Aqeedah Tahaawiyahh : Point # 36:
يهدي من يشاء، ويعصم ويعافي فضلًا، ويضل من يشاء ويخذل ويبتلي عدلًا
He guides whoever He wishes, and protects and keeps safe as a favour (fadl) upon them; and He misguides whoever He wishes, and humiliates, and puts to trial from (His) Justice (‘adl).
The Explanation – Point 
Allaah, the One free from all imperfections, guides whomever He wishes and He misguides whomever He wishes; and this is by the Qadaa. (القضاء – Ordainment) and Qadr (قدر – Pre-decree) of Allaah.
However, He guides those whom He knows are fitting to receive guidance and He guides those who eagerly seek out guidance and who devote themselves to it; then Allaah makes good easy for him. And He misguides whomever He wishes by reason of that person’s turning away from seeking guidance and good; then Allaah misguides him as a punishment for him for turning away and for his lack of desire for good.
This is made clear by His, the Most High, saying,
As for the one who gives in charity and is dutiful to Allaah and attests to what is true, then we make easy for him acting in obedience to Allaah. (Sooratul-Layl (92), aayaat 5-7)
So the cause is found with the servant, and the Pre-decree is from Allaah, the Perfect.
And as for the one who miserly and thinks himself self-sufficient and denies that which is true, then We make easy for him the path to evil. (Sooratul-Layl (92), aayaat 8-10)
So the cause is found with the person, and the Pre-decree is from Allaah, the Mighty and the Majestic. However, Allaah decreed that for him as a punishment for him.
So Allaah decreed guidance as a favour from Allaah, the Mighty and the Majestic, and He bestowed honour upon the person who wishes and desires guidance and desires good. Then for him, Allaah makes the good easy and easy for him to perform it. And this is for the person’s benefit; it is not for the benefit of Allaah, the Mighty and the Majestic. And as for misguiding of the misguided people, then that is justice from Him, He the Perfect and Most High, and as a recompense for them for their turning away and for their and not turning to good and to obedience to Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. He does not wrong them whatsoever. And therefore we find in the aayaat,
And Allaah does not guide the people who are transgressors (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 258)
And Allaah does not guide the unbelieving people (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 264)
And Allaah does not guide the wicked evil-doers (Sooratul-Maa.idah (5), aayah 108)
So He made wrongdoing and unbelief and wickedness reasons for the absence of guidance. And these things are actions of the people for which He recompenses them as justice from Him, He the Perfect and Most High, not as injustice or oppression.
And Allaah did not oppress them but rather they wronged their own souls. (Sooratun-Nahl (16), aayah 33)
So it is not befitting for Him, He the Perfect, that He should bestow honour upon one with those characteristics. And likewise, it is not befitting upon Him, He the Perfect and Most High, that He should cause the deeds of those who act, to be lost. He, the One free of all imperfections said,
Do those people who commit sins think that they will be made just the same as those who truly believe and perform righteous deeds, in their present lives and after death? Evil is the judgement that they make. (Sooratul-Jaathiyah (45), aayah 21)
And Allaah created the heavens and the earth in Truth so that He should recompense every soul in accordance with what it earned; and they will not be oppressed. (Sooratul-Jaathiyah (45), aayah 22)
Shall we make the Muslims just like the criminals? What is it with you – how do you judge? (Sooratul-Qalam (68), aayaat 35-36)
This would be oppression, which Allah is free of. He, the Perfect and Most High says,
Shall we make those who truly believe and work righteous and correct actions, (shall we make them just the same) as those who cause corruption upon the earth, or shall we make those who are dutiful to Allaah just like the wicked folk? (Soorah Saad (38), aayah 28)
So Allaah, the Perfect and Most High does not lose the reward of one who works a righteous and correct action, and He does not punish anyone for something which he did not do and for something which he did not earn.
You will not be recompensed except for that which you used to do. (Sooratus–Saaffaat (37), aayah 39)
So the actions, all of them, whether good or bad, are from the person; and the recompense is from Allaah out of His Favour and Justice.
End of explanation of point 
 Translator’s (Dawud Burbank) side point: Ibn Abil-`Izz rahimahullaah, in his longer explanation, commenting about this point, said:
This contains a refutation of the Mu`tazilah with regard to their saying that it is obligatory upon Allaah that He must always do what is most beneficial for the person; and this is a question of guidance and misguidance. So the Mu`tazilah, they say, “Guidance is from Allaah and it means explaining the correct way” and they say, “Misguidance is just calling a person ‘misguided’ and that He, the Most High, judges the person to be upon misguidance when the servant himself creates misguidance for himself.” And this is built upon their false and futile principle – that the actions of the people are created by them. And the proof for what we have stated is the proof of Allaah, the Most High (addressing the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam),
You do not guide those whom you love should be guided, but rather Allaah guides whomever He wishes (Sooratul-Qasas (28), aayah 56)
So if guidance was just explaining the correct way, it would not be correct for guidance to be denied for the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam in this aayah because he showed the correct way to those whom he loved and those whom he hated.
And He the Most High said,
And if We wished We would have given every soul its right guidance (Sooratul-Sajdah (32), aayah 13)
Allaah misguides whomever He wishes and He guides whomever He wishes (Sooratul-Mudaththir (74), aayah 31)
And if guidance from Allaah just meant showing the correct way, which is general to every soul, it would not be correct to restrict that by His Will. And likewise, He the Most High said,
And if it were not for the Favour of my Lord I would have been one of those brought to the Hellfire (Sooratus–Saaffaat (37), aayah 57)
And He the Most High said,
Whomever Allaah wishes, He misguides him, and whomever He wishes, He places him upon a straight path (Sooratul-An`aam (6), aayah 39)
Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah
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