The types of hijrah and their rulings – Shaykh ‘Abdur Rahmaan al-‘Adanee

Question 3: The types of hijrah and their rulings

“What are the types of hijrah, and what is the ruling of each one?”

The Answer:

There are numerous divisions for the types of hijrah which the people of knowledge have mentioned. From these divisions is that which Ibn Hajar has mentioned in ‘Al-Fath’ (his explanation of Saheeh al-Bukhaaree) under the hadeeth: “The Muhaajir is he who leaves that which Allaah has prohibited” He said, “…and this hijrah is of two types, outer and inner. The inner is to leave that which the soul which commands evil and the Shaytaan call to, and the outer is to flee with the deen from tribulations.” Some of them phrase this as hijrah of the place and hijrah of the deeds.

The hijrah of the place, its proofs have preceded. As for hijrah of the deeds, it is that the Muslim leave, that which Allaah has prohibited from disobedient acts and the different types of sins and transgressions. This type is as Ibnul-Mulaqqin (Rahimahullaahu Ta’ala) has said, “Some of the later Maalikee scholars have said it is the greatest hijrah in which all of the divisions fall under.” This division of hijrah, hijrah of deeds or hijrah of sins, its proof is what the two Shaykhs have transmitted on ‘Abdullaah Ibn ‘Amr Ibn al-‘Aas on the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) that he said, “The Muslim is he who the Muslims are safe from his tongue and his hand, and the Muhaajir is he who leaves that which Allaah has prohibited.”

Also, An-Nasaa’ee has transmitted with a chain that is saheeh on ‘Abdullaah Ibn ‘Amr Ibn al-‘Aas that he said, “A man said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah. What hijrah is best?’” He said, “That you leave that which your Lord (‘Azza Wa Jall) dislikes.”

Also, Ibn Maajah has transmitted with a chain that is hasan on Fudaalah Ibn ‘Ubayd on the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) that he said, “The believer is he who the people trust him with their wealth and their own selves, and the Muhaajir is he who leaves off crimes and sins.”

Ibn Hajar (Rahimahullaahu Ta’ala) has said under the previous passage, under the hadeeth: “The Muhaajir is he who leaves that which Allaah has prohibited,” he said, “It is as if the Muhaajiroon were addressed with that in order that they don’t rely solely upon the migration from their land, and in order that they act according to the commands and prohibitions of the legislation, or it is possible that was said after the hijrah had ceased, when Makkah was conquered, to soothe the hearts of those who did not attain that, however, the essence of hijrah is obtained by he who leaves that which Allaah has prohibited.”

Ibn Hajar (Rahimahullaahu Ta’ala) derived and summarized this from the statement of Ibnul-Mulaqqin in his explanation of the book ‘Al-‘Umdah’.

There is also another division of Al-Hijrah, that Al-Hijrah is divided into general and specific. The specific hijrah being the hijrah from Makkah to Madeenah, and it is well known that hijrah to Madeenah before the conquest of Makkah was obligatory upon the Muslims, and that it was obligatory upon the Muslims in Makkah and elsewhere to reside in Madeenah in order to help the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) and assist him with person and wealth and other than that.

Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’ala) emphasized that before the conquest of Makkah in numerous verses to the point where He cut the ties of guardianship between whoever made hijrah and whoever did not make hijrah. Allaah (‘Azza Wa Jall) said:

And as to those who believed but did not emigrate (to you O Muhammad), you owe no duty of protection to them until they emigrate…” – Al-Anfaal (8):72

So this specific hijrah is the one which its ruling of being obligatory was abolished by his (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi Wa ‘Alaa Aalihi Wa Sallam) statement: “There is no hijrah after the conquest, rather Jihaad and intention.” So when Makkah was conquered and it became a land of Islaam, the ruling of making hijrah to it (Madeenah) was abolished. (Imaam) alBukhaaree (Rahimahullaahu Ta’ala) has transmitted in his Saheeh from the chain of Ataa Ibn Abee Rabaah that he said, “I along with ‘Ubayd Ibn Umar al-Laithee visited ‘Aishah and we asked her about Al-Hijrah, so she said, ‘There is no hijrah today.

It used to be that the believers, one of them would flee with his deen to Allaah (Ta’ala) and His Messenger (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi Wa ‘Alaa Aalihi Wa Sallam) out of fear of being tortured because of it (his deen). As for today, Allaah has made Islaam victorious, and today the person can worship his Lord wherever he pleases, however, there is Jihaad and intention.’” What ‘Aishah means by her statement “today” is after the conquest of Makkah. So this is the specific hijrah for which its ruling of being obligatory has been abolished.

As for the general hijrah, which is the migration from the land of shirk to the land of Islaam, this remains until the Final Hour as the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam) has stated for he who is not able to perform his deen and openly perform its rituals in the land which is not the land of Islaam. How long has there continued to exist, lands of disbelief and enemies that fight the people of the Religion of Islaam, so hijrah continues to be a prescribed practice.

There is also another division of hijrah, that hijrah is of two types: The hijrah from the land of shirk to the land of Islaam which has previously been discussed and its ruling – when is it obligatory and when is it mustahab (highly recommended) – has also preceded, and Allaah (Ta’ala) willing, the discussion about the rule defining the land of shirk will come in the answer to the fifth question. The second type is to leave and make hijrah from the land in which innovations and sins have become widespread to the land where that is few and less intense.

So with regards to leaving and making hijrah from the land in which misguiding innovations are many and widespread, and the man on the Sunnah is not able to openly perform the Sunnah and defend it and wage war against those innovations, this type of hijrah has been mentioned by a group of Scholars, among them is Ibnul-‘Arabee (Rahimahullaah) in his book ‘Ahkaam AlQur’aan’. He said, “Ibnul-Qaasim said, ‘I heard Maalik say, ‘It is not permissible for anyone to reside in a land where the Salaf are reviled therein.’’” (Imaam) al-Qurtubee added that he also said, “and falsehood is practiced therein.” Ibnul-‘Arabee commented on this statement of Maalik saying, “This is true, for verily the munkar (abomination), if you are not able to change it then get away from it.” Allaah (Ta’ala) said:

“And when you (Muhammad) see those who engage in a false conversation about Our Verses (of the Qur’aan) by mocking at them, stay away from them till they turn to another topic. And if Shaytaan (Satan) causes you to forget, then after the remembrance sit not you in the company of those people who are the wrong-doers.” – Al-An’aam (6):68

So due to that, there are many Scholars who have mentioned this type of hijrah, leaving the land in which innovations are many, and the people of innovation are out in the open, and the Sunan are hidden. Many Scholars from the Maalikee Scholars, and the Shaafi’ee Scholars, and Scholars from some of the other madhaahib amongst them, the Hanbalee Scholars, take the position of leaving (such a land), for he has said in the book ‘AlMuntahaa’, “…or the land of the oppressors or misguiding innovations like Rafd [1] or I’tizaal [2]. It is obligatory that he leave there and go to the land of the people of the Sunnah if he is not able to openly perform the methodology of the people of the Sunnah therein.”

Also, others such as al-Baghawee in his tafseer, and al-Qurtubee, and Ibn Hajar in ‘Al-Fath’, and ashShawkaanee, may Allaah have mercy upon them all, have mentioned this type of hijrah, while (on the other hand) some Scholars remained in the lands where innovations were many and widespread thinking they would be able to confront these innovations and abominations and establish, for Allaah’s (‘Azza Wa Jall) sake, the proof against the slaves of Allaah, so they would defend (the truth) and combat and reduce the evils.

Ibnul-‘Arabee mentioned in his book ‘Ahkaam Al-Qur’aan’ that he requested from his Shaykh Abu Bakr al-Fihree that he leave the land of Misr (Egypt) and go somewhere else because of the innovation and forbidden acts that existed there. So his Shaykh gave as an excuse that there is good in him staying there, from spreading the guidance, and directing the people, and spreading Tawheed, and warning from false beliefs, and calling to Allaah.

Thereafter, the dispute between them became severe over the issue. Ibnul-‘Arabee said, “…to the point that the dispute between he and I grew extremely intense,” or a statement similar to that (Rahimahullaahu Ta’ala). Many Scholars have mentioned this type of hijrah to be obligatory, from the Maalikee Scholars, and the Shaafi’ee Scholars, and the Hanbalee Scholars.

Likewise, leaving the land in which sins and different types of crimes and disobedient acts are many, and the Muslim there is not able to enjoin the good and forbid the evil and reduce the evil, rather he is scared for himself, and for his family, and for those whom Allaah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’ala) has made him responsible for. A group of Scholars from the Maalikee Scholars, and the Shaafi’ee Scholars, and the Hanbalee Scholars have also mentioned this, and that it is upon the Muslim to make hijrah. However, some Scholars dispute it being obligatory, they dispute it being obligatory to make the hijrah of this type. They have reported on a group of Scholars of Fiqh, from the Hanbalee Scholars of Fiqh, that hijrah from the land in which sins are many and widespread is mustahab (highly recommended) and it is not obligatory because of the statement of the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam): “Whoever amongst you sees an evil, let him change it with his hand.” Likewise, Imaam ash-Shawkaanee (Rahimahullaahu Ta’ala) in his book ‘Nail AlAwtaar’ disputed the obligation of leaving the land of sins, rather he saw that to be highly recommended. However, in his book ‘As-Sail Al-Jarraar’ he took that back and declared it to be obligatory. A group (from the people of knowledge) has mentioned it to be highly recommended, while others see this type of hijrah to be similar to the previous type of hijrah, hijrah from the land of innovations and desires. They see leaving the land in which sins are widespread, and the Muslim therein is not able to combat that and suppress that, and he does not feel safe for himself there, they see this type to also be obligatory. Whatever the case may be, this is a division from the divisions of hijrah that the people of knowledge have mentioned. The proof the people of knowledge use for this type of hijrah, hijrah from the land of sins and hijrah from the land of innovations, is the statement of Allaah (‘Azza Wa Jall):

“Verily! As for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves (as they stayed among the disbelievers even though emigration was obligatory for them), they (angels) say (to them): ‘In what (condition) were you?’ They reply: ‘We were weak and oppressed on earth.’” – An-Nisaa (4):97

They have reported on Sa’eed Ibn Jubair that he extracted from this verse that it is obligatory to make hijrah from the land in which sins are many, and they similarly reported that on ‘Ataa, and similarly a group of the people of knowledge have used this as a proof. So in brief, the hijrah from the land in which sins are many and widespread, a group of Scholars of Fiqh, as you have heard, declare it to be obligatory, and some of them say it is highly recommended. As for the first type, making hijrah from the land of innovations, many people of knowledge see it to be obligatory to leave this type of land.

Footnotes:

[1] This is the belief and practice of the Raafidhah. They are more commonly known as the Shee’ah who have exceeded in their love and honor for the family of the Prophet (Salallaahu ‘Alayhi Wa Sallam).

They are called the Raafidhah because they rejected the leadership of Zayd Ibn ‘Ali Iibn alHusayn, and also when they asked him about Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and he praised them. So they said: “They are the ministers of my grandfather”, then they departed and as a result rejected (the statement and leadership of Zayd ibn ‘Ali).

[2] This is the belief and practice of the Mu’tazilah. The doctrine of i’tizal is the belief that there exists state of existence between eemaan and kufr. They also believe that the Qur’aan is created. From the main proponents of this deviant ideology was the ‘Abbasid khaleefah al-Ma’moon and his brother al-Mu’tasim. The belief of this group was strongly opposed and refuted by Imaam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal (Rahimahullaah).

The name Mu’tazilah is derived from a schism which took place in the circle of al-Hasan alBasree. After laying down their deviant ideology Wasil Ibn ‘Ataa and ‘Amr Ibn ‘Ubayd are said to have separated (i‘tazala) from al-Hasan al-Basree’s circle to establish an independent school.

Source : Transcribed from the PDF –  Questions and answers concerning al-Hijrah – By Shaykh ‘Abdur Rahmaan al-‘Adanee

Related Link: Hijrah (Migration to Muslim Lands) – abdurrahman.org/hijrah