Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 42 : Point 66
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]
Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:
And if you hear a man speaking against the narrations and not accepting them or denying anything from the narrations of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, then doubt his Islaam since he is a person having a despicable opinion and saying. No attack may be made upon Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam nor upon his companions since we have only come to know of Allaah and His Messenger and the Qur’aan and what is good and what is bad in this world and the Hereafter by way of the narrations. So, the Qur’aan needs the Sunnah more than the Sunnah needs the Qur’aan.
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His saying, “And if you hear a man speaking against the narrations and not accepting them or denying anything from the narrations of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam then doubt his Islaam,” Since from the meaning of the testification that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah is to obey him with regard to whatever he commanded and to believe him regarding whatever he informed of and to avoid whatever he forbade and prohibited and that Allaah is not worshipped except with that which He legislated. This is the meaning of the testification that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah.
And Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, says:
وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ
And whatever the Messenger gives you then accept it and take it and whatever he forbids you from then keep away from it. (Sooratul-Hashr (59), aayah 7)
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ
O you who believe, obey Allaah and obey the Messenger.
(Sooratun-Nisaa· 4, aayah 59)
So what is obligatory upon the Muslim is that he complies with whatever occurs in the ahaadeeth from Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam since they are the second revelation after the Qur’aan. Because the fundamental evidences in Islaam upon which there is agreement are:
Firstly, the Qur’aan;
Secondly, the Prophetic Sunnah,
And thirdly, consensus; Al-Ijmaa`.
These evidences, it is not permissible for a person to say, “I will not accept as evidence except the Qur’aan alone and I will not accept the Sunnah as evidence,” as is said by the Khawaarij and whoever follows their way and they say that the Qur’aan is mutawaatir (reported by huge numbers of people at every level of transmission so huge that they cannot be gathered together upon a lie) so they say, “the Qur’aan is mutawaatir and is rendered secure from deficiencies but as for the Sunnah then it is what is narrated by narrators and is therefore open to deficiencies.”
This is to accuse the whole Ummah (nation) and its scholars and the companions and the taabi`een (those who conveyed the narrations) in lacking in reliability and of lacking in trustworthiness whereas the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam informed about those people in his saying:
“It will soon occur that a man who is full (belly) will be reclining upon his couch and will say “Between us and you is the Book of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. So, whatever we find in it to be permissible then we will take it to be permissible and whatever we find in it to be forbidden then we will take it as being forbidden.” Then He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said, “Indeed, I have been given the Qur’aan and the like of it along with it.”
And he `alayhissalaatu wassalaam said:
“May Allaah make bright the face of a person who hears my saying and he retains it and he coveys it just as he heard it or sometimes one who has something conveyed to him may better comprehend it than one who actually heard it.”
And he `alayhissalaatu wassalaam said when he gave the khutbah (address) in Arafah:
“Let the one who witnesses amongst you convey to the one who is absent.”
So, the one who heard conveys from the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. This is a trust; amaanah, which was established by the narrators of hadeeth and by the men of hadeeth, may Allaah reward them with good, Aameen. And they protected the Prophetic Sunnah from foreign things and from lies and they conveyed it pure and clear just as it came from the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam faithfully and this is from the miracles of this Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. So, the Sunnah is not an arena for withholding or for making accusations. Rather, it is obligatory to believe it and it is obligatory to act upon it just as it is obligatory to act upon the Qur’aan because it is wahiyy (revelation) from Allaah.
He, the Most High, said with regard to the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:
وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَىٰ – 53:3
إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَىٰ – 53:4
He (the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) does not speak from his desires, it is just revelation inspired. (Sooratun-Najm (53), aayah 3-4)
So the ahaadeeth are revelation from Allaah even though their wordings are from the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. As for the Qur’aan then its wording and meaning is from Allaah, the Majestic and Most High and as for the Sunnah and the Prophetic ahaadeeth then their meanings is from Allaah and their wordings are from the speech of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam who does not speak from his own desires. So, his sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam wordings are preserved from error and are true and are not open to doubt. So, whoever denies the Sunnah then he is a kaafir (disbeliever) because he has discontinued the second fundamental. And the Qur’aan must have the Sunnah because it explains it and clarifies the meaning of the Qur’aan.
وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ
And We have sent down to you the reminder (the Qur’aan) for you to then explain to the people that which was sent down to them. (Sooratun-Nahl (16), aayah 44)
So, the Sunnah clarifies the Qur’aan and explains the Qur’aan because the Qur’aan comes with some things, which are mujmalah (unspecified) such as the prayer (Salaah) and the Zakaah and the Hajj and Siyyaam (fasting), the command for these is in the Qur’aan but how to perform them is not mentioned in the Qur’aan. So, the Qur’aan comes with some things, which are unspecified such as the prayer and the Zakaah and the Hajj and fasting, the Sunnah explains them and clarifies them. It explains the Zakaat and its amounts and fasting when it is to begin and when it is to end and the rights of Hajj; how a person should perform Hajj. So, he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:
“Take your rights of Hajj from me.”
And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam also said:
“Pray just as you have seen me praying.”
Allaah, the Most High said:
لَّقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ
There is indeed for you in Allaah’s Messenger a fine pattern of conduct to follow. (Sooratul-Ahzaab (33), aayah 21)
So the Sunnah therefore explains the Qur’aan and clarifies it and indicates it and the person who says, “I will act upon the Qur’aan but I will not act upon the Sunnah” he is a kathaab (liar) for he has not acted upon the Qur’aan because the Qur’aan has within it:
وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا
And whatever the Messenger gives you then take it and whatever he forbids you from then desist. (Sooratul-Hashr (59), aayah 7)
And there is within it:
وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَىٰ – 53:3
إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَىٰ – 53:4
And he (the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) does not speak from his desires, it is just revelation inspired. (Sooratun-Najm (53), aayah 3-4)
The Qur’aan, it is stated that the Sunnah clarifies it.
وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ
And We sent down to you (Prophet Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) the reminder (Qur’aan) so that you should clarify to the people what has been sent down to them. (Sooratun-Nahl (16), aayah 44)
So when he leaves off acting upon the Sunnah then he has not acted upon the Qur’aan, which he claims that he acts upon.
And from the people are some who make a distinction between the ahaadeeth and who say – “the hadeeth which is mutawaatir (hadeeth which has so many narrators at every level of transmission that it is impossible they could have got together and invented it) brings about knowledge (ilm) but the hadeeth which are aahaad (which doesn’t reach that level), it only amounts to dhann (surmise/uncerainity)”. And this is baatil (false and futile) because everything which is authentic from the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and which is established, it brings about `ilm (knowledge) whether it’s mutawaatir or aahaad. So, there is no distinction to be made between the level of proof of the hadeeth which is authentic. It is obligatory to comply with all of it and to act upon it without any distinction.
And the Soofees also do not act upon the Sunnah, indeed not even upon the Qur’aan. They only act upon their own tastes and their own feelings and they say, “We take from Allaah directly and we do not take by way of the Messenger because we have reached Allaah so therefore, we have no need of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. And the Messenger is just for the common folk, those who have not yet reached Allaah.” And this is from the most baseless falsehood and the most open disbelief and Allaah’s refuge is sought. Aameen.
His saying, “Or he denies anything,” whoever denies the Sunnah in general and says, “The Sunnah is not to be acted upon, only the Qur’aan is to be acted upon” or who denies a part of the Sunnah, which are the authentic ahaadeeth and says, “They are not to be acted upon” and some of them say, “Hadeeth is not acted upon except with the condition that it conforms to the Qur’aan” and this is baatil (false and futile) and is an accusation against the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam that he may bring something which contradicts the Qur’aan. So, this saying is not permissible.
The Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam sometimes came with things, which were not in the Qur’aan such as the prohibition of being married to a woman along with her paternal aunt and her maternal aunt. The Qur’aan contains the prohibition of being married to two sisters, whereas, the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:
“A man may not combine a woman and her paternal aunt nor between a woman and her maternal aunt.”
So, it is obligatory to act upon whatever the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said.
His saying, “And if you see a person doing any of this; rejecting the authentic narrations from Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam or denying anything from them then accuse his Islaam for he is a man who is despicable in his position and his saying.” The person who says this, either he will be from the Khawaarij or he will be from the Jahmiyyah and the Mu’tazilah or he will be from the Soofees; those who claim that they have no need of the ahaadeeth because they have reached Allaah and they take from Allaah directly and they say, “You people take your religion from someone who is dead but we take from the Everliving One Who never dies.”
His saying, “And no accusation may be made against Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam nor against his companions,” No accusation may be made against Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam because he is rendered secure from error by Allaah, the Majestic and Most High. So, the person who accuses the Messenger or attacks him and says that he follows his desires or that he behaves unjustly or that he oppresses and the like of that then this one is a kaafir (disbeliever) in Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.
And likewise the person who makes an attack upon the companions of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam because Allaah is pleased with them and has praised them and the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam was pleased with them and praised them and repeated words of praise upon them and they were the best of generations. He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:
“The best of you are my generation…”
And he alayhissalaatu wassalaam said:
“Do not abuse my companions for by the one in Whose hand is my soul, if one of you were to spend the like of Uhud in gold, it would not reach even a handsful amount of one of them nor even a half of it.”
He, the Most High, said:
وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنصَارِ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحْسَانٍ رَّضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي تَحْتَهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ – 9:100
And the First and Foremost ones from the Muhaajireen and the Ansaar and those who followed them upon good, Allaah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him and He has prepared for them gardens of Paradise beneath which rivers flow, they will remain forever therein, that is the tremendous success. (Sooratut–Towbah (9), aayah 100)
لَّقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ
Allaah was pleased with the believers when they gave you the pledge beneath the tree. (Sooratul-Fath (48), aayah 18)
The tree is the tree where the pledge; bay`ah was given at Hudaybiyyah; the pledge that the companions gave to the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam in the 6th year after the Hijrah, pledge of Hudaybiyyah, Bay’atu Ridwaan.
فَعَلِمَ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَنزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَابَهُمْ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا
So, He knew what was in their hearts and He sent down tranquillity upon them and He rewarded them with a victory close at hand. (Sooratul-Fath (48), aayah 18)
And He said at the end of the Soorah:
مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا ۖ سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ ۚ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنجِيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوَىٰ عَلَىٰ سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ ۗ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا – 48:29
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah and those who are with him…
(Sooratul-Fath (48), aayah 29)
Meaning the companions (sahaabah)
…those who are with the Messenger (the companions) are stern against the disbelievers, merciful amongst themselves, you will see them bowing and prostrating seeking the bounty of Allaah and His pleasure. Their sign will be upon their faces from the trace of prostration, that is their description in the Towraat… (Sooratul-Fath (48), aayah 29)
Meaning, their description, which is mentioned in the Towraat.
…and their description in the Injeel. (Sooratul-Fath (48), aayah 29)
Meaning their description in the Injeel, which was sent down to ‘Eesaa is:
They are like a plant, which sends out a side shoot, which strengthens it and it becomes firm and stands straight upon its stalk, the sowers are pleased at it so that the disbelievers should become enraged at them. (Sooratul-Fath (48), aayah 29)
So, this aayah is an example about the description of the companions. So, this shows that the person that becomes enraged at the companions or who hates them, he is a kaafir (disbeliever) as is shown by the end of the aayah:
…so that the disbelievers should become enraged at them.
(Sooratul-Fath (48), aayah 29)
His saying, “Because we have only come to know of Allaah and we have come to know of His Messenger and we have come to know of the Qur’aan and we know of good and evil in this world and the Hereafter by way of the aathaar (narrations).” By way of the narrations, which they narrated and they are the ahaadeeth, which they reported from Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. So, whoever makes an attack upon the narrations is making an attack upon the Islamic legislation because it was narrated in that case by narrators who were liars and who are not trustworthy and this is the intent of the Jews and the Magians to plot against the Muslims. So, a group of them abuse the companions and their intent is to abolish the sharee`ah (Islamic legislation) for if they can abolish its carriers and its narrators and they can attack the best ones of this nation then their attacking other than the companions is even more likely.
His saying, “For indeed the Qur’aan has more need of the Sunnah than the Sunnah has for the Qur’aan.” The Qur’aan has more need of the Sunnah as we have mentioned because the Sunnah explains and gives explanation of the Qur’aan. So, there are some things left unexplained in the Qur’aan, which have been explained in the Sunnah. So, Allaah has commanded the prayer but He has not made clear the number of its rak`ahs and He has not made clear the description of the prayer and this was made clear by the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and he said:
“Pray as you have seen me praying.”
The Hajj comes in the Qur’aan mujmalan (unexplained) and its explanation was left to the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. So, he performed Hajj with the Muslims in the Farewell Hajj and he said:
“Take your rights of Hajj from me.”
Meaning, learn from my actions and my sayings what will enable you to carry out your rights of pilgrimage and Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, says:
لَّقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا
There is for you in Allaah’s Messenger a fine example for whomever has hope in Allaah and in the Last Day and who makes mention of Allaah a great deal. (Sooratul-Ahzaab (33), aayah 21)
So, the Qur’aan has need of the Sunnah for it to clarify it. So, the person who accepts Qur’aan only then he will cut off the Qur’aan from that which explains and clarifies it and this is the goal of the people of misguidance and those who have deviation in their hearts. Because the people of deviation accept one part of the evidences and they leave the other part which explains it and clarifies it off and they take one part of the evidences, which are unclear and they leave the clear and decisive part, which clarifies it and explains it. This is the way of the people of deviation and the way of those who pretend to have knowledge and the ignorant ones; those who claim knowledge and those who do not know the correct way of deriving evidence nor the principles of establishing proof. So, they make forbidden and declare things lawful without any insight and Allaah’s refuge is sought, aameen, because they have not followed al-manhaj al-`ilm (the correct knowledge based methodology). Rather, they have just learned by themselves or from their own books or with those who are ignorant like themselves.
 Translator’s side point: Shaykh as-Suhaymi hafizahullaah mentions in with regard to the narrations; means the authentic narrations of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam.
 Reported by Imaam Ahmad and ad-Daarimiyy and Aboo Daawood and at-Tirmithee and Ibn Maajah and Ibn Hibbaan and al-Haakim from a hadeeth of al-Muqadaam ibn Ma`dee Karb radiyAllaahu `anhu. At-Tirmithee said the hadeeth is hasan ghareeb and it has one chain of narration which is hasan (good) and al-Haakim said its chain of narration is saheeh (authentic). Shaykh al-Albaaniyy in his checking of Aboo Daawood declared this hadeeth to be saheeh (authentic).
 Reported by Imaam Ahmad and Ibn Maajah and Ibn Abee `Aasim in his book As-Sunnah and Ibn Hibbaan and others besides from a hadeeth of Zayd ibn Thaabit radiyAllaahu `anhu and declared saheeh (authentic) by Al-Busayriyy in Misbaah Az-Zujaajah and again Shaykh al-Albaaniyy declared this hadeeth saheeh (authentic).
 Reported by al-Bukhaariyy and Muslim; both of them from a hadeeth of Abu Bakra radiyAllaahu `anhu and Muslim (1,679).
Translator’s side point: Al-Bukhaariyy, it mentions the number (67), which may or may not be correct W`Allaahu A`lam.
 Reported by Muslim in his saheeh (1,297) from the hadeeth of Jaabir radiyAllaahu `anhu, the long and famous hadeeth of Jaabir explaining the Hajj.
 Reported by al-Bukhaariyy (631) and that being the wording of al-Bukhaariyy and reported by Muslim (674) from Maalik ibn al-Huwayrith radiyAllaahu `anhu.
 Reported by al-Bukhaariyy in his saheeh (5,109) and Muslim (1,408) from Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu.
 Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah said,
“I say no-one makes an attack upon Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam except one who is a disbeliever or a hypocrite. And the Qur’aan has recorded for us from the hypocrites and likewise the disbelievers, the attacks that they made upon Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam.”
 Reported by al-Bukhaariyy (3,650) and reported by Muslim (2,535) from a hadeeth of Imraan ibn al Husayn radiyAllaahu `anhu and the wording being that of al-Bukhaariyy.
 Reported by al-Bukhaariyy and Muslim (2,540) from a hadeeth of Aboo Sa`eed al-Khudriyy radiyAllaahu `anhu.
 Translator’s side point: Shaykh al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah, he mentions the same evidence as was used by Imaam Maalik rahimahullaah that this aayah is a proof of the disbelief of the Raafidah Shee`ah; those who hate the companions because they no doubt have hatred for the companions.
 Hadeeth which has preceded reported by Bukhaariyy and Muslim.
 Reported by Muslim (1,297) as came before from a hadeeth of Jaabir radiyAllaahu `anhu
Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah
Transcribed by Saima Zaher.
Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah
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