Obligation of Rulers to show Kindness to their Subjects

Imam Al-Nawawi’s Riyad-us-Saliheen
Chapter 78
Obligation of Rulers to show Kindness to their Subjects

Allah, the Exalted, says:

“And be kind and humble to the believers who follow you.” (26:215)

“Verily, Allah enjoins Al-`Adl (justice) and Al-Ihsan (performing duties in a perfect manner), and giving (help) to kith and kin, and forbids Al-Fahsha’ evil deeds and Al-Munkar (all that is prohibited) and Al-Baghy (oppression). He admonishes you, that you may take heed.” (16:90)

653. Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: I heard Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) saying, “All of you are guardians and are responsible for your wards. The ruler is a guardian and responsible for his subjects; the man is a guardian and responsible for his family; the woman is a guardian and is responsible for her husbands house and his offspring; and so all of you are guardians and are responsible for your wards.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

654. Abu Ya`la Ma`qil bin Yasar (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Any slave whom Allah makes him in charge of subjects and he dies while he is not sincere to them, Allah will make Jannah unlawful for him.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Another narration is: Allah’s Messenger (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “He who does not look after his subjects with goodwill and sincerity, will be deprived of the fragrance of Jannah.”

A narration in Muslim is: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “A ruler who, having control over the affairs of the Muslims, does not strive diligently for their betterment and does not serve them sincerely, will not enter Jannah with them.”

655. `Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: I heard the the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) supplicating in my house: “O Allah! Treat harshly those who rule over my Ummah with harshness, and treat gently those who rule over my Ummah with gentleness.”
[Muslim].

656. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “The Banu Isra’il were ruled by the Prophets. When one Prophet died, another succeeded him. There will be no Prophet after me. Caliphs will come after me, and they will be many.” The Companions said: “O Messenger of Allah, what do you command us to do?” He said, “Fulfill the pledge of allegiance to which is sworn first (then swear allegiance to the others). Concede to them their due rights and ask Allah that which is due to you. Allah will call them to account in respect of the subjects whom He had entrusted to them.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

657. `Aidh bin `Amr (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I visited `Ubaidullah bin Ziyad and said to him: “Dear son, I heard Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) saying, `The worst of rulers are those who treat their subjects harshly. Beware, lest you should be one of them.”’
[Al-Bukhari].

658. Abu Maryam Al-Azdi (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I said to Mu`awiyah (bin Abu Sufyan) (May Allah be pleased with them): I heard Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) saying, “If Allah invests to someone the affairs of the Muslims and he (i.e., the ruler) ignores their rights, denies their access to him and neglects their needs, Allah will not answer his prayer or realize his hopes and will act towards him with indifference on the Day of Resurrection.” So Mu`awiyah appointed a person to keep a vigil on the necessities of the people and to fulfill them.
[Abu Dawud and  At-Tirmidhi].