sincere in my advice and faithful to my trust. Do you wonder that Allaah should send admonition for you through a man from amongst you, warning you of Allaah’s punishment and to fear Him? And remember the blessings of Allaah upon you in that He made you successors to the people of Nooh (after drowning them for their unbelief and denial of their Messenger), and He increased you in height and size. So remember the favours bestowed upon you by Allaah, so that you may be successful.’ They said, ‘Do you come to us warning us of punishment from Allaah for that which we practise as religion, so that we should instead worship Allaah alone and forsake what our fathers used to worship? We will not do that, so bring us the punishment which you threaten us with if you are truthful.’ He said, ‘Allaah’s punishment and wrath have become unavoidable for you. Do you dispute with me about mere idols which you and your fathers have given names to, things which can neither bring harm nor benefit, and Allaah has given no proof or excuse for their worship? Then wait for Allaah’s judgement between us, I too shall wait.’ So We saved Hood and those with him through Our Mercy (due to their eemaan and their worship of Allaah alone), and we annihilated those who rejected Our signs and were not Believers.”[10]

This was the call of the Messengers, all of them followed this methodology in their da’wah to Allaah: they called first to the tawheed of Allaah, and that He alone must be singled out with all worship. Then their people opposed them because of this, except those whom Allaah guided, facing them with mockery, charging them with being liars and seeking to ridicule them. As Allaah, the Most High, says:

“Many Prophets were sent to the earlier peoples, and no Prophet came to them except that the people met him with mockery.”[11]

There is nothing more severe and hurtful to lofty believing souls than accusations of falsehood, ridicule and mockery. These things are more hurtful to them than being struck with swords and imprisonment and punishment. This fact is mentioned by the Arab poet who said, “Being harmed by close relatives is more painful to the soul than being struck with a sharpened sword.”

’Aa’ishah, radiyallaahu ’anhaa, asked the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , “Has there been a day more severe upon you than the Day of Uhud?” So he said, “Your tribe has troubled me greatly, and the most troublesome thing which I experienced from them was on the day of ’Aqabah when I presented myself to ’Abd Yaaleel ibn ’Abd Kulaal and he didn’t respond as I had hoped. So I returned overwhelmed with sorrow and did not recover until I reached Qarnuth-Tha’aalib.[12] I raised my head and saw a cloud shading me, then I looked and saw Jibreel in it, and he called me saying, ‘Allaah has heard what your people said to you and their reply, and Allaah has sent the Angel of the mountains to you, for you to order him to do whatever you wish.’ So the Angel of the mountains called me and greeted me with salaam and then said, ‘O Muhammad, Allaah has heard what your people said to you, and I am the Angel of the mountains, and my Lord has sent me to you for you to order me as you wish. So what do you wish?’ So Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   said, “No, rather I hope that from their offspring will come those who will worship Allaah alone and not worship anything else besides Him.”[13]

This hadeeth clearly shows the da’wah of Allaah’s Messenger (ﷺ) and his perseverance in that, and his mildness with his people. See how he was patient with them and asked for them to be spared from destruction which would have wiped them out. He instead hoped for good from Allaah, and hoped that from their offspring would come those who worshipped Allaah alone, not worshipping anything besides Him. Indeed what a noble and lofty goal, which is not realized except by those who taste the blessing of tawheed and know its station.

The books of Seerah[14] detail some of the answers given by those who mocked him and their scornful stance when he invited them to Islaam. They mention that he went to a number of the nobles and leaders of the tribe of Thaqeef, and they were three brothers, ’Abd Yaleel, Mas’ood and Habeeb… and he sat with them and called them to Allaah and asked them to support Islaam and stand with him against those of his people who opposed him. So one of them said, “If it is actually true that Allaah has sent you, then He is tearing down the covering of the Ka’bah.” The second said, “Could Allaah not find anyone to send but you?” The third said, “By Allaah, I will never speak with you. If you are truly a Messenger from Allaah as you claim, then you are more serious than to have me reply to your words, and if you are lying against Allaah then it is not proper that I should ever speak to you.” So Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   left having despaired of good from Thaqeef.[15]

What we see from the hadeeth and the stroy is that mockery and scorn and harm caused by the foolish idolaters was more severe to the Prophets than any other trouble, even more so than the fierce battles in which lives are spent and the blood of their pure companions is shed. Indeed on the Day of Uhud more than seventy Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   were martyred.[16] Amongst them: Mus’ab ibn ’Umayr,[17] and Hamzah ibn ’Abdil- Muttalib[18] the paternal uncle of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , and Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   was injured in the face and his incisor was broken.[19] He also suffered along with his Companions at the hands of the hypocrites, and suffered great harm and hardship before that in Makkah, and at Badr and other battles. Yet despite all of this, the severest trouble which he faced was on the Day of Taa’if because of the mockery and contempt which he faced to such a degree that it is unbearable for pure souls. Furthermore Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   said, Those who suffered the severest trials are the Prophets, then those who are most like them, then those who are most like them after that.[20]

So those who are most like them, and then those who are next closest are those who proceed upon their methodology in calling to Allaah, and called to what they called to, i.e. to the tawheed of Allaah and that He is to be singled out with all worship, and to rejection of all shirk (attribution of any form or part of worship to anyone besides Allaah). Such people will suffer similar harm and trials as suffered by the Prophets who are their example. It is because of this fact that you see many of the callers departing away from this difficult methodology, and this rugged path, since the caller who follows it will have to face opposition from his mother, his father, his brother, his friends and those whom he loves. He will be opposed by the society which will treat him as an enemy and seek to mock and harm him. So many callers divert their attention to other aspects of Islaam which do have their place, and are not denied by anyone who truly believes in Allaah, except that those aspects do not involve that difficulty and hardship and do not bring about mockery and harm particularly in Islamic societies. This is because the majority of the people of the ummah of Islaam are willing to gather around these type of callers, and they throw praise and honour upon them instead of mockery and harm, unless they pose a threat to the rulers and are a danger to their positions, in which case they suppress them brutally. For example political parties which oppose the rulers and threaten to dethrone them. In such a case the rulers will show no love to relatives or friends, Muslims or disbelievers.

Then in any case we say to those callers: no matter how much noise they make, and no matter how high they raise their voices in the name of Islaam, restrain yourselves because you have left the way prescribed by Allaah and His Straight Path, upon which the Prophets and their followers proceeded in calling to tawheed of Allaah and to making the religion purely for Him. So no matter how much you speak and raise your voices in the name of Islaam, you are still deviating from the methodology of the Prophets which was laid down by Allaah. No matter how much effort you expend, and how much you manage to extend your da’wah and your own methodology, you are still preoccupying yourselves with the means to the exclusion of the goal. Then what use are the means[21] if they merely harm the goal, and they themselves grow at its expense.

Indeed woe to those callers who obstinately persist upon the methodologies which they themselves have innovated, those who fight against the methodology of the Prophets in calling to the tawheed of Allaah, beneath dazzling banners and slogans which captivate the simple minded and those ignorant of the methodology and way of the Prophets.

Footnotes

[1] Soorah an-Nahl (16):36.

[2] Soorah al-Ambiyaa (21):25.

[3] Soorah al-Ambiyaa (21):92.

[4] Soorah al-Muminoon (23):51-52.

[5] Tafseer Ibn Katheer (5/365).

[6] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 4/434 no.652) and Muslim (Eng. trans. 4/1260 no.5834).

[7] Soorah ash-Shooraa (42):13.

[8] As shown by the hadeeth of Aboo Dharr, reported by al-Bukhaaree in, at-Taareekhul-Kabeer (5/447), and Ahmad in al-Musnad (5/178 and 179) by way of al-Mas’oodee, from Aboo ’Umar ad-Dimashqee, from ’Ubayd ibn al-Hashaas, from Aboo Dharr. It is also reported by Ibn Hibbaan as occurs in al-Mawaarid (no.94), and Aboo Nu’aym in al-Hilyah (1/166-168) and he indicated other chains of narration from Aboo Dharr. It is also reported by Ahmad (5/265), Ibn Abee Haatim in his Tafseer (quoted by Ibn Katheer (2/324), and at-Tabaraanee (8/258)). It also has a further chain of narration from Aboo Umaamah quoting the number of the Messengers (Rusul) which is three hundred and thirteen, and that is reported by at-Tabaraanee (8/139) and Ibn Hibbaan, as occurs in al-Mawaarid (no.2085). Ibn Katheer said, “It is reported by at-Tabaraanee and its narrators are those of the Saheeh except Ahmad ibn Khaleed al-Halabee, and he is reliable.”

[9] Soorah Hood (11):25-27.

[10] Soorah al-A’raaf (7):65-72.

[11] Soorah az-Zukhruf (43):6-7.

[12] A place between Makkah and at-Taa’if also called Qarnul-Manaazil.

[13] Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 4/300 no.454) and Muslim (Eng. trans. 3/987 no.4425).

[14] Books about the life of the Prophet (ﷺ).

[15] Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah,’(3/135) and ad-Durar Fikhtisaaril-Maghaazee was-Siyaar (p.35) of Ibn ’Abdul-Barr.

[16] Al-Bukhaaree, rahimahullaah, said, (Eng. trans. 5/279 ch. 25), “Chapter: The Muslims who were killed on the Day of Uhud… ’Amr ibn ’Alee narrated to us: Mu’aadh ibn Hishaam narrated to us, saying: My father narrated to me from: Qataadah, who said, ‘We do not know of any tribe amongst the Arabs who lost more martyrs, and will have superiority on the Day of Resurrection, than the Ansaar.’ And Qataadah said: Anas ibn Maalik narrated to us: that seventy of the Ansaar were martyred on the day of Uhud, and seventy on the day of Bir Ma’oonah, and seventy on the day of al-Yamaamah.

[17] From Khabbaab, radiyallaahu ’anhu, who said, “We emigrated along with the Prophet (ﷺ) seeking thereby only the Face of Allaah, so our reward became assured with Allaah. Then there were some of us who died not having taken anything from his reward. From them was Mus’ab ibn ’Umayr who was killed on the day of Uhud and did not leave anything behind except a small striped sheet. When we covered his head with it his feet were uncovered, and when we covered his feet with it his head was uncovered. So the Prophet said, ‘Cover his head with it, and place idhkhir (a sweet smelling rush) upon his feet.’” (Reported by al- Bukhaaree (Eng. trans.5/281/no. 408), Muslim (Eng. trans. 2/446/no. 2050 ), Ahmad and an- Nasaa’ee.

[18] The story of his martyrdom is to be found in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 5/74-277/no. 399 ) and the Musnad of Imaam Ahmad (3/500-501).

[19] From Anas, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said: “On the day of Uhud the Prophet (ﷺ) was injured in the face and said, ‘How can a people who injure the face of the Prophet (ﷺ) be successful?’ And so the Aayah, “Not for you is the decision…’ (Soorah Aal-’Imraan (3):128) was sent down.” Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 5/272 ch.20 and Muslim (Eng. trans. 2/985 no.4417), and Muslim also reports (Eng. trans. 2/984/4414) the hadeeth of Sahl ibn Sa’d with the wording, “Allaah’s Messenger (ﷺ) was wounded in his face and his incisor was broken and his helmet was crushed upon his head.”

[20] Reported by Tirmidhee (4/602 no.2398), Ibn Maajah (2/1334 no. 4023), ad-Daarimee (2/228, no. 2786) and Ahmad (1/172, 174, 180, 185), all of them by way of ’Aasim ibn Abin-Nujood, who is generally acceptable (sudooq), but makes mistakes; from Mus’ab ibn Sa’d, Tirmidhee declared it to be hasan saheeh. But Tirmidhee’s declaration of its direct authenticity is debatable, and it as if he took into account other witnesses for it, since there are other supporting narrations for it:

(1) From Aboo Sa’eed al-Khudree, reported by Ibn Maajah (no. 4024), and its chain of narration is declared saheeh in az-Zawaa’id.

(2) The hadeeth of Faatimah bint al-Yamaan reported by Ahmad (6/329).

(3) The hadeeth of Aboo Hurairah indicated by Tirmidhee after reporting the original hadeeth.

[21] Rule is a means to calling to Allaah as Allaah, the Most High, says:

“Those who, when We establish them in the land, they establish the Prayer, pay the Zakaat, call the people to make all of their worship purely for Allaah, and to His obedience and to what is known by the People of eemaan to be good: And they warn against attribution of partners in worship to Allaah, and disobedience to Him.” [Soorah al-Hajj (22):41].

[Excerpted from the book : “The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah – that is the way of wisdom and intelligence” – by Shaykh Rabee hafidhahullaah, translated by Dawud Burbank rahimahullah]

Download the full PDF Book:
https://abdurrahman.org/dawah/methodology-of-the-prophets-in-calling-to-allaah/

The Torture Endured by the Companions Because of their Adherence to Tawheed – Shaykh Rabee ibn Hadee

The Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)   suffered the worst forms of torture because of their adherence to the correct ‘aqeedah, and their making all worship purely and sincerely for Allaah alone, and their rejection of shirk and kufr.

From ’Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, who said, “The first people to openly proclaim their Islaam were seven: Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  , Aboo Bakr, ’Ammaar and his mother Sumayyah, Suhayb, Bilaal and al-Miqdaad. So as for Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)  , Allaah gave him protection through his uncle Aboo Taalib. As for Aboo Bakr, Allaah gave him protection through his people. But as for the rest of them, the Mushriks would take hold of them and dress them in iron armour and place them to scorch and roast in the sun. There was not one of them except that they responded to them except Bilaal, for his soul became as nothing to him for Allaah’s sake, and his people had no respect for him. So they gave him to the children who used to drag him around the streets of Makkah and he would say repeatedly, ‘(He who has the right to worship is) One, One.’”[1]

In the Seerah of Ibn Hishaam [2] there occurs: ’Umayyah ibn Khalf used to take him (Bilaal) out in the midday heat of the sun, and throw him down upon his back, on the ground of the flat valley bed of Makkah, and he would order for a large rock to be placed on his chest. Then he would say, “By Allaah, you will stay like this until you die, unless you disbelieve in Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم)   and you worship al-Laat and al-’Uzzaa.” So he would say, whilst he was in that condition, “(He who alone has the right to worship is) One, One.”

Sumayyah was tortured until death because of the ‘aqeedah of tawheed not becasue she was a political leader. So from Mujaahid who said, “The first martyr in Islaam was Sumayyah the mother of ’Ammaar. Aboo Jahl thrust a spear into her abdomen.”[3]

Ibn Sa’d said, “She accepted Islaam early on in Makkah and she was one of those who was tortured to force them to abandon their religion. But she bore and endured it until Aboo Jahl came to her and thrust a spear into her abdomen and she died.”[4]

Footnotes:

[1] Reported by al-Haakim in al-Mustadrak (3/284) and he declared it saheeh and adh-Dhahabee mentioned it in Siyar A’laamin-Nubalaa (1/348) and he said, “It has a saheeh chain of narration…”

[2] Seerah of Ibn Hishaam (1/318).

[3] At-Tabaqaat of Ibn Sa’d (8/264/265). He said, “Ismaa’eel ibn ’Umar, Abul-Mundhir related to us that Sufyaan ath-Thawree narrated to us from Mansoor from Mujaahid who said…” This is a saheeh chain of narration to Mujaahid.

[4] Tabaqaat Ibn Sa’d (8/264).

[Excerpted from the book : “The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah – that is the way of wisdom and intelligence” – by Shaykh Rabee hafidhahullaah, translated by Dawud Burbank rahimahullah]

Download the full PDF Book:
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Yoosuf (عليه السلام) and his call to Tawheed – Shaykh Rabee ibn Hadee

Yoosuf (عليه السلام)

The noble one, son of the noble one, son of the noble one.[1] About whom Allaah sent down a long Soorah relating his noble life to us, and its stages, from his childhood to his death, and how his circumstances changed, and the difficulties that he faced, and how he faced everything with the Strength of Prophethood and his patient perseverance, wisdom and mildness.

Yoosuf, ’alayhis-salaam, saw the corrupt outlook of the Pharaohs in Egypt and their oppression, and he knew the beliefs of the nation amongst whom he lived. He knew the corruption of their beliefs and their idolatry, which led them to take idols and cattle as gods to worship besides Allaah. The stroy of this noble Prophet, ‘alayhis-salaam, is long, and from it, we will examine the story of his imprisonment and his da’wah at that time. Allaah, the Most High, says,

“And two young men entered the prison along with him. One of them said, ‘I saw in a dream that I was pressing grapes,’ and the other one said, ‘I saw in a dream that I was carrying bread upon my head and birds were eating from it.’ ‘Inform us of the interpretation of this for indeed we see that you are one of the doers of good.’ He said, ‘No food will come to you to eat except that I will inform you about it fully before it comes to you. This is from the knowledge which my Lord has taught me as I have remained free of the religion of a people who do not believe in the oneness of Allaah and who are disbelievers in the Hereafter. Rather I follow the religion of my fathers, Ibraaheem, Ishaaq and Ya’qoob. It is not fitting that we should worship anything else along with Allaah. This is from Allaah’s favour upon us and upon the people, yet most of the people do not give thanks for Allaah’s favours. O my two companions in the prison, is it better that you worship many different lords, or that you worship only Allaah, the One, Who subdues and has full power over everything? You do not worship besides Allaah except idols which you call gods, which you and your forefathers give names to, for which Allaah has sent down no authority. Authority is for Allaah alone. He ordered that you worship none but Him, that is the Straight and true religion, yet most of the people do not know (and are people of shirk).’”[2]

This noble Prophet, ’alayhis-salaam, lived in their palaces and was therefore well aware of the corruption of their administration and their rulers. He experienced at first hand their plots, their oppression, their unjust persecution and imprisonment by them. Furthermore he lived amongst an idolatrous nation who worshipped idols, cattle and stars. So where was correction to begin? What was the starting point?

Did he begin calling to Allaah, whilst he was wrongfully imprisoned along with others who were oppressed like him, by inciting them and rousing them against the despotic and tyrant rulers? This would be without a doubt a political response, and was an opportunity open to him. Or did he begin his call from the starting point adopted by his noble forefathers, and at the head of them Ibraaheem, the chosen and beloved Friend of Allaah and the Imaam of the call to tawheed; which was the starting point for all the Messengers of Allaah? There is no doubt that the single way of correction and rectification in every time and place is the way of calling to correct ‘aqeedah and tawheed and that all worship should be made purely and sincerely for Allaah alone.

Therefore Yoosuf began from this starting point, following his noble fathers, proud of their ‘aqeedah, and deriding and exposing the foolishness of the idolaters and their practice of taking idols, cattle and stars as lords to be worshipped besides Allaah.

So after clearly explaining this, and openly calling to tawheed and to rejection of shirk, he emphasised his call and his argument by his saying,

“Authority and command is for Allaah alone.”[3], [4]

Then he explained this authority and command to mean the tawheed of Allaah, and that He alone is to be worshipped:

“…That is the Straight and true reigion, yet most of the people do not know (and are people of shirk).”[5]

Also Yoosuf, ’alayhis-salaam, attained the highest position in this state[6] whilst calling to the tawheed of Allaah and establishing the clear proofs for his call and his Prophethood. Allaah, the Most High, says, in explanation of this,

“The king of Egypt said, ‘Bring him to me, I will make him my personal servant.’ So when he spoke to Yoosuf, he said, ‘Verily, this day you have with us a position of rank and full trust.’ He said, ‘Place me in charge of the storehouses and wealth of the land, indeed I will guard them faithfully and with full knowledge.’”[7]

And he said, giving thanks to his Lord and Protector,

“O my Lord, You have bestowed upon me something of dominion and have taught me the interpretation of dreams. O Originator and Creator of the heavens and the earth, You are my Lord and Protector in this world and the Hereafter. Cause me to die as a Muslim and join me with the righteous.”[8]

Furthermore Allaah says in explanation of his da’wah, upon the tongue of the Believer from the family of the Pharaoh:

“And Yoosuf came to you previously (before Moosaa) with clear signs yet you have not ceased doubting about what he came to you with. Until when he died you said, ‘Allaah will not send any Messenger after him.’ This is the state of those whom Allaah leads astray, those who are disbelievers in Him and doubt the truthfulness of the Messengers.”[9]

So from the knowledge to be learned from the life-story of Yoosuf, ’alayhis-salaam, which is presented to us in those noble Aayaat is that the call to tawheed is something very essential. Furthermore there is to be no leniency or relaxation in fighting against shirk, it is not permissible to keep silent about it, whatever the circumstances of the caller to Allaah; rather it is not permissible for any Muslim to ever accept it or be relaxed about it. So this shows the high station of ‘aqeedah, and its importance with Allaah, and with His Prophets and His Messenger. It also shows the very great difference and the distance between it and the details of Islaam.

It is not permissible for the Muslim, particularly the caller, to take up any position which violates his ‘aqeedah or is contrary to it, or that he is a fortune-teller, those who are Mushriks, or that he is a custodian of their idols. If he does any of this then he is one of the misguided Mushriks. With regard to the legislative aspect, if the Islamic state is established, it must apply the Sharee’ah of Allaah, otherwise:

“And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed then they are the ones guilty of unbelief.”[10]

The unbelief (kufr) here is explained in detail by the scholars of Islaam, from the Companions and others, that it may be major Kufr, when the person disdains the Sharee’ah of Allaah and declares it lawful to judge by something else, and it may be lesser Kufr (i.e., that which does not take a person out of Islaam) when he does not declare it lawful to judge by other than it, but gives in to his desires and because of that judges by other than what Allaah sent down.

However when the Islamic state has not been established, then Allaah does not a burden a soul with more than it is capable of. So the Muslim may take up a position in a non-Muslim state with the condition that he establishes justice, and that he does not obey them ina matter which involves disobedience to Allaah, and does not judge by other than what Allaah sent down. This was what the Prophet of Allaah, Yoosuf, did. He took up a position as a deputy for a unbelieving king, and he did not judge according to his laws:

“He could not have taken and kept his brother according to the king’s law.”[11]

Furthermore, he established justice between the subjects and called them to the tawheed of Allaah. So this contains a decisive reply to those who give little importance to the ‘aqeedah of Tahweed. Those who gloss over and accomodate when it comes to the shirk which has filled the world, and they regard the callers to tawheed and the enemies of shirk with contempt and scorn. They turn up their noses and are too proud to ‘lower’ themselves to the level of the callers to tawheed, and they are very wily and astute concerning political affairs, but nothing is more burdensome and disagreeable to their hearing and their hearts than listening to or saying a word regarding tawheed or shirk. These types of callers have caused themselves to fall into a deep abyss, whilst they think that they have reached the highest peaks. Can a people ever prosper whose stance with regard to the call of the Prophets is like this, unless they sincerely repent to Allaah from what they are upon?

Footnotes:

[1] As indicated in the hadeeth of Ibn ’Umar, radiyallaahu ’anhumaa, from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) that he said, “The noble one, son of the noble one, son of the noble one: Yoosuf the son of Ya’qoob, the son of Ishaaq, the son of Ibraaheem, ’alayhis-salaam.Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 4/390/596), and Ahmad in al-Musnad (2/96), and also the hadeeth of Aboo Hurairah, radiyallaahu ’anhu, that Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) was asked about the noblest of the people, so he said, “Those most pious and obedient to Allaah.” They said, “It is not this that we are asking about.” He said, “Then the noblest of the people is Yoosuf, the Prophet of Allaah, son of the Prophet of Allaah, son of the Prophet of Allaah, son of the chosen and beloved Friend of Allaah.” They said, “It is not this that we are asking about.” He said, “Then is it about the origins of the Arabs that you ask? Then the people are of various origins. The best of them in the times of ignorance are the best of them in Islaam when they attain knowledge and understanding in the religion.” Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 4/390/597).

[2] Soorah Yoosuf (12):36-40.

[3] Soorah Yoosuf (12):40.

[4] This Aayah is one of the basic principles from the principles of tawheed, as Allaah has explained upon the tongue of Yoosuf, ’alayhis-salaam. What is most unfortunate is that you see that many of the political reformers have explained it in a way that is far removed from its primary meaning, that all worship is to be made purely and sincerely for Allaah alone, and have instead explained it to have a political meaning, which is establishment of the state which they claim will establish Allaah’s Sharee’ah upon the earth as His deputies/vicegerents. Then they go beyond bounds in this direction till they cause the people to forget the principal meaning of the Aayah, and they understand nothing from it except this new meaning, and there is no action and no ability except by the will of Allaah. They do the same with all or most of the Aayaat of tawheed.

[5] Soorah Yoosuf (12):40.

[6] Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah, rahimahullaah, said in al-Hisbah (p.7), “Likewise Yoosuf the truthful and honest, was a minister for the Pharaoh of Egypt, and he and his people were mushriks. So Yoosuf performed whatever justice and good he was able to and called them as far as possible to correct eemaan.”

[7] Soorah Yoosuf (12):54-55.

[8] Soorah Yoosuf (12):101.

[9] Soorah Ghaafir:(40):34.

[10] Soorah al-Maa’idah (5):44.

[11] Soorah Yoosuf (12):76.

[Excerpted from the book : “The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah – that is the way of wisdom and intelligence” – by Shaykh Rabee hafidhahullaah, translated by Dawud Burbank rahimahullah]

Download the full PDF Book:
https://abdurrahman.org/dawah/methodology-of-the-prophets-in-calling-to-allaah/

Ibraaheem (عليه السلام): His fervent, vigorous and incessant call to the tawheed of Allaah – Shaykh Rabee

Ibraaheem

The Father of the Prophets and the Leader of those who worship Allaah alone, upon the true religion, Ibraaheem, the Chosen and Beloved Friend of Allaah (Khaleelullaah), who was such that Allaah ordered the best of the Messengers and the final Prophet, and his ummah, to emulate him, to take his call as an example, and to follow his way and methodolgy.[1]

Allaah, the Most High, says:

“And remember when Ibraaheem said to his father Aazar, ‘Will you take idols for worship? Indeed I see that you and those who worship idols along with you are upon clear error.’ Likewise We showed Ibraaheem the heavens and the earth (and how they are a proof that the Creator alone should be worshipped), so that he should be one of those who have Faith with certainty. So when the night covered him with darkness he saw a star and said, (as an argument to show his people the error of worshipping anything besides Allaah), ‘This is (what you claim to be) my Lord?!’ Then when it set, he said, ‘I do not love that which passes away.’ Then when he saw the moon rising up he said, ‘This is (what you claim to be) my Lord?!’ Then when it set he said, ‘If my Lord did not keep me firm upon the guidance then I would surely be one of the misguided.’ Then when he saw the sun, he said, ‘This is (what you claim to be) my Lord?! This is greater than the others.’ Then when it set he said, ‘O my people, I am free from all that you associate as partners in worship with Allaah. Indeed I have turned my face in worship to Him who has created the heavens and the earth, making all worship purely for Him, and I am not from those who worship anything besides Allaah.’”[2]

So this was a fervent, vigorous and incessant call to the tawheed of Allaah, and to make all of religion purely for Him, and to the elimination and rejection of shirk. It begins with the family and extends to the nations, waging war upon shirk and the idols and shaking the very foundations of attribution of any worship to the stars. So the chosen and beloved Friend of Allaah proceeded upon the soundest way in debating and arguing in order to establish Allaah’s Proof and to refute shirk and to show its fallacy and reject the doubts used to support it. So his use of the word ‘idols’ shows contempt for their phoney and supposed gods, and an exposure of their foolishness. He observed the aforementioned celestial bodies one after the other, each one succeeded the previous one which set and became absent, in order to use their condition as a clear proof of the fallacy of their having any divinty or right to worship as his people claimed. Who was it who protected and guarded them and controlled their affairs and the affairs of the creation when they passed and set?! Therefore they must reject the false divinity and right to worship which they claimed for them and disbelieve in that. It was upon them to wash their hands of them and turn instead to their true God, He Who created and brought into existence the heavens and the earth. He Who does not pass away or depart. He Who knows all about their condition and is fully aware of all their movements and periods of rest. He Who protects and preserves them and controls their affairs. They were strong proofs extracted from the situation they experienced and the visible creation.

Allaah, the Most High, says:

“And recite to your people from the Book (the Qur’aan), O Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , about Ibraaheem. He was one who was fully truthful and one sent as a Prophet by Allaah. When he said to his father, ‘Why do you worship that which cannot hear, nor see, nor benefit you, nor remove any harm from you at all?! O my father, Allaah has given me knowledge which has not come to you, so accept the sincere advice I give you, and I will show you the Straight Way, upon which you will not go astray. O my father, do not worship Satan (by obeying him in his call for you to worship the idols) – indeed Satan is one disobedient to the Most Merciful (Allaah). O my father, I fear for you, knowing that if you die upon attribution of partners to Allaah in worship, and upon worship of Satan, that Allaah’s punishment and torment will be upon you, and that you will merely be a companion of Satan in the Hell-fire.’ He replied, ‘Do you reject my gods, O Ibraaheem? If you do not cease abusing and reviling them I will certainly revile you. Go away from me if you wish to remain safe from me.’ Ibraaheem said, ‘But you are safe from me harming you, I will rather ask my Lord to guide you and forgive your sins. He has always been most Gracious and Kind to me. I shall keep away from you and all that you worship besides Allaah, and I will worship and invoke my Lord, making all of worship purely for Him. I hope that I shall not be one unblest in my worship and supplications.’ So when he separated himself from them and all that they worshipped besides Allaah, We gave him a family who were better than them, Ishaaq and Ya’qoob, and we made all of them Prophets, and we bestowed our mercy upon them all, and granted them renown and praise upon the tongues of the people.”[3]

So this was a fervent call to tawheed, established firmly upon knowledge, reason and intellect, and upon good and sound manners. Guiding the misguided to the Straight Path. It was opposed by blind bigotry and partisanship, based upon desires, ignorance, stubborness and obsinate pride: otherwise how could anyone worship and humble themselves to those who cannot hear, nor see, nor help them in any way?!

Indeed the knowledge of tawheed, O reader, is that knowledge which all the Prophets were honoured with, and with it they assaulted falsehood, ignorance and shirk. So ignorance of this knowledge, the knowledge carried by the Prophets, which guides to the truth and saves from misguidance and shirk, ignorance of this is fatal and is a deadly poison which kills the intellect and the ability to think.

“O my Father, Allaah has given me knowledge which has not come to you, accept the sincere advice which I give to you, and I will show you the Straight Way, upon which you will not go astray.”[4]

Then after these robust efforts in da’wah expended by Ibraaheem in calling to Allaah, calling the family and the nation, establishing the irrefutable proofs upon his father and his people, after this he took this great call and confronted that haughty and tyrannical ruler who claimed divinity, he faced him with the full strength and bravery. Allaah, the Most High, says:

“Do you not consider the one (Namrood) who, because Allaah had granted him an extended kingdom disputed with Ibraaheem about his Lord. Ibraaheem said to him, ‘It is my Lord (Allaah) Who gives life and death.’ He said, ‘I give life and cause death.’ Ibraaheem said, ‘Allaah causes the sun to rise from the east, so if you are truthful then cause it to rise from the west.’ So the unbeliever was confounded, and Allaah does not guide the unbelievers to find proof against the people of truth.”[5]

So Ibraaheem called this tyrant and claimant to divinity to the tawheed of Allaah, and to eemaan in His Lordship. But he exceeded all bounds in his arrogance and haughtily refused to accept the tawheed of Allaah and to give up on his claims to Lordship. So Ibraaheem debated with him in this brilliant manner whose proof was clear. Ibraaheem said,

“It is my Lord (Allaah) Who gives life and death.”[6]

So the stupid tyrant replied that he too could give life and death – meaning that he killed whom he pleased and spared whom he pleased. This answer of his was merely a pretence and a means of fooling the ignorant, and was a way of avoiding the question, since what Ibraaheem referred to was the fact that his Lord created mankind, animals and plants and gave them life, and brought them into existence from nothing. Then He causes them to die with His Power, and that He gives the humans and animals death at the end of their appointed life-spans, due to visible causes which He shows and without visible causes. So when Ibraaheem saw that he tried to create a pretence to evade the issue, which might fool some of the ignorant and common folk, he then said, as a means of showing the futility of what his saying entailed, that if you are as you claim, then,

“‘Allaah causes the sun to rise from the east, so if you are truthful then cause it to rise from the west.’ So the unbeliever was confounded.”[7]

So the unbeliever was left confounded and at a loss for words. His argument was overthrown, he was silenced, struck dumb and falsehood was rendered futile as is always the case. So this contains a lesson for those who listen attentively and witness it, that the call to tawheed represents the peak of sincerity, wisdom and intelligence; it proceeds in the due and correct manner, and as Allaah has willed, not merely struggling for kingship, nor seeking to fight for leadership.

If the goal of Ibraaheem had been to attain rulership and authority he would have taken a different methodology to this, and he would have found people who gathered around him and supported him. But Allaah refuses, and His Prophets and the pious callers from the true followers of the Prophets in every time and place, they all refuse except to follow the way of guidance and truth, and to clearly proclaim the truth and to establish the proof against the proud and obstinate.

So Ibraaheem established this great obligation in the best and most complete manner. He established the proof upon his father and his people, upon those who governed them and upon all of his nation. Then when he saw that they were persisting in their shirk and their unbelief and were established upon falsehood and misguidance, he resorted to censure and correction by means of the hand and use of strength. So where did his change and correction begin, and what was the correct and rightly guided means for correction of the dire situation which had beset his nation? Did he seek to overthrow the state because it was the root of all the evils and corruption and the source of shirk and misguidance?! How can that be denied when the ruler claimed lordship for himself and persisted in that claim? So why did Ibraaheem not consider a revolution against this unbelieving government, and at the head of it a tyrant who claimed divinity, and by so doing wipe out all the forms of corruption and shirk, and establish in its place the divinely-guided state headed by Ibraaheem, ’alayhis-salaatu was-salaam?! The answer is the Prophets were far removed from following any such way or even considering it, since this is the way of the oppressors, the ignorant and the foolish, those who seek after this world and strive for authority in it.

Rather the Prophets were callers to tawheed and pioneers guiding to the truth, and seeking to save the people from falsehood and shirk. So when they applied themselves to correction and changing the state of affairs, and they were the most knowledgeable and intelligent of the people, then they necessarily began with striking at the true sources of shirk and misguidance. This is what Ibraaheem, the mild, wise and rightly guided, the heroic and brave, did. Allaah, the Most High, says:

“We guided Ibraaheem to the truth at a young age before the time of Moosaa and Haaroon, and We knew that he was fitting for that and was a person of true and certain eemaan who would worship Allaah alone and not associate any partner with Him. When he said to his father and his people, ‘What are these idols which you worship and are devoted to?!’ They said, ‘We found our fathers worshipping them and have followed them in that.’ He said, ‘Both you and they in worshipping the idols are in clear error.’ They said, ‘Are you serious in your saying that you have come with the truth, or are you merely being frivolous?’ He said, ‘Rather, I bring you the truth. Your Lord, other than Whom none has the right to be worshipped, is the sole Lord and Creator of the heavens and the earth, He Who created you all, not any of the idols to which you are devoted. I am a witness to the fact that none but Him is deserving of your worship.’ Ibraaheem said in secret (but was overheard by a single man from his people), ‘By Allaah, I intend to destroy their idols when they go off to their festival.’ So he broke them to pieces except for the largest of them (upon which he tied the axe with which he had broken the others), so that they might take heed and abandon worship of their idols after witnessing their weakness and futility. The people said, ‘Who has done this to our gods?! Whoever has done it is certainly a criminal.’ Those who had heard the saying of Ibraaheem said, ‘We heard a youth speaking, he is called Ibraaheem.’ They said, ‘Bring him before the eyes of the people, that they may testify against him.’ They said, ‘Is it you who did this to our gods, O Ibraaheem?’ He said, ‘Rather this one, the largest of them did it. Ask the idols who had it done to them, if it is that they can speak.’ So they turned to themsleves and said, ‘You know that they are unable to speak.’ He said, ‘Then will you worship besides Allaah that which cannot benefit you at all, nor harm you. Woe to you and the idols which you worship besides Allaah. Have you no sense to see the futility of your worship of the idols?’ They said, ‘Burn him and aid your gods, if you do indeed wish to aid them and continue to worship them.’ We said, ‘O fire, be cool and safe for Ibraaheem.’ They wished to cause harm to him, but it was they whom We caused to be the losers.”[8]

So Allaah guided Ibraaheem to the truth knowing that he was fitting for that. This wise and rightly-guided Prophet faced corruptions in beliefs (’aqeedah) and corruption in rule and authority. A nation whose thinking was degenerate, people whose minds were astray, so that they worshipped idols in the form of pieces of wood, rocks and stars. They were also ruled by a corrupt and evil government lead by a tyrant who claimed divinity, yet the people submitted to his leadership. So where was Ibraaheem to begin his correction? Should he have begun by attacking the ruler, since for certain he had ruled by other than the revelaed Law of Allaah and ruled by the laws of ignorance. There is no doubt about that. He also openly claimed Lordship and the right to make and lay down the law. Or should he have begun with correction of beliefs (‘aqeedah). Correcting the ‘aqeedah of the nation and the ‘aqeedah of the government of ignorance?!

The Qur’aan informs us that this rightly-guided Prophet, the Imaam of the Prophets, began with correction of ‘aqeedah, that is the call to the tawheed of Allaah, and to make all worship purely and sincerely for Him alone, and fighting and wiping out shirk, and demolishing its causes, and tearing it out from the roots. So that is what he did: he called them to the tawheed of Allaah, and to renounce the worship of everything besides Him. He argued with them about this matter and they argued with him. But he refuted them with powerful arguments and clear proofs, and he stripped them of everything they sought to use as a proof until they admitted their wrongdoing, misguidance, and their blind-following and stubborn and fatal acceptance of the ways of their forefathers.

“They said, ‘We found our fathers worshipping them and have followed them in that.’”[9]

So when Ibraaheem saw obstinate following of desires and intellects as hard as rock, he made a wise and brave plan to destroy their idols. He carried out this plan with full vigour, bravery and courage. Then this heroic act[10] incited the government and the nation against him, and they called him for judgement in public and laid down the charge before him,

“Is it you who did this to our gods, O Ibraaheem?”[11]

So he responded to them in a mocking and sarcastic manner,

“Rather this one, the largest of them did it. Ask the idols who had it done to them, if it is that they can speak.”[12]

So this mocking reply was like a thunder-bolt striking their imbecilic minds.

“Then they relapsed and said, ‘You know that they are unable to speak.’”[13]

So when he had divested them of the weapon of argument, they resorted to using force, the weapon used by everyone lacking proof in every time and place,

“They said, ‘Burn him and aid your gods, if you do indeed wish to aid them and continue to worship them.’”[14]

But Allaah saved His chosen and beloved friend, Ibraaheem, and He threw back the plot of the unbelievers upon them.

“We said, ‘O fire, be cool and safe for Ibraaheem.’ They wished to cause harm to him, but it was they whom we caused to be the losers.”[15]

So the fact that Ibraaheem was saved from harm in that huge fire, which Allaah caused to become cool and safe for Ibraaheem, was a very great sign, indeed one of the greatest of Allaah’s signs proving his Prophet hood, his truthfulness, and the correctness of what he came with, i.e., tawheed and the declaration of the fultility of the shirk and misguidance which his people were upon.

Then Allaah rewarded Ibraaheem, ’alayhis-salaam, for this wise da’wah, and this outstanding jihaad and sacrifice,

“We saved Ibraaheem and Loot from their enemies and took them to the land which We have blessed for all the worlds. And We bestowed upon him Ishaaq (his son) and Ya’qoob (his grandson) as an extra favour upon him. And We made all of them those who acted in obedience to Allaah and avoided what He forbade. And We made them leaders to be followed, guiding the people according to Our orders and calling them to worship and obey Allaah. And We inspired in them the doing of those deeds which are good, and establishment of the Prayer, and payment of the Zakaat. And they were worshippers of Us alone.”[16]

Footnotes:

[1] As indicated by the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

“Then We revealed to you, O Muhammad (*), that you should follow the religion of Ibraaheem who was a Muslim upon the true religion and was not one of those who worshipped idols and associated partners with Allaah.” [Soorah an-Nahl (16):123].

And the saying of Allaah, the Most High:

“Say, O Muhammad (*): Allaah has indeed spoken the Truth, so follow the religion of Ibraaheem who was upright, upon the religion of Islaam, and he did not make any share of his worship for any created being.” [Soorah Aal-’Imraan (3):95].

[2] Soorah al-An’aam (6):74-79.

[3] Soorah Maryam (19):41-50.

[4] Soorah Maryam (19):43.

[5] Soorah al-Baqarah (2):258.

[6] Soorah al-Baqarah (2):258.

[7] Soorah al-Baqarah (2):258.

[8] Soorah al-Ambiyaa (21):51-70.

[9] Soorah al-Ambiyaa (21):53.

[10] The great heroic action and the wise call to tawheed and to the elimination of shirk, is counted by many of the callers to correction these days as being an example of preoccupying onesself with minor and insignificant matters. And there is no action nor power except by the will of Allaah. Indeed it is not the eyes that are blind, but rather the hearts. They think that da’wah must begin with a call to the correction and rectification of rulership and government, not correction of ’aqeedah. In this view Ibraaheem and all the other Prophets were in error with regard to the correct methodology of da’wah. (al-Fawzaan).

[11] Soorah al-Ambiyaa (21):62.

[12] Soorah al-Ambiyaa (21):63.

[13] Soorah al-Ambiyaa (21):65.

[14] Soorah al-Ambiyaa (21):68.

[15] Soorah al-Ambiyaa (21):70.

[16] Soorah al-Ambiyaa (21):71-73.

[Excerpted from the book : “The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah – that is the way of wisdom and intelligence” – by Shaykh Rabee hafidhahullaah, translated by Dawud Burbank rahimahullah]

Download the full PDF Book:
https://abdurrahman.org/dawah/methodology-of-the-prophets-in-calling-to-allaah/

The Rightly Guided Caliphs (al-Khulafaa ur-Raashideen) – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah: Lesson 54 : Point [200]
Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

200. And we affirm the Caliphate after Allaah’s Messenger (صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم) : firstly for Aboo Bakr as-Siddeeq (radiyallaahu anhu), affirming his excellence and precedence over the whole of the Ummah; then for Umar ibn al-Khattaab (radiyallaahu anhu); then for Uthmaan (radiyallaahu anhu) ; then for Alee ibn Abee Taalib (radiyallaahu anhu); and they are the rightly guided Caliphs (al-Khulafaa ur-Raashideen), and the rightly guided Imaams.

[Souncloud Audio Link]

At-Ta`leeqaat Al-Mukhtasarah `alaa Matn Al-`Aqeedah AtTahaawiyyah. By Shaykh Saalih ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah, in 1426AH

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series of Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah:
Explanation of Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Book Study Resource : Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah – Imam at-Tahaawi

Index Page of Companions – https://abdurrahman.org/sahaba

Nooh (عليه السلام) and his call to Tawheed for 950 years – Shaykh Rabee’ ibn Haadee

Nooh (عليه السلام)

Nooh was the second father of all mankind, and the first of the Messengers (Rusul) to the people of the Earth. This great Prophet lived a very long life: he called his people for nine hundred and fifty years to the tawheed of Allaah and to making all worship purely for Him. He did not become weary of this, nor lose interest. He called them night and day, in private and in the open. Allaah, the Most High, says,

“Indeed We sent Nooh as a Messenger to his people ordering him to warn his people before a painful punishment should come to them. He said, ‘O my People, I am a plain and clear warner to you, that you should worship Allaah alone, avoid disobedience to Him and obey me. If you do so He will forgive you your sins and grant you respite until an appointed term. Indeed when the term decreed by Allaah comes it cannot be delayed, and if you knew you would submit to and obey your Lord.’ Nooh said, ‘O my Lord, I have called my people day and night to worship You alone and warned them of Your punishment but my calling them to the truth only results in them turning away from it.[1] Whenever I call them to worship You alone and to obey You, and to disassociate themselves from the worship of everything but You, so that You may forgive them, they thrust their fingers in their ears and cover themselves up with their garments, so as not to hear. Then they persist in their disbelief and arrogantly and obstinately refuse to follow and submit to the truth. Then I called them loudly and openly, and I called them individually and privately. I said to them, ‘Ask your Lord to forgive your sins and repent to your Lord from your unbelief and association of others in worship with Him, and make your worship sincerely and purely for Him, then He will forgive you, indeed He greatly forgives those who turn to Him in repentance and seek His forgiveness. He will then send you rain in abundance, and grant you increase in wealth and children, and provide you with gardens and rivers. What is wrong with you that you do not have awe and fear of Allaah, when it is He that created you in successive stages? Do you not see how Allaah has created the seven heavens one above the other, and has placed the moon therein as a light and has made the sun a lamp? Allaah it is who created you and brought you from the earth, and He it is who will return you to it, and then resurrect you from it. Allaah – it is Who spread out the earth for you, so that you may travel about upon wide roads.’’ Nooh said, ‘O my Lord, they have rejected my call and opposed it, and have instead followed the call of those whose wealth and children only increase them in error and take them further away from their Lord. Furthermore the leaders have plotted a mighty plot, and they have said, “Do not abandon your gods. Do not abandon Wadd, nor Suwaa, nor Yaghooth, nor Ya’ooq, nor Nasr.” Indeed many have gone astray due to the idols. O Allaah, grant no increase to the transgressors except in error.[2] Due to their sins they were drowned in the Flood and entered into the Fire, and they could find no one to save them from Allaah’s punishment.”[3]

So what did the da’wah of this noble Messenger comprise of, and Allaah has told us the summary of his noble da’wah which continued for nine hundred and fifty years?! Indeed it was an earnest and painstaking call to the tawheed of Allaah and to make all worship purely for Him. It was a tireless effort and he used every possible means available to him to convince them of his call. He called them privately and individually, and he called them openly. He encouraged them and warned them, informing them of the promise of good for the obedient, and evil for the disobedient. He gave them practical and intellectual proofs, from themselves and their lives, and what they saw before them with regards to the heavens and the earth, and the clear signs and lessons contained in them. All of this failed to benefit them and did not cause them to accept. Rather they persisted in their disbelief and error, and they rejected all this obstinately and arrogantly. They persisted in their adherence to the idols and false and futile objects of worship. So the result of this persistence and obstinancy was destruction and annihilation in this world, and everlasting torment in the Hell-fire in the Hereafter.

At this point we may ask: why did this great Prophet continue for such an extremely long period of time, expending huge efforts, untiringly and without languidness, calling to the starting point of tawheed?! Why did Allaah praise him so highly, and cause him to be remembered, and make him one of those Messengers who were the firmest of all in their determination (oolul-‘adhm)? Does the call to tawheed deserve all this esteem? Is this methodology an establishment of this procedure for this noble Prophet in opposition to logic, wisdom and intellect? Or is it pure and certain wisdom, and what is demanded by correct logic and sound and perceptive intellect? Why did Allaah approve of following this methodology in da’wah for 950 years, and commend him, and cause his name and his story to endure, and impose it as a duty upon the greatest of the Messengers and the one having the greatest intellect of all the people, that he should take him as an example to follow in his da’wah and his perseverance?

The just answer, established upon intellect and wisdom, and upon understanding the status and position of Prophet hood, and having the greatest trust in it and giving it its due respect, is that the call to tawheed and striving to wipe out shirk and to purify the earth from it, does indeed deserve all of this. It is indeed wisdom itself and is demanded by natural inclination and intellect. It is furthermore, a binding obligation upon every caller to Allaah that they understand this methodology, this great and divinely inspired da’wah and great goal, and that they devote all their effort and energy to its attainment and its being propagated throughout all of Allaah’s earth. Furthermore that they work together, cooperate and unite, and sincerely attest to each others’ truthfulness. Just as the Messengers, the callers to tawheed, were: the earlier ones telling of the coming of the later ones and the later ones attesting to the truthfulness of the previous ones and promoting their call, and following the same way. It is also binding upon us to believe that if there was any other methodology better and more correct than this methodology, that Allaah would have chosen that for His Messengers and would have favoured them with it. So is it fitting for any Believer to turn away from it and choose a different methodology for himself, and to arrogantly seek to attack this divinely laid down methodology and its callers?!

Footnotes:

[1] At-Tabaree reports from Qataadah, “It has reached us that a man would take his son to Nooh and say to his son, ‘Beware of this man, don’t let him lead you astray, for I remember when I was your age, my father brought me to him and warned me against him just as I am warning you.’”

[2] This supplication of Nooh against them came after he was informed by Allaah that they were not going to be Believers, as explained by al-Baghawee.

[3] Soorah Nooh (71):1-24.

[Excerpted from the book : “The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah – that is the way of wisdom and intelligence” – by Shaykh Rabee hafidhahullaah, translated by Dawud Burbank rahimahullah]

Download the full PDF Book:
https://abdurrahman.org/dawah/methodology-of-the-prophets-in-calling-to-allaah/

Scholars Biographies: Al-Haafiz Ibn Katheer

THE BIOGRAPHY OF AL-HAAFIZ IBN KATHEER

He is: the Imaam, the Haafiz, the Shaikh of the Muhadditheen, the Historian, the Explainer of the Qur·aan, `Imaaduddeen Abul-Fidaa· Ismaa`eel ibn `Umar ibn Katheer ibn Daw· ibn Katheer ibn Zar`, al-Qurashee; al-Busrawee, then ad-Dimashqee, the jurist, ash-Shaafi`ee. [1]

He was born in Mijdal, a village to the east of Busraa-which is a town in the province of Damascus, in the year 701 H, where his father was a Khateeb.

After the death of his father he moved, along with his brother Kamaaluddeen `AbdulWahhaab, to Damascus, in the year 707 H. He memorized the whole of the Qur·aan at the age of ten, and he read the different recitations,
and he excelled in tafseer.

He married Zaynab the daughter of al-Haafiz Abul-Hajjaaj al-Mizzee, and he closely accompanied him and learned from him. He gave great attention to the science of hadeeth, and qualified under him in it. He also accompanied Shaikhul-Islaam Taqiyyuddeen Ibn Taimiyyah and was a special student of his and defended him, and he followed him upon many of his opinions. He used to deliver verdicts in accordance with his view concerning the question of the three simultaneous divorces, that they count as a single divorce, and he was put to trial on account of this and suffered harm.

He gave attention to memorising the texts; and to awareness of the chains of narration, the hidden defects in narrations, the narrators, and to history, to the extent that he excelled in all of that whilst he was still a youth. He delivered verdicts, taught and debated. He excelled in Fiqh, Tafseer, and Arabic Grammar. He closely studied the narrators and the hidden defects in narrations.

He became the Shaikh of the Saalihiyyah School, after the death of adh-Dhahabee; and the Shaikh of Daarul-Hadeeth al-Ashrafiyyah for a short while after the death of as-Subkee. Then this was taken from him after it was seized by Kamaaluddeen al-Ma`arree.

HIS SCHOLARLY STATUS:

Ibn Katheer had prominent status as is clear from the institutions of knowledge he headed; and the mosques in which he taught; and the works of Tafseer, History, and Hadeeth that he authored.

As for the schools that he took charge of, then they were: The Ashrafiyyah School of Hadeeth, the school of as-Saalihiyyah, the school of an-Najeebiyyah, the school of at-Tankaziyyah, and the school of an-Nooriyyah al-Kubraa.

These were schools sought after by the students of knowledge from the east and the west, and their Shaikhs and teachers had high status. None were allowed to teach in them except those who were firmly grounded in knowledge and whose position amongst the scholars was established. Therefore, the scholars respected him and the hearts of the students of knowledge were attentive to him.

As for the mosques in which he delivered his lessons, then the most famous of them were “alJaami` al-Amawee”, the mosque of Ibn Hishaam, the Jaami` of Tankaz, the Jaami` of alFooqaanee-and he used to deliver the Khutbah in it also.

This being in addition to his writings which have filled the earth with knowledge, and from which people have benefitted in his lifetime and after his death.

THE SCHOLARS PRAISE OF HIM:

adh-Dhahabee said: “The jurist, the muftee, the muhaddith… he gave special attention to the narrators, to the texts, and to acquiring knowledge of Fiqh. He elucidated, wrote works, debated, authored, explained (the Qur·aan), and attained precedence…” [2]

He also said: “The imaam, the jurist, the muhaddith, the singular and outstanding scholar… He was a jurist knowledgeable in various fields, a precise muhaddith, a critical and verifying explainer (of the Qur·aan). He produced beneficial works. He was well aware of Fiqh, and had good understanding of Arabic and the Fundamentals (of Fiqh). He memorized a good portion of the texts, of tafseer, and the narrators. He heard (narrations) from me, and had good memorisation.” [3]

Ibn Hajjee said: “I never came to him except that I benefitted from him, and I was his constant companion for six years.”

Ibn Habeeb said, as quoted from him by Imaam Ibn Hajr:[4] “He was an imaam, frequent upon tasbeeh [5] and tahleel [6], and he was at the head of the scholars of explanation (of the Qur·aan). He heard, gathered, and authored. People strove to listen to his sayings. He spoke in a manner that delighted, he narrated, and he brought benefit. The pages of his verdicts were sent to the lands, and he became famous for precision and verification. He attained leadership in knowledge in History, Hadeeth, and Tafseer.”

Abul-Mahaasin ad-Dimashqee said: “He delivered verdicts and taught. He debated and excelled in Fiqh, Tafseer, and Grammar. He carefully studied the narrators and the hidden defects of narrations.” [7]

al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr said: “He could bring a great deal to mind, and he joked in a fine manner. His works spread throughout the lands within his life-time, and the people derived benefit through him after his death.” [8]

al-`Aynee said, as quoted from him by Ibn Taghreebardee: “He was the example amongst the scholars and the great memorizers, and the reference point for the people of meanings and wordings. He heard, gathered, compiled, taught, narrated, and wrote works. He had an abundance of knowledge and awareness of Hadeeth, Tafseer, and History. He became famous for precision and verification. He attained the limit in knowledge of History, Hadeeth, and Tafseer; and he wrote many beneficial works.” [9]

HIS `AQEEDAH (CREED AND BELIEF):

He -rahimahullaahu ta`aalaa- was upon the `Aqeedah of the Salafus-Saalih (the Pious Predecessors). This is proven by his tremendous Tafseer, which is the most excellent tafseer that has made the `Aqeedah of the Salaf manifest. An example of that is his saying, in his explanation of His Saying -He the Most High:

[[Meaning: Then He ascended over the Throne]]:
[Sooratul-A`raaf (7): 54]

“Regarding this we follow the position of the Salafus-Saalih: Maalik, al-Awzaa`ee, athThawree, al-Layth ibn Sa`d, ash-Shaafi`ee, Ahmad, Ishaaq ibn Raahawaih, and others from the imaams of the Muslims, in the earlier and the later times: (and it is to let them pass)10 without saying how (takyeef),without declaring resemblance to the creation (tashbeeh), and without negating the attributes (ta`teel). Furthermore, what is immediately apparent to the minds of those who hold that the Creator resembles the creation is something negated for Allaah-the Most High, since nothing from the creation resembles Allaah:

[[Meaning: There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing]].” [Sooratush-Shooraa (42): 11]

HIS MOST PROMINENT TEACHERS:

Ibn Katheer studied under many famous major Shaikhs, and the most important of them are:

1) Shaikhul-Islaam Taqiyyuddeen Ahmad ibn `Abdil-`Azeem ibn `Abdil-Haleem ibn `AbdisSalaam ibn Taimiyyah, who died in 728 H. al-`Iraaqee said within his biography of Ibn Katheer: “He was an especially close student of Shaikh Taqiyyuddeen Ibn Taimiyyah, and he defended him, and he followed him upon many of his views.”

2) The Imaam, al-Haafiz, the Muhaddith of Shaam, Jamaaluddeen, Abul-Hajjaaj Yoosuf ibn az-Zakee `Abdir-Rahmaan al-Mizzee, who died in 742 H. Ibn Katheer closely accompanied him, and married his daughter.

3) The Imaam, al-Haafiz, the Muhaddith, the Historian of Islaam, Shamsuddeen, Aboo `Abdillaah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn`Uthmaan adh-Dhahabee, at-Turkumaanee in his origin, ad-Dimashqee. The author of beneficial works such as “Siyar A`laamin-Nubalaa·”, “Taareekhul-Islaam”, and “Meezaanul-I`tidaal”. He died in 748 H.

4) Abul-`Abbaas Ahmad ibn Abee Taalib ibn Ni`mah ibn Hasan ibn `Alee an-Najjaar, who was well-known as “Ibnush-Shahnah”. He lived for a hundred years, and died in 730 H.

HIS MOST PROMINENT STUDENTS:

1) Shihaabuddeen Abul-`Abbaas Ahmad ibn Hajjee ibn Moosaa ibn Ahmad, as-Sa`dee, alHusbaanee, ad-Dimashqee, al-Haafiz. The historian of Islaam. He produced many works, from them his explanation of “al-Muharrar” of Ibn `Abdil-Haadee. He died in 816 H.

2) Shihaabuddeen Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Hareeree, adDimashqee, who was well known as as-Sulaawee. He became the Qaadee of Ba`labek, and then the Qaadee of al-Madeenah, and then he moved around as a Qaadee for other places. He died in 765 H.

3) Abul-Mahaasin al-Husaynee, Muhammad ibn `Alee ibn al-Hasan ibn Hamzah ibn Hamd adDimashqee, who died in 765 H.

HIS MOST FAMOUS WORKS:

Ibn Katheer filled the Islamic library with beneficial works. Some of them have been printed, and others remain in manuscript form. The most important of his printed works are:

(i) “Tafseerul-Qur·aanil-`Azeem”,
(ii) “al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah”,
(iii) “Ikhtisaar `Uloomil-Hadeeth”,
(iv) “Fadaa·ilul-Qur·aan”,
(v) “Tuhfatut-Taalib bimukhtasar Ibnil-Haajib”,
(vi) “Ahaadeethut-Tawheed war-radd `alaa Ahlish-Shirk”,
(vii) “al-Fusool fee Seeratir-Rasool ”,
(viii) “Seerah `Umar ibn `Abdil-`Azeez”;

and he has many works that remain in manuscript form.

HIS DEATH:

Ibn Katheer -rahimahullaah- died on the day of Thursday, the 26th of Sha`baan, in the year 774 H, in Damascus, and he was buried therein.

Footnotes:

[1] Refer for his biography to:

(1) “Tadhkiratul-Huffaaz” (4/1508); (2) “al-Mu`jamul-Mukhtass” (no. 86); (3) “Dhayl Tabaqaatil-Huffaaz” of alHusaynee (p. 57); (4) “Dhayl Tabaqaatil Huffaaz” of as-Suyootee (p. 361); (5) “Tabaqaatush-Shaafi`iyyah” of alQaadee Shuhbah (no. 638); (6) “ad-Durarul-Kaaminah” of al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr (1/399); (7) “Inbaa.ul-Ghumr” of al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr (1/45); (8) “Shadharaatudh-Dhahab” of Ibnul-`Imaad (6/231); (9) “an-Nujoomuz-Zaahirah” of Ibnu Taghreebardee (11/123-124); (10) “al-Badrut-Taali`” of ash-Shawkaanee (1/153); (11) “Hadiyyatul- `Aarifeen” (1/215); (12) “ar-Raddul-Waafir” (no. 48); (13) “al-A`laam” of az-Ziriqlee (1/317); (14) “Mu`jamulMu·allifeen” (2/283).
[2] “Tadhkiratul-Huffaaz” (4/1508)
[3] “al-Mu`jamul-Mukhtass” (no. 86)
[4] “Inbaa.ul-Ghumr” (1/39)
[5] Saying “Subhaanallaah”: (I declare Allaah free of all imperfections). (transl.)
[6] Saying “Laa ilaaha illaallaah” (None has the right to be worshipped except Allaah). (transl.)
[7] “Dhayl Tadhkiratil-Huffaaz (no. 58)
[8] “Inbaa·ul-Ghumr” (1/39); “ad-Durarul-Kaaminah” (1/400)
[9] “an-Nujoomuz-Zaahirah” (11/123)
[10] An addition from the text of Tafseer Ibn Katheer. (transl.)

[Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank]

Source: www.alitisaambissunnah.wordpress.com

Scholars Biographies: Imaam Abu Muhammad Al-Hasan Ibn ‘Alee Al-Barbahaaree

Imaam Abu Muhammad Al-Hasan Ibn ‘Alee Al-Barbahaaree

Author: Compiled from Several Sources
Translator: Abu Talha Dawood Burbank rahimahullaah

His Name, Kunyah and Lineage: 

He is the Imaam, the Example, the Mujaahid, the Shaikh of the Hanbalee scholars and greatest of them in his time: Abu Muhammad Al-Hasan Ibn ‘Alee Ibn Khalf Al-Barbahaaree – an ascription to Barbahaar, which were medicines imported from India.

His Birthplace and Early Life: 

The references available do not mention anything about his birth or early life but it appears that he was born and brought up in Baghdad. This is apparent from his fame amongst its general public, not to mention its scholars. Furthermore, Al-Barabahaaree sat with a group of the companions of the Imaam of Ahl-us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, rahimahullaah. He studied under them and most of them came from Baghdad as will be explained. This shows that he grew up in an environment of knowledge and adherence to the Sunnah. This clearly had a great influence on his personality.

His Teachers and His Seeking after Knowledge: 

Al-Barbahaaree was pre-eminent in seeking after knowledge and expanded great efforts to attain it. He acquired knowledge from a group of the senior students of Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, except that unfortunately, the references available to us only state two of them by name and they are:

1. Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn-ul-Hajjaaj Ibn ‘Abd-il-‘Azeez Abu Bakr Al-Marwazee: The exemplary Imaam, scholar and Muhaddith, a student of Imaam Ahmad. He died on the sixth of Jumaadal-Oolaa in the year 275H.

2. Sahl Ibn ‘Abdullaah Ibn Yoonus At-Tustaree, Abu Muhammad: The Imaam, worshipper and one known for abstemiousness from this world. Many wise sayings are reported from him and many remarkable happenings. He died in the month of Muharram in the year 283H, at the age of about eighty.

His Knowledge and the Scholars’ Praise for Him: 

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree, rahimahullaah, was a formidable and imposing Imaam who spoke out with the truth and called to the Sunnah and to the following of narrations. He also had renown and the respect of the ruler. In his gatherings, various circles for the study of Hadeeth, the narrations and Fiqh were held. These were attended by many of the scholars of Hadeeth and Fiqh.

The scholar, Abu ‘Abdillaah said: “If you see a person of Baghdad loving Abul-Hasan Ibn Bashshaar and Abu Muhammad Al-Barbahaaree, then know that he is a person of the Sunnah.”

His high status is shown by what his student, Ibn Battah, rahimahullaah, said: “I heard him – meaning Al-Barbahaaree – saying when the people were prevented from Hajj: ‘O People! If anyone needs assistance to the level of a hundred thousand Deenaars and a hundred thousand Deenaars and a hundred thousand Deenaars – five times – then I will assist him.’” Ibn Battah said: “If he wanted it the people would have given it to him.”

As regards the scholars’ praise for him, then a great deal has been reported:

Ibn Abee Ya’laa said: “Shaikh of the Community in his time and the foremost of them in censuring the people of innovation and in opposing them with his hand and tongue. And he had renown with the rulers and prominence amongst those of knowledge. And he was one of the wise scholars, great and precise memorizers of the texts and one of the reliable believers”

Adh-Dhahabee said in Al-‘Ibar: “…the exemplary scholar, Shaikh of the Hanbalees in ‘Iraaq in speech, action and sticking to what is lawful. He had great renown and total respect.”

Ibn Al-Jawzee said: “…He gathered knowledge and had abstention from this world (zuhd) and was strong against the people of innovation.”

Ibn Katheer said: “The abstemious, man of knowledge, the Hanbalee scholar, the admonisher – and he was strict against the people of innovation and sin. He had great standing and was respected by the elite and by the common people.”

His Piety and Abstemiousness: 

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree was known for both of these qualities. This can be seen by what Abul-Hasan Ibn Bashshaar mentioned: “Al-Barbahaaree shunned seventy-thousand Deenaars, which he inherited from his father.” Ibn Abee Ya’laa said: “Al-Barbahaaree strove greatly and stood firm for the Religion many times.”

His Position with Regard to the People of Innovation: 

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree, rahimahullaah, was very stern against the people of innovations and deviant sects, opposing them with his tongue and his hand, all the while following the way of Ahl-us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah with regards to the treatment of the people of innovation and deviation. His desire was that this Religion remain pure and be kept free from all that the people of innovation and deviance sought to attach to it, whether the beliefs of the Jahmiyyah, the Mu’tazilah, the ‘Ash’arees, the Soofees or the Shee’ah and Raafidees.

He makes clear the methods employed by the people of deviant sects to give sanction to their innovations, and he warns us against falling into their ways and methods. He lays out for us the broad and clear outlines describing the people of deviant sects and innovations. It is as if you are looking straight at them.

In summery, his position with regard to the people of deviant sects and innovations was clearly one of opposition and sternness due to his concern and love for the Sunnah and due to the efforts of every deviant innovator to attack it. His position is rightfully seen as a fine example of the positions of the Imaams of Ahl-us-Sunnah with regard to the people of innovation, deviation and misguidance.

His Students: 

A large number of students learned from this Imaam and benefited from him, since he was an example in both word and deed. And from these students are:

1. The exemplary Imaam and Scholar, Abu ‘Abdillaah Ibn ‘Ubaydullaah Ibn Muhammad Al-‘Ukbaree, well known as Ibn Battah, who died in Muharram of the year 387H.

2. The exemplary Imaam, well known for his wise sayings, Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Isma’eel Al-Baghdaadee, Abul-Husayn Ibn Sam’oon, the admonisher, famous for his deeds and condition. He died in the middle of Dhul-Qa’adah in the year 387H.

3. Ahmad Ibn Kaamil Ibn Khalf Ibn Shajarah, Abu Bakr, the narrator of this book from its author

4. Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn ‘Uthmaan, Abu Bakr, about whom Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdaadee (rahimahullaah) said: “It reached me that he used to lead the life of an ascetic and was upon good except that he reported some things that were weak and without basis.”

A Glimpse of His Words and Poetry: 

Abu ‘Abdillaah Ibn Battah (rahimahullaah) said: “I heard Abu Muhammad Al-Barbahaaree say: ‘Sitting in order to advise sincerely is to open the door of benefit and sitting in order to debate is to close the doors of benefit.'” And he said: “The people are in constant delusion.”

From his poetry is:

“Whoever satisfies himself with what suffices him –
Begins rich and continues in following the correct way:
How fine an attribute Allaah has made being satisfied with what suffices –
How many a humble person it has raised high
The soul of the youth feels constricted if it is poor
But if he is patiently dependent upon his Lord he would indeed be given ease and sufficiency.”

His Trial and Death: 

Imaam Al-Barbahaaree, rahimahullaah, had renown and a position of great respect with the common people and the elite and also had status in the eyes of the ruler. However, his enemies from the people of the deviant sects and innovations did not cease in their efforts to incite the ruler against him and to cause anger in his heart against him. This was to the point that in the year 321H, the Khaleefah, Al-Qaahir ordered his minister Ibn Muqlah to arrest Al-Barbahaaree and his students. Al-Barbahaaree hid, however a group of his major students were captured and taken to Basrah. Allaah, the most High, punished Ibn Muqlah for this action by causing Al-Qaahir Billaah to become angry with him, so Ibn Muqlah fled and was removed from his post and his house was burned. Then Al-Qaahir Billaah was himself imprisoned on the sixth of Jumaadal-Aakhirah, 322H. He was stripped of his position and blinded in both eyes. Then Allaah, the Most High, granted that Al-Barbahaaree return to his place of honor.

When Abu ‘Abdillaah Ibn ‘Arafah, well known as Niftawaih died, his funeral was attended by many prominent people and scholars and the congregation was lead by Al-Barbahaaree and that occurred in Safar of the year 323H. It was in this year also that Al-Barbahaaree’s standing grew and his words carried greater weight and his students became apparent and spread out amongst the people, censuring the innovators. It reached the point that once when Al-Barbahaaree was on the western side of the city and sneezed, his students replied to him and (were so many that) the Khaleefah heard the noise they made in his apartment, so he asked about what had happened. So when he was informed he became afraid.

The innovators still did not cease trying to cause the heart of the Khaleefah Ar-Raadee to turn against Al-Barbahaaree. This was to the point that Ar-Raadee gave the order to Badr Al-Harasee, his chief of police, that he should ride out in public in Baghdad with the proclamation that no two students of Al-Barbahaaree were allowed to meet together. Again he hid himself having previously settled in the west of the city, he now secretly moved to the east. He died in this state in the year 329H.

Ibn Abee Ya’laa said: Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Muqri narrated to me, saying: My grandfather and also my grandmother related to me that:

“Abu Muhammad Al-Barbahaaree was hidden by the sister of Toozoon in the eastern side of the town in the alleyway of the public bathhouse…he was there for about a month then his blood ceased flowing. When Al-Barbahaaree died, still in hiding, the sister of Toozoon said to her servant: ‘Find someone to wash him.’ So someone came to wash him and the door was kept locked so that no one would know. He alone stood to pray for him, but when the woman who owned the house looked, she found that it was full of men wearing white and green clothing. After he had ended the Funeral Prayer, she did not see anyone at all, so she called to her servant and said: ‘You have destroyed me along with my brother!’ So he said: ‘Did you not see what I saw?’ ‘Yes’, she replied. He said: ‘Here are the keys to the door and it is still locked.’ So she said: ‘Bury him in my house and when I die bury me near him…'”

May Allaah have mercy on Imaam Al-Barbahaaree and grant him a great reward. He was an Imaam in truth, an example, knowing Allaah, and a follower of the Sunnah, and an unsheathed sword against the people of innovation and deviation.

Source: Originally published in al-manhaj .com website ( this site no more exists)

Visit : Book Study Resources of Sharhu Sunnah – Imam Barbaharee

Brief Biography: Imam Al-Laalikaa’ee (d.418H)

Imaam Abul-Qaasim Hibatullaah Al-Laalikaa’ee

Source: Intro to the Book “The Creed of Imam Bukhaaree”
Translated by: Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

He was Abul-Qaasim Hibatullaah, Ibn al-Hasan bin Mansoor ar-Raazee, at-Tabaree, al-Laalikaa’ee. The author of the encyclopedia of the ‘aqeedah of the Salaf called Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlis-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah.

He lived in a time of great confusion and political strife and division. A time when innovations were widespread and were propagated by their profounder and followers, including the Mu‘tazilah, the Qadariyyah, the Khawaarij, the Murjiah, the Rawaafid and others besides them. Around his time many of the scholars of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah stood to author books in defense of the ‘aqeedah of the Companions, the Taabe’een and the Salaf after them and to warn against the widespread innovations.

However, the book of al-Laalikaa’ee is the most comprehensive of all those books and its reader can delight in the abundance of knowledge and guidance contained therein. He reports from more than 180 people and this indicates the large number of Shaykhs he learnt from.

Amongst his students was the famous al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee who said about him in his Taareekh Baghdaad (14/70): “We wrote from him and he used to understand and memorize (well).”

Ibn Katheer said about him in al-Bidaayah (12/24): “He used to understand and memorize and he (was always) concerned and anxious about hadeeth.” He was known for his precision and his perspicacity in hadeeth. One of his students saw Abul-Qaasim al-Laalikaa’ee after his death in a good dream.

Al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee mentions this and those after him narrate it from him, ‘Alee bin al-Hasan bin Jadaa al-’Akbaree said: ‘I saw Abul-Qaasim at-Tabaree in a dream and I said to him. What has Allaah done with you?’ He said: ‘He has forgiven me.’ I said: ‘For what reason?’ And it was as if he said in a word in a lowered, subdued voice: ‘The Sunnah.’

He died in the year 418H whilst he was middle-aged, before he became famous for his knowledge and his works, may Allaah have mercy upon him. Refer to the introduction to Sharh Usoolil-Itiqaad (1/65-101) by Ahmad Sa’d Hamdaan for more details.

Source: Originally published in al-manhaj .com website ( this site no more exists)

Types of Impurities (An-Najaasaat) and How to Purify them : Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee | Dawood Burbank

THE CHAPTER OF IMPURITIES (AN-NAJAASAAT):

Najaasaat (impurities) is the plural of najaasah (impurity), and it is everything which the people of sound nature hold to be dirty, and which they guard themselves from, and which they wash their clothes from if it fall upon them, such as urine and excrement.[1]

And the basic principle for all things is permissibility (ibaahah) and that they are pure (at-Tahaarah). So whoever claims that a particular thing is impure must bring evidence. So if he produces it then that is the case; but if he is unable to do so, or he comes with something that does not establish proof, then what is obligatory upon us is to remain upon what is necessitated by the basic principle and the basic natural state.[2]

This is because passing a judgement that something is impure is a ruling which will bring about general duty and responsibility, so it is not permissible except after proof has been established. [3]

So from that which has been proven to be impure are:

1 & 2: Human urine and excrement:

As for excrement (al-ghaa.it), then because of the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<If one of you steps with his shoe upon something harmful (al-Adhaa), then the earth will be purification for it.>> [4]

And ‘al-Adhaa’ is everything which harms/offends, from impurities, filth, rocks, thorns, and other then that. [5]

And what is meant by it in the hadeeth is impurity (najaasah), as is clear. As for urine, then because of the hadeeth of Anas: that a bedouin man urinated in the mosque, so some people stood up to restrain him. So Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: <<Leave him, and do not interrupt him.>>

He said: “When he finished he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) called for a bucket of water, and poured it upon it.” [6]

3 & 4 Pre-seminal fluid (al-madhee) and ‘al-wadee’:

As for pre-seminal fluid, then it is clear, thin, slippery fluid which discharges when there is (sexual) desire. Its discharge does not itself give a feeling of delight, nor does it shoot out all at once, nor is it followed by slackness. The person may not notice its discharge, and this happens to men and women. [7]

And it is impure (najas), and therefore the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) ordered that the penis be washed from it.

From `Alee who said: “ I was a man who had profuse pre-seminal discharge, and I felt shy to ask the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) because of my position with respect to his daughter. So I told al-Miqdaad ibn al-Aswad, and he asked him. So he said:

<<He should wash his penis and perform wudoo..>> ” [8]

As for ‘al-wadee’, then it is a thick white fluid which may come out after urination, [9] and it is impure.

From Ibn `Abbaas who said: “Semen, and ‘al-wadee’, and pre-seminal fluid (al madhee). As for semen, then it is what necessitates a bath (ghusl); and as for ‘alwadee’and ‘al-madhee’, then he said: “Wash your penis, or: the parts of your penis, and perform wudoo. in the manner in which you perform wudoo· for the Prayer.” [10]

5. The dung of animals whose meat may not be eaten:

From `Abdullaah who said: the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) wanted to go out to the toilet, so he said: <<Bring me three stones.>> So I found two stones for him and a piece of dung from a donkey. So he took hold of the two stones, and he threw the piece of dung away, and he said: <<It is something impure.>> [11]

6. Menstrual blood:

From Asmaa· bint Abee Bakr who said: “A woman came to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and said: ‘If menstrual blood falls on the garment of one of us, what should she do?’ So he said: <<She should scrape it off, then she should rub it with water, then she should wash it (all). Then she can pray whilst wearing it.>> [12]

7. The saliva of a dog:

From Aboo Hurayrah who said, Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<The purification for the vessel of one of you if a dog licks from it is that he washes it seven times, the first of them being with earth.>> [13]

8. Animal carcasses:

Referring to animals which die without having been slaughtered in the legislated manner, because of his (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) saying:

<<When an animal skin is tanned then it has become pure.>> [14]

And an ‘animal skin’ (ihaab) is the hide of an animal which has died.

And exceptions to that [15] are:

(i) Dead fish and locusts, because of the hadeeth of Ibn `Umar- radiyallaahu `anhu)maa- who said: Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<Two dead animals and forms of blood have been made lawful for us. As for the two dead animals, then they are fish and locusts; and as for the two forms of blood it is the liver and the spleen.>> [16]

(ii) Dead animals which do not have blood which flows, such as flies, ants, bees, and their like.

From Aboo Hurayrah -radiyallaahu `anhu- that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<If a fly falls into the vessel of one of you then let him immerse it in it, totally. Then let him throw it out, for indeed in one of its wings there is a poison and in the other there is a remedy.>> [17]

(iii) The bones of a dead animal, and its horn, claws, hair, and feathers.

All of that is pure, in keeping with the basic principle, which is that things are pure; and because of what al-Bukhaaree reported in disconnected form,[18] saying, ‘az-Zuhree said about the bones of a dead animal, such as the elephant and its like, “I met people from the Salaf of the scholars using it as combs, and as pots for oil. They did not see any harm in that.” And Hammaad said: “There is no harm in (using) the feathers of dead birds.”

HOW IMPURITY IS TO BE PURIFIED.

You should know that the bringer of the legislation, who made us aware that a thing is impure, or causes other things to become impure, has also made us aware of how we are able to purify it. So what is obligatory upon us is to follow his saying and to comply with his command. So whatever it is reported about that it must be washed until no colour, smell, or taste remains from it, then that is its purification; and whatever it is reported about that water must be poured upon it, or sprinkled upon it, or that it should be scraped, or wiped upon the earth, or merely walking upon pure earth, then that is its purification. Furthermore you should know that water is the basic substance for purifying impurities, since the bringer of the Legislation described it with his saying: <<Allaah created water as being pure and purifying>> [19], so nothing else besides it is turned to, unless that is established from the bringer of the legislation; otherwise not, since it would be a case of turning aside from something known to be a purifier towards something which is not known to be a purifier, and this would be a departure from what the legislated manner of proceeding demands.

So when you know this, then here is what occurs in the legislation regarding the manner of purifying substances which are impure or which cause impurity:

1. Purifying the animal through tanning:

From Ibn `Abbaas -radiyallaahu `anhumaa- who said: I heard Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) say:

<<Whichever animal skin is tanned, then it becomes pure.>> [20]

2. Purifying the vessel which a dog has licked:

From Aboo Hurayrah- radiyallaahu `anhu- that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: <<The purification of the vessel of one of you when a dog has licked it is that he washes it seven times, the first of them being with the earth.>> [21]

3. Purifying a garment which menstrual blood has fallen onto:

From Asmaa· bint Abee Bakr -radiyallaahu `anhaa- who said: A woman came to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and said: “If menstrual blood falls onto the garment of one of us, what should she do?” So he said:

<<She should scrape it off, then she should rub it with water, then she should wash it (all). Then she can pray whilst wearing it.>> [22]

If a trace still remains after that, then there is no harm: From Aboo Hurayrah -radiyallaahu `anhu- that Khawlah bint Yasaar said, “O Messenger of Allaah! I have only a single garment, and I menstruate whilst wearing it.” He said:

<<When you become clean wash the place of the blood, then pray whilst wearing it.>>

She said: “O Messenger of Allaah! If its trace is not removed?” He said:
<<The water will suffice you, and its trace will not harm you.>> [23]

4. Purifying the trailing hem of the woman’s garment:

From a slave-girl who gave birth to a child of Ibraaheem ibn `Abdir-Rahmaan ibn `Awf, that she asked Umm Salamah -the wife of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) I am a woman who makes the hem of my garment long, then what if I walk upon a filthy place?” So Umm Salamah said: “The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: <<What comes after it will purify it.>> [24]

5. Purifying the garment from the urine of a suckling baby: [25]

From Abus-Samh, the servant of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) who said: “The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<It should be washed from the urine of a girl, and sprinkled with water from the urine of a boy.>>[26]

6. Purifying the garment from pre-seminal fluid (madhee):

From Sahl ibn Hunayf who said: I used to experience difficulty and trouble on account of pre-seminal fluid, and I used to frequently take a bath from it. So I mentioned that to Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and he said:

<<The wudoo· would suffice you for that.”>>

I said: “What about that which fall upon my garment from it?” He said:
<<It will suffice you to take a handful of water, and to rub your garment with it wherever you see it has fallen upon it.>> [27]

7. Purifying the underneath of the shoe:

From Aboo Sa`eed -radiyallaahu `anhu- that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: <<When one of you comes to the mosque, then let him turn his shoes over and examine them. So if he sees some filth, then let him wipe it upon the earth, then let him pray whilst wearing them.>> [28]

8. Purifying the earth:

From Aboo Hurayrah -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “A Bedouin stood and urinated in the mosque. So the people began raising their voices against him. So the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said to them:

<<Leave him, and pour a bucket of water upon his urine; for you were sent as people who make things easy, and you were not sent as people who make things difficult.>> [29]

And the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) commanded that in order to quickly purify the earth. So if it had been left until it became dry, and then the trace of the impurity departed, then it would have become pure, because of the hadeeth of Ibn `Umar -radiyallaahu `anhumaa- who said:

“Dogs used to urinate in the mosque, and come and go, in the time of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and they had not used to sprinkle anything upon it.” [30]

Footnotes:

[1] ar-Rawdatun-Nadiyyah (1/12) .
[2] as-Saylul-Jarraar (1/31) of ash-Shawkaanee.
[3] ar-Rawdatun-Nadiyyah (1/15) of Siddeeq Hasan Khaan.
[4] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (no. 834); Aboo Daawood (2/47/381).
[5] `Awnul-Ma`bood (Sharh Abee Daawood) (2/44).
[6] Agreed upon. Muslim (1/236/284), and the wording is his; and al-Bukhaaree (10/449/6025).
[7] Sharh Saheeh Muslim: (3/213).
[8]Agreed upon: Muslim (1/247/303), and the wording is his; al-Bukhaaree (1/230/132) in abridged form.
[9]‘Fiqhus-Sunnah’ (1/24).
[10] Saheeh…al-Bayhaqee (1/115).
[11] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami`: (253); Ibn Khuzaymah (1/39/70), and it is reported by others without the words ‘from a donkey’. It was reported by al-Bukhaaree (1/256/156), an-Nasaa·ee (1/39), at-Tirmidhee (1/13/17), and Ibn Maajah (1/114/314).
[12] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/240/291), and the wording is his; al-Bukhaaree (1/410/307).
[13] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (3933); Muslim (1/234/91/279).
[14] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (511); Muslim (1/277/366), Aboo Daawood (11/181/4105).
[15] i.e. to the condition of being impure (transl.)
[16] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (210); Ahmad (1/255/96), al-Bayhaqee (1/254)
[17] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (837); al-Bukhaaree (10/250/5782), Ibn Maajah (2/1159/3505)
[18] (1/342)
[19] as-Saylul-Jarraar (1/42, 48) -with some paraphrasing. And you should know that regarding his saying “Allaah created water as being pure and purifying” al-Haafiz (Ibn Hajr) said in ‘at-Talkhees’ (1/14): “I have not found it in this form, and it has preceded as a hadeeth of Aboo Sa`eed with the wording: “Water is pure and purifying, nothing causes it to become impure.””
[20] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (2907); Ahmad (1/230/49), at-Tirmidhee (3/135/1728), Ibn Maajah (2/1193/3609), an-Nasaa·ee (7/173).
[21] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (3933), Muslim (1/234/91/279)
[22] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/240/291), and the wording is his; al-Bukhaaree (1/410/307).
[23] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (351); Aboo Daawood (2/26/361), al-Bayhaqee (2/408)
[24] Saheeh:Saheeh Ibn Maajah (430), Muwatta· Imaam Maalik (27/44), Aboo Daawood (2/44/379), atTirmidhee (1/95/143), Ibn Maajah (1/177/531).
[25] i.e. the baby who is still breast-fed and has not been weaned onto solid food (transl.).
[26] Saheeh: Saheeh an-Nasaa·ee (293), Aboo Daawood (2/36/372), an Nasaa·ee (1/158).
[27] Hasan: Saheeh Ibn Maajah (409), Aboo Daawood (1/357/207), at-Tirmidhee (1/76/115), Ibn Maajah (1/169/506).
[28] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (605); Aboo Daawood (2/353/636).
[29] Agreed upon: al-Irwaa. (171); al-Bukhaaree (1/323/220), an-Nasaa·ee (1/48 & 49); and it is reported in longer form by Aboo Daawood (2/39/376) & at-Tirmidhee (1/99/147).
[30] Saheeh: Saheeh Abee Daawood (368); al-Bukhaaree in disconnected form (1/278/174), Aboo Daawood (2/42/378).

Source : Al-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank . An excellent book on the rules and regulations of various acts of worship, with evidences from the Book and Sunnah. This chapter deals with water and aspects of purification, wudhoo, ghusl, the toilet etc

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

Scholars Biographies: Shaykh ‘Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Naasir as-Sa’dee

BIOGRAPHY OF THE SHAIKH `ABDUR-RAHMAAN IBN NAASIR AS-SA`DEE -rahimahullaahu ta`aalaa

[Abridged from the book ‘ash-Shaikh `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Naasir as-Sa`dee wa juhooduhu fee tawdeehil-`Aqeedah’ of Shaikh `Abdur-Razzaaq `Abdil-Muhsin al-`Abbaad]

Firstly: His lineage.

He is the great scholar, the pious person, the Zaahid (one who abstained from the unnecessary things of this world), the jurist, the scholar of the principles of Fiqh. The great scholar of al-Qaseem, and our Shaikh, Aboo `Abdillaah `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Naasir ibn `Abdillaah ibn Naasir ibn Hamd Aal Sa`dee, from the tribe of Banoo Tameem.

Secondly: His birth.

He was born in `Unayzah, in al-Qaseem, on the twelfth of Muharram 1307H, and he lived as an orphan, without either of his parents.

Thirdly: His upbringing.

His father gave importance to his cultivation, and before his death he instructed his eldest son to look after him, and he took on the task of caring for him in the best manner. So he was equipped with a righteous environment, and with a great desire to seek knowledge, and he exerted in it day and night, day after day.

Fourthly: His characteristics.

(a) His physical characteristics: He was of medium height, his hair was dense; and he had a full, round face, and a dense beard. He was whitish in colour, with a reddish tinge. He had a handsome face, with light upon it, and a pure complexion.

(b) His manners: He was good-humoured, and beloved to the people on account of his good nature.

Anger would not be seen upon his face.

He had a great degree of humility and modesty, and he was amiable, to an extent that is rarely found. He was humble with the young and the old, the rich and the poor.

He had a high level of manners, decency, uprightness, and firm resolve in all his affairs. He abstained from the unnecessary things of this world, and was one who witheld (from asking). He had selfrespect, despite his possessing very little. He felt compassion towards the poor, the needy, and the strangers. He would give money to the poor and needy students, so that they could free themselves from preoccupation with seeking a livelihood.

He loved to bring about peace and rectification between the people. His clothing was moderate in fineness, and avoided conspicuousness.

Fifthly: His life in the field of knowledge.

His overriding concern in his life was to derive the benefit of knowledge, and to utilize his time for that. So he began with memorization of the Qur·aan at an early age, and he had memorized it proficiently by the age of eleven. Then he began acquiring the rest of the branches of Islamic knowledge.

He did not restrict himself whilst seeking knowledge to a single field of knowledge; rather he studied many fields: so he studied Tafseer, Hadeeth, Creed and Belief, Fiqh, Usool, Science of Hadeeth, the sciences of the language, and other than this.

The Shaikh gave a great deal of attention to the books of the two Shaikhs of Islaam: Ibn Taimiyyah and Ibnul-Qayyim; he devoted himself to reading and revising them, and to memorising and understanding them, and to writing and abridging them..

He first sat to teach at the age of twenty three, and he used to divide his time between learning and teaching. He would spend some time in reading to the scholars, and some time in sitting to teach the students. He would also spend some time in referring to the books, and in researching within them. He would not allow any of his time to be lost without his utilising it, to such an extent that teaching in his city fell to him, and all of the students relied upon him with regard to their education.

Sixthly: His Shaikhs.

(1) Shaikh Ibraaheem ibn Hamd ibn Jaasir (1241-1338 H). He was the first Shaikh whom he read to. He learned from him Tafseer and Hadeeth, and the Principles (Usool) of both of them.
(2) Shaikh Muhammad ibn `Abdil-Kareem ash-Shibl (1257-1343 H). He learned from him Fiqh, and its Principles, and the sciences of the Arabic Language.
(3) Shaikh Muhammad ibn ash-Shaikh `Abdil-`Azeez al-Muhammad al-Maani` (1300-1385 H). He learned from him the sciences of the Arabic Language.
(4) Shaikh Muhammad al-Ameen ash-Shanqeetee (1289-1351 H). He learned from him Tafseer, Hadeeth, Science of Hadeeth, and the sciences of the Language.

Seventhly: His students:

(1) Shaikh Muhammad ibn Saaalih al-`Uthaymeen. He took over from his Shaikh in the duty of Imaam of the Congregational Mosque of `Unayzah, and in teaching, admonishing, and delivering the khutbah.
(2) Shaikh `Abdullaah ibn `Abdir-Rahmaan al-Bassaam. Member of the Discretionary Committee in the Western Region.
(3) Shaikh `Abdul-`Azeez ibn Muhammad as-Salmaan. He studied in the Imaamud-Da`wah Institute in ar-Riyaad, and he followed the path of his shaikh in authorship.

Eighthly: His writings:

Shaikh Ibn Sa`dee -rahimahullaah- gave great attention to writing works. He produced many works in the different fields of Islamic knowledge. Some have been printed, while others are, as yet, unprinted. So from the printed works are:

1- ‘al-Adillatul-Qawaati` wal-Baraaheen fee Ibtaal Usoolil-Mulhideen’;
2- ‘al-Irshaad ilaa Ma`rifatil-Ahkaam’;
3- ‘Bahjatu Quloobil-Abraar wa Qurratu `Uyoonil-Akhyaar fee Sharh Jawaami`il-Akhbaar’, and it is presently being prepared and attended to;
4- ‘Tawdeehul-Kaafiyatish-Shaafiyah’;
5- ‘at-Tawdeeh wal-Bayaan lishajaratil-Eemaan’;
6- ‘at-Tanbeehaatul-Lateefah feemahtawat `alaihil-Waasitiyyah minal-Mabaahithil-Muneefah’;
7- ‘Tayseerul-Kareemir-Rahmaan fee Tafseer Kalaamil-Mannaan’;
8- ‘ad-Durratul-Mukhtasarah fee Mahaasin Deenil-Islaam’;
9- ‘Risaalah fil-Qawaa`idil-Fiqhiyyah’;
10- ‘Risaalah Lateefah Jaami`ah fee Usoolil-Fiqhil-Muhimmah’; and it is before your eyes, along with annotations upon it;
11- ‘Tareequl-Wusool ilal-`Ilmil-Ma·mool bima`rifatil-Qawaa`id wad-Dawaabit wal-Usool’;
12- ‘al-Fataawas-Sa`diyyah’.They were gathered after his death -rahimahullaahu ta`aalaa.
13- ‘al-Qawaa`idul-Hisaan li-Tafseeril-Qur·aan’;
14- ‘al-Qawlus-Sadeed fee Maqaasidit-Tawheed’;
15- ‘Manhajus-Saalikeen wa Tawdeehul-Fiqh fid-Deen’;
16- ‘al-Wasaa·ilul-Mufeedah lil-Hayaatis-Sa`eedah’.

Ninthly: His illness and death:

He fell ill in the year 1371 H, i.e. five years before his death, with the illness of high blood pressure and arteriosclerosis, and it would strike him time after time, and he bore it patiently, until he moved on to his Lord, at the time of Fajr, on Thursday the 22nd of Jumaadal-Aakhirah 1376 H – may Allaah forgive him, and his parents, and our parents, and all of the Muslims.

[Compiled by Aboo Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank]

Source: www.alitisaambissunnah.wordpress.com

The Bath (al-Ghusl) : Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee | Dawood Burbank

THE BATH (al-Ghusl):

Those things which make it obligatory:

1) Semen coming out whilst awake or during sleep:

Because of his (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) saying:

“Taking a bath is binding if semen comes out.”[1]

And from Umm Salamah that Umm Sulaym said: “O Messenger of Allaah, Allaah is not shy of the truth, so is the bath binding upon the woman if she has a sexual dream.” He said: “Yes if she sees semen.” [2]

And having desire is a condition if a person is awake but not during sleep. Because of his (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) saying:

“If you ejaculate semen then take a bath from janaabah, but if you do not ejaculate it with force then do not take a bath.” [3]

ash-Shawkaanee [4] said: ‘al-hadhf means firing out, and it does not occur in this manner except as a result of desire and it contains a point of note that that which comes out without desire, either because of illness or severe cold, does not necessitate taking a bath.’

And whoever has a sexual dream and does not find semen, then there is no bath due upon him. And whoever finds semen but does not remember any sexual dream then taking a bath is upon him.

From `Aa·ishah-radiyallaahu `anhaa- that she said:

“Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) was asked about the man who finds liquid but does not remember any sexual dream, so he said: “He should take a bath.” And he was asked about a man who sees that he had intercourse in a dream but he does not find any liquid. So he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:”There is no bath due upon him.” [5]

2) Sexual intercourse, even if he does not ejaculate:

From the hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah -radiyallaahu `anhu- from the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) that he said: “If he sits between her four limbs, and he has intercourse with her, then the bath has become obligatory, even if he did not ejaculate.” [6]

3) An Unbeliever accepting Islaam:

From Qays ibn `Aasim that he accepted Islaam, so the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) ordered him to take a bath with water and lote-tree leaves. [7]

4) The cessation of the menstrual period and after-birth bleeding:

Because of the hadeeth of `Aa·ishah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said to Faatimah bint Abee Hubaysh:

“When the menstrual period comes then leave off the Prayer; and when it departs, then take a bath and pray.” [8]

And after-birth bleeding is just like the menstruation period by consensus.

5) The day of Jumu`ah:

From the hadeeth of Aboo Sa`eed al-Khudree that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: “Taking the bath for the Jumu`ah is obligatory upon every adult.” [9]

Its Pillars:

1) Intention: Because of the hadeeth:”Actions are but by intentions…” [10]
2) Covering the whole body with water.

Its recommended form:

From `Aa·ishah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- that she said:

‘When Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) took a bath from janaabah he would begin and wash his hands, then he would pour water with his right hand over his left hand and wash his genitals. Then he would perform the wudoo· in the manner in which he performed the wudoo· for the Prayer. Then he would take the water and enter his fingers into the roots of his hair until he saw that he had caused the water to reach all parts of it. Then he would take three handfuls of water and put it upon his head. Then he washed his feet.’[11]

Point of note:

It is not obligatory upon the woman to undo her hair when taking a bath from janaabah, but it is obligatory upon her to do that in the bath for the menstrual period.

From Umm Salamah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- that she said: ‘I said: “O Messenger of Allaah! I am a woman who ties my hair into plaits. Shall I undo it for the bath of janaabah?” He said: “No, it would suffice you to pour three handfuls of water upon your head, then make the water flow upon yourself, and you will be clean.” [12]

From `Aa·ishah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- that Asmaa· asked the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) about the bath from menstruation. So he said:

“One of you should take her water and her lote-tree leaves, so she should purify herself and purify herself in a good manner then she should pour it upon her head and strongly rub it in until she reaches the roots upon her hair. Then she should pour the water upon herself, then she should take a piece of cloth with musk upon it and clean herself with it.” So Asmaa· said: ‘How should she clean herself with it? so he said “Subhaanallaah! (How perfect is Allaah!) She should clean herself with it.”

So `Aa·ishah said to her, and it is as if she said it secretly to her: ‘You should wipe away the trace of blood with it.’

And she asked him about the bath of janaabah. So he said:

“She should take some water and purify herself, and clean herself in a good manner, or perform the purification fully. Then she should pour it upon her head, and rub it in until she reaches the roots of (the hair) upon her head. Then she should pour the water upon herself.” [13]

So this hadeeth clearly shows a difference between the bath which a woman takes from her menses, and her bath from the state of janaabah, since he emphasised upon the menstruating woman that she should exert in rubbing strongly, and in purifying, in a way in which he did not emphasis regarding her bath from janaabah. Just as the hadeeth of Umm Salamah is a proof that it is not obligatory to undo the hair in her bath from janaabah. [14]

And the basic rule is to undo the hair to make certain that the water reaches whatever is underneath it. Except that it has been pardoned in the bath of janaabah because of the fact that it happens repeatedly, and that it would create severe difficulty to have to undo it for that. Contrary to the bath after the menses because it happens only once a month. [15]

A point of note:

It is permissible for the two spouses to take a bath together in a single place, each of them looking at the private part of the other; because of the saying of `Aa·ishah – radiyallaahu `anhaa: ‘I used to take a bath, I and Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) from a single vessel, when we were in a state of janaabah.’ [16]

The recommended baths:

1-Taking a bath at each act of sexual intercourse:

Because of the hadeeth of Aboo Raafi` that one night the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) had relations with all of his wives in succession, taking a bath with this one, and with this one. He said: “O Messenger of Allaah! Why don’t you make it a single bath?” So he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

“This is purer, and better, and cleaner.” [17]

2- The woman who has continual bleeding taking a bath for every Prayer, or one bath for the Zuhr Prayer and `Asr Prayer together, and one bath for the Maghrib and the `Ishaa· Prayer together, and one bath for the Fajr Prayer.

Because of the hadeeth of `Aa·ishah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- that she said: “Umm Habeebah had continual bleeding in the time of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) so he commanded her to take a bath for every Prayer….the hadeeth.” [18]

And in a narration from her a woman had continual bleeding in the time of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) so she was commanded that she should bring the `Asr Prayer forward and delay the Dhur Prayer, and that she should take a single bath for both of them; and that she should delay the Maghrib Prayer and bring forward the `Ishaa· Prayer, and take a bath for the two of them, and that she should take a bath for the Dawn Prayer. [19]

3- Taking a bath after becoming unconscious:

Because of the hadeeth of `Aa·ishah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- that she said Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) became very ill. So he said: “Have the people prayed?” So we said: ‘No, they are waiting for you O Messenger of Allaah’. So he said: “Put some water in the tub for me.” She said so we did so. So he took a bath and then he tried to stand but he fell unconscious. Then he came around and he said: “Have the people prayed?” So we said: ‘No, they are waiting for you O Messenger of Allaah’. He said put some water for me in the tub. She said so we did so. So he took a bath then he tried to stand up and he fainted. Then he came around and he said:” Have the people prayed?” So we said: ‘No, they are waiting for you O Messenger of Allaah’. And she mentioned his sending a message to Aboo Bakr, and the completion of the hadeeth. [20]

4- Taking a bath after burying a Mushrik:

Because of the hadeeth of `Alee ibn Abee Taalib -radiyallaahu `anhu- that he came to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and he said: “Aboo Taalib has died.” So he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: “Go and bury him.” So when I had buried him I came back to him, and he said to me: “Take a bath.” [21]

5- Taking a bath for the two `Eeds and for the Day of `Arafah:

Because of what al-Bayhaqee reported, by way of ash-Shaafi`ee: from Zaadhaan, who said: “A man asked `Alee -radiyallaahu `anhu- about the bath.” So he said: “Take a bath every day if you want to.” So he said: “No, the bath which is the bath.” He said: “The Day of Jumu`ah, and the Day of `Arafah, and the Day of Sacrifice, and the Day of Fitr.” [22]

6- Taking a bath after washing the dead:

Because of his (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) saying: “Whoever washes a dead person then let him take a bath.” [23]

7- Taking a bath for the state of Ihraam for `Umrah or Hajj:

Because of the hadeeth of Zayd ibn Thaabit that he saw the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) remove his (usual) clothes for entering the state of Ihraam, and he took a bath. [24]

8- Taking a bath to enter Makkah:

Because of the hadeeth of Ibn `Umar -radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)- that he had not used to come to Makkah except that he would spend the night at Dhee Tuwaa, and then enter the morning. So he would take a bath and then enter Makkah in the day time; and he mentioned from the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) that he did it. [25]

Footnotes:

[1] Saheeh: [Mukhtasar Muslim (151), Muslim (1/269/343), Aboo Daawood (1/366/214)

[2] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/228/130), Muslim (1/251/313), at-Tirmidhee (1/80/122)

[3] Its chain of narration is hasan saheeh: [Irwaa.ul-Ghaleel (1/162), Ahmad (1/247/82).

[4]  Naylul Awtaar (1/275)

[5] Saheeh: Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (216), at-Tirmidhee (1/74/113), Aboo Daawood (1/399/233)

[6] Saheeh: [Mukhtasar Muslim (152)], Muslim (1/271/348)

[7] Saheeh: [Irwaa.ul-Ghaleel (128), an-Nasaa.ee(1/109), at-Tirmidhee (2/58/602), Aboo Daawood (2/19/351)

[8] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/42/320), Muslim (1/262/333), Aboo Daawood (1/466/279), at-Tirmidhee (1/82/125), an-Nasaa.ee (1/186), and their wordings except for al-Bukhaaree is: ‘wash the blood away from yourself.’

[9]Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (357/2/879), Muslim (2/580/846), Aboo Daawood (2/4 & 5 /337), an-Nasaa.ee (3/93), Ibn Maajah (1/346/1089)

[10]Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree, Muslim (1/204/226)

[11]Agreed upon.

[12]Saheeh: [Irwaa·ul-Ghaleel (136), Muslim (1/259/330), Aboo Daawood (1/426/248), an-Nasaa·ee (1/131), atTirmidhee (1/71/105), Ibn Maajah (1/198/603).

[13]Saheeh: [Mukhtasar Muslim (172)], Muslim (1/261/-61-332)

[14]Tahdheeb Sunan Abee Daawood of Ibnul Qayyim.

[15]Tahdheeb Sunan Abee Daawood of Ibnul Qayyim.

[16]Hasan: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (480), Aboo Daawood (1/370/216), Ibn Maajah (1/194/590).

[17]Hasan: [Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (480)], Aboo Daawood (1/370/216), Ibn Maajah (1/194/590)

[18]Saheeh: [Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (269)] Aboo Daawood (1/483/289)

[19]Saheeh:[Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (273)] Aboo Daawood (1/487/291)

[20]Agreed upon: Muslim (1/311/418), al-Bukhaaree (1/172/687).

[21]Its chain of narration is Saheeh.

[22][[Saheeh:al-Irwaa·:146]].

[23]Saheeh:[Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (1195), Ibn Maajah (1/470/1463).

[24]Hasan: [Irwaa·ul-Ghaleel (149), at-Tirmidhee (2/163/831).

[25]Agreed upon: Muslim (2/919-227-1259)-and this is his wording, al-Bukhaaree (3/435/1573), Aboo Daawood (5/318/1848), at-Tirmidhee (2/172/854).

Source : Al-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank . An excellent book on the rules and regulations of various acts of worship, with evidences from the Book and Sunnah. This chapter deals with water and aspects of purification, wudhoo, ghusl, the toilet etc

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

Wiping Over the Leather Socks (al-Mash ‘alal-khuffayn) – Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee | Dawood Burbank

WIPING OVER THE LEATHER SOCKS (al-Mash `alal-khuffayn):

Imaam an-Nawawee -rahimahullaah- said in his explanation of Muslim (3/164):

‘Those whose sayings are counted in consensus have agreed that it is permissible to wipe over the leather socks, when on a journey and when in residence, whether it is done for a need or otherwise, to the extent that it is permissible for the woman who stays within her house, and at times when the person is not walking about. It is only criticised by the Shee`ah and the Khawaarij, and their disagreement is not counted.

al-Hasan al-Basree -rahimahullaah- said:

Seventy of the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) narrated to me that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) used to wipe upon the leather socks.’

And the best thing that is used as evidence for the permissibility of wiping is that which Muslim reported from al-A`mash: from Ibraaheem from Hammaam, who said: Jareer urinated, and then he performed wudoo·, and he wiped over his leather socks. So it was said: “You do this.” He said, “Yes, I saw Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) urinate, and then he performed the wudoo·, and then he wiped over his leather socks.”

al-A`mash said: Ibraaheem said: “This hadeeth used to please them, because the Islaam of Jareer happened after Sooratul-Maa·idah came down’’. [1]

an-Nawawee said [2] : ‘Meaning that Allaah- the Most High- said:

“Then wash your faces and your arms up to and including the elbows, and wipe your heads, and wash your feet up to and including the ankle bones.” [Sooratul Maa·idah (5):6]

He said: “So if the Islaam of Jareer had come before the descent of al-Maa·idah it would have been possible that his hadeeth about wiping over the leather socks was abrogated by the Aayah of al-Maa.idah, but since his Islaam came later on, then we know for certain that his hadeeth is to be acted upon; and it clarifies that the one who is meant by the Aayah is the person who is not wearing leather socks. So therefore the Sunnah particularises the Aayah, and Allaah knows best.’’

Its Conditions:

It is a condition for the permissibility of wiping that he should wear the leather socks upon the state of having made wudoo·.

From al-Mugheerah ibn Shu`bah -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: I was with the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) one night on a journey. So I poured water out for him from the pot, and he washed his face and his two forearms, and he wiped his head. Then I reached down to remove his leather socks, so he said: “Leave them because I entered them both in a state of purification.” And he wiped over them. [3]

The time period for wiping:

From `Alee ibn Abee Taalib -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) laid down three days and their nights for the traveller,and one day and night for the resident. [4]

The place of wiping and its description:

The place which it is legislated to wipe is the upper surface of the leather sock, because of the saying of `Alee ibn Abee Taalib -radiyallaahu `anhu- : “If the Religion were in accordance with opinion, then underneath of the leather sock would have more right to be wiped then its top part, but I saw Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) wiping over the upper surface of his leather socks.” [5]

And what is obligatory in wiping is whatever the term ‘wiping’ is applied to.

Wiping over socks and sandals:

And just as it is permissible to wipe upon leather socks then it is permissible to wipe upon normal socks and upon sandals, because of the hadeeth of al-Mugheerah ibn Shu`bah that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) performed the wudoo·, and he wiped over the socks and the sandals. [6]

And from `Ubayd ibn Juraij who said: “ It was said to Ibn `Umar: We have seen you doing something which we did not see anyone else besides you doing.’ He said: ‘And what is it?’ They said: ‘We have seen you wearing these animal- hair sandals.’ He said: ‘I saw Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) wearing them and performing wudoo· in them, and he wiped over them.’ [7]

That which nullifies the wiping:

The wiping is annulled by one of these three:

1) Completion of the time period, because wiping has a time limit, as you have known. So it is not permissible to increase upon the time period which has been established.

2) Janaabah: Because of the hadeeth of Safwaan: “Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) used to command us when we were upon a journey that we should not remove our leather socks for three days along with their nights except from janaabah, but rather from passing excrement, and urine and sleep.” [8]

3) Removing that which has been wiped upon from the feet, because if he removes them, and then wears them again, then he will not have entered his two feet in a state of purification.

A point of benefit:

The completion of the time period, and removing that which he has wiped upon nullify the wiping alone. So it is not permissible to wipe until he has performed the wudoo·, and washed his feet, and then worn it. However if he was still in a state of wudoo· when he took off the thing that he wiped over, or when the time period finished, then he remains upon his state of wudoo·. He can pray with it as he wishes until he breaks his wudoo·.

A point of benefit:

Whoever wears two pairs of socks upon a state of purification, and then wipes over them, and then he removes the top one -after having wiped over it, then it is permissible for him to complete the time period by wiping over the underneath one, because it is correct that he entered his two feet into them in a state of being pure. But if he wore a sock, and wiped over it, and then he wore another one on top of it, then he may not wipe over that. This is because it will not be correct that he has entered the two of them when they were pure. [9]

Footnotes:

[1] Saheeh: [Mukhtasar Muslim (136), Muslim (1/227/272), at-Tirmidhee (1/63/93).
[2] Sharh Muslim (3/164)
[3] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/230-79-274), al-Bukhaaree (1/309/206)-in abridged form, Aboo Daawood (1/256/151)
[4] Saheeh:[ Mukhtasar Muslim (139), Muslim (1/232/276), an-Nasaa·ee (1/84).
[5] Saheeh: [Irwaa.ul-Ghaleel 103], Aboo Daawood (1/278/162).
[6] Saheeh: [Irwaa·ul-Ghaleel 101], Aboo Daawood (1/269/159), at-Tirmidhee (1/67/99), Ibn Maajah (1/185/559).
[7] Ibn Khuzaymah (1/p.100 hadeeth 199), al-Bayhaqee (1/ p.287 )
[8] Hasan: [Irwaa·ul-Ghaleel 104], at-Tirmidhee (1/65/96), an-Nasaa·ee (1/84)
[9] This is what Shaikh al-Albaanee mentioned to me.

Source : Al-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank . An excellent book on the rules and regulations of various acts of worship, with evidences from the Book and Sunnah. This chapter deals with water and aspects of purification, wudhoo, ghusl, the toilet etc

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

At-Tayammum (Purification with Earth) – Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee | Dawood Burbank

PURIFICATION WITH EARTH (AT-TAYAMMUM):

Its Legislation:

He- the Most High- says:

“And if you are ill or upon a journey, or one of you comes from going to the toilet, or if you have had sexual intercourse with women and you do not find water, then perform tayammum with clean earth: and wipe your faces and your hands.” [Sooratul-Maa.idah (5):6]

And Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

“Clean earth is a purification for the Muslim even if he does not find water for ten years.” [1]

The causes which render it permissible:

It is permissible to perform tayammum when one is unable to use water, if he can not find it, or if he fears harm from using- it because of illness in the body or severe cold. From `Imraan ibn Husayn -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “We were along with Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) on a journey. So he led the people in the Prayer and then he saw a man who was keeping himself away. So he said:

“What prevented you from praying?” He said: “I was struck by janaabah and there was no water.” So he (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: “Use the earth, for it will suffice you.” [2]

And from Jaabir -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “We went out on a journey, so a man from us was struck by a rock and it caused him a head injury. Then he had a wet dream, so he asked his companions: ‘Do you find any concession for me to perform tayammum?’ So they said: “We do not find any concession for you and you, and you are able to use water.” So he took a bath and he died. So when we came to Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) he was informed of that. So he said:

“They killed him, may Allaah kill them. Why didn’t they ask when they did not know? Indeed the cure for ignorance is to ask. It would have sufficed him to perform tayammum.” [3]

And from `Amr ibn al-`Aas -radiyallaahu `anhu- that when he was sent on the military expedition of Dhaatas-Salaasil he said: “I had a wet dream on a night which was severely cold, so I feared that if I took a bath I would die. So I performed tayammum, and then I led my companions in the Dawn Prayer. Then when we came to Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) they mentioned that to him. So he said:

“O `Amr did you lead your companions in Prayer when you were junub?” So I said: “I remembered the Saying of Allaah- the Most High:

“And do not kill yourselves indeed Allaah is ever Merciful to you.” [Sooratun-Nisaa· (4): 29]

So therefore I performed tayammum and then I prayed.” So Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) laughed, and he did not say anything.” [4]

What is ‘earth’ (as-Sa’eed)?

He said in ‘Lisaanul `Arab’ [5] : “The Sa`eed is the earth; it is said: pure earth, and it is said: it is every pure soil; and there occurs in the Revelation sent down:

“So perform tayammum with pure earth” [Sooratul Maa·idah (5): 6]

Aboo Ishaaq said: ‘as-Sa`eed is the face of the earth, and it is upon the person that he should strike his two hands upon the face of the earth, and not care whether the place has soil upon it or not. Because as-Sa`eed is not soil rather it is the face of the earth, whether that be soil or something else. He said: and if there is a land which is all rock, with no soil upon it, and the person performing tayammum strikes his hand upon that rock, then that would be purification if he wipes his face with it.’

The description of the tayammum:

From `Ammaar ibn Yaasir -radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)- who said: ‘I became junub and I did not find any water. Therefore I rolled around in the dust and I prayed. So I mentioned that to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and he said: “It would have sufficed you to do like this”, and the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) struck the ground with his two palms, and blew upon them. Then he wiped his face with them and his two hands.’ [6]

A point of benefit:

The principal with regard to tayammum is that it takes the place of the wudoo· So whatever is permissible to do in a state of wudoo·, then is permissible to do it with it (i.e. tayammum). And it is permissible to perform it before the time, just as that is permissible with the wudoo·; and the person can prayer whatever he wishes with it, just as he prays in a state of wudoo.

The things which break tayammum:

Tayammum is broken by that which breaks the wudoo·. It is also broken by the presence of water -for the person who couldn’t find it, and the ability to use it- for the one who was unable to use it; and whatever came before from his Prayer is correct, it is not necessary for him to repeat it.

From Aboo Sa`eed al-Khudree -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “Two men went out on a journey and it became time for the Prayer and they did not have any water with them. So both of them performed tayammum with pure earth and they prayed. Then they found water within the time. So one of them repeated the wudoo· and the Prayer, and the other one did not repeat. Then they came to Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) and they mentioned that to him. So he said to the one who had not repeated: “You attained the Sunnah, and your Prayer suffices you.” And he said to the one who performed wudoo· and repeated: “You have the reward twice over.”’’ [7]

A point of benefit:

Whoever has a wound upon which he has wrapped a bandage, or a fracture which he has set, then having to wash that place falls away from him, and he does not have to wipe over it, nor perform tayammum for it.

The proof for that is the Saying of Allaah- the Most High:

“Allaah does not place a duty on any soul except that which it can carry out.” [Sooratul-Baqarah (2): 286]

And the saying of the Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) “When I command you with a matter, then do what you are able to do from it.” [8]

So everything which the person is unable to do falls away, by the text of the Qur’aan and the Sunnah, and to declare something else to be a replacement for it is legislation, and legislation is not binding except by a text of the Qur’aan or Sunnah; and there is nothing in the Qur’aan or the Sunnah to show that wiping upon a splint or upon ointment is a replacement for washing that which the person is not able to wash. So that saying falls away. [9]

The permissibility of performing tayammum with a wall: [10]

From Ibn `Abbaas-radiyallaahu `anhu(maa)-who said: “ I came along with `Abdullaah ibn Yasaar- the slave belonging to Maymoonah the wife of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) until we entered upon Aboo Juhaym ibn al-Haarith ibn as-Simmah al-Ansaaree.

So Abul- Juhaym said: The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) came from the direction of the well of Jamal [11], so he was met by a man who greeted him with Salaam, but the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) did not respond to him until he went to the wall, and wiped his face and two hands. Then he responded to his greeting of Salaam.” [12]

Footnotes:

[1] Saheeh: [Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (322); at-Tirmidhee (1/81/124), Aboo Daawood ( 1/528/329), anNasaa·ee (1/171)-with wordings which are close.
[2]Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/477/344), Muslim (1/474/682), an-Nasaa·ee (1/171).
[3] Hasan: [Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (326)]; Aboo Daawood (1/532/332), and it contains an addition which is munkar, and that is “…and wipe or tie a piece of cloth upon his wound and then wipe over it. And wash the rest of his body.’’ Shamsul-Haqq said in ‘ `Awnul-Ma`bood’ (1/535): ‘The narration about combining tayammum and washing is not reported by anyone other than Zubayr ibn Khurayq, and he- along with the fact that he is not strong in hadeeth – has also contradicted the rest of those who report it from `Ataa· ibn Abee Rabaah. So the narration of the combination between tayammum and taking a bath is a narration which is weak, rulings cannot be established through it.’ And take note of the point of benefit which follows after one page.
[4] Saheeh: [Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (323), Aboo Daawood (1/530/330), Ahmad (2/191/16),al-Haakim (1/177).
[5] (3/254)
[6] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/455/347), Muslim (1/280/368), Aboo Daawood (1/514/317), an-Nasaa·ee (1/166).
[7] Saheeh:[Saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood (327), Aboo Daawood (1/536/334), an- Nasaa·ee (1/213).
[8] Saheeh: [Mukhtasar Muslim (639), Muslim (2/975/1337), an-Nasaa·ee (5/110).
[9] al-Muhallaa of Ibn Hazm (2/74).
[10] Whether it is made of clay or made of rock; whether it is painted or not painted .This verdict was given to me by our Shaikh al-Albaanee –rahimahullaah, and he said: “And your Lord is never forgetful” [Soorah Maryam (19): 64]
[11] A place close to al-Madeenah.
[12] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/441/337), Muslim (1/281/369) -in disconnected form, Aboo Daawood (1/521/325), an-Nasaa·ee (1/165).

Source : Al-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank . An excellent book on the rules and regulations of various acts of worship, with evidences from the Book and Sunnah. This chapter deals with water and aspects of purification, wudhoo, ghusl, the toilet etc

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

Siwaak – It’s recommendation is emphasized in five Situations – Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee | Dawud Burbank

The siwaak (tooth-stick) :

The siwaak is recommended in all conditions, and its recommendation is emphasized:

1- Along with the wudoo·:

From Aboo Hurayrah -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<If it were not that I would make a difficulty upon my nation I would have commanded them to use the siwaak with every wudoo·.>>” [1]

2- At every Prayer:

From Aboo Hurayrah -radiyallaahu `anhu- from the Prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) who said:

<<If it were not that I would make a difficulty for my nation I would have commanded them to use the siwaak at every Prayer.>> [2]

3- When reciting the Qur·aan:

From `Alee -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “He commanded us to use the siwaak, and he said:

<<When the servant stands in Prayer an Angel comes to him and stands behind him, listening to the Qur.aan and drawing closer. So he continues listening and drawing closer until he places his mouth upon his mouth. So he does not recite any Aayah except that it enters within the Angel>> [3]

4- When entering the house:

From al-Miqdaam ibn Shurayh: from his father, who said: I asked `Aa·ishah, saying: “What had the Prophet ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) used to begin with when he entered his house?” she said: “With the siwaak.” [4]

5- When getting up (to pray) during the night:

From Hudhayfah –radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “When Allaah’s Messenger ( صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) got up to pray the tahajjud Prayer at night, he used to rub his mouth with the siwaak.” [5]

Footnotes:

[1] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (5317); Ahmad (1/294/171).
[2] Agreed upon Muslim (1/220/252), al-Bukhaaree (2/374/887), at-Tirmidhee (1/18/22), an-Nasaa·ee (1/12); except that the wording of al-Bukhaaree is: “with every Prayer.”
[3] Saheeh Lighairihi: as-Saheehah (1213); al-Bayhaqee (1/38).
[4] Saheeh Ibn Maajah (235); Muslim (1/220/253) Aboo Daawood (1/86/58), Ibn Maajah (1/106/290), an-Nasaa·ee (1/13).
[5] Agreed upon: Muslim (1/220/255), and this wording is his; al-Bukhaaree (1/356/245), Aboo Daawood (1/83/54), an-Nasaa·ee (1/8); and the wording of the three is: “When he got up (to pray) during the night.”

Source : Al-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank .

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

Toilet Manners (Aadaabul-Khalaa) : Abdul-Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee

1 – It is recommended for the person who wants to enter the toilet to say:

بِسْمِ الله ) اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْخُبُثِ وَالْخَبَائِثِ)

(Bismillaah),
(Allaahummaa innee a`oodhu bika minal-khubuthi wal-khabaa·ith)

(With the name of Allaah),
(O Allaah! I seek Your refuge from male and female devils).

This is because of the hadeeth of `Alee -radiyallaahu `anhu- that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<The screen between the jinn and the private-parts of the descendants of Aadam, when one of you enters the toilet, is that he says:‘Bismillaah’ (with the name of Allaah).>> [1.1]

And because of the hadeeth of Anas -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “When Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) went to the toilet he used to say:

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْخُبُثِ وَالْخَبَائِثِ

‘Allaahummaa innee a`oodhu bika minal-khubuthi wal-khabaa·ith’ (O Allaah! I seek Your refuge from male and female devils).”  [1.2]

2 – And it is recommended that when he departs he says:: (Ghufraanaka): (I seek Your forgiveness), because of the hadeeth of Aa·ishah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- who said: “When the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) came away from the toilet he would say: << Ghufraanaka>> (I seek Your forgiveness).” 1.3

3 – And it is recommended that he should enter with his left-foot first, and depart with the right-foot first.

This is because the right-side is used for noble actions, and the left-side for actions which are not noble actions; and there are reports which indicate this generally. [1.4]

4 – And if he is in an open place, then it is recommended for him to move far enough away so that he is not seen:

From Jaabir -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “We went out along with Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) on a journey, and Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) would not go to the toilet until he had gone far enough so that he would not be seen.” [1.5]

5 – And it is recommended that he does not raise his garment until he is close to the ground:

From Ibn `Umar -radiyallaahu `anhumaa- : “That when the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) wanted to relieve himself he would not raise his garment until he was close to the ground.” [2.1]

6 – And it is not permissible to face or to have ones back towards the qiblah, whether in the open desert or within a building:

From Aboo Ayyoob al-Ansaaree -radiyallaahu `anhu- from the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) who said:

When you go to the toilet, then do not face the qiblah and do not have your back towards it, but rather turn to the east or to the west.” [2.2]

Aboo Ayyoob said: “So we came to Shaam, and we found toilets which had been built facing towards the Ka`bah. So we would turn aside from it, and we would ask for the forgiveness of Allaah -the Most High.” [2.3]

7 – And it is forbidden to go to the toilet upon the path-way of the people, and in the places where they take shade:

From Aboo Hurayrah that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

<<Beware of the two things which bring about curses.>> They said: “And what are the two things which bring about curses, O Messenger of Allaah?” He said: <<The person who goes to the toilet upon the path-way of the people, or where they take shade.>>2.4

8 – And it is disliked to urinate in the place where he takes a bath: From Humayd al-Himyaree who said: I met a man who had accompanied the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) just as Aboo Hurayrah accompanied him, [2.5] who said: “Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) forbade that one of us should comb his hair every day, and that he should urinate in the place where he takes a bath.”  [2.6]

9 – And it is forbidden to urinate in standing water:

From Jaabir: from the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) that he forbade urinating in standing water. [3.1]

10 – And it is permissible to urinate standing, but sitting is better:

From Hudhayfah -radiyallaahu `anhu-: that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) came to the rubbish dump of a people, and he urinated whilst standing. So I moved away, so he said: <<Draw near.>> So I drew close to him, until I stood at his heels. So he performed wudoo·, and wiped over his leather socks. [3.2]

And we said that sitting is better because that was his usual practice, to such an extent that `Aa·ishah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- said: “Whoever narrates to you that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) urinated whilst standing then do not believe him. He had not used to urinate except whilst sitting.” [3.3]

And this saying of hers does not negate what occurs from Hudhayfah, since she informed about what she had seen, and Hudhayfah informed about what he had seen; and, as is known, the one who affirms is given precedence over the one who negates, since he has additional knowledge with him.

11 – And it is obligatory to keep oneself clean of urine:

So from Ibn `Abbaas -radiyallaahu `anhumaa- : that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) passed by two graves, and said:

<<They are being punished, and they are not being punished for something serious. As for one of them, then he had not used to keep himself clean of his urine; and as for the other, then he used to go between the people with reports to cause trouble (nameemah).” [3.4]

12-And he should not hold his penis with his right hand whilst he is urinating, nor clean himself with it:

From Qataadah -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

When one of you urinates, let him not hold his penis with his right hand; and let him not clean himself with his right hand.” [4.1]

13 – And it is permissible to clean oneself with water, or with stones-or with whatever is like them, and water is better:

From Anas -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) used to enter the toilet, and I and a boy of similar age to me used to carry a pot of water and a spear. So he would clean himself with the water.” [4.2]

And from `Aa·ishah -radiyallaahu `anhaa- that Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said: <<When one of you goes to the toilet then let him take three stones along with him, and let him clean himself with them, since they will suffice him.>>  [4.3]

14 – And it is not permissible to suffice with less than three stones:

From Salmaan al-Faarisee -radiyallaahu `anhu- that it was said to him: ‘Your Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) has taught you everything, even how to use the toilet!’ So he said: “Yes indeed! He forbade us from facing the qiblah with excrement or urine; and that we should clean ourselves with the right hand, and that we should clean ourselves with less than three stones; and that we should clean ourselves with a piece of animal dung or with a bone.” [4.4]

15 – And it is not permissible to clean oneself with a bone, or with a piece of dung: From Jaabir -radiyallaahu `anhu- who said: “The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) forbade that a person should wipe himself clean with a bone or a piece of animal dung.” [4.5]

Footnotes :

[1.1] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (3611); at-Tirmidhee (2/59/606)-and this is his wording; Ibn Maajah (1/109/297)…

[1.2] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/242/142), Muslim (1/283/375), Aboo Daawood (1/21/4), Ibn Maajah (1/109/298), at-Tirmidhee (1/76), an-Nasaa·ee (1/20)

[1.3] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (4714); Aboo Daawood (1/52/30), at-Tirmidhee (1/7/7), Ibn Maajah (1/110/300).

[1.4] ‘as-Saylul-Jarraar’ (1/64). Shaikh al-Albaanee said in his notes upon ‘Ta·seesul-Ahkaam’ (1/34), concerning entering the toilet with the justify-foot: “I do not know anything from that in the Sunnah” (transl.).

[1.5] Saheeh: Saheeh Ibn Maajah (268); Ibn Maajah (1/121/335), Aboo Daawood (1/19/2) -with its like.

[2.1] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (4652); Aboo Daawood (1/31/14), at-Tirmidhee (1/11/14) as a hadeeth of Anas.

[2.2] Saheeh: Mukhtasar Muslim (109), [Muslim (no.264)], Saheeh Abee Daawood (7).

[2.3] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/498/394), Muslim (1/224/264), at-Tirmidhee (1/8/8).

[2.4] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (110); Aboo Daawood (1/47/25), Muslim (1/226/269)…

[2.5] The narration of an-Nasaa·ee contains the additional wording “for four years.” (transl.).

[2.6] Saheeh: Saheehun-Nasaa·ee (232); an-Nasaa·ee (1/130), Aboo Daawood (1/50/28).

[3.1] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (6814); Muslim (1/235/281), an-Nasaa·ee (1/34).

[3.2] Muslim (1/228/273), at-Tirmidhee (1/11/13), al-Bukhaaree (1/329/225), an-Nasaa·ee (1/19), Aboo Daawood (1/44/23), Ibn Maajah (1/111/305).

[3.3] Saheeh: Saheehun-Nasaa·ee (29), an-Nasaa.ee (1/26), at-Tirmidhee (1/10/12)….

[3.4] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/317/216), Muslim (1/240/292), at-Tirmidhee (1/47/70), Aboo Daawood (1/40/20), an-Nasaa·ee (1/28).

[4.1] Saheeh: Saheeh Ibn Maajah (250); Ibn Maajah (1/113/310) -this is his wording; and it was reported by: al-Bukhaaree (1/254/154), Muslim (1/225/267), Aboo Daawood (1/53/31), at-Tirmidhee (1/12/15), an-Nasaa·ee (1/25) -in longer form, and in abridged form.

[4.2] Agreed upon: al-Bukhaaree (1/252/152), Muslim (1/227/271), an-Nasaa·ee (1/42)- and he does not have a mention of the spear. An-Nawawee said: “The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) used to take it (i.e. the spear) along with him, because when he had performed wudoo· he would pray. So he needed to erect it in front of him, so that it would be a barrier which he could pray towards.” (transl.)

[4.3] Saheeh:Saheehun-Nasaa·ee; an-Nasaa·ee (1/42), Aboo Daawood (1/61/40)

[4.4] Saheeh: Saheeh Ibn Maajah (255); Muslim (1/223/262), at-Tirmidhee (1/13/16), Aboo Daawood (1/24/7), Ibn Maajah (1/115/316), an-Nasaa·ee (1/38)

[4.5] Saheeh: Saheehul-Jaami` (6827); Muslim (1/224/263), Aboo Daawood (1/60/38)

Source : Al-Wajeez, The Book Of Purification  –  Abdul-`Azeem ibn Badawee al-Khalafee, Translated by Abu Talhah Dawood Burbank . An excellent book on the rules and regulations of various acts of worship, with evidences from the Book and Sunnah. This chapter deals with water and aspects of purification, wudhoo, ghusl, the toilet etc

Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/tahara-purification/

Imaamah, Khilaafah & al-Haakimiyyah – Refutation of Maududi – by Shaykh Rabee

The following is excerpted from Appendix I of  the book : “The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah – that is the way of wisdom and intelligence” – by Shaykh Rabee hafidhahullaah, translated by Dawud Burbank rahimahullah

Appendix I [1]

All praise is for Allaah alone, and may He send praises and blessings of peace upon the Messenger of Allaah, and upon his family and true followers, and his Companions and those who follow his way.

To proceed, I praise Allaah, with abundant, pure and blessed praise for every blessing which He has bestowed on me, and I give thanks to Him, the Most High, and praise and extol Him, and I cannot praise and extol Him as truly befits Him, and no-one can do so.

Then from the blessings which Allaah has bestowed on me is that He has enabled me, despite my weakness, to speak the truth openly according to my capability, whether in writing or face to face encounters, so I thank Him and praise Him with praise such as would fill the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them. I also ask that He grants me firmness upon that until I meet Him and that He is pleased with me. I further ask that He grants me increase in guidance to what is correct, and protection, and I do not forget, and all praise is for Allaah, that when my book, ‘The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah – That is the Way of Wisdom and Intellect,’ was published it was accepted by the true Muslim youth in every place with joy and was greatly welcomed. This was because it made the call of the Prophets clear to them, until it became as clear as the sun in the middle of the day, and it removed confusion, distortions and the deception of some writers whose hearts were like those of devils in the form of humans those whose only concern is to gather the people around them and around their fraudulent slogans. It does not worry such people that this gathering of people should include the Raafidees (extreme Shee’ah), the hypocrites, the heretical Khawaarij,[2] the extreme Sufis who are guilty of apostasy, the ignorant and their like from the worshippers of the graves, or whichever of the wretched and unfortunate groups.

It does not worry them that this type of people rally together with them and rally to their slogans, despite the evil consequences of this in this world and the Hereafter. This is because they are as they were described by Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , “Callers to the gates of Hell, whoever answers their call will be thrown into it,” and because they are as the sincere, truthful and trustworthy Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   described them, “Devils in the bodies of humans.” If this is not the case then what is it that causes them, and those who follow their lead, to flee from and separate themselves from the clear and radiant way and methodology of the Prophets, which is made clear by the Qur’aan and shown to be their way and their methodology?

Tawheed of Allaah with regard to this His names and attributes, tawheed of Allaah in His lordship, and tawheed of Allaah in His worship, and to disbelieve and reject everything that is worshipped besides Him – that is the pure religion. Allaah the Most High, says:

“We sent a Messenger to every nation, ordering them that they should worship Allaah alone, obey Him and make their worship purely for Him, and that they should avoid everything worshipped besides Allaah.”[3]

He said:

“We did not send any Messenger before you, O Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , except that We revealed to Him that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah – so make all of your worship purely for Allaah.”[4]

Study any of the other da’wahs of the sects and parties – other than the Salafee[5] da’wah – do you see this methodology or any trace of it in their schooling, their persons, or their jamaa’aat? Then show it to me if you are truthful. As for myself I do not find in these sects and parties except that they wage a fierce war against this methodology and its people. I do not see except belittlement and mockery of this methodology and its people. I do not see except hatred and enmity for this methodology and its people, and I do not see except warm greetings and respect from them for the deviant and misguided calls and their people. Indeed you will frequently see and hear the last of these from those who disguise themselves as Salafees but are in reality closer in relation to their enemies, and there are ties and relationships between them which are such as they are known only to Allaah.

Then there are some who are passionately in love with the state of superstitions, innovations and misguidance who think- and evil are their thoughts, and evil is the lie which they invent- that Imake a separation between the religion and the State, and that I dispute about the importance of the subject of authority of sovereignty.

“What a serious word it is that comes out of their mouths! What they say is nothing but a lie”[6]

So this book displeased them and it made clear the falsity of their calls and their misrepresentation and distortion of Islaam and of the text concerning tawheed – particularly with regard to the da’wah of the Messengers, may Allaah’s praise and blessings of peace be upon them. The book did not join them in welcoming the state of the Raafidee Shee’ahs. Nor did it support them in seeking establishment of statelets founded upon the building of the tombs and upon the belief that the pious who have died know the Hidden and Unseen and have some control over the creation. Nor did it support them in seeking establishment of statelets based upon any such things as have preceded, nor in accepting the misguidance and shirk of secularism which seeks to disguise itself in the guise of Islaam.

Rather the book, and all praise is for Allaah, made clear that the true and trustworthy da’wah is that which follows the methodology of the Prophets in calling to Allaah, and the state which is established upon this correct methodology – that is the Islamic state. Then despite the fact that the book was dealing with a particular topic – which was to explain the methodology of the Prophets in calling to Allaah – it still gave attention to mentioning the Islamic state which it mentioned repeatedly and emphasised a number of times. It even had a chapter headed: “The view of the scholars of Islaam concerning leadership (al-Imaamah) and their proofs of its obligation”. Then the scholars sayings about that were quoted and their proofs mentioned. However what angered the people of innovations and desires, and the callers to falsehood, is that I placed leadership and the state in the place given to them by Allaah and which was accepted by the scholars of Islaam. I did not support the people of innovation and desires in their abandonment of the methodology of the Prophets in calling to tawheed, and fighting shirk, innovations and the rest of the types of misguidance and deviation, and fighting idolatry and grave-worship.

Nor did I support them in making leadership (al-Imaamah) the most important matter, and the most fundamental principle – which is something which has led people to rejection of the methodology of the Prophets and has lead them to fight against it. It has also led them to fling themselves into the arms of the Raafidee Shee’ah, and to having affection for them, and to allying themselves with them, defending them and to falsley adorning their ideology which is at war with Islaam, in opposition to the Book and the Sunnah and waging war against the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   and his pure wives and the rest of the Muslims and their scholars. Indeed it goes beyond that to the point that they declare these great people to be disbelievers and make the foulest attacks against them.

I did not support them in this misguidance and this loathsome excess, so they disliked the book and thought evil about its author. So they said the falsehood which they said in order to turn the youth who thirst for the truth away from the irrefutable and clear truth in this book. This book which openly spoke the truth and placed both correct creed and belief (‘aqeedah) and the state in the place given to them by Allaah – without going beyond the bounds or falling short, and without distorting and deception. Then it is essential that I explain to the youth the distinction between the state (ad-Dawlah) and the dominion and sovereignty of Allaah (al-Haakimiyyah). As for the state, then it is a gathering of people who may be disbelievers, may be misguided deviants, or may be Believers. Then the people may be gathered under a rightly- guided khilaafah, or restricted kingships- which has been the case with the Islamic states after the rightly -guided khilaafah. So these individuals who form the Believing state are no more than the means to implement the Sharee’ah of Allaah- the establishment of jihaad, the ordering of good and forbidding of evil, establishment of the Prescribed Punishments and retribution, and the protection of the ummah from the plots and aggression of the enemies against the lands of the Muslims and against their souls, their wealth and their honour. So the Muslims must establish a state to accomplish these great obligations – either : by giving the pledge of allegiance to a khaleefah whom all of the Muslims are united upon; or by the fact that an individual from the ummah gains ascendancy and has power, an army and authority – which means that the benefit of the ummah lies in accepting him as long as he proclaims Islaam, establishes the laws and the creed (‘aqeedah) and protects the ummah from its enemies and does whatever is required, the details of which are known and mentioned in the source works of Islaam; or by the fact that some individuals gain ascendancy over some areas as happened in the lands of Islaam after the weakening of the khilaafah, so overall benefit necessitated submitting to this situation.

As for dominion and sovereignty then these are attributes of Allaah and qualities particular to Him alone, as He, the Most High, says:

“Judgement and command is for Allaah alone, He ordered that you should worship none but Him. That is the true and straight religion.”[7]

So this authority and sovereignty is not denied except by one who is a disbeliever in Allaah and is severe in his enmity to Allaah, His Messenger and His Books. Indeed one who even denies Allaah’s authority in the slightest matter, not to mention with regard to fundamental matters, then he is a disbeliever in Allaah, outside the fold of Islaam if he knowingly denies that. As for the ignorant person, then he has excuse until the proof is established against him.

What I have said applies to the rulers, the ruled and to indivduals and groups (Jamaa’aat). This has been affirmed by the trustworthy scholars of Islaam, and from them Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah, rahimahullaah,[8] and his student Ibnul-Qayyim.[9] So whoever accepts and abides by this rule and authority in the fundamentals of the religion and its details, and in matters of creed and belief, and matters of worship, and dealings and political affairs, and economic affairs, and manners, and social affairs – then he is a Believer. But he who does not abide by it all or some of these then he is a disbeliever, whether he is an individual or a group, a ruler or one ruled, a caller or one called. Indeed I fear, by Allaah, for many of the sects, parties and individuals that they may fall into disbelief due to their not abiding by the rule and authority of Allaah with regard to the fundamentals of the religion, indeed with regard also to its details. I fear for many of them, against whom the proof has been established and to whom the truth has been made clear, yet still they persist in opposing the call to tawheed and oppose waging war against shirk and innovation, aswell as opposing its people and to cutting from them. Instead these people incite others against and warn against those who call with the call of the Prophets, and those who seek truly and sincerely to amend the affairs. After establishment of the proof against such a person he would fall into the abyss of disbelief.

Then I call all of the ummah – its rulers and its ruled, its indivduals, sects, and parties, to all have true belief in the all-encompassing authority and sovereignty of Allaah which covers the fundamental matters of the religion and its details, and that they should fully abide by it with regard to the fundamental matters of the religion and its details. I also call the heads of the states, from those who abide generally by the rule and authority of Allaah, and yet are negligent in some areas of practice, I call them to abide by it totally and unrestrictedly in every field, in the matter of ‘aqeedah, and worship, and dealings, and economics, and politics, and with regard to ordering good and forbidding evil, and that they should strive to fight against shirk and innovations, and against sins and against evil – particularly usury and the rest of the major sins which harm the ummah and its manners. Indeed Allaah prevents by means of the rulers those who are not prevented by the Qur’aan. They should be fully aware that Allaah will question them about every small and large matter which they are responsible for. “Each of you is a guardian and is responsible for thoses whom he is in charge of.” I also remind them of the saying of the Prophet, “There is no ruler having authority over Muslim subjects who dies while he is decieving them except that Allaah has forbidden Paradise for him.”[10] and his saying, “There is no servant whom Allaah places in authority over some people, and he does not deal with them sincerely and honestly, except that he will not find the fragrance of Paradise.”[11]

From sincerity to the ummah is that you encourage them to abide by the ruler of Allaah and His Sharee’ah, by teaching them, directing them, encouraging and warning them, and by ordering the good and forbidding the evil, and by establishing prescribed punishment and using every means which will cause them to respect the Sharee’ah of Allaah in ‘aqeedah, worship, political affairs and manners.

I also call the heads of state in Islamic lands who do not abide by the Sharee’ah of Allaah that they should turn back to Allaah and respect His religion which is found in the Book and the Sunnah, and that they should cling to the creed and beliefs of this religion and its rulings, and to be proud of that – since therein lies honour and nobility. However total disgrace and humiliation comes from submission to laws laid down by the most despicable humans, the enemies of this ummah whether they are Jews, Christians, Magians or atheists. So I call such leaders to respect the feelings of the ummah of Islaam which has striven and fought and sacrificed millions of its sons for the achievement of a noble and lofty goal – which is that it should be ruled by Islaam, and Islaam alone is the religion of Allaah, the Creator of this creation, the Creator of mankind and jinn so that they should worship Him alone and submit to His revealed laws alone. They should abide by the Sharee’ah of Allaah and impose it upon the ummah in creed and beliefs, in manners, in teaching and in Islamic curriculae which education and training are to be based upon.

I also enjoin the scholars of the ummah, and its callers, and parties and groups that they should sincerely advise all of the ummah, its elders and its youth, its males and its females, and unite them upon the Book of Allaah, the Sunnah of his Messenger, and upon the methodology and understanding of the Salalafu-Saalih (the Pious Predecessors), the Companions, the Taabieen and those who followed them upon good, the imaams of guidance, the scholars of fiqh, the scholars of hadeeth and of tafseer, in creed and beliefs, in worship, in manners, in dealings, in economic affairs, and all the other affairs of Islaam and eemaan. Then they should fully comprehend the Sayings of Allaah, the Most High,

“And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed then they are the ones guilty of unbelief.”[12]

“And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed then they are the transgressors.”[13]

“And whoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed then they are the disobedient.”[14]

They should understand that these Sayings of Allaah apply to all individuals, groups, rulers and subjects. So to restrict it to refer it to the rulers alone and not to the people of deviant sects and misguidance, those who do not judge by the Sharee’ah of Allaah in their creed and beliefs, nor in their worship and their behaviour, then this is from ignorance, misguidance and foolishness, since Allaah sent these Aayaat down concerning the Jews at a time when they had not had any state or authority for centuries. He sent these Aayaat down concerning them at a time when He had imposed humiliation and lowliness upon them. I have explained the authority and sovereignty of Allaah in this broad and all-embracing sense in the book itself.

I should also not fail to draw attention to an error made by the author of ‘Meezaanul-I’tidaal litaqyeem Kitaabil-Mawridiz-Zallaal fir-Tanbeeh ‘alaa Akhtaa’iz Zilaal,’ who is ’Isaam ibn Muhammad ibn Taahir al-Barqaawee, who attributed to me something which my tongue has never uttered and which I never believed, nor have I ever written such a thing. Furthermore I seek Allaah’s refuge from what he said, and I declare myself free before Allaah from it, and I ask Allaah to save me and all the Muslims from it.

Al-Barqaawee said in a footnote (p.15) to his aforementioned book: “This also reminds me of what Shaykh Rabee’ ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee, hafizahullaahu ta’aalaa, did in his book, ‘Manhajul-Anbiyaa fid-Da’wah illallaah…’ when he criticised the view of al-Maududi, rahimahullaah ta’aalaa, about the importance of leadership (imaamah), khilaafah, and judging by that which Allaah sent down, since he also sought to use as evidence the saying of Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah about the position of the imaamah with the Raafidee (Shee’ahs). So he took up six pages in quoting the discussion of Shaykhul-Islaam with those Raafidee (Shee’ahs). However the numerous and great differences between the beliefs of the Raafidees concerning the imaamah and the infallibility of the Imaams, and the twelve imaams and so on, and between what al-Maududi and others call to, i.e. the necessity and importance of striving to return to judging by the Sharee’ah, through the khilaafah, and to establish a single ruler for the people of Islaam; the differences between these two are well known. Even if the words of Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah contain something which is fitting in this regard, yet most of it, if a just person were to examine it, is not fitting to this discussion, rather it applies to the matter of imaamah with the Raafidee (Shee’ah) with its well known details… so he should not have quoted it all… for fear of deception.”

Al-Barqaawee’s scales are unbalanced and he has not judged between myself and al-Maududi with justice, and perhaps he has forgotten the saying of Allaah:

“And weigh justly with the true balance.”[15]

And His saying,

“Woe to those who give short measure to others. Those who demand full measure from others, but when they give them in measure or weight then they give them less than their due. Do these people not think that they will be ressurected for reckoning on a formidable Day. The Day when all mankind will stand before the Lord of the Worlds.”[16]

O brother al-Barqaawee, I was debating the view of al-Maududi about the importance of the matter of leadership (imaamah), the khilaafah and judging by that which Allaah has sent down!

As regards the fact of their importance, then no Believer having a trace of eemaan would dispute that. But O brother you have failed to note the point of disagreement between myself and al-Maududi. I debated with the view of al-Maududi with regard to his going beyond the due limits about leadership to such an extent that no Muslim who has respect for Islaam could remain silent about this excess, and it was of such a level that even the misguided would not accept it, not to mention the people of hadeeth and the Salafees. Indeed very many scholars from his own land, from the Salafees and others have replied to him. Then this excess of his has travelled and has reached many Arab and Islamic lands, and it has fooled an overwhelming majority of authors and youth, which has led to great neglect of the ‘aqeedah of tawheed, and even comtempt of it and of its people. It has also led people to treat shirk and innovation lightly and has caused al-Maududi and his like to ally themsleves with and to befriend the devotees of the graves and even the Raafidees (Shee’ah), and to gather these people under their banner, to treat them as brothers, to love and defend them and their beliefs and creed, and this is something which is a reality and is clear to everyone possessing intellect and religion. So since the matter has reached this frightful state, I replied to al-Maududi with regard to some of his excess in order to make the people in general aware, and also the people of the Arabian Peninsula, to which the followers of al-Maududi and their helpers direct their attention. So they seek to wipe away the ’aqeedah of tawheed, and the ’aqeedah of true and correct alliance and enmity (al-Walaa wal-Baraa). Do you think that my reply to al-Maududi was so unreasonable that you seek to defend his view with falsehood, and by forgetting to judge justly, to the point that you take my words to mean something which I did not say, and which they did not mean?! Listen to what al-Maududi says:

“The question of leadership is the most important matter in human life and its most fundamental principle.” Then try to defend this saying with clear and unequivocal texts from the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger, and the words of the Companions and the scholars of Islaam. If you have not seen this, then you must adjust your scales in order to establish justice, equity and fairness, and to abandon the excess which has led al-Maududi and his followers to scorn the call of the Prophets and the goal of their da’wah, and to turn the affairs upside down. Listen to his saying: “The true goal of the religion is to establish the system of the rightly guided and righteous leadership (imaamah).” So to him this is the true goal of the religion. So tawheed, and the Prayer, and Zakaat, and jihaad and other matters from the religion become only means to reach this goal in the view of al-Maududi. So produce the clear proofs from the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , in place of al-Maududi, to support this and if you are unable then do not be too embarrassed to say, ‘This poor weak servant, Rabee’ ibn Haadee, has spoken the truth and has been sincere towards Islaam and the Muslims, and has put matters in their due place.’ Then listen to the saying of al-Maududi: “This is the purpose for which the Prayer, Fasting, the Zakaat and the Hajj have been made obligatory in Islaam. Then the fact that they are called acts of worship does not mean that they are themselves worship, rather its meaning is that they prepare mankind for the true and fundamental worship, and these are a training course which are essential for that.’ He also says, ‘You think that standing facing the Qiblah, placing the right hand upon the justify, and rukoo’ with your hands upon your knees, and prostration upon the ground, and reciting particular words, and these actions and movements are themselves worship; and you think that fasting from the start of Ramadaan until the start of Shawwaal, and going hungry and thirsty from morning until evening, you think that this is worship; and you think that reciting a number of Aayaat from the Qur’aan is worship; and you think that performing Tawaaf around the Ka’bah is worship. In summary you have called the manifestation of certain actions worship, and when a person performs these actions with their form and manners you think that he has worshipped Allaah… but the truth is that the worship which Allaah created you for, and which he ordered you to perform is something else.”[17]

Are you pleased by this derisive manner about speaking about the great pillars of Islaam and those who worship in this way? These are not, in the view of al-Maududi, forms of worship for which man was created, rather the worship for which man was created and which they were ordered to fulfil is something else. O Barqaawee, do you take this as your religion before Allaah? That the forms of worship are only a training course which if applied will… etc. Is this something stated textually in the Qur’aan and the Sunnah, and which the Prophets came with and which was accepted by the best of the people of this ummah? If you agree with al-Maududi then bring the proofs to support his saying. Otherwise bite upon your knuckles in regret and grief for having deserted the truth and offended its people and helped falsehood. This, O my brother, was the subject of my debate with al-Maududi, and about which I quoted the words of Shaykhul-Islaam concerning the exceeding of the bounds by the Raafidees about leadership (imaamate). What I quoted from him was all relevant, not just a part of it as al-Barqaawee claimed. Then if you were correct, O Barqaawee, then why did you not explain what was relevant from the words of Shaykhul-Islaam and what was not? As for the claim of ‘infallibility’ for the ‘twelve imaams,’ then I did not attribute it to al-Maududi, nor did I debate about it with him, nor did I quote Shaykhul-Islaam’s words about it. So your words are totaly opposed to justice! As for your equity and justice which you set up for yourself in judging between Sayyid Qutb and ad-Duwaysh, then I do not know what you have done. Indeed you have totally failed to be just between myself and al-Maududi, and how would it have harmed you to speak the truth? Then as for the khilaafah, I do not know if you read what I wrote and quoted from the scholars of Islaam, or if you merely took the subject with the tips of your fingers with your eyes closed, thinking that justice and equity would be achieved that easily. So read this and that anew and speak the truth, supporting it with proof, not alarmism and agitation!

As for judging by that which Allaah sent down, then how can you imagine that I would dispute about it with al-Maududi or anyone else, when it is something known necessarily in the religion, and not even the deviant and deviated sects dispute about it?! So I seek Allaah’s refuge from what the author of ‘al-Meezaan,’ attributed to me. Rather read again what I wrote concerning the authority and sovereignty of Allaah, and that it comprehends every part of the religion, and you will see the extent of the mistake of al-Barqaawee, may Allah guide him. Then finally the points of criticism of al-Maududi and his like are so many that this introduction is not the place for them. But in summary, he is one of those furthest from abiding by the authority and sovereignty of Allaah with regard to his ’aqeedah and his Fiqh, and with regard to his stance on the Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , and his stance with regard to the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , and with regard to their enemies the Raafidee Shee’ah. Indeed he and his followers have alliance and friendship with those Raafidees, they support them and they praise their Taaghoot, al-Khomeini and his students, the Aayatur-Raafidiyyah. So noble reader be aware of this, and judge the people according to the truth, and do not judge the truth according to its people, and beware of falling into the abyss of over-exaggerated respect for personalities so that it leads you to reject the truth, and to argue against its people.

May Allaah guide and grant the ummah to loving the truth and its people. Indeed my Lord hears and responds to supplications.

Written by:
Rabee’ ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee,
13/6/1413H.

Footnotes

[1] In the orignal Arabic print this was the “Introduction to the Second Edition.”

[2] For more details on the Shee’ah and the Khawaarij refer to the Book “The Devils Deception”

[3] Soorah an-Nahl (16):36.

[4] Soorah al-Ambiyaa (21):25.

[5] Publisher’s note: One who attributes himself to the salaf. The salaf being primarily the Companions of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ), and the two generations that came after them (taabi’een and the atbaa at-taabi’een). Therefore a Salafee will always refer to the Qur’aan and Sunnah, relying on the explanation of the salaf.

[6] Soorah al-Kahf (18):5.

[7] Soorah Yoosuf (12):40.

[8] Minhaajus-Sunnah an- Nabawiyyah (3/32) where he clearly explains that one not accepting the rule and authority of Allaah is a disbeliever, and he explains how that applies in matters of knowledge and action.

[9] Madaarijus- Saalikeen (91/336).

[10] Reported by al- Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 9/197/no.265).

[11] Al-Bukhaaree (Eng. trans. 9/197/264).

[12] Soorah al-Maa’idah (5):44.

[13] Soorah al-Maa’idah (5):45.

[14] Soorah al-Maa’idah (5):47.

[15] Soorah al-Israa (17):35.

[16] Soorah al-Mutaffifeen (83):1-6.

[17] Quoted from the book, “The book of al-Maududi, what is for it and what is against it,” of Muhammad Zakariyyaa al-Kandahlaawee (pp.45-46), 2nd Edn.

[Excerpted from the book : “The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah – that is the way of wisdom and intelligence” – by Shaykh Rabee hafidhahullaah, translated by Dawud Burbank rahimahullah]

Download the full PDF Book:
https://abdurrahman.org/dawah/methodology-of-the-prophets-in-calling-to-allaah/

Da’wah of the present day groups (jamaa’aat) who have neglected the importance of ‘aqeedah (correct belief and creed) – Shaykh Saalih Fawzan

[The following is excerpted from : Shaykh Saalih Fawzan’s hafidhahullaah Introduction to the book : “The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah – that is the way of wisdom and intelligence” – by Shaykh Rabee hafidhahullaah, translated by Dawud Burbank rahimahullah]

[The following is the continuation of the article @ The Pillars which support the correct Da’wah – Shaykh Salih al-Fawzan]

.. So whichever call is not built upon these foundations, and whatever methodology is not from the methodology of the Messengers – then it will be frustrated and fail, and it will be toil without any benefit. The clearest proofs of this are those present day groups (jamaa’aat) which set out a methodology and programme for themselves and their da’wah which is different to the methodology of the Messengers. These groups have neglected the importance of ‘aqeedah (correct belief and creed) – except for a very few of them – and instead call for the correction of side-issues. So one group calls for the correction of rule and politics, and demands establishment of the prescribed punishments, and that Islamic Law be applied in judging amongst the people, and this is indeed something very important, but it is not what is most important – since how can one seek to establish and apply Allaah’s Judgement upon the thief and the fornicator before seeking to establish and apply Allaah’s Judgement upon the mushrik, the one who attributes worship to others besides Allaah?! How can we demand that Allaah’s Judgement be applied to two men disputing about a sheep or a camel before demanding that Allaah’s Judgement be applied to those who worship idols and graves, and those who deny or hold heretical beliefs with regard to Allaah’s Names and Attributes, divesting them of their true meanings, or distorting them?! Are these people not greater criminals than those who fornicate, drink wine and steal?! Those are crimes against mankind, whereas shirk and denial of Allaah’s Names and Attributes are crimes against the Creator, the One free of all imperfections, and the right of the Creator has precedence over the rights of the creation.

Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah says in his book, al-Istiqaamah (1/466): “So these sins along with correct tawheed are better than corrupted tawheed in the absence of these sins.”[1]

Then another jamaa’ah affiliates itself with da’wah, except that its methodology is also at variance with the methodology of the Messengers. They give no importance to correct ‘aqeedah, rather they give importance to worshipping and practising some dhikr (remembrance of Allaah) in the way of the Sufis.[2]They concentrate upon going out (khurooj) and touring the lands, and what is important to them is that they manage to attract the people to join them, without caring about their beliefs and creed (‘aqeedah). All of these are innovated ways, taking as their starting point matters which were justify until last in the call of the Messengers. This is just like the case of one who seeks to cure a body whose head has been cut off, since the place of ‘aqeedah in the religion is like the head with regard to the body. So it is necessary for these groups to correct their concepts and understanding by referring back to the Book and the Sunnah in order to know the methodology of the Messengers in calling to Allaah. For indeed Allaah, the One free of all imperfections, informed that correct rule and sovereignty, which is the central part of the call of the former Jamaa’ah whom we mentioned, cannot be achieved except after correcting ‘aqeedah such that all worship is for Allaah alone, and worship of everything else is abandoned. Allaah, the Most High, says:

“Allaah has promised those who truly believe (have true eemaan) amongst you, and act in obedience to Allaah and His Messenger, that He will grant them rulership upon the earth just as He granted it to those before them, and that He will establish their religion for them, grant them authority to practise the religion which He chose for them and ordered. And He will certainly change their situation to one of security, after their fear, providing that they worship and obey Me, not associating anything else in worship with Me. Then whoever rejects this favour by disobedience to their Lord, then they are the rebellious transgressors.”[3]

So these people wish to establish the Islamic State before purifying the lands of idolatrous beliefs which take shape in the worship of the dead, and devotion to tombs, such as is no different to the worship of al-Laat, al-’Uzzaa and the third of them Manaat,[4] rather it is worse. So they are attempting that which is impossible.

Indeed establishment and application of the Sharee’ah and the prescribed punishments; establishment of the Islamic State; avoidance of whatever is prohibited; and achievement of whatever is obligatory – all of these things are from the rights of tawheed, and matters which perfect it and follow on from it. So how can we give attention to that which is subsidiary whilst neglecting that which is of primary importance?

It is my view that the fact that these groups are at variance with the methodology of the Messengers in calling to Allaah is a result of their ignorance of this methodology, and the ignorant person is not suitable to be a caller, since one of the most important conditions for da’wah is knowledge, as Allaah, the Most High, says about His Prophet,

“Say, Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , this is my way, I call to Allaah (i.e. to the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, with no partner) upon certain knowledge – I, and those who follow me. I declare Allaah free and far removed from all that they associate as partners with Him, and I am free of those who worship anything else along with Him.”[5]

So one of the most important qualifications for a caller (daa’ee) is knowledge.[6] Then we see that these groups (Jamaa’aat) which attribute themselves to da’wah are at variance with each other. Each group lays down a programme different to the programme of the others and follows a different methodology to it. This is the inevitable consequence of contradicting the methodology of the Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , since the way and methodology of the Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   is a single way, containing no division, nor divergence, as Allaah, the Most High, says,

“Say, Muhammad (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , this is my way, I call to Allaah (i.e. to the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, with no partner) upon certain knowledge – I, and those who follow me.”[7]

So the followers of the Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )   are upon this single way and are not divided and split. Rather those who contradict this way are the ones who divide amongst themselves, as Allaah, the Most High, says,

“This is my Straight Path, so follow it, and do not follow any of the other paths, for they will split you and take you away from that way which He prescribed for you.”[8]

So because these groups (Jamaa’aat) are a threat to Islaam which may obstruct it, or prevent people from entering into it, then this is something which must be properly explained, and it must be made clear that this is something which is not from Islaam at all. Allaah, the Most High, says,

“Those who divide up the true religion and break up into sects and parties, you, O Muhammad, have nothing to do with them.”[9]

So since explanation of this is obligatory and it is binding to make it clear, a group of scholars having sincere concern for Islaam and the required level of knowledge and research took on the task of indicating the mistakes of these groups and explaining where they are at variance in da’wah with the methodology of the Prophets, so that they may return to what is correct. Indeed the truth is that which the Muslim always seeks, and so that those who do not realise their errors may not be beguiled by them. So from these scholars who took on this great duty of acting upon the saying of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  , “The religion is sincerity/sincere advice, the religion is sincerity/sincere advice, the religion is sincerity/sincere advice.” We said, “To whom, O Messenger of Allaah?” He said, “To Allaah, and to His Book, and to His Messenger, and to the rulers of the Muslims and their common folk,” – from those who explained this matter and gave sincere advice about it is the noble Shaykh, Dr. Rabee’ ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee in his book entitled, ‘The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah, That is the Way of Wisdom and Intelligence.’ For he explains, may Allaah grant him success and reward him with good, the Methodology of the Messengers in calling to Allaah, as it is shown in the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )  . He presents the methodologies of the variant groups in the light of this in order to clearly show the difference between the methodology of the Messengers and these differing and contrasting methodologies which are at variance with it. He discusses these methodologies in the scholarly way and in a just way, whilst quoting examples and witnesses to what he says. So his book, and all praise and thanks are for Allaah, accomplishes the goal, and is fully sufficient for those who desire the truth, and is a proof upon those who are stubborn and obstinate in opposing what is correct.

So we ask Allaah to reward him for his work, and to cause it to be of benefit, and may Allaah send praise and blessings of peace upon Muhammad, his family and true followers, and His Companions.

Written by Saalih ibn Fawzaan
Teacher in Imaam Muhammad ibn Sa’ud Islamic University.

Footnotes:

[1] The proof for this is the Saying of Allaah, the Most High, “Allaah does not forgive that partners should be set up with Him in worship, but He forgives whatever is lesser than that to whom He pleases.” [Soorah an-Nisaa (4):48]

[2] Publisher’s Note: For more information about Sufism refer to “The Reality of Sufism” by Muhammad ibn Rabee’ ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee (Al-Hidaayah Publishing and Distribution, U.K., 1995).

[3] Soorah an-Noor (24):55.

[4] Publisher’s Note: These were some of the idols that were worshipped by the Quraysh at the time of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ).

[5] Soorah Yoosuf (12):108.

[6] But some of those who claim to be callers to Islaam, if you were to ask them, “What is Islaam?” “What are the things which negate Islaam?” Then they would not be able to give a correct answer, so how can it be permissible for such a person to be a caller (daa’ee)?!

[7] Soorah Yoosuf (12):108.

[8] Soorah al-An’aam (6):153.

[9] Soorah al-An’aam (6):159.

[Excerpted from : Shaykh Saalih Fawzan’s hafidhahullaah Introduction to the book : “The Methodology of the Prophets in Calling to Allaah – that is the way of wisdom and intelligence” – by Shaykh Rabee hafidhahullaah, translated by Dawud Burbank rahimahullah]

Download the full PDF Book:
https://abdurrahman.org/dawah/methodology-of-the-prophets-in-calling-to-allaah/