Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 22 : Point 25 (Part B)
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]
(Imaam al-Barbahaaree continued)
Then the most excellent of the people after them were: `Aliyy and Talhah and AzZubayr and Sa`d ibn Abee Waqqaas and Sa`eed ibn Zayd and `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn `Owf and Aboo `Ubaydah `Aamir ibnul-Jarraah. And all of them were suitable to be the khaleefah.
Then the most excellent of the people after them were the rest of the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, the first generation amongst whom he was sent, the first Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar; and they are those who prayed towards the two qiblahs (directions of Prayer).
Meaning the most excellent of the Companions after the three khulafaa are the rest of those ten who were given the glad tidings of Paradise, and they are those whom the author mentioned.
His saying, “All of them were suitable to be the khaleefah” – meaning the people of the shoorah (council) whom `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhu entrusted with choosing the next khaleefah after him. Because `Umar, when he was dying, appointed a council to choose the caliph so that the matter would rest with those who remained. Because each one of them was fitting to be a khaleefah, so he referred the affair to them, and they chose `Uthmaan radiyAllaahu `anhu.
His saying, “The first generation,” from the most excellent generations, and they were the generation in which the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam was sent and they believed in him.
And the word al-as.haab (Companions) is the plural of sahaabiyyun; and a sahaabiyy (a Companion) is whoever met the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam as a believer in him and he died upon that.
• So a person who believed in the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam but he did not meet him, then he is not a Companion such as an-Najjaashiyy  (the King of Abyssinia). He is counted as being from the taabi`een, the Successors.
• As for one who met him but did not believe in him then he is not a Companion because the mushrikeen (people of shirk) and the disbelievers met the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam but they did not believe in him.
• And a person who met him and believed in him but then left Islaam then his Companionship is annulled/rendered null and void if he dies upon apostasy. As for if he repented, then Allaah accepted his repentance and his Companionship is restored.
And therefore al-Haafiz ibn Hajar rahimahullaah, in his book an-Nukhbah , said, in definition of a Companion, “(He is) whoever met the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam whilst believing in him and he died upon that, even if apostasy occurred in between (his meeting the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and his dying), in the correct saying.”  Meaning in the most correct of the two sayings of the scholars. The second saying is that it abolishes his Companionship even if he repents because apostasy renders deeds which are before it null and void.
His saying “The first generation, those amongst whom he was sent amongst the first Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar and they are those who prayed towards the two qiblahs.” The Muhaajiroon (those who emigrated from Makkah) have precedence in mention over the Ansaar, so this shows that the Muhaajiroon have greater excellence through the excellence of performing hijrah (migration) in the cause of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, because they left their homelands and their wealth. And Allaah, the Majestic and Most High, mentions the Muhaajiroon before the Ansaar in many aayahs just as He, the Most High, said:
And the first and foremost ones from the Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar. (Sooratut-Towbah (9), aayah100)
For the poor and needy ones from the Muhaajireen, those who were forced out from their homes and their wealth; they left seeking the bounty from Allaah and His pleasure and they aid the Religion of Allaah and His Messenger. They are the true ones. (Sooratul-Hashr (59), aayah 8)
Up until His saying:
And also those who resided before them in al-Madeenah and believed. (Sooratul-Hashr (59), aayah 9)
Meaning the Ansaar. So He gives precedence to a mention of the Muhaajireen over the Ansaar.
Allaah certainly guided the Prophet and the Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar to turn to Him. (Sooratut-Towbah (9), aayah117)
This shows that the Muhaajiroon have greater excellence than the Ansaar. And Ansaar is the plural of Ansaariyy, and they are believers from (the tribes of) Ows and Khazraj, the people of Madeenah, those who gave the pledge to the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam at al-`Aqabah. He (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) migrated to them and they aided him and supported him and sheltered him and sheltered the Companions radiyAllaahu `anhum along with him. He, the Most High, said with regard to them, the Ansaar:
And those who resided in al-Madeenah before them and believed, they love those who emigrate to them and they do not find in their chests any resentment on account of what they had been given and they give precedence to them over themselves even though they themselves were in need. And whoever is saved from the avarice of his self then they are the successful ones. (Sooratul-Hashr (59), aayah 9)
To begin with they were called al-Ows wal-Khazraj (the tribes of Ows and Khazraj). Then when they gave the pledge to the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam to aid him (nusrah), he called them al-Ansaar (the aiders or the helpers), meaning the aiders of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam.
 Translator’s side point: He lived in the time of the Prophet but he was in a separate land. He heard about the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and he believed in him but he was not able to get to him and meet him.
 Translator’s side point: a book regarding sciences of hadeeth
 Nukhbatul-Fikr with the explanation Mullaa `Aliyy al-Qaaree
Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah
Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah
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Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]
Related Link : https://abdurrahman.org/sahaba/