Allaah (تعالى ) said: “I Have Forbidden Oppression” – Explained by Shaykh Uthaymeen

Title: “I Have Forbidden Oppression”
شرح األربعني النبوييه :Title Original
Author: Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn

The Ḥadīth

Abū Dharr al-Ghifārī (رضي الله عنه) reported that the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم) narrated that his lord said:

“Oh my servants, I have forbidden oppression even for myself, and I have made it forbidden among you as well, so do not oppress one another.”

The Explanation

Allah says, “Oh my servants, I have made oppression forbidden even for myself,” and He (Azza wa Jal) may make something forbidden upon himself because the decision is His. As for us, we make nothing forbidden for Him, but He may forbid something upon Himself as he wishes just as He may obligate and decree something upon Himself.

Read the statement of Allah (تعالى ) :

Say, “To who belongs whatever is in the heavens and earth?” Say, “To Allah.” He has decreed upon himself mercy.[4]

And he pledged upon himself:

“My mercy surpasses my anger.” [5]

Allah has also made oppression forbidden among us as he says, “And I have made it forbidden among you as well.” This includes a person oppressing himself or others. However, the second meaning is more apparent as he then says, “So do not oppress one another.” Meaning: None of you may oppress another individual. Still, it is known that oppression may occur against oneself or against another;

Allah says:

“And we did not oppress them, but they oppressed themselves.” [6]

The Arabic word for oppression, ظُلْم ẓulm, often revolves around failing to give someone else his or her rights or it could linguistically mean “shortcomings” as in the following verse as Allah says:

“Each of the two gardens produced its fruit and did not fall short thereof in anything.”[7]

This understanding of oppression—failing to give others their rights—is of two types: 1) refusing to fulfill an obligation to another person, and 2) unlawfully forcing another person to do something which he should not have to do.

An example of the first type would be if you were to refuse to repay a debt to someone or to even postpone payment based on the prophet’s statement (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) :

“A rich person’s (one with means to repay) postponement (of repaying) is oppression.” [8]

And an example of the second type would be if you claimed someone owed you something and you deceitfully produced evidence of the claim so that the individual was forced to pay – this is oppression.

Question: By Allah’s command, “So do not oppress one another,” is there any exception to this order?

Answer: No, oppression is forbidden under all circumstances, no exceptions.

Question: Is it permissible for us to take the wealth or possessions of the Muā’had? [9]

Answer: No, it is neither permissible for us to take the wealth and possessions of those with whom we have an understood agreement of peace, nor is it permissible for us to take their blood. The prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

Whoever murders a Muā’had will not even smell the fragrance of Paradise although its fragrance can be smelled from forty years away. [10]

We ask Allah for his help.

By this, we know the extent of the aggression, oppression, and utter misguidance of those arrogant individuals who hostilely transgress in taking the wealth and possessions of Muā’had unbelievers regardless of whether they are non-Muslims living peacefully with you in your land or if you were in their lands. We hear of some youths in non-Muslim lands claiming there is nothing wrong with taking wealth or ruining the possessions of disbelievers. You find them breaking street lights, destroying shops, and smashing cars. This is impermissible in Islam. Glorified is Allah! A nation of people accepts you as guests into their lands, you are under their authority and their agreement of trust and yet you betray them. This is the severest form of misrepresenting and dishonoring Islam; it is slandering and disgracing Islam.

But the dishonor and disgrace is not actually against Islam. Rather it is against those individuals themselves – those who claim ascription to Islam. For that, it is incumbent to know that the wealth of non-Muslims under a trust or agreement of peace is sacred regardless of whether they are living peacefully among you or you with them in their lands. It is forbidden to show aggression and hostility against them because that is oppression.

Footnotes:

[1]This article is taken from selected parts of Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn’s explanation of ḥadīth twenty-four of the famous forty-two ḥadīth collection by Imām an-Nawawī known as “al-‘Arba’īn al-Nawawī” or “Nawawī’s Forty (Ḥadīth).”

[2] This ḥadīth is actually much longer but only this portion is explained herein for brevity and for the article’s focus on the topic of oppression.

[3] Recorded by Muslim (no. 2577), Aḥmad (5/153, 160, 177), al-Tirmidhī (no. 2495), and Ibn Mājah (no. 4257).

[4] The Quran, Sūrah al-An’ām, 6:12.

[5] This is a ḥadīth qudsī recorded by Muslim, al-Bukhārī, al-Nasāī, and Ibn Mājah. In the text of Muslim, the prophet (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم )said :

When Allah created the creation, He pledged upon Himself in his book which is with him over his throne, “My mercy certainly overcomes my anger.”

[6] The Quran, Sūrah Hūd, 11:101.

[7] The Quran, Sūrah al-Kahf, 18:33.

[8] Recorded by al-Bukhārī (no. 2166) and Muslim (no. 1564).

[9] Translator’s Note: Muā’had refers to non-Muslims with whom Muslims have a stated or understood agreement of peace. This may be in the form of official documents (such as entry visas into one another’s countries) or the lack of any official, government-sponsored declaration of war. Thus, the actions of today’s Muslim terrorists, as they declare whole groups or nations of non-Muslims as enemy combatants as they see fit, are neither Islamic nor are they in conjunction with the ḥadīth above (and many other Islamic texts), and Allah knows best.

[10] Recorded by al-Bukhārī (no. 3166).

Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison hafidhahullaah

Posted from Original PDF:
http://authentic-translations.com/trans-pub/ae_misau_12.pdf

Whoever Spends Something Today Will Benefit From It Tomorrow – Nice Story

Thus whoever spends something today will benefit from it tomorrow and whoever does not spend will come to find nothing, and he will have a great loss in the house of dwelling (in the Hereafter).

Some of the Salaf said,

O son of Adam, you will only live on the Day of Judgment in what you have built, and you will find on that day what possessions you have prepared in your life.”

A women entered upon ‘A’ishah (radiy Allaahu anha), and her hand was paralysed. She said, “O mother of the Believers, I went to sleep yesterday and my hand was healthy, and I woke up and it was paralysed. ‘A’ishah said, “How is that?” She said, “I had wealthy parents, and my Father used to pay zakat, host guests, and give to beggars, and he did not see any good except that he would do it. As for my mother, she was stingy, and did nothing good with my Father’s wealth. Then my Father died, and my mother died only two months after him. So I saw my Father in a dream last night, and he was wearing two yellow garments and in front of him was a flowing river. I said, “Father, what is this?’ He said, “Whoever does good in this life will see it, this is what Allah has given me.” I said, “What has happened to my mother?” He asked, “Your Mother dies?” I said, “Yes”

He said, “She has been turned away from me, so look for her on your left” So I turned to my left, and I saw my mother standing naked, covering her lower half with a rag and in her hand was a piece of fat. She was calling out, “My sadness, my thirst’ When she became tired she would rub the fat with her hand and then lick it, while in front of her was a flowing river. I said, ‘O mother, why are you crying out of thirst, and there is a flowing river in front of you?’ She said, ‘I am not allowed to drink from it.’ I said, Can I give you some of the water?’ She said, ‘I wish you would do that.’ So I filled my hand with water and let her drink, and when she swallowed it I heard a voice on my right, ‘Whoever has given this woman water, may his hand be paralysed,’ and they repeated it twice. Then I awoke and my hand was paralysed, and I am not able to do anything with it. ‘A’ishah asked: ‘Did you recognise the rag she was wearing?’ I said, ‘Yes, O Mother of the Believers, it was exactly the same one I saw her wearing, for I had never seen my mother give anything as charity, except that one day my Father slaughtered a bull. So a beggar came to ask for some, so my mother gave him a bone that had some fat on it. And I saw one day that a beggar asked her for charity, so she gave him that exact rag.’

A’ishah (radiy Allaahu anha) said, Allah is the Most Great! Allah has told the truth, and the Messenger has delivered the message.

فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ
وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ

“So whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it,
And whoever does an atom’s weight of evil will see it”

[al-Azalzalah (99): 7-8]

This was nararted by Hafiz Abu Musa al-Madani with a good isnad.[21]

Footnotes:

[21] Hakim in his al-Mustadrak, (4/471) and by Ibn Abi al-Dunya in his ‘Kitab al-Mujabi al-Du’a,(p.74-75). Ibn Rajab also authenticated it.

Source: Transcribed by AbdurRahman.org from the  Book – “The Three that follow to the Grave” (pg 29-30) – Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Dar as-Sunnah Publishers, Birmingham, UK.

Story of the guest of the Messenger of Allah صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم

 

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:

A man came to the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) and said; “I am hard pressed by hunger. He (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) sent a word to one of his wives who replied: “By Him Who has sent you with the Truth, I have nothing except water.” Then he sent the same message to another (wife) and received the same reply. He sent this message to all of them (i.e., his wives) and received the same reply. Then he (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Who will entertain this (man) as guest?” One of the Ansar said: “O Messenger of Allah, I will.” So he took him home and said to his wife: “Serve the guest of Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam).”

Another narration is: The Ansari asked his wife: “Have you got anything?” She answered: “Nothing, except a little food for the children.” He said: “Keep them busy with something, and when they ask for food put them to sleep. When the guest enters, extinguish the light and give him the impression that we are also eating.” So they sat down and the guest ate and they passed the night hungry. When he came to the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) in the morning, he said to him,Allah admired what you did with your guest last night.

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Allah, the Exalted, says:

“And give them (Emigrants) preference over themselves, even though they were in need of that.”(59:9)

And they give food, in spite of their love for it (or for the love of Him), to the poor, the orphan, and the captive.” (76:8)

Source: Riyad-us-Saliheen English Publication, DarusSalam publishers