Actions and Attributes of Allah are Eternal (Qadimah)
Q: A person from Chad asks: Are the actions of Allah Qadimah (eternal) or Hadithah (adaptable) or both? And if both, how is this so? May Allah reward you with the best.
A: Basically, the actions (or Attributes describing the Actions) of Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) are Qadimah; He ever has always had His Attributes even before creating anything.
Thus, Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) has been, is and will always be the Creator. At all times He is the One able to do all that He wills. He does what He wills at the time He wills. But His Actions come to pass in relation to the conditions of His Creation. To illustrate this, Allah created Adam from nothingness. Likewise, He created the Angels, heavens, the earth, and everything else. Thus, we know that Allah is the Creator at all times, but He “creates” when He wills.
Another example, Allah was pleased with the believers of the past and He will be so with those of the future; Allah was angry with the disbelievers among the people of the past and he will be so with the disbelievers that will come. Thus, the basic characteristics of Allah’s Action and Attributes are Qadimah.
The Attributes of Allah may be divided into two main categories:
The first category is Sifat Dhatiyah (Allah’s Intrinsic and Essential Attributes), such as knowledge, hearing, sight, etc. These are the Attributes which do not cease to exist nor will ever cease to be descriptive of Him [Note: There is no similarity between Allah’s Attributes and that of His Creatures]. Thus, Allah (Glorified be He) has been and will always be described as the All-Hearer, the All-Seer, the All-Knower, the All-Powerful, etc.
The second category is Sifat Fi`liyah, and these are the Attributes, which describe the actions of Allah and are connected to His Mashi’ah (Will) in relation to the variable nature of His Creation. For instance, Allah (Glorified be He) created the heavens and the earth, Adam, Paradise, and Hellfire, etc., after they were all nothing.
The creation of all of them is subject to time, that is, it happens at an appropriate time. This does not deny the fact that Allah (Glorified be He) is the ‘Khaliq’ (Creator of all things), the Omnipotent over all things, etc. These Attributes are originally intrinsic of Allah, but Allah does whatever He wills at the time He wills. In the Qur’an, Allah (Exalted be He) says about Himself: [Verily, (O Muhammad Sallalaahu Alaihi wa Sallam)) the Seizure (punishment) of your Lord is severe and painful. [See V.11:102]. Verily, He it is Who begins (punishment) and repeats (punishment in the Hereafter) (or originates the creation of everything, and then repeats it on the Day of Resurrection). And He is Oft-Forgiving, full of love (towards the pious who are real true believers of Islâmic Monotheism), Owner of the throne, the Glorious, (He is the) Doer of whatsoever He intends (or wills)]. Also, He (Glorified be He) says about Himself: Verily, Allâh does what He wills. Thus, Allah (Glorified be He) does what He wills, in the past and in the future. Allah is the Creator of all things at all times; He created and He is still creating, etc. He (Glorified be He) is the All-Powerful, the All-Knower, the Ever-Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists, the All-Hearer, the All-Seer,…etc.
Source : alifta.com – Fatwas of Nur `Ala Al-Darb – Question No:22, Tape No. 417