The way a Person may fall into Disbelief (Apostasy) – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 65 : Point 112
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

Know, May Allah have mercy upon you! that there is nothing between a servant and his being a Believer or becoming an Disbeliever except that he denies something which Allah has sent down, or he adds to or takes away from the Speech of Allah, or he denies anything which Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, has said or  anything the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam) spoke with. So fear and be dutiful to Allah. May Allah have mercy upon you! Look to yourself and beware of exceeding the limits in the religion for that is not from the way of truth at all.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

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Related Linkhttps://abdurrahman.org/innovation

The blood of a Muslim cannot lawfully be shed except on account of one of three cases – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 36 : Point 49
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And the blood of a Muslim who bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger cannot lawfully be shed except on account of one of three matters; fornication after having been married or one who turned apostate after having daleel or one who murders a believing soul without right then he is executed for it, other than that then the blood of the Muslim is unlawful for the Muslim to shed forever until the Hour is established.[1]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

The issue of killing a Muslim comes after the issue of marriage because Islaam came to protect matters of honour and to protect blood from being shed and to protect property. He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said [2]:

“Your blood and your wealth and your honour are forbidden for you.”

And he sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“All of the Muslim is forbidden for the Muslim; his blood and his property and his honour.”[3]

So having spoken about al-a`raad (matters of honour) in the previous sentences in what is connected to marriage and divorce, he moved onto the matter of preservation of blood from being shed. So, the Muslim when he bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah then his blood and his property become forbidden to shed. And therefore, Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“I have been commanded to fight against the people until they say none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah. So, if they say it then they have rendered their blood and their property safeguarded from me except on account of a right of Islaam and their reckoning will be with Allaah, the Most High.[4]

So, whoever announces his Islaam and utters the two testifications then we accept that from him and we count him as being a Muslim and we apply the rulings of the Muslims upon him even if in his heart there is hypocrisy (nifaaq), for that will be between him and Allaah. Allaah will bring Him to account and the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam accepted Islaam of the hypocrites (munaafiqeen) and he applied the outward rulings upon them.

However, whoever commits one of those things that nullifies Islaam then in that case he is judged to be guilty of riddah (apostasy). So, either he will then repent or otherwise, he will be executed as a protection for the religion. This is the first matter that renders the blood of a Muslim lawful to be shed.

And the second matter from those things that renders the blood of a Muslim lawful to be shed is al-Qisaas (retaliatory killing); an-nafsu bin-nafs (a life for a life).

He the Most High said:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِصَاصُ فِي الْقَتْلَى ۖ الْحُرُّ بِالْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ وَالْأُنثَىٰ بِالْأُنثَىٰ ۚ فَمَنْ عُفِيَ لَهُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ شَيْءٌ فَاتِّبَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَأَدَاءٌ إِلَيْهِ بِإِحْسَانٍ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ تَخْفِيفٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ ۗ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَىٰ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَلَهُ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ 

وَلَكُمْ فِي الْقِصَاصِ حَيَاةٌ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ 

Oh you who believe al-Qisaas (legal retribution) for those who have been murdered is prescribed for you. The free person for the free person and the slave for the slave and the female for the female and whoever pardons and overlooks for his brother and accepts payment of blood money instead then this should be adhered to with fairness and payment of blood money should be made in a good manner. This is an alleviation from your Lord and a mercy. So, whoever then transgresses after acceptance of the blood money and kills the murderer then for him there will be a painful punishment. And there is for you in Qisaas (legal retribution) the saving of life, O people of understanding, that you may become righteous

(Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 178-179)

Al-Qisaas (retaliatory execution) results in the preservation of life even though the murderer is killed because a would-be murderer, if he knows that he’s going to be killed, he will withhold from killing. And the rest of the people, if they see the murderer being killed then they will stop themselves from killing. So therefore, blood will be safeguarded on account of that.

So, al-Qisaas (retaliatory execution) is a means for preservation of life and even though the one upon whom retribution is taken is killed then it is a killing which leads to preservation of life of the rest of the society and transgression against blood will be reduced. As for the case, if the murderer were to be left and it were to be said this contradicts human rights and he were to be left and not executed then this will result in the shedding of blood and destruction of security and causing those people who are in a state of security to instead be in fear and it will bring about many evils and killing will increase and bloodshed will occur to the extent that they used to say even in the times of ignorance (jaahiliyyah),Execution is the best deterrent to murder.” So, killing the criminal is the best deterrent to murder in the future and in this regard is the aayah:

وَلَكُمْ فِي الْقِصَاصِ حَيَاةٌ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ

And there is for you in legal retribution the saving of life, O people of understanding. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 179)

And those people who say that Qisaas (retaliatory killing) runs contrary to human rights then we say to them that the person who’s being transgressed against, “Is he not a human?” So, in taking retribution, there is protection for his right.

And the third of those whose blood it is lawful to shed is the thayyib (one who’s married or has been married) who commits zina (fornication). Ath-thayyib is the person who has had sexual relations with his wife in a correct marriage. So, if he then after that commits zinaa (fornication) then he is stoned to death with stones until he dies and his blood is rendered lawful on account of that.

So, these are the matters which render the blood of a Muslim lawful to be shed. Either al-Qisaas (retaliatory execution for murder) a life for a life or one who commits fornication after being married or al-murtadd (the apostate); the one who has left the religion of Islaam, the one who commits something, which breaks a person’s Islaam. He sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“Whoever changes his religion then kill him.”[5]

And there occurs in the hadeeth:

“And the one who abandons his religion and leaves the Jama’ah (united body).”[6]

And this contains a refutation of those who deny the punishment for apostasy seeking to use as evidence his saying, He the Most High:

لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ

There is to be no compulsion upon the religion.
(Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 256)

And this use of evidence is an error because killing the apostate; it’s goal is not to force anyone to accept the religion. Rather, the goal from it is to protect the religion from being played around with by someone who has entered into it freely by choice and then he abandons it after having borne witness that the religion is true.

His saying, “And the blood of a Muslim person who bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah is not permissible,” the Muslim is the one who bears witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah. However, along with the two testifications, there must be action that he establishes the prayer and gives the Zakaah and fasts Ramadaan and performs the Hajj to the house for whoever is able to make his way to it; action is essential.

His saying, “And whatever is besides that then the blood of the Muslim is forbidden for the Muslim to shed forever until the Hour is established,” the blood of the Muslim is forbidden for the Muslim. There will not come a time when it is permissible for him to shed the blood of a Muslim ever for Allaah unless he transgresses against and attacks the people in their homes or he commits Highway robbery or revolts against the authority of the ruler or other than that then he is killed to repel his evil if his evil cannot be repelled except through killing him.[7]

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s side point: Reported by al-Bukhaariyy (6,878) and Muslim (1,676) from `Abdullaah ibn Mas`ood radiyAllaahu `anhu who said Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“The blood of a Muslim who bears witness than none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that I am the Messenger of Allaah is not permissible to be shed except on account of one of three cases; a life for a life and a previously married person who commits fornication and one who abandons his religion and leaves the Jamaa`ah.” 

[2] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy in his saheeh (67) and Muslim (1,679) from a hadeeth of Aboo Bakrah radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[3] Reported by Muslim in his saheeh (2,564) from a hadeeth of Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[4] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy in his saheeh (25) and Muslim (22) from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhuma.

[5] Reported by al-Bukhaariyy in his saheeh in two places Hadeeth Nos. (3,017) and (6,922) from `Ikrimah who said:

“Some heretics were brought to `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anhu so he burnt them to death. So, that news reached Ibn `Abbaas so he said, “If it had been me I would not have burnt them with fire because of the prohibition of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, “Do not punish with the punishment of Allaah.” However, he would have killed them because of the saying of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, “Whoever changes his religion then kill him.” 

[6] Reported by al- Bukhaariyy (6,878) and Muslim (1,676) from a hadeeth of `Abdullah ibn Mas’ood radiyAllaahu `anhu.

Translator’s side point: Imaam ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisee rahimahullaah said in his famous book Al-Mughnee,

“The People of Knowledge are united in consensus upon the obligation of killing the apostate and that is reported from Aboo Bakr and `Umar and `Uthmaan and `Aliyy and Mu`aadh and Aboo Moosaa and Ibn `Abbaas and Khaalid radiyAllaahu `anhum and others besides them and no one criticised that from them so it is Ijmaa` (consensus).

Likewise, Imaam an-Nawawi mentioned in his explanation of Muslim in the book Kitaab al-Imaarah (Book of Leadership) when he’s speaking about the hadeeth of Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam’s sending of Aboo Moosaa al-Ash’aree to Yemen then later on he sent Mu`aadh to go to Yemen after him so when Mu`aadh arrived, he found that there’s a Jewish man there captured who had accepted Islaam and then left Islaam and become a Jew again; he was awaiting execution. So Aboo Moosaa offered a cushion for Mu`aadh to sit down so Mu’aadh refused, “till you kill him”. Imaam an-Nawawi commented upon that hadeeth and said, “It shows the obligation of killing the apostate and they are agreed in consensus upon his killing.”

Imaam ibn `Abdul-Barr said in his book At-Tamheed when he was speaking about the narration of `Aliyy radiyAllaahu `anhu when he killed the apostates. Ibn `Abdul-Barr then said,

“The fiqh of this hadeeth is that whoever apostasizes (leaves his religion) then his blood becomes lawful and his neck is struck, meaning he’s beheaded and the ummah is united upon that.” 

[7] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah said,

“And I say and it is not permissible to kill any soul except for one of these three by consensus and success is granted by Allaah.”

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

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No Muslim Exits Islaam Unless He Perpetrates That Which Nullifies It – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 32 : Point 41
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

ولا يخرج أحد من أهل القبلة من الإسلام حتى يرد آية من كتاب الله عز وجل أو يرد شيئا من آثار رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أو يصلي لغير الله أو يذبح لغير الله وإذا فعل شيئا من ذلك فقد وجب عليك أن تخرجه من الإسلام فإذا لم يفعل شيئا من ذلك فهو مؤمن ومسلم بالاسم لا بالحقيقة

And no one from the People of the Qiblah leaves Islaam unless he rejects an aayah from the Book of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic or rejects anything from the narrations from Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam or praise to other than Allaah or sacrifices for other than Allaah. So, if he does any of that then it is binding upon you to expel him from Islaam and if he does not do anything from that then he is a believer and a Muslim in name, even if not in reality.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

No one from the People of the Qiblah exits from Islaam except through committing one of the well-known nawaaqid (nullifiers of Islaam) along with any valid excuse being removed.

His saying, “or through his rejecting anything from the narrations of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, if he denies the Qur’aan or a part of it or the authentic Sunnah or a part of it or he rebuts anything from the Qur’aan or rebuts anything from the authentic Sunnah then he is judged to be guilty of riddah (apostasy) because he is denying the truth of what has been said by Allaah and his Messenger as long as he is not jaahil (an ignorant person) or muqallid (someone just blindly following somebody else) or muta`awwil (somebody’s who’s misinterpreting), in which case the matter is made clear to him and when it is made clear to him and if he still persists then he is judged to be guilty of apostasy. And what is meant by aathaar (narrations from Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) is the ahaadeeth.

And his saying, “or he rejects anything from the narrations of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, meaning he becomes a disbeliever and this is a tremendous principle with the people of the Sunnah and the Jamaa`ah. With it they contradict two groups;

  • Khawaarij and the extremists, those who declare people to be disbelievers on account of kabaa`ir (committing major sins), which are less than shirk and,
  • Murji`ah, those who say that sin does not harm if a person has eemaan as long as the person is a believer; has eemaan in his heart then no sins will harm him even if he leaves off all actions and does not do any action then he will be a believer (mu`min) who is complete in his eemaan.

As for the Ahl-ul Sunnah W`al Jamaa`ah (the people of the Sunnah and the Jamaa`ah) then it is just as the author said that they are upon a middle and balanced position between the two groups. So they say that the kabaa`ir (major sins) vary. So, if it something from shirk or major kufr then he exits from the religion by consensus. And as for if it is not kufr (disbelief) and if it is not shirk and it is not denying the Book of Allaah nor the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah and it is not abandoning the prayer and it is not calling upon other than Allaah or sacrificing for other than Allaah, rather  it is just a major sin, it is less than that then this does not cause a person to exit from Islaam contrary to the Khawaarij and the Mu`tazilah. However, it does harm the believer and it will reduce his eemaan contrary to the Murji`ah, those who say that sin does not harm along with eemaan. So, this is the middle position, which harmonises between the texts of Wa’eed (which mention a threat of punishment) and the texts of Wa‘ad ( which mentions a promise of reward)

The Khawaarij and the Mu`tazilah took hold of the texts of the threat and they abandoned the texts of promise. Whereas, the Murji’ah did the opposite, they took hold of the texts of promise and they abandoned the texts where there is a threat. So, each of the two groups are daal (astray).

His saying, “or unless he prays to other than Allaah or he sacrifices for other than Allaah,” such that he prays towards a grave seeking nearness to it or he makes prostration to an idol or he makes a sacrifice for other than Allaah and does anything from the acts of worship for other than Allaah then this person is a mushrik (a person of shirk), a kaafir (disbeliever) outside the religion and whatever is lesser than that then the people of the Sunnah are upon a middle position with regard to him in between the Murji`ah and the Khawaarij.

His saying, “and if he does anything from that then it becomes binding upon you to expel him from Islaam,” if he does anything from that, meaning if he prays to other than Allaah or sacrifices for other than Allaah or does an act of worship for other than Allaah then it is binding upon you to expel him from the religion and it is binding upon you to believe that he is a disbeliever (kaafir) and you may not say this is not my concern or I don’t know about him. Rather, it is obligatory upon you to declare the disbeliever and the mushrik to be a disbeliever and that you declare the sinner to be a sinner, one who commits a major sin, which is less than shirk. So, the truth about this matter must be made clear.

His saying, “and if he does not do anything from that then he is a believer and a Muslim in name, even if not in reality,” meaning with regard to what is apparent with us and his hidden condition is left to Allaah.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

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The Believer exiting from Eemaan – Aqeedah Tahawiyyah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah: Lesson 34  : Point [137]

137.And the servant does not exit from Eemaan except by denying that which entered him into it.

[Souncloud Audio Link]

At-Ta`leeqaat Al-Mukhtasarah `alaa Matn Al-`Aqeedah AtTahaawiyyah. By Shaykh Saalih ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan hafizahullaah. Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah, in 1426AH

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Commentary from Shaykh Ibn Baz : ( from alifta.net)

This restriction should be considered. A disbeliever embraces Islam on the pronunciation of the Two Shahadahs (Testimonies of Faith) if he has not already pronounced them. If he has already pronounced them, he re-embraces Islam by Tawbah (repentance to Allah) for the cause for his disbelief. He may get out of the fold of Islam for many reasons other than ingratitude, as indicated by scholars in the Chapter on the Ruling on the Murtad (Apostate). Such causes include blasphemy against Islam or the Prophet, peace be upon him, or making a mockery of Allah, His Messenger, Book, or anything of His Shar` (Law) for Allah, Exalted be He, says: “Say, ‘Is it Allah and His verses and His Messenger that you were mocking?’ Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after you had believed.

One of the causes for disbelief is idolatry, supplicating to the dead, making Istighathah (beseeching for help) to them and the like, for this contradicts the testimony of “There is none worthy of Worship except Allah,” which indicates that worship is an exclusive right of Allah Alone.

Other causes for disbelief are making Du`a’ (supplication), Istighathah, Ruku` (bowing), Sujud (Prostration), slaughtering, making a vow, and the like to something other than Allah. He who does any of these things to something other than Allah, including idols, angels, Jinn (creatures created from fire), the dead, and other creatures, commits Shirk (associating others with Allah in His Divinity or worship) and does not act upon the testimony of “There is none worthy of Worship except Allah”.

All such acts bring one out of the fold of Islam, according to the Ijma` (consensus of scholars) of the scholars. These are not merely acts of ingratitude. The evidence for this is derived from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Prophet. There are many other acts that cause a Muslim to be declared a disbeliever and they are not then merely acts of ingratitude. Such acts are cited by the scholars in the Chapter on the Ruling on the Murtad. So you can refer to them. May Allah grant us success.

Listen to the Full Audio Series of Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah:
Explanation of Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

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The Fitnah of Takfeer (Imputing kufr on Muslims) – Dr Saleh as Saleh

Listen / Download Mp3 Here (Time 27:40)

All Praise is due to Allaah, and may the Allaah’s salaah and salaam be on Prophet Muhammad, his household, and the noble companions and those who follow their path until the Day of Resurrection. The title fitnah of Takfeer: The Trials and Tribulations associated with imputing kufr (disbelief) on Muslims (rulers or ruled), is one of the most dangerous fitan in our times.

This misleading thought has spread amongst many of the youth in the Muslim world, east and west, north and south. Many of these youths are greatly motivated by their emotions and their vigilant care concerning the deen. As such, they took many of that which they received from the followers of desires. These followers of desires have renewed the principles and thoughts of the early Khawaarij (dissidents) and have become an extension of them. This has led to declare takfeer on the Islamic societies at large and on all Muslim leaders, without exception. The consequences of this have been very terrible. Blood is being shed.

Definition of Kufr:

To better understand takfeer, it is necessary to first define kufr. Linguistically, the term kufr means, “covering and shielding.” If an object covers something, then that object kafarahu (covered and shielded it). Similarly, it is said that the farmer when he puts the seed in the ground and covers it with soil is a kafir from the linguistic aspect, since he covered the seed with dirt.

As for the Islamic meaning, sometimes the word kufr means the major kufr, which takes a person out of the fold of Islaam. Kufr could also refer to the lesser type, which does not take a person from the fold of Islaam, known as al-kufr al-asghar. Islamically, the kafir is called a kafir because he covered and shielded the favor of Allaah (subhannahu wa ta’ala). Therefore, the kafir did not recognize the favor of Allaah upon him and did not give thanks to Allaah. Rather, he denied the favor of Allaah.

Ahlus-Sunnah (adherents to the Sunnah) is on the medium course, with respect to all fundamental matters in Islaam. They are between the two extremes, the excessive ones who exceeded the limits and the negligent ones. Allaah described this in Noble Qur’an (in the translation of the meaning):

«Thus, we have made you a just nation» Surah al-Baqarah (2:143)

Similarly, regarding the matter of takfeer, Ahlus-Sunnah is on a medium course between extremism and negligence.

The kafir is of two types. The first type is al-kafir al-aslee (the orginal kafir). This includes all of those who are not Muslims including the Christians and the Jews. Anyone who doubts the kufr of al-kafir al-aslee is himself a kafir. The second type is the apostate who was born to two Muslim parents, who in the stage of adulthood rejected Islaam, either by speech or by action.

Views of Ahlus-Sunnah and the Different Sects Regarding Takfeer:

The people are divided into three categories regarding takfeer.

The first category is al- Khawaarij. They impute kufr on the Muslim due to major sins; with some have gone to the extent to impute kufr on the Muslim due to minor sins. Similarly, they impute kufr on any Muslim who does not believe the same as them. As such, they have made the blood and wealth of most Muslims permissible. This group has an extension in our time and exists in many parts of the Muslim world.

The second group is al-Murji’ah. They claim that eeman (faith) is not affected by any sinful act, even if the Muslim commits a major sin. They say all Muslims are believers, and nothing affects faith. Although the beliefs of al-Murji’ah comprise different positions, this is an overall summary of their views.

Ahlus-Sunnah are on a medium course between the two extremes. They don’t rush to impute kufr on the Muslim while not refraining from imputing kufr on him if the person commits that which Allaah and/or His Messenger declared to be kufr. However, they note, “The Muslim who may say or do that which is considered kufr should not have kufr imputed on him specifically until the evidence is established on him, with all the conditions of imputing kufr fulfilled and all the impediments removed.”

Important Matters Regarding Takfeer

First, before takfeer can be established, all conditions must be fulfilled and all impediments removed. From the conditions of making takfeer are: knowledge, choice, intent, deliberate action or saying of kufr, and its acceptance. This implies determining whether the person knows his action is kufr, and he has chosen it, without being compelled. Moreover, it must be shown that the person was deliberate in his action and is content with it. From the impediments of takfeer are: affirmation of an error, ignorance, compulsion, and misinterpretation. Ahlus-Sunnah checks into both the impediments and conditions before imputing kufr on a specific person.

The second important matter is that imputing kufr on someone is an extremely dangerous matter. No one should indulge in takfeer, except those who are firmly established in knowledge and fulfill certain criterion. This arises from the fact that takfeer is the right of Allaah and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه و سلم:sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). Therefore, it can only be established by those who are the inheritors of the Prophets, the ulama (scholars) who make clear the ruling of Allaah and His Messenger; they are the only ones qualified. Anyone else who involves himself in takfeer is on a dark path of transgression and claims for himself a special right with Allaah. Hence, it is not permissible to make takfeer on anyone expect the one whom Allaah and His Messenger declared to be as such. Due to the seriousness of takfeer and its limits as established by Allaah and His Messenger, Shaykhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah, rahimahullah, stated:

“That is why the people of knowledge and Sunnah did not resort to making takfeer on those who opposed them, even if the opponent makes takfeer on them. This is because the matter of kufr is a legal right established by shariah, and therefore, the person can not punish by the like, just like if someone who belies you and makes lies against you, you can not spread lies about him, or if someone fornicates with members of your family, you can not fornicate with members of his family. This is because fornication and lying are haraam (unlawful) being Allaah’s right. Similarly, takfeer is a right that belongs to Allaah. Hence we do not impute kufr except on whom Allaah and His Messenger declared as such.” [Ar-Rad ‘Alal Bakari, v. 3, p. 381].

The danger involved with takfeer is not limited to the transgression against the right of Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’ala). The person who imputes kufr on the others also risks falling into that which he accused his brother with. This is in line with the hadith of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallaam),

“Any person who calls his brother, ‘Ya Kafir (Oh Unbeliever), has in fact done an act through which this unbelief would return to one of them. If it were so as he asserted, then the kufr of the man was confirmed, but if it was untrue, it returns to him (the one who labeled it on his Muslim brother).” [Reported by Muslim and At- Tirmithi.]

Similarly, in another narration, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) stated:

“If somebody accuses another of Fusuq (by calling him ‘Fasiq’ i.e. a wicked person) or accuses him of Kufr, such an accusation will revert to him (i.e. the accuser) if his companion (the accused) is innocent.” [Bukhari].

The third important matter is that takfeer causes hate amongst people, especially amongst those who are referred to as kafir since no one likes to be labeled as a kafir. In fact, this can lead to fights and bloodshed, which will inflict evil on the individuals involved and the society at large.

Shaykhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah, rahimahullah, said:

“And it is not the right of anyone to impute kufr on anyone of the Muslims even if he errs and does wrong until evidence is established upon him and the matter is made clear to him. And the one whose Islaam is affirmed with certainty then it ceases not to exist with him due to doubt. Rather his (state) of Islaam comes to an end only after the establishment of the proof and the elimination of the unclarity.” [Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, v. 12, p. 501]

Takfeer Practiced in Our Times:

First, a type of takfeer practiced in our time is the unrestricted takfeer on the Muslim rulers who do not rule by the rule of Allaah. This generalization, without details, has led many of the young Muslims to conclude that it is permissible to rebel against these rulers by force. Consequently confrontations, bloodshed and other problems arising from this are still growing. Moreover, it is bringing chaos and instability to the Muslim world as it is evident to everyone.

Furthermore, this thought did not stop at the rulers but has been extended to the government employees, security forces, and others. It has also reached many imams of masajid (mosques), muadhineen (those who give adhan), and scholars. This arises from the pretext that these are all collaborators with the government.

This pretext has even been extended to the Muslim society at large. Those who do not hold to the belief of these groups are considered kafir. This is not an issue in a vacuum; this is real. As such, one is not surprised as to why they kill Muslims or bomb places where there are many Muslims.

It has reached the extent that these groups have called for the complete disassociation from their societies, thinking that all of the society is kafir so they can not stay with them. They even abandon their wives if they do not adhere to the same belief as the person holding the takfeer principle; similarly, if a wife holds this takfeer principle, they say it is incumbent upon her to leave her husband if he does not agree with that. Furthermore, they tell their followers not to make the congregation prayers in the mosques claiming these are not real mosques, and that the imams of these mosques are not Muslims since they were assigned by the government. This is happening in some Muslim countries.

Solution:

The solution to this problem is to spread the knowledge of the righteous predecessors, alilm ash-shari’ saheeh (the correct knowledge of Islaam). This comes from the knowledge taught by the reliable scholars and the books of the salaf. The young should return to the ulama to seek their advice instead of following these so-called thinkers and their takfeeri books. All of those who write advocating this methodology are not even known for being from the true ulama holding to the path of the salaf.

On the other hand, Muslim societies and governments should take the corrective approach of adhering to the shar’eeah. Once this is done for the sake of Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’ala), then the promise of Allaah to bestow strength and steadfastness upon the ummah will surely be manifested.

Furthermore, there should always be a hand extended to our youth who may have influenced by takfeer. There should be useful discussions in this matter and a refuting of the views held by them based on evidences and proofs.

If there is anything we need to emphasize every now and then, whether regarding this matter or the understanding of Islaam as a whole, it is that people should be very serious about knowing Islaam from its two sources, the Qur’an and the way of the Rasool Allaah (Messenger of Allaah) in accordance with the understanding of the companions. This is the criteria of safety; this is the path that every Muslim should give his utmost effort to learn; this is the true safeguard mechanism for the individual and thus for the family and the society at large.

And Advice to the Youth:

Finally, we all know that emotions are real, and care for Islaam is a strong motivation to its adherents. The motivation by care, sincerity, and emotion if not guided by the following of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم) in accordance with the way of the salaf, then it can turn into a blazing fire of destruction. Hence, a sincere advice is stressed again for all of our youth: seek knowledge from its reliable sources and from the ulama who are on the path of the companions.

May Allaah the most High guide us and our Muslim youth to be on the path of righteousness and wisdom, and may Allaah, the Most High, safe guide this ummah from the fitnah of takfeer.

The slave of Allaah, Saleh As-Saleh.
9/5/1427 AH
June 6, 2006
Transcribed from the site understand-islam.net by Br. Abu Abdullah al-Amreeki.

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Sahih Bukhari : Book 84: Dealing with Apostates

Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 84:

Dealing with Apostates

Volume 9, Book 84, Number 53:

Narrated ‘Abdullah:

When the Verse: ‘It is those who believe and confuse not their belief with wrong (i.e., worshipping others besides Allah): (6.82) was revealed, it became very hard on the companions of the Prophet and they said, “Who among us has not confused his belief with wrong (oppression)?” On that, Allah’s Apostle said, “This is not meant (by the Verse). Don’t you listen to Luqman’s statement: ‘Verily! Joining others in worship with Allah is a great wrong indeed.’ (31.13)


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 54:

Narrated Abu Bakra:

The Prophet. said, “The biggest of the great sins are: To join others in worship with Allah, to be undutiful to one’s parents, and to give a false witness.” He repeated it thrice, or said, “….a false statement,” and kept on repeating that warning till we wished he would stop saying it. (See Hadith No.7, Vol. 8)


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 55:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr:

A bedouin came to the Prophet and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! What are the biggest sins?: The Prophet said, “To join others in worship with Allah.” The bedouin said, “What is next?” The Prophet said, “To be undutiful to one’s parents.” The bedouin said “What is next?” The Prophet said “To take an oath ‘Al-Ghamus.” The bedouin said, “What is an oath ‘Al-Ghamus’?” The Prophet said, “The false oath through which one deprives a Muslim of his property (unjustly).”


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 56:

Narrated Ibn Mas’ud:

A man said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Shall we be punished for what we did in the Prelslamic Period of ignorance?” The Prophet said, “Whoever does good in Islam will not be punished for what he did in the Pre-lslamic Period of ignorance and whoever does evil in Islam will be punished for his former and later (bad deeds).”


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 57:

Narrated ‘Ikrima:

Some Zanadiqa (atheists) were brought to ‘Ali and he burnt them. The news of this event, reached Ibn ‘Abbas who said, “If I had been in his place, I would not have burnt them, as Allah’s Apostle forbade it, saying, ‘Do not punish anybody with Allah’s punishment (fire).’ I would have killed them according to the statement of Allah’s Apostle, ‘Whoever changed his Islamic religion, then kill him.'”


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 58:

Narrated Abu Burda:

Abu Musa said, “I came to the Prophet along with two men (from the tribe) of Ash’ariyin, one on my right and the other on my left, while Allah’s Apostle was brushing his teeth (with a Siwak), and both men asked him for some employment. The Prophet said, ‘O Abu Musa (O ‘Abdullah bin Qais!).’ I said, ‘By Him Who sent you with the Truth, these two men did not tell me what was in their hearts and I did not feel (realize) that they were seeking employment.’ As if I were looking now at his Siwak being drawn to a corner under his lips, and he said, ‘We never (or, we do not) appoint for our affairs anyone who seeks to be employed. But O Abu Musa! (or ‘Abdullah bin Qais!) Go to Yemen.'” The Prophet then sent Mu’adh bin Jabal after him and when Mu’adh reached him, he spread out a cushion for him and requested him to get down (and sit on the cushion). Behold: There was a fettered man beside Abu Muisa. Mu’adh asked, “Who is this (man)?” Abu Muisa said, “He was a Jew and became a Muslim and then reverted back to Judaism.” Then Abu Muisa requested Mu’adh to sit down but Mu’adh said, “I will not sit down till he has been killed. This is the judgment of Allah and His Apostle (for such cases) and repeated it thrice. Then Abu Musa ordered that the man be killed, and he was killed. Abu Musa added, “Then we discussed the night prayers and one of us said, ‘I pray and sleep, and I hope that Allah will reward me for my sleep as well as for my prayers.'”


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 59:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

When the Prophet died and Abu Bakr became his successor and some of the Arabs reverted to disbelief, ‘Umar said, “O Abu Bakr! How can you fight these people although Allah’s Apostle said, ‘I have been ordered to fight the people till they say: ‘None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, ‘and whoever said, ‘None has the right to be worshipped but Allah’, Allah will save his property and his life from me, unless (he does something for which he receives legal punishment) justly, and his account will be with Allah?’ “Abu Bakr said, “By Allah! I will fight whoever differentiates between prayers and Zakat as Zakat is the right to be taken from property (according to Allah’s Orders). By Allah! If they refused to pay me even a kid they used to pay to Allah’s Apostle, I would fight with them for withholding it.” ‘Umar said, “By Allah: It was nothing, but I noticed that Allah opened Abu Bakr’s chest towards the decision to fight, therefore I realized that his decision was right.”


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 60:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

A Jew passed by Allah’s Apostle and said, “As-Samu ‘Alaika.” Allah’s Apostle said in reply, “We ‘Alaika.” Allah’s Apostle then said to his companions, “Do you know what he (the Jew) has said? He said, ‘As-Samu ‘Alaika.'” They said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Shall we kill him?” The Prophet, said, “No. When the people of the Book greet you, say: ‘Wa ‘Alaikum.'”


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 61:

Narrated ‘Aisha:

A group of Jews asked permission to visit the Prophet (and when they were admitted) they said, “As-Samu ‘Alaika (Death be upon you).” I said (to them), “But death and the curse of Allah be upon you!” The Prophet said, “O ‘Aisha! Allah is kind and lenient and likes that one should be kind and lenient in all matters.” I said, “Haven’t you heard what they said?” He said, “I said (to them), ‘Wa ‘Alaikum (and upon you).


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 62:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

Allah’s Apostle said, “When the Jews greet anyone of you they say: ‘Sam’Alaika (death be upon you); so you should say; ‘Wa ‘Alaika (and upon you).'”


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 63:

Narrated ‘Abdullah:

As if I am looking at the Prophet while he was speaking about one of the prophets whose people have beaten and wounded him, and he was wiping the blood off his face and saying, “O Lord! Forgive my, people as they do not know.”


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 64:

Narrated ‘Ali:

Whenever I tell you a narration from Allah’s Apostle, by Allah, I would rather fall down from the sky than ascribe a false statement to him, but if I tell you something between me and you (not a Hadith) then it was indeed a trick (i.e., I may say things just to cheat my enemy). No doubt I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, “During the last days there will appear some young foolish people who will say the best words but their faith will not go beyond their throats (i.e. they will have no faith) and will go out from (leave) their religion as an arrow goes out of the game. So, where-ever you find them, kill them, for who-ever kills them shall have reward on the Day of Resurrection.”


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 65:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin Yasar:

That they visited Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri and asked him about Al-Harauriyya, a special unorthodox religious sect, “Did you hear the Prophet saying anything about them?” Abu Sa’id said, “I do not know what Al-Harauriyya is, but I heard the Prophet saying, “There will appear in this nation—- he did not say: From this nation —- a group of people so pious apparently that you will consider your prayers inferior to their prayers, but they will recite the Quran, the teachings of which will not go beyond their throats and will go out of their religion as an arrow darts through the game, whereupon the archer may look at his arrow, its Nasl at its Risaf and its Fuqa to see whether it is blood-stained or not (i.e. they will have not even a trace of Islam in them).”


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 66:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar:

Regarding Al-Harauriyya: The Prophet said, “They will go out of Islam as an arrow darts out of the game’s body.’


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 67:

Narrated Abu Sa’id:

While the Prophet was distributing (something, ‘Abdullah bin Dhil Khawaisira At-Tamimi came and said, “Be just, O Allah’s Apostle!” The Prophet said, “Woe to you ! Who would be just if I were not?” ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “Allow me to cut off his neck ! ” The Prophet said, ” Leave him, for he has companions, and if you compare your prayers with their prayers and your fasting with theirs, you will look down upon your prayers and fasting, in comparison to theirs. Yet they will go out of the religion as an arrow darts through the game’s body in which case, if the Qudhadh of the arrow is examined, nothing will be found on it, and when its Nasl is examined, nothing will be found on it; and then its Nadiyi is examined, nothing will be found on it. The arrow has been too fast to be smeared by dung and blood. The sign by which these people will be recognized will be a man whose one hand (or breast) will be like the breast of a woman (or like a moving piece of flesh). These people will appear when there will be differences among the people (Muslims).” Abu Sa’id added: I testify that I heard this from the Prophet and also testify that ‘Ali killed those people while I was with him. The man with the description given by the Prophet was brought to ‘Ali. The following Verses were revealed in connection with that very person (i.e., ‘Abdullah bin Dhil-Khawaisira At-Tarnimi): ‘And among them are men who accuse you (O Muhammad) in the matter of (the distribution of) the alms.’ (9.58)


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 68:

Narrated Yusair bin ‘Amr:

I asked Sahl bin Hunaif, “Did you hear the Prophet saying anything about Al-Khawarij?” He said, “I heard him saying while pointing his hand towards Iraq. “There will appear in it (i.e, Iraq) some people who will recite the Quran but it will not go beyond their throats, and they will go out from (leave) Islam as an arrow darts through the game’s body.’ ”


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 69:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah’s Apostle said, “The Hour will not be established till two (huge) groups fight against each other, their claim being one and the same.”


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 70:

Narrated ‘Abdullah:

When the Verse:–‘Those who believe and did not confuse their belief with wrong (worshipping others besides Allah).’ (6.82) was revealed, it was hard on the companions of the Prophet and they said, “Who among us has not wronged (oppressed) himself?” Allah’s Apostle said, “The meaning of the Verse is not as you think, but it is as Luqman said to his son, ‘O my son! Join not in worship others with Allah, Verily! Joining others in worship with Allah is a great wrong indeed.'” (31.13)


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 71:

Narrated ‘Itban bin Malik:

Once Allah’s Apostle came to me in the morning, and a man among us said, “Where is Malik bin Ad-Dukhshun?” Another man from us replied, “He is a hypocrite who does not love Allah and His Apostle.” The Prophet said, “Don’t you think that he says: None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, only for Allah’s sake?” They replied, “Yes” The Prophet said, “Nobody will meet Allah with that saying on the Day of Resurrection, but Allah will save him from the Fire.”


Volume 9, Book 84, Number 72:

Narrated:

Abu ‘Abdur-Rahman and Hibban bin ‘Atiyya had a dispute. Abu ‘Abdur-Rahman said to Hibban, “You know what made your companions (i.e. Ali) dare to shed blood.” Hibban said, “Come on! What is that?” ‘Abdur-Rahman said, “Something I heard him saying.” The other said, “What was it?” ‘AbdurRahman said, “‘Ali said, Allah’s Apostle sent for me, Az-Zubair and Abu Marthad, and all of us were cavalry men, and said, ‘Proceed to Raudat-Hajj (Abu Salama said that Abu ‘Awana called it like this, i.e., Hajj where there is a woman carrying a letter from Hatib bin Abi Balta’a to the pagans (of Mecca). So bring that letter to me.’ So we proceeded riding on our horses till we overtook her at the same place of which Allah’s Apostle had told us. She was traveling on her camel. In that letter Hatib had written to the Meccans about the proposed attached of Allah’s Apostle against them. We asked her, “Where is the letter which is with you?’ She replied, ‘I haven’t got any letter.’ So we made her camel kneel down and searched her luggage, but we did not find anything. My two companions said, ‘We do not think that she has got a letter.’ I said, ‘We know that Allah’s Apostle has not told a lie.'”

Then ‘Ali took an oath saying, “By Him by Whom one should swear! You shall either bring out the letter or we shall strip off your clothes.” She then stretched out her hand for her girdle (round her waist) and brought out the paper (letter). They took the letter to Allah’s Apostle. ‘Umar said, “O Allah’s Apostle! (Hatib) has betrayed Allah, His Apostle and the believers; let me chop off his neck!” Allah’s Apostle said, “O Hatib! What obliged you to do what you have done?” Hatib replied, “O Allah’s Apostle! Why (for what reason) should I not believe in Allah and His Apostle? But I intended to do the (Mecca) people a favor by virtue of which my family and property may be protected as there is none of your companions but has some of his people (relatives) whom Allah urges to protect his family and property.” The Prophet said, “He has said the truth; therefore, do not say anything to him except good.” ‘Umar again said, “O Allah’s Apostle! He has betrayed Allah, His Apostle and the believers; let me chop his neck off!” The Prophet said, “Isn’t he from those who fought the battle of Badr? And what do you know, Allah might have looked at them (Badr warriors) and said (to them), ‘Do what you like, for I have granted you Paradise?’ ” On that, ‘Umar’s eyes became flooded with tears and he said, “Allah and His Apostle know best.”


[ Index Page]

The Distinction between Doing an Action of Disbelief and Being a Disbeliever

Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said: ‘A certain saying may be kufr (disbelief) and so it is declared, unrestrictedly, that the doer is a kafir (disbeliever) and it is said: ‘He who says this, then he is a kafir.’ But a particular person who says that is not judged to be a kafir until the proof – whose denier is a kafir – is established against him; and this is like the textual threat since Allah says: #”Verily, those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, they eat up only fire into their bellies, and they will be burnt in the blazing Fire!”# [Sura An-Nisa’ 4 :10]

So this and its like from the textual threats are true, but we do not bear witness that a specific individual will receive that which has been threatened. Therefore, we do not bear witness that any person in particular from the people of the Qiblah will enter the Fire, because that threat may not be carried out on him due to the absence of one of its conditions or the presence of something to prevent it. Perhaps its forbiddance never reached him, and perhaps he will repent from it, or perhaps he has great good deeds sufficient to wipe it out, or perhaps trials befall him which expiate it, or perhaps an acceptable intercessor will intercede on his behalf (on the Day of Resurrection).

Likewise, for that who makes the utterances of kufr, it could be possible that the texts which convey the truth did not reach him, or maybe they did, but he did not regard them as authentic or did not understand them. It is also a possibility that he had a doubt for which Allah will excuse him. So if a believer strives to arrive at the truth but makes a mistake, then Allah forgives his mistake whether in matters of belief or action. This is the position of the Companions of the Messenger (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) and the great majority of scholars of Islam. [Majmoo` ul-Fatawa (3/345)]

Al-Qasimi says, quoting Shaikhul-Islam: ‘What is meant is that the position of the scholars is built upon the distinction between the position of action (i.e. it being an action of kufr) and the person in particular (who does the action). Indeed there is no difference reported about this issue from Imam Ahmad or the rest of the scholars of Islam such as: Malik, Abu Hanifah and ash-Shafi`e, that they do not declare the Murji`ah as disbelievers – those who say that eman (faith) is saying without action, and their texts are replete with the fact that the Khawarij and Qadariyyah and others are not declared to be kafirun (disbelievers).

‘When Imam ash-Shafi`e spoke with Hafs al-Fard, one of the heads of the Mu`attilah (deniers of Allah’s attributes), with regard to the question of the creation or otherwise of the Qur’an, he (ash-Shafi`e) said to him: ‘You have disbelieved in Allah, the Most Great.’ – declaring him to have done kufr, but he did not judge him to be an apostate because of that. Had he regarded him as an apostate and kafir, he would have hastened to ask for his execution.

‘However, a fatwa (religious verdict) was given that the callers to innovation such as Ghulatul-Qadariyya (deniers of pre-destination), al-Ja`d ibn Dirham and Jahm ibn Safwan, the leader of the Jahmiyyah (deniers of Allah’s names and attributes), and others were to be executed, but people prayed over them and they were buried with Muslims. So their execution was like that of the brigand. This was done in order to put an end to the harm they caused, not due to apostasy, and if they were disbelievers, the Muslims would have treated them as such.’ [Mahasinut-Ta’wel 5/1313-1314]

Adapted from: “Excusing out of Ignorance” By Ahmed Fareed

Earth had thrown his body out – Sahih Bukhari

Narrated Anas (RadiAllaahu Anhu):

There was a Christian who embraced Islam and read Surat-al-Baqara and Al-Imran, and he used to write (the revelations) for the Prophet. Later on he returned to Christianity again and he used to say: “Muhammad knows nothing but what I have written for him.” Then Allah caused him to die, and the people buried him, but in the morning they saw that the earth had thrown his body out. They said, “This is the act of Muhammad and his companions. They dug the grave of our companion and took his body out of it because he had run away from them.” They again dug the grave deeply for him, but in the morning they again saw that the earth had thrown his body out. They said, “This is an act of Muhammad and his companions. They dug the grave of our companion and threw his body outside it, for he had run away from them.” They dug the grave for him as deep as they could, but in the morning they again saw that the earth had thrown his body out. So they believed that what had befallen him was not done by human beings and had to leave him thrown (on the ground).

[ Taken from Sahih Bukhari – Volume 4, Book 56, Number 814: Virtues and Merits of the Prophet (Sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and his Companions]