Aqeedah Tahawiyyah : Point # 41
وأن محمدًا عبده المصطفى، ونبيه المجتبى، ورسوله المرتضى.
 And that Muhammad is His chosen slave and His selected Prophet and His Messenger whom He is pleased with.
The Explanation – Point  continued 
 Translator’s Side Point: Ibn Al-Qayyim rahimahullaah in his book Jalaa.ul-Afhaam (جلاء الأفهام) made an important point that with regard to the names of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, that just as we have a principle with regard to the Names of Allaah the Most High, that all of Allaah’s Names have along with them an Attribute (contrary to what some of the Mu`tazilah and the Jahmiyyah and their like say); the same point applies to the names of the Prophet Muhammad sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam – his names are not just merely names; all his names are also characteristics found in him.
 Translator’s Side Point: Some of the names of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam are as follows:
- Muhammad (محمد) sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam – the praiseworthy one and also the one who praises abundantly. Amongst the evidences is the aayah,
Muhammad is but a Messenger and many Messengers have passed away before him
(Soorah Aal-`Imraan (3), aayah 144)
And likewise the aayah,
Muhammad is not the father of any of your men
(Sooratul-Ahzaab (33), aayah 40)
And likewise, in Soorah Muhammad (47), aayah 2 and Sooratul-Fath (48), aayah 29 the name Muhammad is mentioned for the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and in many, many ahaadeeth.
- Ahmad (أحمد) – the most praiseworthy one. An evidence for that is one aayah in the Qur.aan, in the saying of `Eesaa `alayhis-salaam when he foretold of the coming of a Prophet that would come after him,
a Messenger bringing glad tidings, who will come after me; his name will be Ahmad
(Sooratus-Saff (61), aayah 6)
- Al-Maahee (الماحي) – the one who eliminates or wipes away; meaning, the one through whom Allaah wipes away unbelief. The evidence for this name is the hadeeth of Jubayr ibn Mut`im radiyAllaahu `anh.
- Al-Haashir (الحاشر) – the first one to be resurrected and the one after whom the rest of the people would be resurrected. The evidence is the same hadeeth of Jubayr ibn Mut`im radiyAllaahu `anh reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim.
- Al-`Aaqib (العاقب) – the last Prophet. The proof being the same hadeeth.
- Al-Muqaffaa (المقفى) or Al-Muqaffee (المقفي) – the one who follows on from the previous Messengers and is the final one of them. The evidence for that is the hadeeth of Aboo Moosaa Al-Ash`aree radiyAllaahu `anh, reported by Muslim.
- Nabeeut-Tawbah (نبي التوبة) – the Prophet of repentance; the one through whom Allaah opened the gate of repentance to His servants. The proof being the same hadeeth of Aboo Moosaa Al-Ash`aree radiyAllaahu `anh.
- Nabeeur-Rahmah (نبي الرحمة) – the Prophet of mercy; the one whom Allaah sent as a mercy to the creation. The evidence is the hadeeth of Aboo Moosaa Al-Ash`aree radiyAllaahu `anh.
- Nabeeul-Malhamah (نبي الملحمة) – the Prophet of slaughter or wars; the one sent to fight against the enemies of Allaah. The evidence of this is the hadeeth of Hudhayfah radiyAllaahu `anh reported by Tirmidhee in his Shil.
- An-Nabeeul-Mustafaa (النبي المصطفى) – the chosen Prophet. The evidence being a hadeeth of `Awf ibn Maalik Al-Ashjaa`ee radiyAllaahu `anh.
Along with these names, some of the scholars mention that Allaah has described the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam with a number of attributes and titles in the Qur.aan. Amongst the titles given to the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam in the Qur.aan are:
- `Abdullaah (عبد الله) – the slave of Allaah
- `abd (عبد) – a slave
- rasool (رسول) – a Messenger
- nabee (نبي) – a Prophet
- ummee (أمي) – unlettered
- shaahid (شاهد) – a witness,
- mubashshir (مبشر) – a bringer of glad tidings
- nadheer (نذير) – a warner and a caller to Allaah by His Permission
- siraajan muneeraa (سراجا منيرا) – a shining lamp
- ra’oofan raheemaa (رؤوفا، رحيما) – compassionate and merciful
- mudhakkiran (مذكّرا) – one who reminded the people of their Lord
- rahmah (رحمة) – a mercy
- ni`mah (نعمة) – a favor
- haadee (هادي) – a guide
These are titles and attributes mentioned in the Qur.aan with regard to the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and other scholars mention many others besides these.
With regard to the ahaadeeth that were evidences for the names, they are:
- The hadeeth of Jubayr ibn Mut`im radiyAllaahu `anh who said, “Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said,
لي خمسة أسماء: أنا محمد، وأحمد، وأنا الماحي الذي يمحو الله بي الكفر، وأنا الحاشر الذي يحشر الناس على قدمي، وأنا العاقب
‘I have five names: I am Muhammad and Ahmad and I am Al-Maahee – the one through whom Allaah wipes away unbelief, and I am Al-Haashir – the one whom the people will be resurrected after me, and I am Al-`Aaqib – the last Prophet.’”
Reported by Al-Bukhaaree as hadeeth 3532 and also by Muslim.
- The hadeeth of Aboo Moosaa Al-Ash`aree radiyAllaahu `anh who said,
كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يسمي لنا نفسه أسماء. فقال: “أنا محمد، وأحمد، والمقفي، والحاشر، ونبي التوبة، ونبي الرحمة”
“Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam used to call himself different names to us. So he said, ‘I am Muhammad and Ahmad and Al-Muqaffee (the one who came at the end of all the Prophets before) and Al-Haashir (the first one to be resurrected) and Nabeeut-tawbah (the Prophet of repentance) and Nabeeur-rahmah (the Prophet of mercy).’”
Reported by Muslim.
- The hadeeth of Hudhayfah radiyAllaahu `anh who said, “I met the Prophet sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on one of the paths of Al-Madeenah; so he said,
أنا محمد وأنا أحمد وأنا نبي الرحمة ونبي التوبة وأنا المقفي وأنا الحاشر ونبي الملاحم
“I am Muhammad and I am Ahmad and I am the Prophet of mercy and the Prophet of repentance and I am the one who comes last after the other Prophets and I am the one who will be resurrected first and the Prophet of wars or slaughter.”
Reported by Tirmidhee in his Shamaa.il and declared Hasan (Good) by Shaykh Al-Albaanee.
- The evidence for the last name, “An-Nabee Al-Mustafaa” (the chosen Prophet) is a slightly longer hadeeth. It is an incident which happened in Al-Madeenah. Shaykh Al-Albaanee declared the hadeeth authentic (Saheeh) in his checking of Ibn Katheer’s Seerah. The hadeeth is reported by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad from `Awf ibn Maalik Al-Ashjaa`ee radiyAllaahu `anh who said,
“The Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam went off one day and I was with him until we entered a church (synagogue) of the Jews in Al-Madeenah on a festival day of theirs and they disliked that we should enter upon them. So he, sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, said to them,
‘O company of Jews, show me twelve men who bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and then Allaah will remove the anger that He has upon them from every Jew beneath the sky.’
So they were silent, none of them answered him.
Then he repeated it to them but none of them answered him. So he said, ‘You have refused. So by Allaah, I am certainly Al-Haashir (the one who will be resurrected first) and I am Al-`Aaqib (the last Prophet), and I am An-Nabeeul-Mustafaa (the chosen Prophet) whether you believe or whether you reject me’.”
The companion said, “Then he departed and I was with him until we had almost gone out (of the church of the Jews) when a man said from behind us, ‘Remain where you are O Muhammad.’ So that man said, ‘O company of Jews, what sort of person do you know me to be amongst you?’
They said, ‘By Allaah, we do not know there to have been any man amongst us who knew the Book of Allaah better than you do, nor anyone having more religious knowledge than you do, nor than your father before you, nor than your grandfather before your father.’
He said, ‘Then I testify in his favor that By Allaah! He is the Prophet of Allaah who you find mentioned in the Tawraat.’
So then they said, ‘You have lied’ and they rebutted his saying and spoke evil of him.
So Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said, ‘You people have lied; your speech will never be accepted. You have just been praising him as you have done with good, but when he believed then you declared him to be a liar and you said about him what you said. So you speech will never be accepted.’”
The companion said, “So the three of us went out – Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, myself and `Abdullaah ibn Salaam (the Jew who just entered into Islaam). No one else from the Jews believed.
And Allaah the Most High sent down concerning him,
Say, “Do you see, if it is indeed from Allaah and you disbelieve in it, when a witness from Banoo Israa.eel witnesses to the like of it and he believes in it, but you people reject haughtily.” Then Allaah does not guide an unbelieving, wrongdoing people.
(Sooratul-Ahqaaf (46), aayah 10)
Shaykh Al-Albaanee said the hadeeth is Saheeh (authentic).
Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah
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