Obligation of Obedience to the Ruler in what is Lawful and Prohibition ofObeying them in what is Unlawful

Imam Al-Nawawi’s Riyad-us-Saliheen
Chapter 80
Obligation of Obedience to the Ruler in what is Lawful and Prohibition of
Obeying them in what is Unlawful

Allah, the Exalted, says:

“O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger (Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam)), and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority.” (4:59)

663. Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “It is obligatory upon a Muslim to listen (to the ruler) and obey whether he likes it or not, except when he is ordered to do a sinful thing; in such case, there is no obligation to listen or to obey.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

664. Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: Whenever we took a pledge of allegiance to Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) to hear and obey, he (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) would say to us, “As far as you are capable of.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

665. Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “One who withdraws his hand from obedience (to the Amir) will find no argument (in his defense) when he stands before Allah on the Day of Resurrection; and one who dies without having sworn allegiance will die the death of one belonging to the Days of Ignorance.’
[Muslim].

Another narration is: The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “He who dies having defected from obedience (to the Amir) and discards his association with the main body of the (Muslim) community, dies the death of one belonging to the Days of Jahiliyyah.”

666. Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Hear and obey even if an Abyssinian slave whose head is like a raisin is placed in authority over you.”
[Al-Bukhari].

667. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “It is obligatory upon you to listen and obey the orders of the ruler in prosperity and adversity, whether you are willing or unwilling, or when someone is given undue preference to you.”
[Muslim].

668. `Abdullah bin `Amr (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: We accompanied Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) on a journey. We halted at a place to take a rest. Some of us began to set right their tents, others began to graze their animals while others were engaged in competing with one another in archery when an announcer of Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) announced that people should gather for Salat. We gathered around the Messenger of Allah and he ((sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam)) addressed us, saying, “Every Prophet before me was under obligation to guide his followers to what he knew was good for them and to warn the evil thing which he knew. As for this Ummah, it will have sound state and in its early stage of existence; but the last phase of its existence, will be faced with trials and with things you do not recognize. There will be tremendous trials, one after the other, and to each the believer will say, `That is it’. Whenever a trial arrives the believer will say: `This is going to bring about my destruction.’ When this passes, another calamity will approach and he will say: `This surely is going to be my end.’ Whosoever wishes to be removed from the Fire (Hell) and admitted to Jannah should die with faith in Allah and the Last Day; and he should treat others as he wishes to be treated. He who swears allegiance to an Imam, he should give him the pledge in ratification and the sincerity of his heart. He should obey him to the best of his capacity. If another man comes forward as a claimant (when one has already been installed), behead the second.”
[Muslim].

669. Wa’il bin Hujr (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Salamah bin Yazid Al-Ju`f (May Allah be pleased with him) asked Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam): “O Prophet of Allah! Tell us, what you command us to do if there arises over us rulers who demand of us what is due to them and refuse us what is due to us.” Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) turned away from him, but he repeated the same question. Thereupon Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Listen to them and obey them. They are responsible for their obligations and you are accountable for yours.”
[Muslim].

670. `Abdullah bin Mas`ud (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “There will be discrimination after my death and there will be other matters that you will disapprove.” He was asked: “O Messenger of Allah! What do you command us to do when we are encountered with such happenings?” He answered, “Give what is due from you and supplicate to Allah for your rights.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

671. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Whosoever obeys me, obeys Allah; and he who disobeys me, disobeys Allah; and whosoever obeys the Amir (leader), in fact, obeys me; and he who disobeys the Amir, in fact, disobeys me.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

672. Ibn `Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “If a person notices in his ruler what he dislikes, he should show patience because he who departs from the (Muslim) community a cubit, dies like those who died in the Days of Ignorance.”
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

673. Abu Bakrah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I heard Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) saying, “He who insults the rulers Allah will insult him.”
[At-Tirmidhi].