An Explanation of Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah – Shaikh ‘Abdullaah bin Humayd

AUTHOR: Shaikh ‘Abdullaah bin Humayd
SOURCE: His treatise At-Tawheed (pg. 15-20)

From the upcoming E-Book “An Explanation of Tawheed” of Shaikh ‘Abdullaah bin Humayd,rahimahullaah, [Died 1402H]

All praise be to the One who created (His) servants for the purpose of worshipping Him, and who commanded them to single Him out in worship and obedience. And I bear witness that there is no deity that has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, and with no partner, whether in His Lordship (Ruboobiyyah) or the Servitude to Him (Uloohiyyah). And I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger, may Allaah send His peace and blessings on him, his family, his Companions, and whoever follows his path and adheres to his Call, until the Day of Recompense.

To proceed:

Before you is a small pamphlet, which explains the pure Salafee Creed, free from everything that has wrongly mixed into it from false concepts and innovations. It is the Creed of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah according to the Salaf (predecessors) of this ummah, who consist of the Companions (Sahaabah), their Followers (Taabi’een) and those who came after them from the true scholars about whom the Muslims have unanimously agreed on as to their guidance and understanding.

Know that the Tawheed (Oneness of Allaah) that has been indicated in the Qur’aan, and the Sunnah, and which the Salaf of this ummah have unanimously agreed on, can be divided into three categories:

1. Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah (Allaah’s Oneness in Lordship)
2. Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah (Allaah’s Oneness in Worship)
3. Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat (Allaah’s Oneness in His Names and Attributes)

An Explanation of Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah (Oneness in Lordship)

As for Allaah’s Oneness in Lordship, then the (Arab) polytheists whom the Prophet was sent to affirmed and acknowledged it, but it was not enough to enter them into Islaam. So they affirmed that Allaah was the only true Creator, Provider, Giver of Life and Death, and Administrator of all affairs in this world, which requires His Wisdom and Desire. However, this kind of affirmation is not enough to make a person become a Muslim. Allaah says: “Say: ‘Who provides for you from the sky and the earth? Or ‘Who owns the hearing and the sight?’ And ‘Who brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living?’ And ‘Who disposes of the affairs?’ They will say: ‘Allaah.’ Then say: ‘Will you not then be dutiful to Him?’” [Surah Yoonus: 31]

This means: “Will you not then single Him out in worship, whilst abandoning the worship of others besides Him?”

So Allaah’s statement: “Say: ‘Who provides for you from the sky and the earth’” means: “Who is the One who sends down rain water from the sky, thus causing the earth to open through His Ability and Will, and bear therewith grain, grapes, clover plants, olives, date palms, gardens packed with many trees, and fruits and herbage? Is it a god along with Allaah?” They will say: “It is Allaah.”

Allaah’s statement: “Or ‘Who owns the hearing and the sight?’” means: “The One who granted you this power of hearing and ability to see?” And if He wanted to, He would take that away and deprive them of it, as occurs in Allaah’s statement: “Say: It is He who created you and endowed you with hearing and seeing and hearts. Little thanks do you give.” [Surah Al-Mulk: 23]

And Allaah says: “Say (to the disbelievers): ‘Tell me if Allaah took away your hearing and your sight and sealed up your hearts, who is there – a god other than Allaah – that can restore them for you?” [Surah Al-An’aam: 46]

“And ‘Who brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living” through His great Ability and all-encompassing Grace.

“And ‘Who disposes of the affairs” means: “Who is the One in whose Hand lies the sovereignty over everything. And He protects all, while against Him there is no protector?” And He is the Administrator over all affairs, the Ruler of whom there is no end to His Rule. He is not to be questioned as to what He does, while they (i.e. the creation) will be questioned. “Everyone in the heavens and the earth asks (i.e. supplicates to) Him. Everyday He is engaged in some affair.” [Surah Ar-Rahmaan: 29]

So all of the dominion, whether in the heavens or in the earth or what lies between them, from angels, mankind and jinn, are all in need of Him, subservient to Him and humble themselves before Him.“They will say: ‘Allaah.’” This means they know and acknowledge that it is Allaah. “Then say: ‘Will you not then be dutiful to Him?’” meaning: “Will you not be afraid from Him that you are worshipping others besides Him based on your opinions and ignorance?”

Most of the times that Allaah presents an argument against the polytheists, He uses against them the fact that they acknowledge and affirm His Oneness in Lordship (Ruboobiyyah) over the fact that (in spite of this) they reject His Oneness in Worship (Uloohiyyah).

There are many ayaat that bear this same meaning:

Allaah says: “Say: To whom belongs the earth and whoever lies therein, if you truly know? They will say: It belongs to Allaah. Say: Will you not then remember? Say: Who is the Lord of the seven heavens and the Lord of the Great Throne? They will say: Allaah. Say: Will you not then fear Allaah? Say: Who is the One in whose Hand lies the sovereignty over everything. And He protects all, while against Him there is no protector, if you truly know? They will say: All that belongs to Allaah. Say: How then are you deceived and turn away from the truth?” [Surah Al-Mu’minoon: 84-89]

The hearts of human beings were innately designed and fashioned to accept and acknowledge Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah. So no one rejects it except for a few rare individuals from mankind Look at Pharaoh and how he said: “I am your lord, the most High.” [Surah An-Naazi’aat: 24] And: “I know not that you (his chiefs) have a god other than me.” [Surah Al-Qasas: 38]

But yet at the same time, he acknowledged the existence of the Creator and Originator of creation, as Allaah narrates the story about him in His saying: “And they (Pharaoh and his people) rejected them (signs given to Moosaa) wrongfully and arrogantly, even though their own selves were convinced by them.” [Surah An-Naml: 14]

And Allaah narrates what his Prophet Moosaa said to Pharaoh: “You indeed know that these signs have been sent down by none other than the Lord of the heavens and the earth.”[Surah Al-Israa: 102]

Ad-Dahr (time) is not one of the Names of Allaah

We know that Ad-Dahr (time) is not one of the Names of Allaah, for it does not possess a meaning that reaches the highest extent of goodness. As for the Prophet’s (saws) statement: “Do not curse time, for indeed, Allaah is Ad-Dahr (time)”,[2] then its meaning is that He is the “Owner of time – the One who dispenses it”. This change occurs based on the evidence found in his (saws) statement in the second narration (of this hadeeth) in which Allaah said: “In My hand is the Command. I turn (in cycles) the night and the day.” [3]

[2] Saheeh Muslim: Book of Words from Good Manners (no. 2246) from the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah. Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr said in Al-Fath (10/565): “Ahmad has transmitted it from another path from the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah with the wording: ‘Do not curse time, for indeed Allaah has stated: ‘I am Ad-Dahr (Time). The days and the nights belong to Me. I will renew them, vanquish them and bring forth kings after kings.’ And its chain of narration is authentic.”

A Point of Benefit:
The great scholar Ibn Al-Qayyim said in Zaad Al-Ma’aad (2/355): “Anyone that curses time is lingering between two states of which there is no doubt that he is from one of them. Either he has cursed Allaah Himself or he has ascribed a partner to him (Shirk). For indeed, if he believes that Allaah is the only one that did that and he curses whomsoever did it, then he has cursed Allaah.”

[3] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree: Book of Tawheed (no. 7491) and Saheeh Muslim: Book of Words from Good Manners (no. 2246) from the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah.

Source : Important Principles concerning Allaah’s Names & Attributes
Author:Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen

Question: What is the ruling on abusing time (ad-Dahr)?

Answer: ad-Dahr (Time) is a subjugated form of creation from Allah’s many creations. It is not permissible to abuse it. It has been established in the Saheeh that the Messenger of Allah (peace & blessings of Allah be upon him) said: {Indeed Allah says, “The son of Adam harms Me when he abuses ad-Dahr (Time), and I am ad-Dahr (Time), I turn the night and the day, by My hand I control every thing.”} Thus regarding ad-Dahr (Time) there is nothing that is in His Hand in which He created ad-Dahr in addition to creating the universe to be confined to ad-Dahr. So the meaning of Allah is ad-Dahr is that He created ad-Dahr and the entire universe is confined to ad-Dahr and Allah knows best.

Shaykh ‘Abdullah bin Humayd (rahimahullah)
Translated by Aboo ‘Imraan al-Mekseekee-may Allah guide him

Arabic source:

(Do not abuse Ad-Dahr (time), for Allah is Ad-Dahr.) They said, “During the time of Jahiliyyah, when an affliction, a calamity or a disaster struck them, the Arabs used to say, `Woe to Ad-Dahr (time)!’ So they used to blame such incidents on Ad-Dahr, cursing Ad-Dahr in the process. Surely, it is Allah the Exalted and Most Honored Who causes these (and all) things to happen. This is why when they cursed Ad-Dahr, it was as if they were cursing Allah Himself, since truthfully, He causes all incidents to happen. Therefore, abusing Ad-Dahr was prohibited due to this consideration, for it was Allah Whom they meant by abusing Ad-Dahr, which — as we said– they accused of causing (distressful) incidents.” This is the best explanation for this subject, and it is the desired meaning. Allah knows best.

We should mention that Ibn Hazm and those of the Zahiriyyah like him made an error when they used this Hadith to include Ad-Dahr among Allah’s most beautiful Names.

Source : Tafseer Ibn kathir, 45. Al-Jathiyah

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