Attributes and Characteristics of Khawaarij – Aadil bin ‘Alee Al-Furaydaan

Posted from the al-ibaanah e-Book : Selected Examples from the Characteristics of the Extremist Khawaarij – Aadil bin ‘Alee Al-Furaydaan [This book reviewed and examined by Shaikh Saalih bin Fawzaan Al-Fawzaan and Shaikh Muhammad bin ‘Abdir-Rahmaan Al-Khumayyis]

Their Attributes and Characteristics

The First Characteristic: They are young in age. [Al-Bukhaaree (no. 5057) from the hadeeth of ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

The Second Characteristic: They have foolish minds – i.e. intellects. [Al-Bukhaaree (no. 5057) from the hadeeth of ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

The Third Characteristic: They speak with the best speech amongst creation. [Al- Bukhaaree (no. 5057) from the hadeeth of ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

The Fourth Characteristic: Their Eemaan does not go past their throats. [Al- Bukhaaree (no. 5057) from the hadeeth of ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

The Fifth Characteristic: They come out from the Religion just as an arrow comes out from the hunted game. Then they do not return back to it. [Muslim (no. 2496) from the hadeeth of Abu Dharr (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

And in one narration: “They shoot out from the Religion just as an arrow shoots out from the hunted game.” [Al-Bukhaaree (no. 5058) from the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudree (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

In another report it states: “They shoot out from Islaam…” [Al-Bukhaaree (no. 5057) from the hadeeth of ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

The Sixth Characteristic: They have a weakness when it comes to understanding the Religion of Allaah. This is why it has been reported that “They recite the Qur’aan but it does not surpass…” [Muslim (no. 2456)] “…or go past their throats.” [Al- Bukhaaree (no. 5058) from the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudree (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

In one narration, it states: “…their pharynxes (hulooq).” [Muslim (no. 2455) from the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudree (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

In another narration, it states: “…their pharynxes {halaaqeehim).” [Muslim (no. 2469) from Abu Dharr (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

In another narration, it states: “…their collar bones (taraaqeehim).” [Al-Bukhaaree (no. 6934) from Sahl bin Haneef (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

In another narration, it states: “They will make their tongues eloquent with the Qur’aan.” [As-Sunnah of Ibn Abee ‘Aasim (no. 937) from Abu Bakrah (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

In another narration, it states: “They will recite the Qur’aan with their tongues but it will not go past their collar bones.” [Muslim (no. 2470) from Sahl bin Haneef (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

In another narration: “They will hold it (i.e. the recitation) to be for them, when it is against them.” [As-Sunnah of Ibn Abee ‘Aasim (no. 916) from ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

In another narration, it states: “They will think…” instead of “They will hold…” [Muslim (no. 2467) from the hadeeth of ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

In one narration, he صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “They will call to the Book of Allaah, but they will have nothing to do with Allaah.” [As-Sunnah of Ibn Abee ‘Aasim (no. 941) from Abu Zaid Al-Ansaaree (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

In another narration of the hadeeth, the Khawaarij and what they undergo when reciting the Qur’aan was mentioned to Ibn ‘Abbaas (radhi Allaahu anhu), so he said: “They are not as extreme in their striving as the Jews and the Christians were, but yet they went astray.” [Ash- Sharee’ah (pg. 27-28)]

And in another narration, Ibn ‘Abbaas said: “They believe in His clear verses, but go astray concerning His unclear verses 10 – No one knows their hidden meanings except Allaah. And as for those firmly rooted in knowledge, they say: ‘We believe in it.'”

And he said: “They are in a confused and drunken state. They are neither Jews nor Christians nor Magians, so that they may be excused.” [Ash-Sharee’ah (pg. 28)]

The Seventh Characteristic: They are excessive in performing acts of worship, as occurs in the hadeeth in which the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم spoke to his Companions about them, saying: “Your prayer is nothing as compared to their prayer. Your fasting is nothing as compared to their fasting. And your reciting the Qur’aan is nothing as compared to their reciting.” [Muslim (no. 2467) from the hadeeth of ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

In one narration of this hadeeth, it states: “You will look down at your prayer as compared to their prayer…” [Muslim (no. 2455) from Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudree (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

And in another narration: “…(and you will look down) at your deeds as compared to their deeds.” [Sharh Usool ‘Itiqaad Ahlis-Sunnah (8/1231)]

The Eighth Characteristic: They are the worst of creation and creatures. [Muslim (no. 2469) from the hadeeth of Abu Dharr (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

Abu ‘Abdillaah Ahmad bin Hanbal (rahimahullaah) said: “The Khawaarij are an evil people. I don’t know of any people on the earth that are worse than them.” [As-Sunnah of Abu Bakr Al-Khallaal (no. 110)]

The Ninth Characteristic: Their distinguishing attribute is that they shave their heads. [Muslim (no. 2457) from the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudree 4]

In another narration of the hadeeth, it states: “At-Tasbeet.” [Muslim (no. 4765) from Anas bin Maalik radhi Allaahu anhu ]

Tasbeet means: Removing the short hair.

The Tenth Characteristic: They will kill the people of Faith and leave alone the worshippers of idols.

In one narration, it states: “They will kill the people of Islaam…” [Muslim (no. 2451) from the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudree (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

The Eleventh Characteristic: They will become so deeply absorbed (i.e. ta’ammuq) in the Religion [11] to the point that they will leave from it. [As-Sunnah of Ibn Abee ‘Aasim (no. 930) from ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Amr (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

The Twelfth Characteristic: They disparage their rulers and claim them to be upon misguidance, as ‘Abdullaah bin Dhil-Khuwaisrah did with the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم.

The Thirteenth Characteristic: They call the people to the Book of Allaah but have nothing to do with it. [12] [Abu Dawood (no. 4765) from the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed Al- Khudree (radhi Allaahu anhu) and Anas bin Maalik (radhi Allaahu anhu)

The Fourteenth Characteristic: They do not believe that the people of knowledge and virtue hold a special position. This was why they perceived that they were more knowledgeable than ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib, Ibn ‘Abbaas and the rest of the Companions, may Allaah be pleased with all of them. [Al-Khawaarij Awwalul-Firaq fee Taareekh-il- Islaam (pg. 38)]

What is meant by ta’ammuq is: Relying and using as proof that which the religious texts do not substantiate.

The Fifteenth Characteristic: They go to extremes in worship. So they perform acts of worship to the extent that those who see them become amazed with them and they become amazed with themselves. 13 [As-Sunnah of Ibn Abee ‘Aasim (no. 945) from the hadeeth of Anas bin Maalik (radhi Allaahu anhu)]

Ibn ‘Abbaas (radhi Allaahu anhu) said: “And I have not seen a people that are stricter in their exertion (of worship) than them. Their hands are like the calluses of camels and their foreheads are marked due to the traces of prostration.” [Majma’-uz-Zawaa’id (6/240)]

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Origins of Khawaarij – Aadil bin ‘Alee Al-Furaydaan

The Following is posted from the E-Book : “Selected Examples from the Characteristics of the Extremist Khawaarij” – by Aadil bin ‘Alee Al-Furaydaan ,Read and Reviewed by The Noble Scholars Saalih Al-Fawzaan & Muhammad Al-Khumayyis

The Definition of the Khawaarij and a Warning against Them:

The word Khawaarij is the plural of Khaarijee, and that refers to a person that removes himself from the obedience of the true ruler, outwardly proclaims opposition to him and incites the people against him.

The Guideline for Identifying a Khaarijee: [2]

If someone

(1) outwardly proclaims rebellion against the Muslim rulers or

(2) holds Muslims to be disbelievers due to major sins, apart from Shirk, or

(3) justifies the views of the Khawaarij and considers it permissible to shed the blood of Muslims in the name of Jihaad in the Way of Allaah and in the name of changing an evil,

then these are all factors for identifying the Khawaarij.

Their Origin:

After the martyrdom of the Muslim Khaleefah, ‘Umar bin Al-Khattaab رضي الله عنه, the door to fitnah was broken, as is mentioned in the hadeeth. Then with the murder of the third Khaleefah, ‘Uthmaan bin ‘Affaan رضي الله عنه in 35H, due to a conspiracy from Ibn Saba’ and those who were deluded by him, the fitnah (strife) was re-established – and we continue to see its evil effects up to this very day of ours.

Naturally, ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib رضي الله عنه was given the oath of allegiance as the next Khaleefah after him, and so most of the Muslims gave their pledge of allegiance to him. However, Mu’aawiyah رضي الله عنه and those who were with him from the inhabitants of Syria did not give in to that, citing the reason for that as being the obligation of quickly bringing to justice those responsible for the murder of ‘Uthmaan bin ‘Affaan رضي الله عنه. ‘Alee would tell Mu’aawiyah: “Enter into that which the people have entered into (of allegiance). And leave me to judge them. I will judge them with the truth.”

Furthermore, ‘Aa’ishah, Talhah and Az-Zubair رضي الله عنه set out for Basrah upset and seeking justice for the blood of ‘Uthmaan رضي الله عنه.

‘Alee رضي الله عنه tried to convince ‘Aa’ishah, Talhah and Az-Zubair of the pressing importance of first declaring allegiance to the ruler and then to seek retribution for the murder of ‘Uthmaan رضي الله عنه. The matter finally became resolved in their mutual agreement to that. However, on the following day, the callers to mischief mobilized their forces and began skirmishes and clashes on both sides. So the peace-makers from both groups thought that the other group had deceived the other, and fighting broke out. The battle that ensued, which later came to be known as the Battle of the Camel, ended with the death of Talhah, Az-Zubair and ten-thousand members from each group.

After this, ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib رضي الله عنه set out to fight against Mu’aawiyah رضي الله عنه and the inhabitants of Syria. This is since he had called them to give the allegiance, however, Mu’aawiyah رضي الله عنه refused to give it, claiming that they must first avenge the murder of ‘Uthmaan رضي الله عنه. ‘Alee took this action of Mu’aawiyah as a rebellion against the religious rulership. So there occurred (between the army of the two of them) the battle of Siffeen. When ‘Alee and those with him were close to achieving victory, the army of Mu’aawiyah placed copies of the mus-haf high over the tips of their spears and appealed to the Book of Allaah for judgement…’Alee considered this to be a trick on their part, but he was coerced to accept the decision (for peace between the two fighting parties) on the part of some members of his army, especially the Qur’aanic reciters, out of their concern for the Religion.

On the heels of this legislative decision (between the two factions), there appeared amongst the ranks of ‘Alee’s army some who opposed this decision. This opposition eventually ended up in their disobedience to the ruler and their rebelling against him. Rather, it even led them to declare ‘Alee رضي الله عنه a disbeliever as well as anyone that agreed with his decision. And they raised high their slogan: “There is no rule except for that of Allaah’s.”

‘Alee رضي الله عنه tried to reconcile with them by presenting them with arguments and proofs, and some of them returned back due to Ibn ‘Abbaas رضي الله عنه debating with them. So when the advice was not accepted by the remaining individuals that persisted in their rejection and fanaticism, ‘Alee mobilized against them and fought them. [4] This was known as the battle of Nahrawaan. ‘Alee رضي الله عنه was able to annihilate all of them except for a small portion among them that escaped to other lands.

After ‘Alee was murdered at the hands of some members from the Khawaarij, the danger of the Khawaarij increased. The scattered remnants of their army joined forces and spread their poison to the youth of the ummah to the point that they took on the shape of a force within the Islamic state that threatened its security and the security of the unified body of Muslims.

This group did not cease attacking the Muslims from that time until now, as the Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم informed us. And they give themselves misleading names, when in reality they are just extensions of the first Khawaarij.

In this current time, there have appeared many groups [5] that have adopted the ways and methods of the Khawaarij, and they have accepted many of their ideas and principles. [6]

Footnotes:

[2] This is one of the beneficial additions from Shaikh Saalih bin Fawzaan Al-Fawzaan.
[4] So ‘Alee رضي الله عنه did not fight them first, rather, it was only until they first shed innocent blood and commenced fighting with him.
[5] Such as the Jamaa’at at-Takfeer wal-Hijrah, the Jamaa’ah Tawaqquf wa Tabayyun and other groups.
[6] Such as deeming it permissible to shed unlawful blood and take unlawful wealth under the pretense of Takfeer. This refers to the rebellious and military groups..

Selected Examples from the Characteristics of the Extremist Khawaarij – Aadil bin ‘Alee Al-Furaydaan

About the Book: 

This is a complete translation of the small booklet “Al-Masaa’il-ul-Muntaqaat min Sifaat al-Khawaarij-ul-Ghulaat” [Selected Examples from the Characteristics of the Extremist Khawaarij] compiled and prepared by a student of knowledge, ‘Aadil bin ‘Alee Al-Furaydaan, and reviewed and examined by Shaikh Saalih bin Fawzaan Al-Fawzaan and Shaikh Muhammad bin ‘Abdir-Rahmaan Al-Khumayyis.

In this treatise, the author briefly touches upon the definition, history, and characteristics of the Khawaarij, one of the first and most dangerous sects in Islamic history whose effects and ideologies continue to exist up to today and will remain until the Final Hour. The majority of the treatise is dedicated to outlining the major and distinguishing attributes of the Khawaarij, which the author counts at 58.

It is important to study and be aware of these attributes so that one may avoid characterizing himself with them and thus fall into the ranks of the Khawaarij. This is from the perspective of learning evil in order to avoid it. And it is also beneficial since today, the ways and ideologies of the Khawaarij are prevalent, as can be seen in terrorist acts, suicide missions, assassinations and political strife. So by understanding the characteristics of the Khawaarij, the reader will be able to identify the perpetrators of such crimes, acknowledge their remoteness from Islaam and the fact that they are indeed from the extremist Khawaarij.

Excerpts from the Book: 

“The word Khawaarij is the plural of Khaarijee, and that refers to a person that removes himself from the obedience of the true ruler, outwardly proclaims opposition to him and incites the people against him.”

“If someone (1) outwardly proclaims rebellion against the Muslim rulers or (2) holds Muslims to be disbelievers due to major sins, apart from Shirk, or (3) justifies the views of the Khawaarij and considers it permissible to shed the blood of Muslims in the name of Jihaad in the Way of Allaah and in the name of changing an evil, then these are all factors for identifying the Khawaarij.”

“‘Alee tried to convince ‘Aa’ishah, Talhah and Az-Zubair of the pressing importance of first declaring allegiance to the ruler and then to seek retribution for the murder of ‘Uthmaan. The matter finally became resolved in their mutual agreement to that. However, on the following day, the callers to mischief mobilized their forces and began skirmishes and clashes on both sides. So the peace-makers from both groups thought that the other group had deceived the other, and fighting broke out. The battle that ensued, which later came to be known as the Battle of the Camel, ended with the death of Talhah, Az-Zubair and ten-thousand members from each group.”

The Fifteenth Characteristic: They go to extremes in worship. So they perform acts of worship to the extent that those who see them become amazed with them and they become amazed with themselves. [As-Sunnah of Ibn Abee ‘Aasim (no. 945) from the hadeeth of Anas bin Maalik] Ibn ‘Abbaas said: ‘And I have not seen a people that are stricter in their exertion (of worship) than them. Their hands are like the calluses of camels and their foreheads are marked due to the traces of prostration.’ [Majma’-uz-Zawaa’id (6/240)]”

[Download the PDF eBook Here]

The Following short articles are extracted from this eBook:

Origins of Khawaarij – Aadil bin ‘Alee Al-Furaydaan

Attributes and Characteristics of Khawaarij – Aadil bin ‘Alee Al-Furaydaan