Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 38 : Point 53
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]
Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:
And to be pleased and satisfied with the decree of Allaah.
Having eemaan (true faith) in al-Qadaa w’al Qadr (Allaah’s preordainment and predecree). This is a rukn (pillar) from the six pillars of eemaan, which are mentioned by Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam :
You have eemaan (true faith) in Allaah, and in His angels, and His books, and in His Messengers, the Last Day and that you have true faith in al-Qadr (predecree), the good of it and the bad of it.
And it is that you believe that Allaah has preordained all things and predecreed them always and He, the Perfect and Most High, has written them in the preserved tablet and He created it and brought it into existence by His wish, He, the Perfect and Most High. And having eemaan in predecree and preordainment covers FOUR levels:
The First Level: Level of al-`ilm (knowledge), which is that Allaah knew by His Eternal Knowledge all things before they came into existence.
The Second Level: To have eemaan (true faith) that Allaah wrote all things down in the preserved tablet before they existed. He, the Most High said:
مَا أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِ أَن نَّبْرَأَهَا ۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ – 57:22
No calamity befalls upon the earth nor in yourselves except that it was written in a book before We brought it about. Indeed that is easy for Allaah. (Sooratul-Hadeed (57), aayah 22)
The Third Level: To have `eemaan (true faith) that Allaah willed and wished these newly occurring events. Disbelief and true faith, obedience and disobedience, righteousness and wickedness, good and evil; all of that was willed and wished by Allaah, by His will relating to the creation, His Iraadah al-Kowniyyah. So, nothing occurs within His Sovereignty except that which He wills. However, He willed the good and He willed `eemaan and He willed evil for a hikmah (wise) purpose as a trial and as a test. So, Allaah willed that which is good and He loves it and is pleased with it and He willed that which is evil but He does not love it and He is not pleased with it. However, He willed it to occur for a wise purpose and in order to test and to try. And if there nothing except good then there would be no distinction for anybody and there would be no test and no trial, all of the people would be people of good. And if there were nothing except evil then there would be no distinction for anyone in performing righteous deeds. So, this gives the result that Allaah tries the servant to make clear the good from the foul and the believer from the disbeliever and it is a trial and a test, which He, the Perfect and Most High brings about for them and He did not create these things without purpose.
- The Fourth Level: Al-Khalq w’al eejaad (creation and bringing into existence); whatever happens Allaah is the one who created it and brought it into existence. And everything that occurs then Allaah is its Creator. And the actions of the people are created by Allaah and they are actions done by the servant. Allaah, the Majestic and Most High says:
اللَّهُ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ ۖ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَكِيلٌ – 39:62
Allaah is the Creator of everything and He is the Trustworthy Disposer of all affairs. (Sooratuz-Zumar (39), aayah 62)
And He, the Perfect and Most High says:
وَهُوَ الْخَلَّاقُ الْعَلِيمُ – 36:81
And He, Allaah is the All-Knowing Creator Who creates repeatedly.
(Soorah Yaaseen (36), aayah 81)
وَاللَّهُ خَلَقَكُمْ وَمَا تَعْمَلُونَ – 37:96
And Allaah created you and whatever deeds you do.
(Sooratus–Saafaat (37), aayah 96)
So, they are things created by Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, meaning people’s deeds, good or evil and they are actions done by the servants and things earned by the servants by their own choice and will.
So, the true believer believes in these four levels; (1) al-`ilm, (2) w’al kitaabah, (3) w’al mashee’ah w’al iraadah, (4) al-khalq w’al eejaad.These four levels with regard to predecree, the believer believes in them; the level of knowledge, the level of writing and the level of wish and will and the level of creation and bringing into existence.
And the believer is pleased and satisfied with predecree and preordainment. When calamities occur, he does not become annoyed and does not become vexed. He withholds himself from annoyance and he withholds his tongue from complaining to other than Allaah and he withholds his hand from striking the cheeks and tearing the openings of the garment. So this is being pleased and satisfied with the preordainment and predecree. And it is that you know that whatever befalls you was never going to miss you and whatever misses you was never going to happen to you just as the Prophet said, and `eemaan will not be completed except with this.
 Reported by Muslim (Hadith No.8) from a hadeeth of `Umar ibn al-Khattaab radiyAllaahu `anhu and this is a part of the famous hadeeth of Jibreel where Jibreel `alayhissalaam came to the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam in the form of a man and asked him about `eemaan and Islaam and Ihsaan and the signs of the Hour, this was the answer the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam gave when he was asked:
“What is `eemaan? And he replied that it is that your truly believe in Allaah and in His angels and in His Books and in His Messengers and in the Last Day and that you truly believe in predecree; the good of it and the bad of it.”
 Part of the famous hadeeth, reported by Imaam Ahmad in the Musnad and Aboo Daawood in his Sunan and Ibn Maajah in his Sunan from a hadeeth of `Ubaadah ibn as–Saamit radiyAllaahu `anhu. Declared authentic by Ibn Hibbaan by Shaykh al-Islaam Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhaab in his book At-Tawheed.
Translator’s side point: Also declared saheeh (authentic) by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy likewise.
Shaykh Ahmad An-Najmee rahimahullaah said,
“Being pleased and satisfied with that which Allaah has decreed should occur” – This is a tremendous level and what is meant by ‘what is ordained should occur‘ here? It is that it means which a person has no actions himself in bringing about such as illness and health, being rich or being poor and death and all of the calamities that occur, that which strike the person.
So, the people are divided into two categories with regard to them or it is to be said the servant here, there are two states that he can have in this case; one of them is higher than the other:
- The first of them is ar-ridaa (being pleased and satisfied) with that and it is the highest condition such that he is pleased whatever Allaah has decreed to occur, Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic and whatever provision He has given you a share of and with whatever calamities He has preordained for you. So, being pleased and satisfied with these decrees, which strike the servant from Allaah these are things, which come purely from His decree. Neither the person himself nor anyone else can repel them and being pleased with these decrees is a tremendous level and it is an honourable state of the soul such that the servant is hoping for the reward that will come about as a result of the calamity after it strikes him such that if he were to be given a choice between receiving the reward for it or that calamity not occurring he would choose the reward instead. You have the first and the highest level.
- So if he is not from the people of ridaa, those who are actually pleased with it then at least let him be from the People of Sabr (have patience) upon it. This is the 2nd level So, he still has patience when that is decreed to happen to him. So, he bears it hoping for reward for it and in submission to the decree and the ordainment, Allah, the Mighty and Majestic said:
وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَحِينَ الْبَأْسِ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ – 2:177
Those believers who have patience upon extreme poverty and illnesses and at the time of fighting. They are the ones who are true and they are the ones who are dutiful to Allaah. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 177)
And there occurs in the hadeeth:
“If Allaah loves a people, He puts them to trial. Whoever is pleased, then Allaah’s pleasure is for him and whoever is angry then there is anger for him.”
And Allaah is the one who grants success.
Reported by At-Tirmithee and Ibn Maajah from a hadeeth of Anas and Imaam Ahmad. Also, reported as a hadeeth of Mahmood ibn Labeed, slightly different wording. Shaykh al-Albaaniyy authenticates the hadeeth.
A point of note from Shaykh Ahmad An-Najmee:
It is not permissible to be pleased and happy with sins nor to use predecree as an excuse for them. Rather, it is obligatory to strive to remove them and Allaah, the Most High says:
كُنتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ
You are the best nation brought out for mankind, you command the good and you forbid the evil and you truly believe in Allaah. (Soorah-Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 110)
Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:
Whoever amongst you see an evil, let him change it with his hand and if he is not able then with his tongue and if he is not able then with his heart for that is the weakest of eemaan. [Reported by Muslim.]
And if it can be imagined that the disbelievers occupy a land from the lands of the muslims, is it permissible that we just say that this is a matter of predecree and leave it as that and not strive to remove this evil until we free the muslims in their lands so that they are at peace from being overcome by the diebeleivers? The answer is that it is not permissible for us to just be silent about that nor should we be pleased and happy with it nor just have patience upon that and Allaah is the one who grants success.
Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah
Transcribed by Saima Zaher.
Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah
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