Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) – Knowing The “Mercy to Mankind” – by Dr. Saleh as Saleh (Rahimahullah)
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Knowing The “Mercy to Mankind”
By Dr. Saleh As-Saleh
Muharram 17, 1427 AH
February 16, 2006 CE
1-Islamic Calendar: 12 months
2- AH = After Hijrah (migration of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) from Makkah to Medinah).
Month No – Month Name
4 Rabee’ Ath-Thaani
5 Jamadaa Al-Awwal
6 Jamadaa Ath-Thaani
11 Thul Qi’dah
12 Thul Hijjah
Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم salal-laahu ‘Alayhi wasallam ) was born in Makkah which is one of the most important cities of the Jazeeratul-‘arab (the Arabian Peninsula). Makkah (Mecca) was not inhabited by people until Allaah commanded Prophet Ibraheem (Abraham عليه السلام: ‘alayhis-salaam ), to take his wife Hajar and his son Ismaeel (Ishma-il) to live there. Allaah sent them because He willed that from this place (i.e. Makkah) a message for all mankind would arise. Ibraheem (عليه السلام) left his wife Hajar and his son Isma-eel in Makkah and returned to Palestine.
At that time Makkah was a land where there was scarcity of water so when the child Isma-eel became thirsty his mother Hajar could not find any water for him. Allaah sent the angel Jibreel (Gabriel) ‘alayhis-salaam عليه السلام who started hitting the ground with his feet and Allaah caused water to gush forth. This special water still exists to this day and its called the ZamZam water. This water was the answer to the Du’a (prayer) that Ibraheem (‘alayhis-salaam عليه السلام) made and it is mentioned in the Qur’aan:
“O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in an uncultivable valley by Your Sacred House (the Ka’bah at Makkah); in order, O our Lord, that they may perform As-Salât (establish prayer), so fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and (O Allah) provide them with fruits so that they may give thanks. [Qur’an, Ibrahim (14): 37]
Soon people started coming to Makkah and eventually it flourished until it became one of the most important cities in the Arabian Peninsula. When Isma-eel (عليه السلام) became older, Allaah commanded Ibraheem (عليه السلام) and his son to raise the Ka’aba.
Later Isma-eel (عليه السلام) married and had many children and grand-children. Generations later they became many tribes. Our Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) came from the tribe called Quraysh. For many years the descendants of Ibraheem and Isma-eel (‘alayhimus-Salaam) worshiped Allaah alone but as the generations passed the people forgot the way of Ibraheem and started worshiping idols, sun, moon, stars, fire and other dieties.
Each tribe had many families and a leader whom the people followed and obeyed. ‘Abdul Muttalib, the grand-father of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم), was one of the leaders of his tribe called Quraysh. The place where these Arabs lived became known as the Arabian Peninsula. Every Arab defended his own tribe against other tribes in the course of many wars between tribes. Before the coming of Islam, the Arabs were known for some good qualities such as respecting the neighbors, being generous, keeping promises, etc.. They also had very bad qualities such as drinking alcohol and burying their young girls alive because they did not like it when girls were born.
Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was born in the tribe of Quraysh in Makkah on a Monday in the year 571 C.E. His father’s name was ‘Abdullah and his mother’s name was Aaminah bint  Wahab. His grand-father ‘Abdul-Muttalib was very pleased and named him Muhammad. His complete name is Muhammad bin4 ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim from the tribe of Quraysh.
The Prophet’s father ‘Abdullah was one of the best youth in all of Makkah. After his marriage with Aaminah he travelled to a land called Bilaad ush-Shaam. Today this comprises West of Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. On his way back to Makkah he fell ill and died. His death occurred seven months before the birth of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم).
It was the culture of the Arabs to get their children suckled by nursing women who lived away from the city life thus the children could learn to adapt themselves to the harsh conditions of the desert. Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was suckled by his mother for a little while but later was given to a woman called Haleemah As-Sa’diyyah. She took him to her house which was located outside of Makkah and he stayed with her until he was four years old.
When Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) turned six years old, his mother Aamina died. ‘Abdul Muttalib took Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) in his custody and took care of him. He loved Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) very much but he died when the Prophet was only eight years old. The Prophet was then looked after by his uncle, Abu Taalib, who loved him dearly. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) started working at a very young age as a shepherd for the people of Makkah but did not get much in return. At the age of fifteen he started going with his uncle on business trips. He gained a lot of good reputation and thus the people of Makkah started calling him Al-Ameen (the trustworthy).
In Makkah there lived a very honorable woman by the name of Khadeejah bint Khuwaylid. She heard about the Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وسلم) truthfulness and sent him on a business trip. She had a servant-boy by the name of Maysara who accompanied the Prophet on that journey. The Prophet took her caravan to the lands of Ash-shaam and came back with a lot of profit. The servant-boy informed Khadeejah of his excellent manners and qualities. Khadeejah was very impressed by this and wanted to marry the Prophet. The Prophet’s uncle, Abu Taalib, arranged the marriage between them. At that time Khadeejah was forty years old and the Prophet was twenty five years old. She was a very good wife and a great help to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) had six children with Khadeejah, two boys and four girls. Their names were ‘Abdullah, Qaasim, Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah. ‘Abdullah and Qaasim died at a young age. He also had another son named Ibraheem from Maria al Qibtiyah who was from Egypt. Ibraheem too died at a very young age. All his daughters became Muslims.
Once the people of Makkah differed amongst themselves as to who will rebuild the Ka’bah when its building became weak. There is a special stone called the ‘Black Stone’ and all the tribes wanted this great honor to place it in position. They could not come to a solution thus they started arguing and even were getting prepared to fight. Some amongst them suggested that the first person to come to their meeting would be the judge and will decide about whom amongst them would place the Black Stone. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was the first one to come to the meeting and he was thirty five years old at that time. When they saw the Prophet come they all shouted with joy, “this is Al-Ameen (the trustworthy) and we accept him as our judge.” The Prophet was a very wise man. He ordered for a sheet to be placed on the ground and then he placed the Black Stone in the middle of it. The Prophet asked each tribe to hold one end of the sheet thus all the tribes worked in unity and carried the stone. All the tribes being pleased with this judgment showed once again the wisdom of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم).
The people of Quraysh loved and respected him but the Prophet himself was not pleased about some matters. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was greatly bothered when he saw his people worshiping idols, drinking alcohol and gambling. Thus he did not like to mix with them but when he saw some good he shared with them. Many times he went into seclusion in order to avoid the evil of the society he was living in. He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) went to a cave in a mountain called Hiraa for one a month each year in order to contemplate about the way of Ibraheem which was pure from idol worship.
One night of Ramadhan in the year 610 (C.E) an extraordinary event that would change the course of history happened. The Archangel Jibreel was sent to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم by Allaah. He squeezed the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) three times and each time Jibreel asked the Prophet to ‘Read’. The first verses of the Qur’aan were revealed to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) on that night….
Read! In the Name of your Lord, Who has created (all that exists), has created man from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood). Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous. Who has taught (the writing) by the pen, has taught man that which he knew not. [Qur’an, Al Alaq (96): 1-5]
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was very frightened due to this incidence thus he hurried home and he asked his wife to cover him. Khadeejah (may Allaah be pleased with her) covered the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and comforted him. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) narrated the incident to her and Khadeejah, after showing her support, took him to her cousin Waraqah bin Nawfal. He was a wise man and knew the stories of the Prophets who came before. Waraqah comforted Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and explained to him the great responsibility that is going to be given to him.
The moment that changed history began. Allaah ordered the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) to call people to Islam (though not openly). Allaah told him:
O you (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) enveloped (in garments)! Arise and warn! [Quran, AlMuddaththir (74):1-2]
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) obeyed the command of Allaah and started calling the people towards the worship of Allaah alone, without any partners (idols, saints, angels and other creation that the people of Makkah worshiped before Islam). The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) began preaching to his family and then his friends. The first to accept Islam was his wife Khadeejah, may Allaah be pleased with her. The first amongst the men to believe in Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was Abu Bakr as-Sideeq, and amongst the boys the first to believe were Ali who was the cousin of Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and Zaid bin Harith, may Allaah be pleased with them all.
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) preached for three years in secrecy and met in a house called the place of Arqam. Then Allaah commanded the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) to call the people openly to the truth.
Therefore proclaim openly (Allah’s Message of Islamic Monotheism) that which you are commanded, and turn away from Al-Mushrikeen (polytheists, idolaters, and disbelievers, etc. – see V.2:105). [Qur’an, Al-Hijr (15): 94].
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) obeyed and called the people of Makkah for a meeting on mount Safa. He told them the message of Tawheed, that is to worship none but Allaah. A man amongst the crowd started shouting angrily at the Prophet and he was Abu Lahab the uncle of Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Allaah revealed a whole chapter about him. Allaah Says:
Perish the two hands of Abû Lahab (an uncle of the Prophet), and perish he! His wealth and his children (etc.) will not benefit him! He will be burnt in a Fire of blazing flames! And his wife too, who carries wood (thorns of Sadan which she used to put on the way of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم ), or use to slander him). In her neck is a twisted rope of Masad (palm fibre). [Qur’an, Al-Masad (111): 1-5]
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) preached this way for ten years. During this time he and those who accepted Islam suffered many types of torment. The people of Makkah called the Prophet names, calling him crazy, insane, magician and other bad names. They warned the people of other tribes to not to talk to him. They put thorns on his way and also tortured other Muslims. The Muslims were very patient because the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) told them to be patient to gain the pleasure of Allaah. Amongst them were Bilal bin Rabah, Ammar bin Yaasir, may Allaah be pleased with all of them. The parents of Ammar, Yaasir and Summaiyah, were tortured and killed by the Mushrikeen (disbelivers) thus they became the first Shadeeds (martyrs) of Islam. The only person who stood up for Prophet was his Uncle Abu Taalib.
The Prophet ordered the Muslims who were tortured extensively to leave and migrate to a land in Africa called Abyssinia (now Ethiopia). The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) chose this place because the King of Abyssinia, an-Najaashi was a just ruler. The Muslims began to migrate to Abyssinia secretly without the knowledge of the Quraysh until they were almost one hundred. An-Najaashi honored them and treated them well. The Quraysh were angered by the behaviour of An-Najaashi and in order to harm the Muslims who were settled in Abyssinia they sent some delegates to trick AnNajaashi. The delegates were loaded with gifts and they asked An-Najaashi to return the Muslims to the Makkahns. They told him that the Muslims were bad rebellious people who invented a new religion, but Allaah caused their plot to fail. An-Najaashi was a just ruler and when he enquired with the Muslims about their religion he realized that Islam was the true religion. Later An-Najaashi also believed in Islam. But did not say it in the open because he feared for his life from his people who were mostly Christians.
The number of Muslims began to grow day after day. Even some of the leaders of the Quraysh accepted Islam, amongst them were Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib, ‘Umar bin Al-Khataab, may Allaah be pleased with them. The Mushrikheen were angered by this and they plotted against the family of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). They boycotted the Muslims by stopping the trade with them and the Muslims entered the state of siege for three years. The Muslims suffered so much so that they had to eat from the leaves of the trees. When some leaders saw this they felt sympathetic and ended the boycott. In that year his uncle Abu Taalib died and also his wife Khadeejah (may Allaah be pleased with her) died. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was greatly affected by this. In fact this year was called the Year of Sorrow.
The Mushrikeen from Quraysh took this opportunity and increased their transgression towards the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). But the Prophet was very patient and he continued to call the people from other tribes to Islam. During these difficult moments the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) reached a city called at-Taaif hoping to find some support but he was hurt again. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) also called to Islam the tribes visiting Makkah for Pilgrimage but the tribes refused.
In the eleventh year of Prophethood six people from the city of Madeenah contacted the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and accepted Islam secretly due to their fear of Quraysh. When they returned to Madeenah they preached Islam to their people and, all praise is due to Allaah, many accepted Islam. A year later twelve people from Madeenah came and met the Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) in a place called al-Aqabah. They gave their allegiance to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). This pledge is known as the Pledge of al-‘Aqabah alUulaa (The First Pledge of al-‘Aqabah) The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) sent his companion Mus’ab bin Umair, may Allaah be pleased with him, with them to Madeenah to teach them Islam.
Islam began spreading rapidly in Madeenah, so much so that every house at least had one person who was a Muslim. A year later, seventy three men and women from Madeenah came to Makkah in order to perform Hajj (Pilgrimage). There they met Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) in the middle of the night at a place called Mina because they did not want to be seen by the Mushrikeen of Quraysh. The uncle of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) Al-‘Abbas was present and they all gave the pledge of support to the Prophet and they invited the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) to stay with them in Madeenah. This was the Second Pledge of al-‘Aqabah.
The Mushrikeen amongst the Quraysh knew about the Second Pledge of al-‘Aqabah. This greatly worried them and thus they increased their torture on the Muslims. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) permitted some Muslims to migrate to Madeenah and they left Makkah in secrecy.
Soon after the Mushrikeen of Quraysh plotted to kill the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), but Allaah the Most High informed the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) of their plan. The Prophet told his closest companion Abu Bakr as-Sideeq that he intended to migrate to Madeenah and Abu Bakr agreed to go with him. The Mushrikeen amongst the Quraysh surrounded the Prophet’s home in order to kill him. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ordered his cousin ‘Ali bin Abee Taalib (may Allaah be pleased with him) to sleep on his bed and Allaah then caused the Mushirkeen to not see the Prophet whilst he was leaving the house. The Prophet then met with Abu Bakr and they both left to Madeenah.
Later when the Mushrikeen realized that the Prophet had already left they put a price of hundred camels on his head. Anyone who would inform about the whereabouts of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) would get that reward of hundred camels. They were hiding in a cave and the Mushrikeen were very close to the cave but Allaah protected the Prophet and Abu Bakr and they were able to reach Madeenah safely. Allaah Says about this in the Qur’aan:
If you help him (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم صلى الله عليه وسلم صلى الله عليه وسلم صلى الله عليه وسلم) not (it does not matter), for Allah did indeed help him when the disbelievers drove him out, the second of two, when they (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم صلى الله عليه وسلم صلى الله عليه وسلم صلى الله عليه وسلم and Abu Bakr) were in the cave, and he (صلى الله عليه وسلم صلى الله عليه وسلم صلى الله عليه وسلم صلى الله عليه وسلم) said to his companion (Abu Bakr): “Be not sad (or afraid), surely Allah is with us.” Then Allah sent down His Sakeenah (calmness, tranquility, peace, etc.) upon him, and strengthened him with forces (angels) which you saw not, and made the word of those who disbelieved the lowermost, while it was the Word of Allah that became the uppermost, and Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise. [Qur’an, At-Tawbah (9): 40]
When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) reached Madeenah there was a great reception for him and his companion. Madeenah was later called Al-Madeenatu-Nabawiyyah the City of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Allaah named those who migrated to Madeenah from Makkah as ‘Muhajireen’. When the transgression of the Mushrikeen increased Allaah ordered the Prophet to fight them. Allaah Says in Qur’aan:
And fight in the Way of Allah those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the transgressors. [This Verse is the first one that was revealed in connection with Jihad, but it was supplemented by another (V.9:36)]. [Qur’an Al-Baqarah (2):190].
A caravan of Quraysh was returning to Makkah from Ash-Shaam (greater Syria area) and it had lots of goods in it. When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) heard about this he decided to take it because of what the Mushrikeen took from the wealth of the believers of Makkah. This caravan was led by Abu Sufyaan. When he came to know about this he sent for the Mushrikeen of Makkah to help guard his caravan but before their arrival Abu Sufyaan’s caravan was able to flee. Whilst on his way back he met his people who were coming to protect the caravan. Abu Sufyaan told them to return back to Makkah but the leaders of Quraysh refused and proceeded to fight the Muslims. They kept marching in the direction of the city of Madeenah with an army of one thousand men.
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) consulted with the Muhajireen and the Ansaar (the helpers, the people of Madeenah who helped the Prophet and his companions were given this title) and told them to stand up against the transgression of Quraysh. Both the Ansaar and the Muhajireen agreed to this and they were 314 in number. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) called upon Allaah for help and the battle of ‘Badr’ started on the day of Friday the 17th of Ramadhan, a year after the migration of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) to Madeenah. Allaah sent angels to fight the Quraysh and gave the Muslims a great victory. Seventy of the Mushrik were killed, seventy were taken as captives and fourteen Muslims were martyred. The Quraysh wanted revenge and they prepared an army of three thousands men which was led by Abu Sufyaan. When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) came to know of this he again consulted with his companions and decided to confront the Mushrikheen of Makkah.
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) took 1000 companions to the Mount Uhud and organized their positions. He told a special group of Muslims to not leave their own place at any cost and they were positioned where they could easily protect the Muslims from the enemies. When the battle began victory was almost guaranteed for the Muslims and when the special group saw this they wanted to collect the spoils of war and thus left their positions. The Mushrikeen seized this opportunity and killed many Muslims, amongst them was Hamza bin ‘Abdul Muttalib, the uncle of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Even the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was hurt on his face and some of his teeth were broken. This battle took place on Saturday the 15th of Shawwal, three years after the migration of Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).
There were many Jews living in Madeenah and they did not keep their promise to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) of not attacking and not harming the Muslims. They went to the Mushrikeen of Makkah and told them to continue with their fight and promised them wealth, arms and support against the Muslims. Thus the Mushrikeen of Makkah started to call upon other tribes to fight against the Muslims and they managed to gather an army of 10,000 fighters who was led by Abu Sufyaan. They went to fight the Muslims on the 15th of Shawwal 5 AH. The Prophet consulted with his companions once again and they all agreed to stay in Madeenah and protect it.
Madeenah was exposed geographically for attacks from all its sides and thus there was great danger in this. One of the companions by the name Salman al Farisy, who was a Persian, suggested building a big ditch/trench around Madeenah in order to prevent the Mushrikeen of Makkah from entering the city. An army of 3000 Muslims was prepared to fight the Mushrikeen. When the army of the Makkans arrived at Madeenah it could not pass the trench and was confused as to what it could possibly do to win the war. For a whole month the enemy forces surrounded Madeenah but the weather was getting worse by the day. On one of the cold winter nights a strong wind blew their tents and caused much devastation to their army. They were hit by pebbles and sand and were forced to retreat. Thus the plot of the Jews failed. Allaah reminds us of this in the Qur’aan:
O you who believe! Remember Allah’s Favour to you, when there came against you hosts, and We sent against them a wind and forces that you saw not [i.e. troops of angels during the battle of Al-Ahzab (the Confederates)]. And Allah is Ever All-Seer of what you do. [Qura’an, Al-Ahzab (33): 9].
This battle is known as the battle of Ahzaab.
A year later the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) wanted to perform ‘Umrah (a visit to the Ka’abah, the Sacred House in Makkah). When he and his companions entered a place called AlHudhaibiyah they were prevented by the Mushrikeen from entering Makkah and performing the ‘Umrah. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) started negotiating with the Quraysh and in the end they agreed on a peace treaty, the ‘Treaty of Hudaibiyyah’. From the conditions were:
1) Ending of the war between the Mushrikeen of Makkah and Muslims for ten years.
2) The ‘Umrah was to be delayed until the next year.
3) The Arabian tribes are given the choice to join Muslims or the Quraysh.
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) gained much benefit from this treaty and he started preaching Islam to people outside of Madeenah. Many entered the fold of Islam during this period but the Quraysh broke their covenant by attacking the tribes that gave allegiance to the Muslims. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) decided to open Makkah and he prepared an army of 10,000 people. On the 20th of Ramadhan 8 AH, the Muslims reached Makkah. When the Quraysh saw the Muslims they lost their morale and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) opened Makkah without a fight. Then he performed tawaaf (circumambulation) of the Ka’abah and destroyed the idols inside it. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم( was reciting the following verses from the Qur’aan whilst he was breaking the idols:
And say: “Truth (i.e. Islamic Monotheism or this Qur’an or Jihad against polytheists) has come and Batil (falsehood, i.e. polytheism, Satan, or etc.) has vanished. Surely! Batil is ever bound to vanish.” [Qur’an, Al-Isra (17): 81]
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) pardoned the people of Makkah. They became convinced that Islam was the true religion and they became Muslims. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) made da’wah (call to Islam) outside of Madeenah and the victory of Makkah boosted the morale of Muslims even more and many other people embraced Islam. Allaah Says about this in the Qur’aan:
When comes the Help of Allah (to you, O Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) against your enemies and the conquest of Makkah), and you see that the people enter Allah’s religion (Islam) in crowds. [Qur’an, An-Nasr (110): 1-2].
In the 10th year AH the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) called his companions to come and perform Hajj (Pilgrimage to Makkah) with him in order to teach them the method of performing Hajj. About 100,000 came to perform Hajj. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) stood on the mount of Mercy on the day of ‘Arafah (the 9th Day of the 12th month of the Islamic calendar) and gave his magnificent Sermon in which he summarized for them their rights and their duties. He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) recited this verse:
This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. [Qur’an, al-Maidah (5): 3]. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) completed the ‘farewell pilgrimage’, it is called like this because this was the last pilgrimage of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).
Two months after his return to Madeenah from the pilgrimage, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) became very ill and his soul surrenderd to Allaah the Most High on the 12th of Rabbi Al Awwal, 11 A.H. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was 63 years of age and was buried in the apartment of ‘Aaisha, his wife, may Allaah be pleased with her. The Muslims were very saddened by the death of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) but Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, stood up and said “whoever worshiped Muhammad, then Muhammad is dead and whoever worshiped Allaah verily Allaah is ever living and NEVER dies”. Then he recited the following verse from the Qur’aan:
Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is no more than a Messenger, and indeed (many) Messengers have passed away before him. If he dies or is killed, will you then turn back on your heels (as disbelievers)? And he who turns back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah, and Allah will give reward to those who are grateful. [Qur’an, Aali Imran (3):144].
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was medium in height. He was not too tall nor was he too short. He had a good body build up. He was trustworthy, wise, perseverant and gentle. He did not curse nor hurt anyone. He was kind to every one even those who hurt him. The Prophet was a great leader and an honorable fighter. He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) had a great character and did not have false pride and arrogance. He was forgiving and was noble. Allaah described him by saying: “verily you are of a great noble character.” He was kind to his neighbors and to the children. He called the people to worship Allaah alone like all the Prophets before him and he eliminated shirk. He corrected the people and removed the evil from the society. After the Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وسلم) death the companions took the task of spreading Islam because Islam is for everyone the Chinese, Americans, Indians, Arabs, non-Arabs and all of mankind.
Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is the final and last Prophet and Messenger sent by Allaah to mankind. There will not be any more Prophet after him. The Qur’aan that was revealed to the Prophet is filled with the Message of ‘Tawheed’ (i.e. to worship Allaah alone without associating partners with Him). We do not worship Prophets, good people, the dead or the living, nature, etc., but we worship the only True God, Allaah.
The Muslim love the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and strive to follow his way in Islam, following him leads to Paradise and turning away from his way leads to Hell.
The Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) called to Islam which is the Tawheed of Allaah: singling Allaah alone as the True God worthy of worship. The basis of Islam is ‘Laa ilaahaa Illal-laah, Muhammad Rasoolullah’ i.e. to bear witness that ‘there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah’. This is what makes the person a Muslim and there is no religion accepted by Allaah except Islam. All the Prophets and Messengers like Adam, Noah, Ibraheem, Musa (Moses), and ‘Eesa (Jesus) called their nations to submit to Allaah in Tawheed. This is the Universal Message.
17th of Muharram, 1427 AH
16th Feb. 2006
Acknowledgement: Special thanks to sis Umm Hafsah of New York for her transcribing the talks about the Biography of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) which I gave on Paltalk in 2005, and for the work of our brothers and sisters who did the translations into other languages. Special thanks also to sis Umm Ahmad al-Kanadiyyah and sis ‘Aaisha al-Falasteeniyyah for their editing and proof reading.
 صلى الله عليه وسلم salallaahu ‘aleyhi wasallam: This is an invocation which means “may Allah exalt his mention and
render him and his message safe from every derogatory thing.”
 ‘alayhis-salaam: May Allah render him safe from every derogatory thing.
 Bint= Daughter of.
 Bin = Son of.