Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 40 : Point 63
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]
Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:
And Allaah rewards the martyr (shaheed) for his martyrdom.
The martyr (ash-shaheed) is the person who is killed on the battlefield whilst fighting against the disbelievers. He fights so that the word of Allaah is uppermost.
Everything of this person will be forgiven by Allaah, except for a debt (ad-dayn) which is upon him because a debt is the right of the people and a right of a person will not fall away unless it is given to him or he pardons with regard to it. But as for the sins which are between the person and Allaah then Allaah will forgive them all on account of a person being martyred in the cause of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.
And there are also martyrs who are not killed upon the battlefield such as a person who dies through the plague, he is a martyr (shaheed) and one who is killed defending his wealth or his honour or his family then he is a shaheed (martyr) or the person who dies in an unexpected accident such as a fire or by drowning, he is a martyr with Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, meaning he will have the reward of a martyr but he is not the same as the martyr who dies on the battlefield with regard to rulings. Rather, he is washed and shrouded and a funeral prayer is said over him. As for the martyr who dies upon the battlefield then he is not washed and he is not shrouded in any clothes except those he was killed in and funeral prayer is not said over him and he is buried with his blood upon him.
 Translator’s side point: When they mention that there are other martyrs besides the martyr who’s killed upon the battlefield, Shaykh Fowzaan mentions examples especially the one who dies through plague, one who is killed defending his wealth or his honour or his family, one who dies in a sudden accident like a fire or drowning.
Al Bukhaariyy reported in his saheeh (653) and Muslim reports it also (1,914) on Aboo Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu who said Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:
“The martyrs (shuhadaa) are five; the one who dies of the plague and the one who dies of an abdominal complaint and the one who drowns and the one who has a house structure fall upon him and the martyr who is killed fighting in Allaah’s cause.”
And the wording here is that of Al-Bukhaariyy.
And there also occurs from Jaabir ibn al-`Ateeq radiyAllaahu `anhu who said Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:
“The martyrs are seven besides the one who is killed in Allaah’s cause; the one who dies of the plague is a martyr and the one who drowns is a martyr and the person who dies from pleurisy is a martyr and the person who dies of an abdominal complaint is a martyr and the one who dies in a fire is a martyr and the one who dies underneath a building falling is a martyr and the woman who dies whilst pregnant is a martyr.”
Reported by Imaam Maalik in his Muwatta, Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad and Aboo Dawood, Ibn Maajah and An-Nasaa`ee and Ibn Hibbaan.
Translator’s side point: Shaykh Al-Albaaniyy said with regard to this narration, “It is saheeh (authentic).”
Imaam An-Nawawi said in his explanation of Muslim:
The scholars said these types of death are shahaadah (martyrdom) on account of Allaah, the Most High bestowing His favour because of their severity and how painful they can be. And there occurs in another hadeeth in the saheeh:
“Whoever is killed defending his wealth then he is a martyr and whoever is killed defending his family then he is a martyr.”
And it’s already been explained in the Book of Eemaan and there occurs in another authentic hadeeth:
“Whoever is killed defending his sword is a martyr.”
Imaam an-Nawawi said that the the scholars said: what is meant by the martyrdom of those people, all of them besides the one who is killed fighting in Allaah’s cause, is that – in the Hereafter they will receive the reward of the martyrs. As for this world, then they are to be washed and funeral prayer said over them. And there has already preceded in the Book of Eemaan an explanation of that. And the fact that the martyrs are of three categories:
- Firstly, the martyr who is the martyr with regard to this world and the Hereafter and he is the one who is killed whilst fighting the disbelievers.
- Secondly, one who is a martyr in the Hereafter but not with regard to the rulings of this life and they are the ones mentioned here – meaning the two hadeeth we just heard, those who are treated as being the martyr in the Hereafter with regard to the rulings in this life, we can treat them as normal people that have died.
- Thirdly, one who is apparently a martyr in this world but not so in the Hereafter, he is the person who steals something from the Booty or who is killed whilst fleeing.
Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee said on this point,
“I say (with regard to the point that “the martyr is rewarded for his martyrdom, the sick person is rewarded when he is sick”) that occurs in authentic ahaadeeth, which show that a Muslim who falls sick is rewarded during his illness because he knows Allaah caused him to become ill and is the one Who cures. As for martyrdom then it is a very high level, which Allaah gives to whoever He wishes from His servants. However, it cannot be attained except through ikhlaas (making ones deeds purely and sincerely for Allaah) and through mutaaba`ah (following the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam as example). So whoever is killed fighting truly in Allaah’s cause then he is a martyr from the martyrs of this world and the Hereafter if he is killed fighting between the disbelievers and the Muslims. And likewise, one who is killed by the innovators (mubtadi`oon) such as the Khawaarij and their like and that occurs in the hadeeth with regard to the Khawaarij:
“Glad tidings of a tree in Paradise are for those who fight them and they kill him.” [Reported by Aboo Daawood and others.]
As for the martyrs with regard to the Hereafter, then they are many and from the martyrs of the Hereafter are the one who dies through the plague, through a stomach complaint, in a fire, being drowned and a building falling upon him and so on.
Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah
Transcribed by Saima Zaher.
Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah
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