The Deviation of the Jahmiyyah – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

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Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 58: Point 101 (Part A)
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

Some of the scholars, amongst them Ahmad ibn Hanbal, declared the Jahmee to be a disbeliever and not from the people of the Qiblah. His blood is lawful. He does not inherit, neither is inheritance received from him, since he says that there is no Jumu’ah or congregational prayer, no ‘Eid prayer, no charity (Sadaqah) and because they say, “One who does not say the Qur’an is created is a disbeliever.” They allow fighting and killing within the nation of Muhammad (sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam). They contradict those who preceded them. They put the people to trial regarding something that neither the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam) nor any of his Companions spoke about.They desire to empty the Mosques and for the congregations to be neglected.

They weakened Islam, caused Jihaad to be left and busied themselves with sectarianism. They went against the narrations and spoke up with that which had been abrogated [1]. They used verses of uncertain meaning as clear proof and so caused the people to have doubts about their religion. They disputed about their Lord and said, “There is no punishment in the grave, nor any Pond (Hawd), nor any Intercession and Paradise and the Fire have not been created.” They rejected much of what the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam) said. Those who permit the declaration of their being unbelievers declare them to be so and declare the spilling of their blood to be lawful because of these matters, since whoever rejects a verse from the Book of Allah has rejected the whole Book and whoever rejects a hadeeth from the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam) has rejected all of his sayings and is a disbeliever in Allah, the Sublime.

NOTES

[1] The Mu’tazilah and the Raafidah denied abrogation (naskh). Before them, the Jews had denied it.

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Transcript of the Audio:

Point Number 101

And some of the scholars; amongst them Imaam Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: ‘The Jahmee is a disbeliever, he is not from the people of the Qiblah, his blood can be lawfully shed, he does not inherit nor is inheritance received from him. Since he says, “There is no Jum`ah prayer, no congregational prayer, no `Eid prayers and no charity.” And they said, “Whoever does not say that the Qur·aan is something created then he is a disbeliever.”

The Explanation:

His saying, “The saying of the scholars: “The Jahmee is a disbeliever, he is not from the people of the Qiblah,” meaning Kaafir; he is a disbeliever on account of his blind sayings because he has negated Allaah, the Majestic and Most High. And there is no doubt that this is the worst of disbelief. Their sayings of disbelief lead to Ta`teel (total negation), as was said by the Shaykh (the author) and it is denial of the existence of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High. And Imaam Ahmad rahimahullaah has refuted them in his book ar-Radd `alal-Jahmiyyah, and this is printed and verified – and all praise is for Allaah. And a number of the people have refuted them. Shaykh ul-Islaam refuted them in his huge book Bayaan Talbees al-Jahmiyyah.

His saying, “He (the Jahmee), his blood is lawful to be shed, he does not inherit not is inheritance taken from him.” Because he is a Murtad (apostate), so therefore his blood is lawful to be shed because that which renders a person’s blood secure is Islaam whereas the Kaafir; his blood is lawful.

His saying, “Because he says (the Jahmee; the follower of Al-Jahm ibn Safwaan) that, “There is no Jum`ah prayer and there is no Jamaa`ah (congregational) prayer,” because Al-Jahm denied the Jum`ah prayer and he denied the congregational prayer. All that is sufficient in his view is al-ma`rifatu billaah (a person has awareness of Allaah). So eemaan (true faith) with him is just al-ma`rifah (awareness). So if a person is aware of his Lord in his heart then he becomes a believer; mu·min who is perfect in his eemaan even if he doesn’t pray, even if he doesn’t fast, even if he doesn’t do anything from the acts of worship at all.

His saying, “And he said that, “There are no `Eid prayers and no Sadaqah (charity). Because he held that deeds are not a part of eemaan (true faith) nor its utterance upon the tongue nor is belief either. Rather, eemaan (true faith) in his view is near ma`rifah (awareness).

His saying, “And they said, “Whoever does not say that the Qur·aan is something created then he is a disbeliever.” The Jahmiyyah said, “Whoever doesn’t say that the Qur·aan is created and rather says that the Qur·aan is the speech of Allaah then he is a kaafir (disbeliever) because he has caused Allaah to resemble His creation and Tashbeeh (declaring resemblance to the creation) is kuffar (disbelief).”

Point Number 101 Continued

And they permitted use of the sword against the nation of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam! And they contradicted those who came before them, they put the people to trial with something which neither Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam nor anyone from his companions spoke with. They sought for the emptying and abandonment of the mosques and the congregations.

His saying, “And they held as lawful the use of the sword against the nation of Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam!” They permitted killing the Muslims; those who disagreed with them in `aqeedah (creed and belief). And therefore when they gained authority in the time of Al-Ma·moon, what did they do to the Muslims? They killed those of the scholars whom they killed and they tortured those who they tortured in order to try and force them to hold the saying that was the position of the Jahmiyyah.

His saying, “And they contradicted whoever came before them,” from the Muslims. So these sayings did not appear except from them.

His saying, “they put the people to trial with something which Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam did not speak with.” They wanted to force the people to accept their saying as occurred in the time of Al-Ma·moon and those who came after him when they tried to force the people to accept the saying that the Qur·aan is created.

His saying, “And they wanted to empty out the mosques and the congregations. Because their position with regard to eemaan (true faith) is that it is merely awareness, even if the person does not do any action, even if he does not speak with his tongue, even if he does not hold belief in his heart. So therefore, there would be no need for the mosques and the congregations because the prayer is not obligatory in their view.

Point Number 101 Continued

And they weakened Islaam, caused Jihaad to be left and busied themselves with causing separation, they contradicted the narrations and they spoke with that which had been abrogated, they utilised unclear text as proof and they caused the people to have doubts about their religion. And they disputed regarding their Lord and they said: “There is no punishment in the graves nor any great reservoir; al-Hawd nor any intercession; shafaa`ah; and that Paradise and the Fire have not yet been created.” And they denied much of that which Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said. So therefore, those who permitted that they be declared disbelievers declared that their blood may be lawfully shed from this aspect. Since whoever rejects a single aayah from the Book of Allaah then he has rejected the whole of the Book and whoever rejects a single hadeeth from Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam then he has rejected all of the narrations. And he is a disbeliever in Allaah, the Sublime.

The Explanation:

His saying, “And they caused weakness in Islaam,” meaning, the Jahmiyyah weakened Islaam.

His saying, “and they caused Jihaad to be left,” they left off Jihaad in the cause of Allaah because they do not hold that disbelievers are to be declared disbelievers because they have awareness of Allaah. And this means that Fir`awn was a Muslim then because he had awareness of Allaah in his heart. He, the Most High said:

And in the context of what Musa `alayhissalaam said to Fir`awn when he went to call him to the truth that he said to him: “You indeed know that no-one has sent these signs except the Lord of the heavens and the earth…” (Sooratul-Israa· (17), aayah 102)

So he had awareness of Allaah in his heart. And the people of shirk; the mushrikoon in the time of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam; they had awareness of Allaah in their hearts. Indeed they used to worship Him with different types of acts of worship so they believed that Allaah – the Perfect – is the Lord and that He deserves worship. However, they associated others in worship along with Him claiming that those others besides Him will draw them closer to Allaah, the Perfect and Most High.

His saying, “and they contradicted the narrations,” meaning they contradicted the evidences and the Sunnah.

His saying, “and they spoke with the abrogated texts,” they took a hold of evidences that had been abrogated and they do not act upon the text which abrogates in order to misguide just as Allaah, the Majestic and Most High said:

…So as for those in whose hearts there is deviation then they follow that which is unclear from it… (Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 7)

And from the Mutashaabih, from that which is unclear on its own is the Mansookh, those texts that have been abrogated because it is necessary for the person to have awareness of the Naasikh and the Mansookh (the text which abrogates and the earlier text which was abrogated). And also al-mutlaq w`al muqayyad (to have awareness of the unrestricted text and the restricted texts) and the khaas and the `aam (the text which has been specified and the general text). He must have awareness of the branches of knowledge for the derivation of evidences. So, he does not use as evidence just any text, which he finds without seeing whether it is something abrogated or whether it is something which has been made specific by something or whether it is something which has been restricted by something; not examining this on account of deviation and in order to misguide the people. And they say that: “We use the Qur·aan as proof.” But they are not actually using the Qur·aan as proof. The Qur·aan is used as proof by those who accept all of it. But as for one who takes just a part of it and leaves the other parts then he is a disbeliever in it. He, the Most High said:

…Do you believe in a part of the Book and disbelieve in other parts?… (Sooratul Baqarah (2), aayah 85)

So a person who does not gather between the Muhkam and Mutashaabih (clear and clarifying texts along with the texts, which are unclear) combine the two then this one is taking a part of the Book and leaving a part. And therefore, He said:

…Whereas those firmly grounded in knowledge they say: “We believe in it, all of it.” … (Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 7)

They say: “Kullun” (All of it); meaning the Muhkam (those texts which are clear and clarified) and the Mutashaabih (that which is not immediately clear with regard to its meaning).

…They say: “All of it is from our Lord”… (Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 7)

So, therefore, they refer the Mutashaabih (those texts, which are unclear) to the Muhkam (to that text, which is clear and clarifies it) so therefore, it explains it and clarifies it. However, this requires a scholar; `aalim. It is not permissible for a pretender to knowledge to enter into it or a person who is a deviant intending to misguide. So, the Mutashaabih (the text, which is unclear) will not be taken hold of except by 1 of 2 kinds of men; either one who is zaa·igh (deviant) and intends to misguide like the Jahmiyyah. And therefore, Imaam Ahmad said about them: “They use as evidence that which is unclear from the Qur·aan.”[1]

Then the second type of person who uses the Mutashaabih (those aayahs, which are not on their own clear with regard to their meaning) or otherwise a Muta`aalim (a false pretender to knowledge who doesn’t realise and speaks about Allaah without knowledge.[2]

His saying, “and they used unclear texts as proof,” and therefore, Imaam Ahmad refuted them in his book ar-Radd `alal-Jahmiyyah. He brought the texts which they use as evidence, and he refuted their opinion about them, and he made clear the correct understanding of those texts and he harmonised between the aayahs and ahaadeeth.

His saying, “so they caused the people to have doubts about their religion.” So there is no doubt that this is confusion in thoughts and ideas. So, it is not permissible to speak about matters of knowledge and especially matters of `aqaa·id (creed and beliefs) except one who firmly grounded in knowledge. It’s not permissible for them to be spoken about by half students or by false claimants to knowledge not to mention by people of deviation and misguidance.

His saying, “And they disputed concerning their Lord,” they innovated al-jadal (newly brought about argumentation, religious debating). He, the Most High said:

No-one disputes about the signs (aayaat) of Allaah except for those who disbelieve. So do not let their travelling about upon the land deceive you. (Soorah Ghaafir (40), aayah 4)

The believer does not dispute about the aayaat of Allaah. Rather, he accepts them and he believes, he holds as his belief that they are the speech of Allaah and that they are good and guidance. But as for the person who just withholds about them and raises doubts then this is one who disputes about the speech of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

His saying, “and they said there is no punishment of the grave,” This fully confirms with their madhhab because in their view whoever has awareness of Allaah then he is a believer of it and it is not necessary that he has to pray and fast and perform Hajj and perform `Umrah nor carry out the deeds. And based upon this there will be no punishment in the grave because all of mankind have awareness of Allaah and therefore, there is no sin and obedience so those who are in the graves all have awareness of Allaah. So therefore, they will not be punished.

His saying, “and they said there is no Hawd (Great Reservoir) nor any shafaa`ah (intercession),” All of the affairs of the hidden and the unseen; ghaib, they denied them because they place reliance upon their intellects alone.

His saying, “and they said the Paradise and the Fire have not yet been created.” Meaning the Jahmiyyah said the Paradise and the Fire have not yet been created despite the fact that Allaah has informed that they are already created. He, the Most High said with regard to Paradise:

Paradise has already been prepared for the Muttaqeen (People of Taqwa; those who are dutiful to Allaah). (Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 133)

Aw-Iddat (already prepared); it shows that it’s already been prepared and is present and He said with regard to the Fire:

It has already been prepared for the disbelievers. (Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 131)

And also, the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam informed that the severe heat in the summer is from the breathing out of the Hellfire and this indicates that it is present.

And likewise, the fire has 2 breaths; a breathing in, in the winter and that is the severest cold that you find and it has a breath (breathing out) in the summer time and that is the severest heat that you find. The saying of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam that:

“The severest summer heat is from the breathing out of the Hellfire.”[3]

His saying, “And they denied much of that which was said by Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam.” They denied much of that which occurs in the Book and the Sunnah because it contradicts their opinion and what they believe.

His saying, “So those who held it lawful to declare them as disbelievers declared their blood lawful to shed from this aspect.” Those of the Ahlus-Sunnah W`al Jamaa`ah who declared them to be disbelievers; that he declared them to be disbelievers on account of all of these filthy sayings gathered because they result in there not being any religion left.

His saying, “Because whoever rejects a single aayah from the Book of Allaah then he has rejected the whole of the Book,” As has preceded that whoever takes as proof part of the Qur·aan; believes in other parts so regarding some he tends to cling onto it then he has believed only in a part of the Book and he has left the other part. So a person who uses as proof that which is unclear (the Mutashaabih) and leaves aside the Muhkam (that which is clear and clarified) then he is from those who believe in a part of the Book and reject other parts.

His saying, “and whoever rejects a hadeeth from Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam then he has rejected all of the narrations.” Likewise, the Sunnah contains that which is Muhkam (clear and clarified) and it contains that which is Mutashaabih (that which on its own is unclear). So whoever takes that which is unclear from the Sunnah and leaves off the Muhkam (that which is clear and clarified) then he has rejected all of the Sunnah.

His saying, “And he is a disbeliever in Allaah, the Sublime.” This is the result and Allaah’s refuge is sought because the one who truly believes in Allaah says:

The true believer says, “We have eemaan in all of it, we believe in it. All of it is from our Lord.” (Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 7)

As for the person of deviation then he takes that which is Mutashaabih (unclear) because it is more fitting for his purpose. And as for the Muhkam (that which is clear, clarifies) then it does not suit his purpose so he leaves it. This is the way of people of the desires, the way of the deviated sects always and it is not specific to the Jahmiyyah. However, its origin was from the Jahmiyyah. However, the people of the deviated sects, all of them in every time, this is their way. They take hold of those proofs, only the ones that will conform to their desires and they leave whatever conflicts with their desires. [4]

Footnotes:

[1] Ar-Rad`alaa azzanaadiqah w`al-Jahmiyyah (Imaam Ahmad’s refutation of the Zindeeqs and the Jahmiyyah).

[2] Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said, `His saying, “they spoke with that which has been abrogated,” what he intended was that they deny abrogation; the Jahmiyyah deny naskh (deny that there is abrogation). So, the Jahmiyyah and the Mu`tazilah and the Raafidah and before them the Jews denied there being any abrogation and they said; “Abrogation does not occur, neither in the Qur·aan nor in the Sunnah and the Salaf have refuted them.`

[3] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (reference should be hadeeth no. 533/534) from Aboo Hurayrah and Ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhum and also reported by Muslim (615) from Aboo Hurayrah and likewise by Muslim (2209) from Ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhumaa.

[4] Translator’s side point: A point that’s brought by some of the explainers, they mention Ibn al-Qayyim with regard to the declaration of the Jahmiyyah; the disbelievers, Imaam ibn al-Qayyim said in his famous poem; An-Nooniyyah that the Jahmiyyah were declared to be disbelievers by 500 scholars.

Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said on this point with regard to the Jahmiyyah is a disbeliever; “this saying where the author mentioned at great length then in summary it is that he passed the judgement that the Jahmiyyah are disbelievers and there is no doubt of the disbelief of the first Jahmiyyah; those who founded it, the initial Jahmiyyah but as for the second (later Jahmiyyah) who had developed into the saying of the Mu`tazilah then those people no-one from the Salaf declared them to be disbelievers. So the speech of the author is not to be taken unrestrictedly. And then he intended here that the affair itself is disbelief. So as for one who is upon it; a particular individual then he is to be examined. Have the conditions meaning declaring him to be kaafir been fulfilled and have any preventing factors been removed or not? So if the conditions for him to be declared a disbeliever are present and any preventing factor is absent then the judgement will be passed upon anyone who denies anything that the author has already mentioned here or who rejects anything from the texts, he will be judged to be a disbeliever if the proof is established upon him; conditions for declaring him so are present and preventing factors are absent.” And then he mentioned the issue with regard to the individual as well-that detail is necessary, Allaahu A`lam.


Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

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