Repentance – Imaam Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen

AUTHOR: Imaam Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen
SOURCE: Sifat Salaat-in-Nabee (pages 49-51)

Repentance: Means turning back from disobeying Allaah to obeying Him.

Repentance: Is beloved to Allaah, as He says:

“Verily, Allaah loves those who repent and those who purify themselves.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 222]

Repentance: Is an obligation on every believer.

Allaah says:

“O you who believe! Turn to Allaah in sincere repentance!” [Surah At-Tahreem: 8]

Repentance: Is from the means of attaining success.

Allaah says:

“And O believers, all of you, repent to Allaah in order that you may be successful.” [Surah An-Noor: 31]

Success is when someone gets what he is looking for and is saved from what he is running from.

Through Sincere Repentance: Allaah forgives sins no matter how big they are and no matter how many they are.

Allaah says:

“Say: O My slaves who have transgressed against themselves (because of sins), do not despair from the mercy of Allaah. Verily, Allaah forgives all sins. Verily, He is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [Surah Az-Zumar: 53]

O my brother who has fallen into sins, do not despair from the mercy of your Lord, for indeed the door to repentance is open until the sun rises from the west. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Verily, Allaah extends His hand out at night in order to accept the repentance of the sinner by day. And He extends His hand out during the day in order to accept the repentance of the sinner by night, until (the day) when the sun will rise from its west.” [Reported by Muslim]

And how many people have repented to Allaah from numerous and enormous sins and Allaah has accepted their repentance?

Allaah says:

“And those who do not supplicate to another god along with Allaah, nor do they kill a person that Allaah has made forbidden (to kill) except with just cause, nor do they commit fornication. And whoever does this shall receive the punishment. The torment will be doubled for him on the Day of Resurrection and he will abide therein in disgrace. Except those who repent and believe and do righteous deeds, for those, Allaah will change their sins into good deeds. And Allaah is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [Surah Al-Furqaan: 68-70]

Sincere Repentance: Must meet five conditions (in order to be accepted), which are:

1. Sincerity to Allaah, the Most High: This is by the person doing it only for the sake of Allaah and seeking His reward and salvation from His punishment.

2. Remorse: for the sin that was committed, such that he is sad he did it and wishes he had never done it.

3. Ceasing: to commit the sin immediately. If the sin was against Allaah, then he should (1) stop doing it if it was an unlawful act, or (2) hasten to do it if it was an obligation that he abandoned doing. And if the sin was against a created being (such as humans), then he should hasten to free himself from it, whether by returning it back to him or seeking his forgiveness and pardon.

4. Determination: to not go back to doing that sin again in the future.

5. The repentance should not occur before the time when its acceptance is terminated, either by death or by the sun rising from the west. Allaah says: “Repentance is of no effect for those who commit sins constantly until when death faces one of them, he says: Verily I repent now.” The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Whoever repents before the sun rises from its west, Allaah will accept his repentance.” [Reported by Muslim]

O Allaah, grant us the sincere repentance and accept it from us, verily You are the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.

Written by Muhammad As-Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen 4/17/1406

The Scholars are the Inheritors of the Prophets – Shaykh Muhammad Bazmool

AUTHOR: Shaikh Muhammad ‘Umar Bazmool
SOURCE: His treatise At-Ta’seel fee Talab-il-‘Ilm

The Fifth Foundation: The Scholars are the inheritors of the Prophets, so one must observe good manners in front of them

Abud-Dardaa (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) reported: “I heard the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) say: ‘Whoever treads a path due to which he seeks knowledge, Allaah will make him tread one of the paths towards Paradise. And the angels lower their wings out of contentment for the seeker of knowledge. And verily all those in the heavens and in the earth, even the fish in the depths of the sea ask forgiveness for the scholar. And verily, the virtue of the scholar over the worshipper is like the virtue of the moon on the night of Al-Badr over all of the stars. Indeed, the scholars are the inheritors of the prophets, for the prophets do not leave behind a dinar or a dirham for inheritance, but rather, they leave behind knowledge. So whoever takes hold of it, has acquired a large share (i.e. of inheritance).’” [1]

Abu Haatim Ibn Hibbaan, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: “There is a clear explanation in this hadeeth that the scholars, who possess the virtue we mentioned before, are the ones who teach the people the knowledge of the Prophet, apart from all of the other types of knowledge. Did you not see him say: ‘The scholars are the inheritors of the prophets?’ The prophets do not leave behind any inheritance except knowledge, and the knowledge of our Prophet r is his Sunnah. So whoever is deprived of learning it is not from the inheritors of the prophets.” [2]

This foundation necessitates the implementation of several things, which include:

1. One must have good manners with the scholars
He should not debate with his teacher
He should not ask his teacher too many questions
He should not cause commotions in his gathering
He should praise him when speaking to him and while mentioning him in his absence
He should hold good thoughts for him and his knowledge
He should behave while in his gathering
He should show respect for him in his daily transactions.

This does not mean that the student should not contradict his teacher when a proof that deserves to be followed becomes established to him. It has been narrated from Abu Ayyoob As-Sakhtiyaanee, may Allaah have mercy on him, that he said: “If you want to know the errors of your teacher, then sit with someone else (i.e. another teacher).”

2. Taking knowledge from the shuyookh (teachers) is the basis with regard to seeking knowledge. By doing this, the student takes knowledge from them face to face, and grasps from their manners and behavior. This only applies if the student is a contemporary of those teachers and around during their lifetime! Or he can take from their books and writings, thus reading from them in order to learn and understand, while of course, having good thoughts (for them)!


[1] Reported by Abu Dawood, At-Tirmidhee and Ibn Hibbaan, and this is the wording found in his collection, in abridged form. Al-Bukhaaree mentioned in his Saheeh Collection in his Book of Knowledge, Chapter: Knowledge precedes Speech and Action, the part from it: “The scholars are the inheritors of the Prophets.”

[2] Al-Ihsaan bi-Taqreeb Saheeh Ibn Hibbaan: (1/295, under no. 88)

Published: September 18, 2004 | Modified: September 18, 2004

The Need for Returning to the Senior Scholars with regard to the Important Issues – Ahmad ash-Shihhee

The following is posted from : Magnificent Points of Advice for those who have turned to the Way of the Salaf – Abu ‘Abdillaah Ahmad bin Muhammad Ash-Shihhee. This book was read to Allaamaah Rabee’ al-Madkhalee who gave some good instructions regarding it.

AUTHOR: Abu ‘Abdillaah Ahmad bin Muhammad ash-Shihhee
SOURCE: His book “Al-Wasaayah as-Saniyyah Lit-Taa’ibeena ilaas-Salafiyyah” (pg. 34-39)

The scholars are the ones to be referred to and turned to regarding the important issues, especially in matters that concern the welfare of the Muslim ummah. If you look at the condition of the first generations from the Salaf as-Saalih, you would find that they were strict with regard to returning back to the senior scholars that were alive in their time, especially in getting rulings that resulted in making tabdee’ (declaring someone an innovator) or takfeer (declaring someone a disbeliever). [1]

Look at the example of Yahyaa bin Ya’mar Al-Basree and Humaid bin ‘Abdir-Rahmaan Al-Himayree Al-Basree, when the Qadariyyah appeared in their time and they began to manifest contradictions to the Fundamentals of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, which necessitated that they be declared disbelievers or that they be pronounced innovators and removed from the fold of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah. However, they did not rush into making a ruling against them. Rather, they went to those who held the position of being referred to with regard to issues of knowledge, from the scholars. And he was ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (radyAllaahu ‘anhumaa). So they informed him of what occurred to them and he issued a ruling to them stating the misguidance and deviation of (this group of) the Qadariyyah.

Yahyaa bin Ya’mar said: “The first person who spoke (deviant views) with regard to Al-Qadar in Basrah was Ma’bad Al-Juhnee. Humaid bin ‘Abdir-Rahmaan Al-Himayree and I set out to make Hajj or ‘Umrah, and we said to each other: “If only we could meet one of the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger so that we could ask him about what these people are saying about Al-Qadar. So Allaah granted us that ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (radyAllaahu ‘anhumaa) enter the masjid So I and my companion gathered around him – one of us on his right and the other on his left. I felt as if my companion entrusted me with speaking to him, so I said:

“Abu ‘Abdur-Rahmaan, a people have appeared in our land that recite the Qur’aan and pursue knowledge…[and he mentioned some other points about them]…and they claim that there is no such thing as Al-Qadar (Divine Pre-Decree) and that it is rejected.”

He responded: “If you meet these people, inform them that I am free from them and thy are free from me. By the One whom ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Umar swears by, if one of them had the likes of Mount Uhud in gold and he were to give it away in charity, Allaah would not accept it from him, until he believes in Al-Qadar.“ Then he said: “My father reported to me…” [2]

And look at the example of Zubayd ibn Al-Haarith Al-Yaamee when the Murji’ah appeared in his time and he saw that they had oppositions to the Fundamentals of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, which necessitated that they be ousted from the fold of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah. Yet, he did not rush into making a ruling against them. Instead, he went to one who had the position of being referenced in religious matters in his time from the people of knowledge and fatwaa, those who took their knowledge from the Seniors amongst the Companions, who in this case was Abu Waa’il Shaqeeq bin Salamah Al-Asadee Al-Koofee (rahimahullaah).

So Zubayd went to him informing him of what had occurred, and Abu Waa’il issued a fatwaa to him based on a text from Allaah’s Messenger, which indicated the falsehood of the misconceptions of the Murji’ah and their deviating from Ahlus-Sunnah. Zubayd said: “When the Murji’ah appeared, I went to Abu Waa’il and mentioned that to him, so he said: ’Abdullaah narrated to me that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: ‘Reviling a Muslim is sinfulness and fighting against him is disbelief.’” [3]

So if you were to compare between the condition of these people with regard to how they looked toward the people of knowledge in their time and between the condition of many of those who have become unstable in their repentance in this time of ours, you would find a huge difference between the two examples.

Those people (in the first example) strove hard to implement this rule, and they did not rush to make a ruling against those people of their time whose deviation become apparent, until they first presented their case to the people of knowledge, those capable of issuing rulings (fatwaa) from Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah. So when they heard the ruling, they bit onto it with their molar teeth and distanced themselves from those deviants who were in opposition to Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah.

But as for today, then it is very rare that you can find those who strive hard to implement this rule. Rather, you will find those who have no concern for the words of the people of knowledge and fatwaa with regard to warning against the people of desires and innovation. So they wage war against the fataawaa (religious rulings) of the scholars and they distort their (intended) meanings. We ask Allaah to save and protect us!


[1] This does not mean that a student of knowledge is not to rule on issues altogether. What is meant here is that he should not rule on issues related to current occurrences, from the outset, especially those that are ambiguous from it. As for the clear issues, which are not ambiguous, then he is not required to refer to them (i.e. the scholars).

[2] Saheeh Muslim (no. 93)

[3] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (48) and Muslim (218)

Published: July 23, 2004 | Modified: July 23, 2004

The Signs of Beneficial and Non-Beneficial Knowledge – Ibn Rajab

AUTHOR: Al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbalee
SOURCE: Fadlu ‘Ilm-is-Salaf ‘alaa ‘Ilm-il-Khalaf (pg. 39-43, Dar-ul-Imam Ahmad Ed.)

The Signs of Non-Beneficial Knowledge:

An indicative sign of this non-beneficial knowledge is that it breeds haughtiness, pride and arrogance in the one who possesses it. And it causes him to seek after grandeur and elevation in the worldly life and to compete for that. It also leads one to pursue competing with the scholars, arguing with the foolish and turning the people’s attention his way. And it has been reported that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said that whoever seeks knowledge for these reasons, then “the Fire, the Fire.” [1]

It could be that some of the people who possess these types of knowledge claim to know Allaah, seek after Him and abstain from everything apart from that, however, their goal behind that is for nothing else but to gain a high place in certain people’s hearts, such as that of the rulers and their likes. Perhaps their goal is to have these people think good thoughts about them or to gain large gatherings of followers or to have them venerate them because of that.

Another sign of this is when one openly claims to have a close relationship with Allaah, i.e. claims to be a walee, as the People of the Scripture would do, and as the Qaraamitah,[2] Baatiniyyah[3] and their likes would assert for themselves.

This is contrary to what the Salaf were upon for they would constantly belittle and scorn themselves, in hidden and in open. ‘Umar said: “Whoever says he is knowledgeable is really ignorant. And whoever says he is a believer is really a disbeliever. And whoever says he is in Paradise is in the Hellfire.”

Also from its signs is that one fails to accept and submit to the truth, and that he acts arrogantly towards those who speak the truth, especially if that person is considered below them in the eyes of the people. Also from its signs is that one persists upon falsehood out of fear that the people’s hearts will turn away from him if he openly shows his going back to the truth.

Perhaps these individuals may even openly condemn and belittle themselves with their tongues in front of large gatherings so that people will believe that they are truly humble, thus drawing (their) praises for that. And this is from the most intricate and subtle forms of showing off (riyaa), as indicated by the Taabi’een and the scholars that came after them. Furthermore, their blatant acceptance and receipt of such praise is to such an extent that it negates any honesty or sincerity on their part. This is since a truly honest person fears hypocrisy for himself and dreads the thought of having a bad end, whereas these individuals busy themselves with accepting and consenting to praises.

So based on this, one of the signs that people have beneficial knowledge is that they don’t see themselves as having any special position or status, and that they hate with their hearts any commendation or praise and that they do not exalt themselves arrogantly over anyone.

Al-Hasan said: “The Faqeeh (one with understanding of the Religion) is only he who abstains from the worldly life, longs for the next life, has deep insight into his Religion and is persistent in worshipping his Lord.” [4]

In another narration, he said: “He is one who does not envy those above him, nor does he belittle those below him, nor does he charge any fee for the knowledge that Allaah has given him.”

A statement with a similar meaning to this last one was reported on Ibn ‘Umar as a saying of his.[5] So every time the people who have beneficial knowledge increase in this type of knowledge, they increase in humbleness, fear, lowliness and submission to Allaah.

One of the Salaf said: “A person with knowledge should place dirt upon his head out of humbleness to his Lord.” [6]

For indeed every time he increases in knowledge and awareness of his Lord, He increases in fear and love for Him as well as submission and debasement towards Him.

The Signs of Beneficial Knowledge:
From the signs that one has beneficial knowledge is that it leads him to flee from the worldly life and its splendors, as well as from leadership, fame and praise. Keeping far away from these things and exerting one’s efforts in avoiding them are indications that one has beneficial knowledge. And if he were to fall into committing any of these things unintentionally and unwillingly, he would be in immense fear of being punished for that since he would fear that such (praise or leadership or fame) is perhaps a plot or gradual delusion (before inevitable punishment from Allaah). Such was the case with Imaam Ahmad, for he would fear for himself when his name became famous and his reputation spread.

Also from the signs of beneficial knowledge is that one does not claim to have knowledge nor does he use it to act arrogantly towards anyone, nor does he describe anyone as being ignorant – except for those who oppose the Sunnah and its followers, for in this case, he may speak about them out of anger for the sake of Allaah and not his own sake nor intending to elevate himself over anyone.

As for the one who does not have beneficial knowledge, his only concern is to use his knowledge to arrogantly elevate himself over people and to manifest the virtue of his knowledge to them while at the same time ascribing them to ignorance. His only concern is to belittle them so that he may exalt himself over them by doing that. This is one of the vilest and most despicable of actions. Perhaps he may even describe those scholars that came before him as being ignorant, negligent and forgetful. So his love for himself and his love for exposing himself leads him to think highly of himself while thinking poorly of those who preceded him!

Those who possess beneficial knowledge are upon the opposite of this, for they think poorly of themselves while thinking highly of those scholars that came before them. And they affirm with their hearts and souls the virtue and superiority that their predecessors have over them and their own inability to reach and attain the levels that they were at, let alone get near to them.

How beautiful was the response of Imaam Abu Haneefah[7] when he was asked about ‘Alqamah[8] and Aswad[9] as to which of them was better. He replied saying: “By Allaah, we are not qualified to even mention their names, so how can we choose between them?”

When the etiquettes of those who preceded would be mentioned, Ibn Al-Mubaarak would recite the following verses of poetry:

“Do not present our mention along with their mention,
The healthy one who walks is not like the crippled.”

So if this individual with non-beneficial knowledge feels that he is superior to those who came before him in terms of producing elaborate speech and statements, he will then assume that he is also superior to them in knowledge and rank before Allaah, due to his having a special virtue over those who preceded him. This will then lead him to scorn those who came before him (i.e. the Salaf) and audaciously accuse them of having little knowledge. However, this ignoramus doesn’t realize that the reason why the Salaf made such few statements was only because of their piety and fear of Allaah. Had they wanted to speak profusely and elaborate themselves through many statements, they would not have been unable to do it.


[1] Saheeh: Reported by Ibn Maajah (254) from the narration of Jaabir bin ‘Abdillaah and authenticated by Al-Albaanee in Saheeh-ul-Jaami’ (7370).

[2] Al-Qaraamitah: They are one of the deviant factions that emerged from the Raafidah whose adherents follow Abu Sa’eed Bahraam Al-Hanaabee who was the founder of the Qaraamitee belief. They believed that ‘Abdullaah bin Al-Haarith Al-Kandee was a prophet and so would worship him. And they have other corrupt beliefs apart from that.

[3] Al-Baatiniyyah: This is a name given to a group that splintered from the Isma’eeli Shiites. They believe that the entire Book of Allaah is open to reinterpretation and claim that it cannot be understood in its apparent (literal) form and so as a result they went astray. Their beliefs have influenced the Sufi movement, which claims that all of the Qur’aan has an apparent as well as a hidden meaning.

[4] Reported by Ahmad in az-Zuhd (pg. 267), Ad-Daarimee (1/89), Al-Aajurree in Akhlaaq-ul-‘Ulamaa (pg. 74), and Abu Nu’aim in Hilyat-ul-Awliyaa (2/147) and its chain of narration is sound (hasan). [A]

[5] Reported by Ad-Daarimee (1/88) as a statement of Ibn ‘Umar. [A]

[6] Reported by Al-Aajurree in Akhlaaq-ul-‘Ulamaa (pg. 71 and Al-Khateeb in al-Faqeeh wal-Mutafaqqih (2/113) as a statement of Ayoob, and its chain of narration is authentic (saheeh). [A]

[7] He was the great Imaam, Abu Haneefah An-Nu’maan bin Thaabit, the Jurist from Iraq. He saw Anas bin Maalik on more than one occasion. He was pious, knowledgeable and diligent in performing deeds. Ash-Shaafi’ee said about him: “With regards to Fiqh, the people are dependent upon Abu Haneefah.” He died in 150H.

[8] He was ‘Alqamah bin Qais bin ‘Abdillaah bin Maalik bin ‘Alqamah An-Nakha’ee from Koofah, Iraq. He was born during the lifetime of Allaah’s Messenger but never met him. He was from the major Taabi’een, being the main Jurist and Muhaddith of the people of Iraq. He studied very closely under Ibn Mas’ood and spread his knowledge after him, passing rulings and verdicts. He died in 72H and some say in 73H.

[9] He was Al-Aswad bin Yazeed bin Qais An-Nakha’ee from the companions of Ibn Mas’oodt. His kunyah was Abu ‘Amr, but he was also called Abu ‘Abdir-Rahmaan. He was from the major Taabi’een, reliable and knowledgeable, and he narrated many hadeeth. He passed away in either 74H or 75H.

Published on: March 19, 2007

The Difference between Obligatory Knowledge and Recommended Knowledge – Shaykh Muhammad Baazmool

AUTHOR: Shaikh Muhammad bin ‘Umar Baazmool
SOURCE: At-Ta’seel fee Talab-il-‘Ilm” (pg. 10-14)

The First Foundation:

Seeking knowledge – which a Muslim needs in order to establish what is binding on him from worship of his Lord – is an obligation that is compulsory on him. As for what exceeds those limits, then acquiring knowledge of that falls under the collective obligations (fard kifaayah), and it is something recommended and extra for the student of knowledge.

The proof for this foundation is what has been reported from the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) that he said: “Seeking knowledge is an obligation upon every Muslim.”

Another proof is the fact that this Religion is founded upon two basic principles, which are:

1. We don’t worship anyone except Allaah, and
2. We don’t perform worship except with what Allaah has legislated.

You cannot truly implement the worship of Allaah unless you first seek the necessary knowledge required for you to properly put into effect this worship that Allaah has made obligatory on you, and for which purpose He created you.

Elucidating this point further, Ishaaq bin Raahawaih said: “Seeking knowledge is obligatory, even though the report concerning it is not authentic. However, what it means is that the seeker of knowledge is required to acquire from it what he needs such as for (properly implementing) his ablution, his prayer, his Zakaat – if he has wealth, his Hajj and so on.”

He also said: “So whatever he is obligated to learn from that, then he need not ask the permission of his parents to go out and learn that. But as for what is in excess of that, he should not go out to acquire (knowledge of) that until he first gets permission to do that from his parents.” [1]

Ibn Taimiyyah, may Allaah have mercy on him, said: “Seeking religious knowledge is a collective obligation (fard kifaayah) except for that which is individually incumbent, such as every person seeking knowledge of what Allaah has ordered him to do and what Allaah has prohibited him to do, since this is an individual obligation.” [2]

This is one of the most important foundations, by which, the followers of Hadeeth are distinguished from those apart from them. It is due to this that the followers of innovation accuse the followers of Hadeeth by claiming that the highest objective of their speech is with regard to issues of purification, prayer and their likes!!

But in reality, this is not blameworthy, since it is with (knowledge) purification that you will have achieved the key to prayer.

The Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The key to prayer is purification. Its tahreem (commencement) is the takbeer (i.e. saying Allaahu Akbar) and its Tahleel (ending) is the tasleem (i.e. saying As-Salaam ‘Alaikum).” [3]

He (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) also said: “Islaam is built upon five (pillars): (1) The testimony that there is no deity that has the right to be worshipped except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah; (2) Establishing the prayer; (3) Paying the Zakaat; (4) Fasting in Ramadaan; and (5) the Pilgrimage (Hajj) to the Sacred House of Allaah for whoever is able to do it.” [4]

It is for this reason that the first thing a student of knowledge is advised to do is to strive to obtain the knowledge that is binding upon him first. This is why when Imaam Maalik was asked about seeking knowledge, he said: “All of it is good. However, look into what you need for (the transactions of) your day and night, and then seek (knowledge of) that.”

This is since you will not truly actualize the worship of Allaah until you first obtain knowledge of what Allaah has legislated for you in those matters (of worship). So once you obtain that knowledge, you will be aware of how to perform wudoo, how to pray, how to perform ghusl, how to give Zakaat – if you have wealth, how to perform the Pilgrimage (Hajj) – if you intend to perform it, the rules of marriage – if you intend to marry someone, the rules of divorce – if you intend to divorce someone, and so on.

This foundation consists of the following things:

1. The ruling of an obligation. This relates to a Muslim that is responsible for his actions. If he is young (i.e. under the age of puberty), then it is upon his parents to teach him the affairs of his Religion that he is in need of. This is since the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “All of you are shepherds and all of you are responsible as to his flock.” [5]

And Allaah says: “O you who believe! Save yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is men and stones, over which are angels that are stern and severe – they do not disobey what Allaah has ordered them to do, and carry out what they are commanded.” [Surah At-Tahreem: 6]

Therefore, it is binding upon the Muslim father and the Muslim mother to teach their children what they are required to know from the matters of the Religion and from manners.

2. The student of knowledge must give precedence to acquiring knowledge of what is obligatory upon him to know over what is recommended for him to know. Preoccupying oneself with learning the recommended forms of knowledge whilst neglecting the obligatory forms of knowledge is one of the obstacles and impediments of seeking knowledge.

So, for example, you may find a person speaking about the intricate issues of the Language, on Grammar, Terminology, the Science of Eloquence and Principles, yet he is not able to properly perform ablution in the same manner as that of the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), nor is he able to perform the prayer properly like the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to pray…and so on and so forth!!

3. A seeker of knowledge should not oppose his parents by traveling abroad in search of knowledge that in his case is considered to be recommended. But in the case where that knowledge that he intends to travel abroad for is from the forms of knowledge that is binding upon him to know in order to worship Allaah during the night and day, then he may go ahead and travel, as was advised by Imaam Ishaaq in his previously mentioned statement: “So whatever he is obligated to learn from that, then he need not ask the permission of his parents to go out and learn that. But as for what is in excess of that, he should not go out to acquire (knowledge of) that until he first gets permission to do that from his parents.”

4. The supportive sciences, or what some scholars commonly call “The applied sciences”, such as the Arabic Language, the Science of Eloquence, the Science of Principles, Hadeeth Terminology, and the Sciences of the Qur’aan – a student of knowledge should acquire from these that which will enable him to actualize the primary objective, which is to properly worship Allaah – the reason for which we were created. And if this is not the case, then it falls under the realm of being from the extravagant forms of knowledge, and Allaah knows best.

So it is not required from a student of knowledge studying Grammar that he becomes like Seebawaih, nor from one studying the Arabic Language that he becomes like Al-Khaleel and Al-Azharee, nor from one studying the Science of Eloquence that he becomes like Al-Jirjaanee!! Rather, it is sufficient for him to only learn from all of that what he needs to properly understand the Book and the Sunnah and to implement what Allaah has obligated upon him from worship.


[1] Jaami’ Bayaan al-‘Ilmi wa Fadlihi (1/9)

[2] Majmoo’-ul-Fataawaa (28/80)

[3] This is from the narration of ‘Alee (radyAllaahu ‘anhu). It was reported by Abu Dawood in his Sunan: Book of Purification: Chapter: The Obligation of Ablution (no. 61); At-Tirmidhee in his Sunan: Book of Purification: Chapter: What has been reported about the Key to Prayer being the Purification (no. 3); and Ibn Maajah in his Sunan: Book of Purification: Chapter: The Key to Prayer is the Purification (no. 27)

[4] This is from the narration of ‘Umar (radyAllaahu ‘anhu). It was reported by Al-Bukhaaree in his Saheeh: Book of Faith: Chapter: Islaam was built upon five things (no. 8); Muslim in his Saheeh: Book of Faith: Chapter: A Clarification of the Pillars of Islaam and its Great Foundations (no. 16)

[5] This hadeeth was reported by Al-Bukhaaree in several places in his Saheeh, such as the Book of Friday Prayer (no. 893), the Book of Leadership (no. 1829)

Published: April 2, 2006

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Laying the Foundations for Seeking Knowledge : Shaikh Muhammad Baazmool

Sincerity in seeking knowledge is a condition that is continuous and not just preliminary – Shaykh Muhammad Baazmool


Sincerity in seeking knowledge is a condition that is continuous and not just preliminary:

What this means is that the student of knowledge should continually strive to implement sincerity in himself, and that he should not refrain from his studies due to the claim that he did not achieve sincerity.

Some scholars have provided the following definition for sincerity (ikhlaas): Ibn Jamaa’ah said:

“It means that one has a good intention when seeking knowledge, by intending through his studies to please Allaah, to act in accordance with what he learns, to revive the Sharee’ah (Islamic legislation), to illuminate his heart, to elucidate its (i.e. knowledge’s) hidden meanings; to get near to Allaah on the Day of Judgement, and to subject oneself to what Allaah has prepared for those who possess it, such as His Contentment and great virtue.”

Sufyaan Ath-Thawree, may Allaah have mercy on him, said:

“I did not try to rectify anything that was more difficult upon me than my intention.”

One should not intend, by his search for knowledge, to fulfil some worldly goal such as assuming leadership, gaining status and wealth, competing with colleagues, having people extol him, taking the front seat in a gathering, and so on, since he will be exchanging that which is better for that which is lower.

Abu Yoosuf, may Allaah have mercy on him, said:

“Intend Allaah through your (search for) knowledge, for indeed I never sat in a gathering of people in which I made it my intention to humble myself except that I didn’t leave from it until I had surpassed them. And I never sat in a gathering of people in which I made it my intention to surpass them, except that I didn’t leave from it until I was disgraced.

Knowledge is one of the many acts of worship and one of the many ways of gaining nearness to Allaah. So if one purifies his intention while seeking it, his deed will be accepted and purified. And its blessing will become complete. However, if he intends other than the sake of Allaah when seeking knowledge, his deed becomes nullified and wasted and his transaction is lost. Perhaps he may even miss out on these (worldly) objectives and never achieve any of them. So in this case, he will have failed in his objective and at the same time wasted his efforts.” [11]

* This principle entails several matters, the most important of which is:

The Devil enters into the hearts of some people desiring to turn them away from knowledge based on the argument that one should leave off seeking knowledge until he first purifies his intention. This is a plot, scheme and deception of the Devil. Rather, it is upon a Muslim to continue and persevere in his search for knowledge, and to constantly re-evaluate his intention, as Sufyaan Ath-Thawree said: “I did not try to rectify anything that was more difficult upon me than my intention.”

And this is Sufyaan we are talking about, so it applies even more so for those other than him!! Therefore, one should not make this into something that diverts him away from seeking knowledge.

When Hishaam Ad-Dustawaa’ee, may Allaah have mercy on him, said;

“By Allaah, I cannot (honestly) say that I ever went out one day to seek hadeeth for the sake of Allaah”, Adh- Dhahabee, may Allaah have mercy on him, commented on this saying: “By Allaah, me either!”

The Salaf would seek knowledge for the sake of Allaah, and so they became dignified and went on to become Imaams that were followed and looked up to by the people. And there were other people from among them who did not seek knowledge for the sake of Allaah at first, but yet they still attained the knowledge, then they woke up and examined themselves. And so the knowledge led them to have sincerity while on their path (of seeking knowledge). This becomes clearer in what was stated by Mujaahid and others: “We sought this knowledge while not having a big intention concerning it. Then Allaah granted us the intention (for it) afterward.”

Others would say: “We sought this knowledge for other than the sake of Allaah. But the knowledge refused that it should be sought except for the sake of Allaah.” So this is also good.Then, afterwards, they went on to spread the knowledge with righteous intentions.

And there were other people that sought knowledge with corrupt intentions – for the sake of the worldly life and so that they could be praised by the people. So they got what they intended.

The Prophet (Sall Allaahu alaihi wa Sallam) said: “Whoever fights in battle with the intention of (getting) war booty, he will have what he intends.

You will find this type of people not being illuminated by the light of knowledge. The knowledge has no impact on their souls nor does it produce a noticeable result in their actions. Rather, the one with knowledge is only he who fears Allaah.

Then there were other people that attained knowledge and achieved positions due to it, but they oppressed people and abandoned the requisites of knowledge, thus embarking on committing major sins and lewd acts!! So woe be to them – these people are not scholars.

Some other people do not fear Allaah with regard to their knowledge, but rather engage in schemes, issuing verdicts permitting prohibited matters and reporting unauthentic and irregular narrations.

Other people show audacity before Allaah and fabricate ahaadeeth, so Allaah exposed them and their knowledge left them. So their preparation became only for the Hellfire.

All of these types of people took in a large portion of knowledge, and they excelled in it, in the general sense. Then they were succeeded by later generations that had deficiency in knowledge and action. Then there followed a people after that who ascribed themselves to knowledge outwardly but were not well-versed in it, with the exception of a few among them who thought that because of that they had become noble scholars. However, it did not cross their minds that they were gaining nearness to Allaah through it.

The reason for this is because they did not experience any teacher that was taken as a role model with regard to knowledge. So they became like savage barbarians. The biggest aim of one of their teachers was to obtain and amass costly books which they could look into on any given day. So they would misinterpret what was stated therein and not agree with it. We ask Allaah for salvation and pardon.

Some of them have stated: “I am not a scholar, nor have I seen a scholar.” [12]

This third foundation is from amongst the important principles – and it is that a student strives to make his intention purely for the sake of Allaah when seeking knowledge. Achieving sincerity is something necessary. Allaah says:

وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ
“And they were commanded not except to worship Allaah sincerely, making the worship purely for His sake.” [Surah Al-Bayyinah: 5}

As we mentioned before, seeking the religious knowledge that is required in order to properly worship Allaah is itself an act of worship and part of the implementation of Laa Ilaaha IllaaAllaah. So in summary, seeking knowledge is an act of worship that one must strive to have sincerity in whilst performing it. The Messenger of Allaah (Sall Allaahu alaihi wa Sallam) said: “Verily, actions are based on intentions. And verily, every man will have what he intends.” [13]

Based on this, we say: A student of knowledge must continuously strive to correct his intention and to make it purely for the sake of Allaah.

Someone may say: “Does this mean that I should not seek knowledge until I (first) correct my intention?”

I say: No. Rather, you should seek knowledge. But while you are seeking knowledge, you should examine yourself and rectify yourself by way of correcting your intention. If this person continues, saying: “I want to leave off seeking knowledge until I (first) correct my

I will reply by saying: This is a trap from the Devil. He has opened up for you one of the doors of good intending by that to turn you away from that which is better and greater. So therefore, you should continue and be perseverant in your search for knowledge. And you should continuously rectify yourself, for indeed your knowledge – Allaah-willing – will guide you to make your intention sincerely for the sake of Allaah.

The Salaf would say: “We sought this knowledge for other than the sake of Allaah. But the knowledge refused that it should be sought except for the sake of Allaah.”


[11] Tadhkirat-us-Saami’ wal-Mutakallim (pg. 69-70)
[12] Siyar A’laam an-Nubalaa (7/152-153)
[13] Al-Bukhaaree reported this hadeeth in his Saheeh: Book of the Beginning of Revelation (no. 1) on the authority of Umar bin Al-Khattaab (radhi Allaahu anhu) and Muslim in his Saheeh: Book of Leadership (no. 1907)

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Laying the Foundations for Seeking Knowledge : Shaikh Muhammad Baazmool

The Meaning of the “Knowledge” mentioned in the Ayaat and Ahaadeeth – Shaykh Muhammad Bazmool

AUTHOR:Shaikh Muhammad ‘Umar Bazmool
SOURCE: His treatise “At-Ta’seel fee Talab-il-‘Ilm”

The Second Foundation:

What is meant by the “knowledge” that is mentioned in the ayaat and the ahaadeeth is knowledge of the Religion. As for the universal, physical and material sciences, then these are a collective obligation.

These sciences fall under Allaah’s statement: “And prepare against them all you can of power, including steeds of war…” [Surah Al-Anfaal: 60]

They also fall under the principle: “There is no harming (of oneself) or harming others.” 

And they fall under the principle: “That which is necessary for the fulfillment of an obligation becomes itself obligatory.” 

* This principle entails the following matters:

1. The statement: “This is obligatory upon every Muslim or student of knowledge.” cannot be applied unrestrictedly to any of the types of knowledge except for the Islamic sciences. An example of this is what is known nowadays as “Knowledge of Current Affairs”, which focuses on following reports and information from newspapers and magazines, and which some people say is: “An obligatory form of knowledge that every student of knowledge is required to learn!”

2. The knowledge that the Salaf praised and which they intended in their statements is nothing else but knowledge of the Religion. This is the knowledge that was intended in statements such as that of Mu’aadh RAA, when he said: “Learn knowledge, for indeed learning it for the sake of Allaah is fear (of Him), seeking it is worship, studying it is glorification of Allaah, researching it is Jihaad, teaching it to those unaware of it is charity, and giving it out to one’s family builds ties. It is a friend in privacy, a companion in solitude, a guide in times of ease, an aide in times of difficulty, a minister to the friends (of Allaah), a close-relative to the strangers, and a lighthouse for the path to Paradise. Allaah raises people by way of it, thus making them noble leaders and chiefs in matters of good who are emulated, as well as guides to goodness whose footsteps are followed and whose deeds are highly regarded.”

So therefore, from the things that this principle entails is that: The knowledge that Allaah, His Messenger and the predecessors, such as the Sahaabah and the Taabi’een have praised is nothing else but knowledge of the Religion. As for all of the other forms of knowledge, they were not the ones intended in the praise for “knowledge” found in these ayaat, ahaadeeth and statements of the Salaf.

So knowledge of medicine, engineering, chemistry, and physics is not what was intended in the ayaat and ahaadeeth.

When we come to understand this, we must ask: “What is the ruling on learning these sciences?”

I say: It falls under the collective obligations, Acquiring knowledge of it falls under (the principle): “That which is necessary for the fulfillment of an obligation becomes itself obligatory.”

Acquiring knowledge of these sciences falls under the statement of Allaah: “And prepare against them all you can of power, including steeds of war…” [Surah Al-Anfaal: 60]

This is the ruling on these sciences. If some people take on the responsibility of learning them, the obligation becomes removed from everyone else.

What also falls under the requisites of this principle is what I mentioned to you previously – that it cannot be unrestrictedly said that these sciences or their likes are obligatory for every Muslim to know.

So for all the more reason, it is incorrect to unrestrictedly say that the knowledge of that which is associated with newspapers and magazines is from the “knowledge” that every student of knowledge is obliged to learn.

Published: November 22, 2005 | Modified: November 22, 2005

Three Required Characteristics for Seeking Knowledge -Shaykh Saalih Aali Shaikh

AUTHOR: Shaikh Saalib bin ‘Abdil-‘Azeez Aali Shaikh
SOURCE: A transcribed lecture: “Al-Manhajiyyah fee Talab-il-‘Ilm”

Tonight, we will begin with a very important and beneficial, Allaah-willing, introduction on the method of seeking knowledge. The reason for this talk is due to the great response and love for seekingp knowledge that we see from the youth, may Allaah bless them. However, many of them are not aware of the correct method for acquiring it. How should one seek knowledge? Some of them spend a long time, maybe years, seeking knowledge but they don’t achieve the level that others have achieved during that same amount of time. The reason behind this is due to his lack of adhering to the correct methodology with regard to seeking knowledge. This is the methodology by which if a student of knowledge adheres to it, he will achieve a share of what Allaah had decreed for him – a share that will benefit him; a share that is firm and established, which he will be able to convey to others in a clear and doubt-free manner.

Many of the youth read various writings – sometimes on the subjects of Hadeeth and sometimes on the subjects of Tafseer and Fiqh. They listen to and attend the gatherings of the people of knowledge. However, when they go back and examine themselves – i.e. those who have attended lectures for a year or two – they find that they have not fully understood the subject matter presented to them. Or perhaps they find that they have not acquired a lot of knowledge from this. Their attendance of lectures and lessons has not provided them with a well-founded basis of knowledge, which they can use as a way and method to follow and judge by. The reason for this is due to the lack of adhering to the correct method for seeking knowledge.

So a student of knowledge must follow a clear and defined methodology when seeking knowledge. If he fails to do so, he will divert from the correct path, which is why we see that many of them get fed-up and impatient with knowledge. They spend years studying, but then grow weary and tired and eventually give it up. Then some more years pass by and they go back to being regular common folk or reciters – something they never expected. So we would like for the new up and coming student of knowledge to abide by two characteristics:

First: He should adhere to the method of education that those people of knowledge before us adhered to, and due to which they became scholars, after having treaded upon this way.

Second: He should be prepared to sacrifice all of his time to seeking knowledge. And he must not get fed up with it regardless of what the situation is.

In his book “Al-Jaami’ Li-Akhlaaq-ir-Raawee wa Adaab as-Saami’”, Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdaadee reported: “One of the students of Hadeeth used to crave and yearn for seeking knowledge. So he would visit the elder teachers and sit in their gatherings. Then when some time had passed, he saw that he had not benefited at all and that he had not attained a great deal of knowledge. So he said: ‘I am not fit for this knowledge” and gave it up, since he thought that there was something wrong with his understanding or that he was not qualified for seeking knowledge. One day, after he had left off seeking knowledge for some time, he passed by a rock that had water falling on it, drop by drop. The continuous dripping of water had affected the rock to the point that it had made a hole in it. The man stood there for a while, contemplating and reflecting, and said: ‘This water, in spite of its softness, was able to have an effect on this rock, in spite of its hardness. And my mind and heart are not harder than this rock and neither is this knowledge any softer than the water.’ So he became determined to go back to seeking knowledge, which he did and excelled at. And he later became one of those referred to with regard to it.”

This shows you that a student of knowledge needs determination. He should not get tired and say: “I have studied and not learned anything!” Rather, he should go back to the cause. The cause is not found in his natural disposition. With regard to most of the youth or most of those who set out to seek knowledge, the cause is not that they don’t understand. Many of them do understand, but the reason why they are not able to acquire knowledge is because they have not followed the correct path and methodology, which produced the people of knowledge that came before us. This path is simple and easy, and it is easier than the paths that many of the people take today.

Once this point becomes clear, the following important question should come to mind, which is often repeated and which many of the youth continuously ask, and it is: What is the correct way for seeking knowledge? How should a student of knowledge follow this way in accordance with the methodology that will enable him to become a (true) student of knowledge and have the ability to study, if Allaah grants him success in that? This is an extremely important question. Attending the gatherings of knowledge has many benefits to it – the greatest of which is that the student of knowledge comes out from these sittings fully understanding the subjects presented to him such that he is able to make others understand what he has understood.

First: The student of knowledge must have the following necessary and binding characteristics and attributes in his quest for attaining knowledge:

1. The first and greatest of these characteristics is that he must be sincere to his Lord when seeking knowledge. This is since seeking knowledge is an act of worship and the angels, as stated in an authentic hadeeth, lower their wings for the seeker of knowledge out of contentment for what he is doing. So this act of worship must be done sincerely for Allaah’s sake in order for it to be accepted and blessed by Allaah. This means that one should not seek knowledge in order to achieve some worldly position. One should not seek religious knowledge – knowledge of the Qur’aan and Sunnah – for the sake of status or to be heard or so that he may become a teacher or a lecturer or famous or so that he can give lessons and so on. Rather, his intention behind seeking knowledge should be to worship Allaah and remove ignorance from himself. This is so that he may worship Allaah upon knowledge and clear insight.

So therefore, being sincere in seeking knowledge means that (1) one’s intention is for the sake of Allaah and not to attain some worldly position; and that (2) one intends to remove ignorance from himself. Imaam Ahmad was once asked: “How should one have sincerity with regard to knowledge?” He replied saying: “Sincerity in knowledge is that a person intends to uplift ignorance from himself. This is since a person with knowledge and a person that is very ignorant are not equal.”

Allaah says: “Is one who is obedient to Allaah, prostrating himself and standing in prayer during the hours of the night, fearing the Hereafter and hoping for the Mercy of His Lord (like one who disbelieves)? Say: Are those who know equal to those who don’t know?”[Surah Az-Zumar: 9]

And He says in Surah Al-Mujaadilah: “Allaah will raise those who believe amongst you and those who were given knowledge many levels.” [Surah Al-Mujaadilah: 11]

So Allaah has given preference to those who have knowledge over those who don’t. The person who seeks knowledge in order to worship Allaah upon clarity and to remove ignorance from himself and so that he can live his life in accordance with what Allaah has legislated – this is the one who is truly sincere (in his search for knowledge). He is sincere because his intention was for the sake of Allaah. His intention was to free himself from being a follower of desires and from being ignorant and a blind follower.

Sincerity is the first of these conditions and the primary characteristic and attribute that the student of knowledge must have. The proper characteristics and attributes one should have are many, such that numerous books and writings, big and small, have been authored on them. However, we will only mention from those characteristics, those that concern us in this discussion.

Second: One must apply gentleness and proceed in a slow and calm manner in his search for knowledge. This is since the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) informed us, in general terms, saying: “Verily, Allaah loves gentleness in every affair.” Seeking knowledge falls under this in the general sense. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) also said: “Gentleness does not enter something except that it beautifies it.” Knowledge and studying fall under this.

What does it mean to “apply gentleness?” It means that one should not seek to achieve knowledge all at once, as Ibn Shihaab Az-Zuhree, the famous Imaam from the Taabi’een, once said: “Whoever seeks to attain knowledge in one shot, it will leave from him in one shot. Rather, knowledge is to be sought with the passage of days and nights.”

A poet elaborated more on this understanding, saying:

“Knowledge today and tomorrow the same,
By doing this a man will attain wisdom,
Through choosing knowledge, which is to be gathered,
Since a stream is nothing more than a collection of droplets.”

So gentleness is something that is required. But how is this gentleness to be applied? It is by not desiring to attain knowledge all at once, i.e. in one shot. For example, a person wishes to gain knowledge of Tafseer, so he goes and reads the “Tafseer” of Ibn Jareer. The Tafseer of Ibn Jareer contains all aspects of Tafseer. So this person has sought to attain knowledge all at once. It is not possible for one to “start” and “finish” the Tafseer of Ibn Jareer. And if you were to ask him a question regarding it, nothing from the Tafseer would stick to his mind except for a small portion. He remembers that he read this and that he read that. But he will not be able to properly explain to you the meaning of a verse in the manner that is necessary. So then how is this gentleness to be applied? It is by seeking knowledge in gradual stages – this is the way that must be adhered to.

Likewise, we have the example of a man who intends to study the Science of Hadeeth, so he goes to the book “Nail-ul-Awtaar”, and begins with that, or he goes to “Fat’h-ul-Baaree” and says: “That’s it. I finished one chapter from Fat’h-ul-Baaree.” You should know that this type of person will never achieve the level of understanding that the people of knowledge are upon. He may become well-versed or an informed reader having scattered bits of information. But this is not the knowledge that serves as a foundation and which afterward will propel the one who has it to the level of a scholar, if Allaah so grants it.

The same goes for Fiqh. What have you read concerning Fiqh? He says: “I am reading “Al-Mughnee” or “I am reading the “Majmoo’(-ul-Fataawaa).” It can be honestly said that this person has not applied gentleness in his search for knowledge. He has sought to attain knowledge all at once. “Al-Mughnee” and “Al-Majmoo’” as well as the other larger works – the only ones who should preoccupy themselves with the (Fuqh) issues contained in them are the people of knowledge. As for the beginning student of knowledge, he should not read it from beginning to end. No doubt, he will at some point need to conduct research on a specific issue, in which case he will have to refer to the larger works. However, he should not read these books thoroughly as if he were reading through a novel.

Also, from the requisites of gentleness is that a student of knowledge should not preoccupy himself with the complex intricate issues. This is since, if while seeking knowledge, he preoccupies himself with intricate issues and complex subjects, he will eventually forget it and never acquire knowledge. The reason for this is because he has not established the proper foundation by which he can understand these complex and intricate (Fiqh) issues. Some of us go to classes that deal with extremely complex issues in which the students spend numerous long years and still have not finished it or they spend months on just one chapter alone, and so on, and they think that they have acquired knowledge. No. This is not the correct way since they has have not applied gentleness. And Allaah, the Mighty and Sublime, says: “But rather, be you Rabbaaniyeen (learned men) because of your teaching the Book and studying it.” [Surah Aali ‘Imraan: 79]

Concerning the part of the ayah: “Be you Rabbaaniyeen”, Abu ‘Abdillaah Al-Bukhaaree, may Allaah have mercy on him, interpreted it by saying: “The Rabbaanee is he who nurtures the people using the smaller aspects of knowledge before the bigger ones.” So this person who is well-versed in knowledge and teaching is he who raises the people upon the smaller aspects of knowledge before the bigger ones.

It is honorable for an instructor or student of knowledge, when teaching, to mention everything he knows about a specific issue. After preparing his lesson, he should mention everything that he remembers on the subject. This is an honorable characteristic. However, this is not beneficial for the one who is teaching since he is reviewing what he knows. The person with knowledge should only deliver what the audience needs. He should not deliver to the audience that which is over their level.

So one must apply gentleness – How should this gentleness be? The reply to this will come when we explain the correct method of seeking knowledge, and that is by seeking knowledge in stages.

Third: He must be persistent in his search for knowledge, giving it the dearest and sweetest parts of his time, and not the dead and lifeless parts of it. So if an individual reserves for knowledge and classes the times in which his mind is exhausted and his understanding is weak, he has opposed the correct method of seeking knowledge and is not being sincere to himself.

So therefore, you should give knowledge the best moments of your time, in which your mind is clear, strong and unoccupied. However, this will only happen if there is something else accompanying it. And that is when the student of knowledge is engulfed in knowledge day and night. He wakes up in the morning with knowledge filling his mind and he passes the evening in the same manner. His life revolves around knowledge.

When he wants to sleep, he has a book next to him, which he may need to reference for a particular (Fiqh) issue. This is why some of the scholars say: “If you see the books of a student of knowledge neatly arranged in order, then know that he has abandoned (reading) them.” If you pay an unexpected visit to a person and enter his library to find his books neatly arranged – each book in its proper place – this means that he does not look into them. There is no book on the floor, nor is there any book beside him, and if he has a table, there are no books on top of it – this indicates that he reserves a particular time for “reading”, as done by some hired educators. There is no such thing as ”study time” for the student of knowledge! This is because all of his time is spent in seeking knowledge. In the morning and in the evening, his mind is preoccupied with the various issues of knowledge.

The best period of time in a person’s life in which he can acquire knowledge is in the period of his adolescence. This is when he can devote all of his time to it. He should distribute his time for the various aspects of knowledge, leaving the best portions of it in which his memory is strong to the sciences that require the mind to be overworked, such as the sciences of Jurisprudence (Fiqh), Fundamental Principles (Usool), Grammar (Nahu) and so on. As for normal times, he should reserve that for subjects that do not require his mind to be overworked, such as the subjects of Interpreting the Qur’aan (Tafseer), Narrations (Hadeeth), Terminology of the Hadeeth (Mustalah) and so on. And the times in which his comprehension is at the weakest level, he should use for reading books on etiquettes, books on narrators, the biographies of narrators, history and so on – general learning.

So he is constantly preoccupied wherever he is. He is always busy with seeking knowledge. No amusement or company can deter him from that. This is why we see that the biggest mistake that some who think that they are students of knowledge commit is that they spend long hours in gatherings engaged in he said/she said talk and speech that does not result in knowledge. He will not become a student of knowledge this way. Rather, he will become something else depending on what he preoccupies his time with.

As for the student of knowledge, then his hopes, desires and aspirations are all preoccupied with seeking knowledge. The gathering in which there occurs discussions on seeking knowledge and a clarification of what Allaah has revealed in His Book or what the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) has stated – this is the place in which one can open his heart and broaden his mind. Or it could be in a place of education or in a place where there is an explanation of the knowledge that Allaah revealed. This is the place where the heart finds ease and relaxation.

So therefore, from the required characteristics that a student of knowledge must have is that he constantly engulf himself with knowledge. He should not give knowledge some of his time. Rather, he should give all of his time to it or a portion of it, such as the period of his adolescence – the period in which it is easy for one to acquire knowledge. This is why some of the predecessors would say: “Give knowledge all of yourself, and it will give you some of itself.” This is since knowledge is vast and its aspects are numerous and diverse. This is why when one of the Imaams of Hadeeth was on his deathbed, he would still be narrating hadeeth, telling his scribe to write it down – knowledge that was obtained even in a situation such as this.

This shows you the extent of his sincerity, following (of the Religion) and the fact that his heart was engulfed in knowledge. When Imaam Ahmad was suffering from his final sickness, at times, he would feel pain and groan out loud. So when one of his students came and heard him, he narrated to him with a chain of narration from Muhammad bin Sireen that Anas bin Maalik (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) used to consider it detested (makrooh) to groan. After that, he did not hear Ahmad groan again until he passed away.

This mentality on the part of the student and the teacher is that which will enable the student of knowledge, through the Grace of Allaah, to become a scholar in the future, if Allaah wills. And this is the mentality which will enable him to benefit and cause him to always be preoccupied with knowledge – day and night, he is learning. He should not look down upon a point of benefit that comes to him by way of someone that is young in age or old in age. Some people receive points of benefit from individuals that are younger than them (in age and knowledge), and so they feel arrogant towards him or they don’t give that point their full attention. The reason for this is because they have elevated themselves over the knowledge. And when one elevates himself over knowledge, he will not be from those who are able to acquire it.

Rather, a younger or smaller person may have some knowledge that an older or bigger person doesn’t. And likewise one who is younger or smaller may understand some aspects of knowledge whereas one who is older and bigger may not. But if he explains it to him, he should benefit from it. The scholars have mentioned a clear example for this, which is the story of prophet Sulaymaan and the hoopoe bird. Even though the hoopoe bird was lowly in terms of stature and composure and Sulaymaan was elevated in terms of stature, composure and position in the sight of Allaah and before all of creation, the hoopoe bird said to him: “I have grasped knowledge of something that you have not grasped. And I have come to you from Saba’ (Sheba) with certain news.” [Surah An-Naml: 22]

So the hoopoe bird knew something that Sulayman was unaware of. The people of knowledge have derived from this story that you should not be arrogant with someone that brings you a point of benefit (from knowledge), regardless if he is young and lowly or old and prominent.

These three characteristics are extremely important for the student of knowledge. There are other characteristics besides these, as I mentioned before to you, which you should look up in the books that were written about this subject.

Published: November 10, 2005 | Modified: November 15, 2005

The Ways of Maintaining Knowledge – Shaykh Muhammad Bazmool

AUTHOR: Shaikh Muhammad ‘Umar Bazmool
SOURCE: His book “At-Ta’seel fee Talab al-‘Ilm” (pg. 29-31)

The Seventh Foundation: The Ways of Maintaining Knowledge

From the most significant ways of upholding and preserving knowledge is: (1) Acting on it, (2) teaching it to others, and (3) writing concerning it.

These three principles have been indicated in Allaah’s statement: “By the time. Verily, mankind is at loss – Except for those who believe and do righteous deeds and mutually advise one another towards truth and mutually advise one another towards patience.” [Surah Al-‘Asr]

Allaah has ruled that all of mankind is at loss, but then makes an exception to this for those who believe, so long as they remain believers. This is since they have acquired beneficial knowledge, then acted on it, then called others to this action and to the beneficial knowledge that is with them. So the most important way of consolidating knowledge is acting upon it, teaching it to others and writing about it.

Acting upon one’s knowledge is one of the most significant ways by which knowledge can become firmly rooted in a person. Rather, this is the primary objective for seeking knowledge. It has been reported on the Salaf that they used to say: “Knowledge summons actions, so if it does not respond, it departs.”

Wakee’ said: “We would seek assistance for memorizing hadeeth, by acting upon them.” [1]

What falls under the subject of acting upon knowledge is the talk about one’s abandonment of committing sins and acts of disobedience. This is since falling into these acts contradicts everything that knowledge mandates.

There are some famous verses that elaborate this understanding further:

“I complained to Wakee’ about my poor memory
So he advised me to abandon sins
And he informed me that knowledge is a virtue
And Allaah’s virtue is not given to a sinner.” 

Muhammad bin an-Nadr Al-Haarithee said: “It used to be said that the first instruction (for knowledge) was: Remaining silent for it (i.e. knowledge), then listening to it, then memorizing it, then acting upon it, then spreading it.”

Sufyaan said: “The scholar does not argue nor does he flatter (others). He only spreads the wisdom of Allaah. If it is accepted from him, he praises Allaah. And if it is rejected, he praises Allaah.” [2]

Jaabir reported: “Learn to remain silent, then learn to be refrained, then acquire knowledge, then learn to act on it, then spread it.” [3]

They would also be eager to act upon the ahaadeeth that would reach them from Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), even if there did not appear any directive towards worship in them. This was only done because of their attempt to follow the chosen one (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

‘Abdur-Rahmaan bin Mahdee reported: I heard Sufyaan say: “No hadeeth from the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was ever conveyed to me except that I acted upon it, even if it was just once.” [4]

And Ahmad bin Hanbal, may Allaah have mercy on him, said: “I never wrote down a hadeeth except that I acted upon it. This was such that it reached me that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was cupped (Hijaamah) and gave Abu Tayyibah a deenar. So I gave the blood-cupper a deenar when he cupped me.” [5]

So when a person is sincere with knowledge and acts upon it, his aspiration is for the Hereafter and he walks upon the earth in humility.

Ibraaheem bin Adham said: “Whoever seeks knowledge with true sincerity, in order to benefit the servants of Allaah with it and benefit himself, being unknown will be more beloved to him than being arrogant. This is what will cause him to increase in humility with regard to himself, exertion with regard to worship, fear from Allaah, longing for Him, and humbleness in front of the people – not caring for what goes on in the day and night of this worldly life.” [6]

Teaching knowledge also helps one to maintain it. This does not mean that one should actively seek to put himself forward before he is ready. Rather, what it means is that he strives to mutually confer his knowledge and give it to those colleagues who ask him about it, as well as those below him. So he teaches them and repeatedly holds lessons with them. This does not mean that he rushes to be their shaikh (teacher) or seeks leadership before his due time, for indeed these are from the great dangers, as the saying goes: “He becomes a raisin before becoming a dried grape.” And Ash-Shaafi’ee said: “If the young person is put in a leadership role, he is deprived of much good.”

Authoring on knowledge means that you write down the issues, arranging them in order and providing research for them based on the foundation of evidence. And it means that you collect the statements of the people of knowledge on every issue, writing them down and putting them in order, whilst avoiding the strange and irregular ones among them, in your earnest attempt to search for the truth.

We don’t mean by a student preoccupying himself with authoring that he strives hard in writing a book and giving it out to the people, since the student, at this stage, has not reached this level yet. Rather, he should present his books and writings to the scholars as well as those above him and those who preceded him in seeking knowledge, for the purpose of seeking their advice and heeding their statements and instructions. What is intended here is that writing down knowledge helps one to memorize and remember knowledge and its issues.


[1] Siyar A’alaam an-Nubalaa (6/228)
[2] Shu’ab-ul-Eemaan (2/288)
[3] Shu’ab-ul-Eemaan (2/288)
[4] Siyar A’alaam an-Nubalaa (7/242)
[5] Siyar A’alaam an-Nubalaa (11/213)
[6] Shu’ab-ul-Eemaan (2/288)

Published: July 17, 2005 | Modified: July 17, 2005

Brief Advice to Students of Knowledge – Imaam ibn Baaz

All praise be to Allaah and may the peace and blessings be on His Messenger, our Prophet Muhammad, his family and companions.

There is no doubt that seeking knowledge is from the most virtuous acts of worship. And it is from the causes that bring about the success of Paradise and honor for those who act on it. From the most important of matters, is that one have sincerity in his search for knowledge, and this is by making his studying for the sake of Allaah and not for any other objective. This is because this is the way for one to derive benefit from it and a means for successfully attaining the highest of positions in this world and the next.

It is reported in the Hadeeth that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Whoever learns some knowledge, by which Allaah’s Face is sought, but he doesn’t learn it except to achieve some worldly goal by it, he will not smell the fragrance of Paradise on the Day of Judgement.” – Reported by Abu Dawood with a hasan (sound) chain of narration.

At-Timidhee reported a hadeeth with a chain in which there is some weakness, that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Whoever seeks knowledge to compete with the scholars or to debate with the ignorant ones or so that the people’s faces can turn towards him, then Allaah will enter him into the Hellfire.”

So I advise every student of knowledge and every Muslim to have sincerity with Allaah in all of their actions, acting on the words of Allaah:

“So whoever hopes for meeting his Lord, then let him do righteous deeds and not mix anyone (or thing) with the worship of His Lord.” [Surah Al-Kahf: 110]

In Saheeh Muslim, the Prophet is reported to have said: “Allaah said: ‘I am the most free of all those who are mixed in worship with Me from shirk. Whoever does a deed in which he mixes someone else along with Me (in the worship), I abandon him and his shirk.'”

Likewise, I advise the student of knowledge and every Muslim to fear Allaah and to acknowledge that Allaah is watching Him in every matter, acting on Allaah’s statement:

“Verily those who fear their Lord with the unseen (i.e. they do not see Him), they will have forgiveness and a great reward.” [Surah Al-Mulk: 12]

And His saying: “And whoever fears the position of His Lord will have two Gardens.” [Surah Ar-Rahmaan: 46]

Some of the Salaf said: “The pinnacle of knowledge is fear of Allaah.” And ‘Abdullaah Ibn Mas’ood (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) said: “It is sufficient as knowledge that one fear Allaah. And it is sufficient as ignorance that one is deceived about this.” And some of the Salaf said: “Whoever is the most knowledgeable about Allaah, he is the most fearing of Him.” What indicates the correctness of this understanding is the saying of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam): “As for me, by Allaah, I am the most fearing of Allaah amongst you and the most dutiful (having Taqwaa) to Him amongst you.” – Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim.

So every time the servant’s knowledge of Allaah becomes strengthened, this is a means for the perfection of his Taqwaa and Ikhlaas, and his stopping at the limits (set by Allaah), and his refraining from sinful acts. This is why Allaah said: “Verily, only those who fear Allaah from His servants are the knowledgeable ones (i.e. the scholars).” [Surah Al-Faatir: 28]

So the ones who are knowledgeable of Allaah and His Religion, they are the ones who fear Him the most and who are the most dutiful to him from amongst the people. At the head of them are the messengers and prophets, ‘alayhim as-Salaam, and then those that follow them in goodness.

This is why the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) informed us that from the signs of success is that the servant of Allaah acquires fiqh (or understanding) of the Religion, as He said: “Whoever Allaah wants good for, He gives him understanding of the Religion.” – Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim from the hadeeth of Mu’awiyah (radyAllaahu ‘anhu). This is for no other reason except due to the fact that understanding of the Religion will prompt the servant to establish Allaah’s Commandments, to fear Him and to carry out His obligations and to stay away from those things that draw His displeasure. And it will call him towards good manners and righteous actions and in being sincere to Allaah and His servants.

So I ask Allaah that He grant us and all the students of knowledge, as well as all the Muslims, understanding of His Religion and perseverance upon it. And I ask that He grant us refuge from the evils of our souls and the evils of our actions. Indeed He is in charge of that and able to carry it out.

Published: July 16, 2005 | Modified: July 16, 2005

Obstacles in the Path of Seeking Knowledge – Shaykh Muhammad Bazmool

The Sixth Foundation: Obstacles in the Path of Seeking Knowledge

Since knowledge is a path that leads towards Paradise, and Paradise is surrounded by many dangers, this means that the path of knowledge is also surrounded by many dangers. So there are many things in it that the evilly-inclined soul dislikes.

And since knowledge facilitates the path to Paradise, and the Devil has made a covenant that he will cut off the path to Paradise, then indeed, the path of knowledge is a path in which the Devil places what deceptions he can in order to divert the person on the path away from his objective.

The origins for sins lie in three things: greed, jealousy and pride.

It was greed that cast our father Aadam out from Paradise. This is what the Devil whispered to him when he saw his eagerness for Paradise: “Then the Devil whispered suggestions to them both in order to uncover that which was hidden from them (before) of their private parts. He said (to them): ‘Your Lord did not forbid you from this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals.’ And he (the Devil) swore by Allaah to them both (saying): ‘Verily, I am one of the sincere well-wishers for you both.’” [Surah Al-A’raaf: 20]

“Then the Devil whispered to him saying: ‘O Aadam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away?’” [Surah TaHa: 120]

It was jealousy that caused the enmity to occur between the two sons of Aadam, when they both brought sacrificial offerings and it was accepted from one of them but not from the other, who then raised his hand to kill the other one out of jealousy.

It was pride that brought Iblees into disbelief: “And (remember) when We said to the angels: ‘Prostrate to Aadam.’ So they all prostrated except for Iblees – he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 35]

Since these three things are the foundations for all sin, and all offenses can be traced back to them, then indeed the distractions and obstacles of seeking knowledge can also be traced back to them!

Examples of this are as follows:

1. A student’s greed for knowledge – if he doesn’t pay attention to his other rights – may cause him to eventually abandon and squander knowledge. There are several scenarios for this, such as:

– When a student crams his daily schedule with acquiring knowledge, thus preoccupying himself with it every day, attending numerous classes and study circles. So his body does not rest, whereas your soul indeed has a right over you and your body also has a right over you. So you must give everything that has a right (over you) its due right.

– Greed may also bring a student to change from one form of knowledge to another before having completed the first one. By doing this, he deprives himself of having the correct understanding and command of both forms of knowledge. An example of this is when a student starts studying a book, then hears about another class in a different place, so he leaves off from finishing the first book with the instructor and goes to the other class.

All of this is as a result of greed. On the outset, this is good but it can lead to the opposite of what was intended. This reminds me of a statement made by one of the Salaf: “Verily, the Devil opens ninety-nine doors from the doors of good, just so that he can place you into one door from the doors of evil.”

Ibn Shihaab Az-Zuhree, may Allaah have mercy on him, once said to Yoonus bin Yazeed: “O Yoonus! Do not strive to surpass knowledge, for knowledge is like river basins – whichever of them you set out after, it will cut you off before you can reach it. Rather, you must take it with (the passage of) days and nights. And you must not take knowledge all at once for indeed whoever seeks to attain it all at once, it will leave him all at once. Rather, knowledge must be taken step by step, with (the passage of) days and nights.” [1]

2. Jealousy can prevent a student of knowledge from acquiring knowledge. Examples of this are:

– When a student envies his colleagues over seeking knowledge and lacks understanding over an issue. So he stubbornly refrains from asking them because he is jealous of them. So he doesn’t research or study with them, whereas the thing that gives knowledge life is consulting and reminding one another about it. Therefore, this deprives him from seeking knowledge.

– When a student envies his professor or teacher for what he has and as a result rebels against him in his class and doesn’t want him to teach and benefit the other students. So he feels that there is no difference between him and his teacher. This also prevents him from acquiring knowledge.

– When a person feels jealous of his colleagues because of their level of understanding and desire to learn, so he causes disturbances in the class to the point that he deprives them of the ability to benefit, out of jealousy. But he in fact is only depriving himself by doing this.

3. Pride can also prevent the student of knowledge from learning and education. Examples of this are:

– Perhaps Allaah has granted someone the ability to attain knowledge. But the envious arrogant person considers him to be lower than himself, so as a result of this, he doesn’t learn from him.

– Pride can prevent a person from seeking to learn something he doesn’t understand or from asking his teacher about it in order to understand it. In fact, seeking knowledge primarily due to pride can prevent him from sitting in the gatherings of the students of knowledge in front of shuyookh(teachers).

– A person may be jealous of his colleagues and thus refrain haughtily from asking them and trying to learn from them those issues he has difficulty with or those subjects he was not present for.

Al-Bayhaqee reported in Shu’ab-ul-Eemaan from Abu Haazim that he said: “You cannot be a scholar until you have three characteristics in you: (!) Do not transgress over those above you, (2) Do not look down with contempt at those below you, and (3) Do not take the worldly life in exchange for your knowledge.”

– Pride may lead a person to boast, make pretentious claims, and to argue with others, and these are things that are prohibited in the Religion. Jaabir bin ‘Abdillaah (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Do not acquire knowledge for the sake of competing with the scholars or to argue with the foolish or to take control over a gathering, for whoever does that, then (for him will be) the Hellfire, the Hellfire.” [2]


[1] Jaami’ Bayaan-il-‘Ilm wa Fadlihi (1/138)

[2] Shu’ab-ul-Eemaan (2/288)

Read the full eBook :
Laying the Foundations for Seeking Knowledge : Shaikh Muhammad Baazmool

The Categorization of People with Regard to Knowledge – Shaykh Muhammad Bazmool

AUTHOR:Shaikh Muhammad ‘Umar Bazmool
SOURCE: At-Ta’seel fee Talab-il-‘Ilm

The Ninth Foundation:

People are divided into two categories with respect to knowledge: (1) Those who know, and (2) those who don’t know.

Those who don’t know are obligated to ask the people of knowledge and accept their statements, while expending what effort they can in order to know the proofs and evidences.

Allaah says: “And We did not send before you anyone except men that we gave revelation to. So ask the people of remembrance (knowledge) if you don’t know. With clear signs and books (We sent the Messengers). And We also sent down unto you the Reminder (i.e. Sunnah) so that you may explain clearly to the people what was revealed to them (i.e. the Qur’aan), and that they may give thought.”[Surah An-Nahl: 43-44]

The one who knows the religious ruling on an issue, based on its evidences, is from those who know. So he is a person of knowledge (‘aalim).

And whoever takes the opinion of someone else without knowing its proof, he is a blind-follower (muqallid), and not a person of knowledge. Ibn ‘Abdil-Barr relayed the consensus (Ijmaa’) that the blind-follower – who is the one who accepts the opinion of someone else without knowing its evidence – is not from the scholars.

And as for the one who knows an issue based on its evidence, while investigating the different views and proofs used on the issue, while taking the view that appears most correct to him, then he is aMujtahid.

As for the one who has knowledge of an issue based on its evidences, meaning that he has accepted the view for which the proofs are most convincing to him on that issue, without making efforts into examining or looking into the other (differing) opinions. So he only has knowledge of the most correct view based on its evidences. This person is a follower (muttabi’).

If the Mujtahid is one who abides by this methodology in all of the issues of knowledge and doesn’t restrict himself to just looking into the principles of one specific madh-hab, then this person is an absolute Mujtahid.

If he limits himself to investigating an issue by only looking into the principles of one particular madh-hab, then he is a limited Mujtahid.

So if his condition is that he performs Ijtihaad in all of the issues of the Religion, then he is a completeMujtahid.

And if his condition is Ijtihaad in just some issues, apart from others, then he is a partial Mujtahid. So with regard to an issue, a person can be a Mujtahid implementing partial Ijtihaad, and some another issue he could be a muttabi’ (follower), and yet in another issue, he could be a muqallid (blind-follower). This varies according to what is easy for him during the occurrence of an event that this issue relates to.

One must also beware of opinions. This refers to statements in the Religion of Allaah that have no authentic or considerable evidences.

You must also know, my brother, that the Qur’aan and the Sunnah serve as the foundation for opinion and they act as the standard by which opinion is determined. The opinion is not the standard used to determine the Sunnah. Rather, the Sunnah is the standard used to determine the opinion. So whoever doesn’t know the foundation will never attain the branch.

Ibn Wahb said: Maalik narrated to me that Iyyaas bin Mu’aawiyah said to Rabee’ah: “When something is built upon crookedness, it will never be able to straighten itself.” Maalik said: “He means by this, the Muftee that speaks based on a foundation, which he builds his speech on.” [1]

Ash-Shaafi’ee, may Allaah have mercy on him, said: “Whoever learns the Qur’aan, his value becomes magnified. And whoever speaks about Fiqh, his status becomes increased. And whoever records Hadeeth, his arguments become strengthened. And whoever looks into accounting, his views will become unerring. And whoever does not maintain himself, his knowledge will not benefit him.” [2]

Ibn Hibbaan, may Allaah have mercy on him, said: “Verily, in adhering to his Sunnah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) there is the most complete form of salvation and the most comprehensive form of nobility. Its lights cannot be doused nor can its arguments be refuted. Whoever adheres to it will be protected, and whoever opposes it will be condemned. This is since it is the stronghold and the firm support, whose merit is clear and whose rope is solid. Whoever holds onto it prevails and whoever opposes it becomes destroyed. So those who stick to it will be successful in the next life and blessed amongst the creatures in the present life.” [3]


[1] Jaami’ Bayaan-il-‘Ilm wa Fadlihi (2/166-172) with some very light abridgement and adaptions.

[2] Siyar A’alaam-in-Nubalaa: 10/24

[3] Saheeh Ibn Hibbaan (Al-Ihsaan): 1/86

Published: September 18, 2004 | Modified: September 18, 2004

The Effect of the Knowledge & Guidance the Messenger of Allaah came with – Shaykh Rabee

By Shaykh Rabee’ bin Haadee al-Madkhalee
Taken from Mudhakkirah al-Hadeeth an-Nabawee

Abu Moosaa al-Ash’aree (radee Allaahu `anhu) reported that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:

“The example of the guidance and knowledge that Allaah sent me with is like the example of abundant rain that fell upon the earth, some of which was fertile soil that absorbed the water and brought forth vegetation and grass in abundance; and some of which was hard earth that held the water, and Allaah benefited the people through it. So they drank from it, let their animals drink from it and used it for cultivation. And some of the rain fell upon another portion of the land that was barren and it neither held the water nor brought forth vegetation.

The first is the example of the person that comprehends Allaah’s Religion and benefits (from the knowledge) that Allaah sent me with, so he learns and then teaches others.

The last example is that of a person who does not care for it and does not accept the guidance of Allaah that I was sent with.”

(Reported by Al-Bukhaaree [1], Muslim [2] and Ahmad [3])

Narrator of the Hadeeth: He is Abu Moosaa al-Ash’aree, `Abdullaah bin Qais bin Saleem bin Hidaar, the well-known Companion. He migrated to Makkah, then to Abyssinia, then to Madeenah. The Messenger of Allaah put him in charge of one district of Yemen. He was courageous, a scholar and a doer of good deeds. `Umar bin Al-Khattaab appointed him as governor over Koofah and Basrah. He conquered Ahwaaz, Asbahaan and a number of other lands. He died in 50H.

Vocabulary in the Hadeeth:

Mathal: (Example) what is meant by it here is an amazing resemblance not a proverbial statement.

Hudaa: (Guidance) means that which leads one to what is being sought

Ghaith Katheer: abundant rain

Naqiyyah: (fertile) means pure and fresh as occurs in another narration of the hadeeth

Kala’: (vegetation) is applicable to both wet and dry vegetation

`ushb: (grass) refers to fresh produce

Ajaadib: (hard earth) is the plural of jadab and it means the land that is solid and which doesn’t absorb water

Qi’aan: (barren land) is the plural of qaa’, which means a straight and smooth plain (land) that doesn’t produce vegetation.

An Explanation of this Parable:

The Prophet (sall-Allaahu `alayhi wa sallam) put forth an example likening what he came with from the Religion to the common rain, which comes to the people in the circumstance when they need it. Such was the circumstance with the people before the Prophet’s advent. So just as Allaah brings life to the dead earth through rain water, then such is the case with Allaah’s revelation, with which He brings life to the dead hearts.

Allaah says: “Is he who was dead and We gave him life and set for him a light whereby he can walk amongst men – like he who is in the darkness from which he can never come out?” [Soorah Al-An’aam: 122]

The light here refers to the light of revelation and the darkness refers to the darkness of ignorance, disbelief and misguidance.

Then the Prophet (sall-Allaahu `alayhi wa sallam) likened those who hear what (guidance) he came with to the various type of earth, which rain falls upon.

1. So from among them is the scholar and doer of deeds, who teaches others. He bears the status of fresh earth that intakes the water and benefits itself with it and then produces vegetation thereby benefiting others.

2. And from among them is the one who gathers knowledge and strives to attain it, but doesn’t act upon its requirements or he doesn’t understand what he has gathered. However, he passes it on to others. So he bears the status of the earth upon which water settles, and which the people benefit from by using.

This type of person was indicated by the Prophet (sall-Allaahu `alayhi wa sallam) in his saying: “May Allaah brighten (the face) of a man that hears a statement from me, retains it in memory and then passes it on just as he heard it.” [4]

3. And from among them is he who hears the knowledge but doesn’t preserve it or act upon it or pass it along to others. So it bears the status of the smooth barren land that neither intakes water nor passes it onto others.

He (sall-Allaahu `alayhi wa sallam) only joined the first two praiseworthy groups in this parable due to their sharing in giving off benefit. And he singled out the third condemned group due to there being no benefit in it.

So take hold of the prophetic knowledge my brother and act upon it, Allaah will raise you due to it.

Allaah says: “Allaah will raise those who believe amongst you and those who have been given knowledge many levels.” [Soorah Al-Mujaadilah: 11]

And Allaah says: “Say: Are those who have knowledge equal to those who do not have knowledge?” [Soorah Az-Zumar: 9]

And stick to acting upon it and calling to it, as Allaah says: “And who is better in speech than the one who calls to Allaah and does righteous deeds and says: Indeed I am among the Muslims.” [Soorah Fussilat: 33]

And yearn to be from the first category, from those who accept this light (knowledge) that the Prophet Muhammad (sall-Allaahu `alayhi wa sallam) brought, for Allaah will put light into your heart due to it and bring life to it. The correct and good livelihood cannot come to be except with it (i.e. this knowledge).

And beware of being from the third category, from those who do not accept the guidance of Allaah nor have any concern for it.

Benefits from the Hadeeth:

1. The magnificence of the guidance and knowledge that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu `alayhi wa sallam) came with, which is the Qur’aan and the Sunnah and their effect in the lives of people.

2. People are in various levels with respect to their willingness to either accept or reject what the Messenger came with. People have different natures.

3. The virtue of knowledge, teaching and spreading good to the people.

4. The danger of turning away from what the Messenger of Allaah (sall-Allaahu `alayhi wa sallam) came with from the Book and the Sunnah from one aspect. This turning away (from knowledge) indicates the malicious natures of these opposers and their low status in the sight of Allaah.


[1] Book of Knowledge: Chapter on the Virtue of the one who learns and teaches (no. 79)

[2] Book of Virtues: (no. 15), (2282)

[3] (4/399)

[4] Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/230)

The Disapproval of Acquiring Knowledge for other than the Sake of Worship – Imaam Abu Bakr Al-Baghdaadee

AUTHOR: Imaam Abu Bakr Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdaadee
SOURCE: Iqtida-ul-‘Ilm-ul-‘Amal (pg. 77-79)

A selected chapter from the classic treatise Iqtidaa-ul-‘Ilm-ul-‘Amal (Knowledge Mandates Action) by Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdaadee (D. 463H), may Allaah have mercy on him:

[119] Abu Sa’eed Muhammad bin Moosaa bin Al-Fadl bin Shaadhaan As-Sayrafee informed us in Naisapur: Abul-‘Abbaas Muhammad bin Ya’qoob Al-Asam narrated to us: Al-‘Abbaas bin Al-Waleed bin Mazeed Al-Bayrootee informed us, saying: My father informed me: Al-Awzaa’ee narrated to us, saying: “I have been informed that it used to be said:

‘Woe to those who acquire (religious) knowledge for other than the sake of worship and to those who permit the unlawful due to doubtful arguments.”

[120] Al-Hasan bin ‘Alee Al-Jawharee informed us: Muhammad bin Al-‘Abbaas Al-Kharraaz narrated to us: Yahyaa bin Muhammad bin Saa’id narrated to us: Al-Husayn bin Al-Hasan Al-Marwazee narrated to us, saying: Ibn Al-Mubaarak informed us, saying: Bakaar bin ‘Abdillaah informed us, saying: I heard Wahb bin Munabbih say:

“Allaah, the Most High, said in His censure of the Rabbis (scholars) from amongst the Children of Israa’eel (i.e. Jews): ‘Will you learn for other than the sake of the Religion, and acquire knowledge for other than the sake of acting on it? Will you purchase the worldly life using deeds (meant) for the Hereafter? You wear the skins of sheep yet conceal (within yourselves) the souls of wolves. You quickly clean the filth that falls into your drinks yet you readily swallow the equivalent of mountains from the unlawful. You make the Religion burdensome upon the people like the weight of mountains, and you don’t assist them by even lifting up your pinky fingers. You prolong the prayer and whiten the garments. You illegally seize the wealth of the orphan and the widow. By My might, I swear that I will indeed strike you with a calamity in which the opinion of every opinionative person and the wisdom of every wise person (amongst you) will be led astray.’”

[121] Al-Hasan bin Abee Bakr informed us, saying: ‘Uthmaan bin Ahmad Ad-Daqaaq informed us: Al-Hasan bin Salaam narrated to us: Abu Nu’aim narrated to us: Abul-Jaabiyah narrated to us: Al-Farraa’ narrated to us, saying: Ash-Sha’abee said:

“Verily, we are not Fuqahaa (men of understanding). We merely listen to the Hadeeth and then narrate it (to others). Rather, the Fuqahaa are those who when they know something, act upon it.”

[122] Al-Hasan bin Muhammad Al-Khallaal narrated to us: ‘Umar bin Ahmad, the Admonisher, narrated to us: ‘Abdullaah bin Muhammad bin Ziyaad narrated to us: Al-‘Abbaas bin Al-Waleed bin Mazeed narrated to us, saying: My father narrated to us, saying: I heard Al-Awzaa’ee say:

“When Allaah desires evil for a people, He opens the door of argumentation for them and prevents them from (doing good) deeds.”

[123] Abu ‘Abdillaah Al-Husayn bin Ja’far As-Salmaasee informed us, saying: Ahmad bin Ibraheem bin Shaadhaan informed us: Ahmad bin Muhammad bin ‘Abdil-Kareem Al-Wasaawasee narrated to us: ‘Abdullaah bin Khubaiq narrated to us, saying: I heard Ibraaheem Al-Bakaa say: I heard Ma’roof bin Fayrooz Al-Kurkhee say:

“When Allaah intends good for a servant, He opens for him the door of actions and closes for him the door of argumentation. And when Allaah intends evil for a servant, He opens for him the door of argumentation and closes for him the door of actions.”

[124] Abul-Qaasim ‘Ubaydullaah bin ‘Umar bin Ahmad, the Admonisher, informed us, saying: My father narrated to me, saying: ‘Alee bin Muhammad Al-Misree narrated to us: Muhammad bin Zayd narrated to us that Ibn Suwayd said: Abu Nu’aim Al-Fadl bin Dukain narrated to us, saying: I entered into the presence of Zafar when he was at the point of death, so he raised his head up to me and said to me:

“O Abu Nu’aim, I wished that what we were upon (from seeking hadeeth) was instead tasbeeh (glorification of Allaah).”

Published: February 3, 2006

The People of Innovations are Worse than the People of Sins – Jamaal Haarithee

AUTHOR: Jamaal bin Fareehaan Al-Haarithee
SOURCE: His book: Lam ad-Durr al-Manthoor (pg. 47-49)

Chapter 15: The People of Innovations are worse than the People of Sins

[134] Abu Moosaa said: “That I live next to a Jew and a Christian, and monkeys and pigs, is more beloved to me than that if I were to live next to a follower of desires (i.e. deviant), who will spread disease to my heart.” [1]

[135] Yoonus bin ‘Ubaid said to his son: “I forbid you from fornicating, stealing and drinking alcohol. But if you were to meet Allaah having committed these (sins), that would be more beloved (to me) than if you were to meet Him with the views of ‘Amr bin ‘Ubaid or the followers of ‘Amr.” [2]

[136] Abul-Jawzaa said: “If the apes and the swine were to live with me in a house, that would be more beloved to me than if a person from Ahlul-Ahwaa (deviants) were to live with me. They have entered into the ayah: ‘And when they meet you they say: We believe. But when they are alone, they bite the tips of their fingers at you in rage. Say: Perish in your rage. Allaah knows what is in the hearts.’ [Surah Aali ‘Imraan: 119]” [3]

[137] Al-‘Awwaam bin Hawshab said about his son ‘Eesaa: “By Allaah, if I saw ‘Eesaa gathering with the people of musical instruments, alcohol and falsehood, that would be more beloved to me than if I were to see him sitting with the people of argumentation – the innovators.” [4]

[138] Yahyaa bin ‘Ubaid said: “A man from the Mu’atazilah encountered me (one day), so I got up and said: “Either you pass on or I will pass on, for indeed if I were to walk with a Christian, that would be more loved to me than if I were to walk with you.” [5]

[139] Arta’ Ibn al-Mundir said: “If my son were one of the sinful wicked people, that would be more beloved to me than if he were a Follower of Desires (i.e. a deviant).” [6]

[140] Sa’eed bin Jubair said: “If my son were to keep the company of a sinning scoundrel upon the Sunnah that would be more beloved to me than if he were to accompany a worshipping innovator.” [7]

[141] It was once said to Maalik bin Mughawal: “We saw your son playing with the birds.” So he responded: “How wonderful that it preoccupies him from accompanying an innovator.” [8]

[142] Al-Barbahaaree said: “If you see a person whose manner and opinion is despicable, he is wicked, sinful, and oppressive, yet he is a person of the Sunnah, accompany him and sit with him, since his sin will not harm you. And if you see a man who strives hard and long in worship, is abstemious, being continual in worship, except that he is a person of innovation, do not sit with him, do not listen to his words, and do not walk along with him, since I do not feel safe that you will not eventually come to be pleased with his way and go to destruction along with him.” [9]

[143] Abu Haatim said: “I heard Ahmad bin Sinaan said: “That a Tanboor player were to live next to me is more beloved to me than if an innovator were to live next to me. This is since I can forbid the Tanboor player and I can break the tanboor (a mandolin-like instrument). But as for the innovator, he corrupts the people, the neighbors and the youth.” [10]

[144] Imam ash-Shaafi’ee, may Allaah have mercy on him, said: “If the servant were to meet Allaah having committed every sin except Shirk, that would be better for him than if he were to meet Allaah with some deviant belief.” [11]

[145] Imaam Ahmad, may Allaah have mercy on him, said: “The graves of sinners from People of Sunnah is a garden, while the graves of the pious ascetics from the People of Innovation is a barren pit. The sinners among Ahlus-Sunnah are the Friends of Allaah, while the pious among Ahlul-Bid’ah are the Enemies of Allaah.” [12]


[1] Al-Ibaanah (2/468, no. 469)

[2] Al-Ibaanah (2/466, no. 464)

[3] Al-Ibaanah (2/467, no. 466-467)

[4] Al-Bid’a wan-Nahee ‘anhaa (56)

[5] Al-Bid’a wan-Nahee ‘anhaa (59)

[6] Ash-Sharh wal-Ibaanah of Ibn Battah (132, no. 87)

[7] Ash-Sharh wal-Ibaanah (132, no. 89)

[8] Ash-Sharh wal-Ibaanah (133, no. 90)

[9] Sharh as-Sunnah (124, no. 149) [Translator’s Note: Refer to Explanation of the Creed]

[10] Al-Ibaanah (2/469, no. 473)

[11] The checker of the book Sharh as-Sunnah of al-Barbahaaree mentioned it (124) and attributed it to al-Bayhaqee in Al-‘Itiqaad (158)

[12] Tabaqaat al-Hanaabilah (1/184)

Published: July 5, 2004 | Modified: July 5, 2004

Demolishing the False Principle of Muwaazanah – Shaykh Saalih Al-Fawzaan

AUTHOR: Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan
SOURCE: Al-Ajwibat-ul-Mufeedah ‘an As’ilat-il-Manaahij-il-Jadeedah (pg. 28-33) [2nd Edition]

[19] Question: It has become widely spread amongst the youth in these days: That one is required to make Muwaazanah (balance between good and bad qualities) when criticizing. So they say: “When a person is criticized for his innovation, and his errors are clarified, you are required to mention his good qualities. This is for the sake of fairness and balancing between his good and bad qualities.” So is this methodology for criticizing correct, and am I required to mention a person’s good qualities when criticizing?

[19] Answer: I have already answered this question previously. However, if the person being criticized is from Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, and he has erred in matters that do not violate the Creed, then yes, this person’s good qualities and traits should be mentioned. So his faults will be covered by his aiding of the Sunnah.

But if the person being criticized is from the people of misguidance and deviance or from the people of destructive and doubtful ideologies, then it is not permissible for us to mention this person’s good qualities, if he does have good qualities. This is since if we mention his good qualities, this would mislead the people, and so they would have good thoughts about this deviant individual or this innovator, or this pretender or this partisan (hizbee). And they would then accept the ideologies of this deviant or that partisan.

Allaah, Mighty and Sublime, has refuted the disbelievers, criminals and hypocrites and not mentioned any of their good qualities. Likewise, the Imaams amongst the Salaf would refute the Jahmiyyah, the Mu’tazilah and the people of deviance and not mention any of their good qualities while doing so. This was since their good qualities were outweighed by their misguidance or their disbelief or their heresy or their hypocrisy. So it is not proper that you refute a deviant or an innovator and then mention his good qualities, such as by saying: He is a good man, he has good qualities, he has such and such, however he has erred!!

We say to you: Your praising him is worse than his deviance, since the people will rely on your praise for him. So if it circulates and spreads around that you praised this deviant innovator, then you have deceived the people and this is opening the door to the acceptance of the ideologies of the misguided ones. [1]

And if the one who being refuted is from Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, then the refutation should be done with good manners. And he should be cautioned about his errors in matters of Fiqh, the derivation of rulings and matters of legal judgement. So we say: “So and so has erred in such and such issue and the correct view is such and such based on this proof…may Allaah forgive him…This was his Ijtihaad (legal judgement)…etc” This was the way refutations were done between the Fiqh scholars of the four madhaahib and others.

This does not destroy his position in knowledge, if he is from Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah. The members of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah are not infallible, they commit errors also. Perhaps one of them was not aware of the proof or he fell short when deriving a ruling. So we don’t remain silent with his error, rather we clarify it whilst making excuses for him. This is based on the Prophet’s saying: “When the judge makes a ruling, exerting his judgement, and is correct, he gets two rewards. And when he makes a ruling, exerting his judgement, and is incorrect, he gets one reward.” [2] This is with regard to matters related to Fiqh.

As for matters related to Creed, then it is not permissible for us to praise the misguided ones and those who oppose Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, such as the Mu’tazilah, the Jahmiyyah, the heretics, the apostates, and the deviant individuals in this time – and how many they are!

The origin of this misconception – that of making a balance between a person’s good and bad qualities when criticizing him – was stated by some of the youth and a treatise was written about it, so this overjoyed some of the youth. I came across this treatise in which the author claims that thisMuwaazanah is required. And I came across the treatise of Shaikh Rabee’ bin Haadee Al-Madkhalee [3] in which he comprehensively refutes this treatise whose author claims that Muwaazanah is necessary. In this book, he clarified the incorrectness and the spreading of falsehood found in this view (of Muwaazanah), and he explained the methodology of the Salaf in criticizing and that they refuted misguided individuals and didn’t praise the, because if they had praised them, this would have been seen as a contradiction.


[1] I will present here, my brother, a real-life incident that confirms the extent of the danger of deluding people by praising the people of innovation. This event was reported by Imaam Adh-Dhahabee and others:

Abul-Waleed Al-Baajee said in his book “Ikhtisaar Firaq-ul-Fuqahaa”, whilst talking about the Judge Abu Bakr Al-Baaqilaanee: “Once when I asked Abu Dharr Al-Harawee, who inclined towards the Ash’aree beliefs, ‘Where did you adopt these beliefs from’, he informed me: ‘I was once walking with Abul-Hasan Ad-Daaraqutnee when we came upon the judge, Abu Bakr Ibn At-Teeb – the Ash’aree. So Ad-Daaraqutnee embraced him and kissed him on the face and eyes. So when we separated from him, I asked him: ‘Who is this person for whom you did that which I didn’t believe you would do, since you are the Imaam of your time?’ He replied: ‘He is the Imaam of the Muslims and the defender of the Religion: The Judge, Abu Bakr Ibn at-Teeb.’ So from that point on, I always went to see him and ended up following his (Ash’aree) beliefs.’” [Tadhkirat-ul-Huffaadh (3/1104-1105) and Siyar A’alaam an-Nubalaa(17/558-559)]

I say: So you see from this story that when Ad-Daaraqutnee did what he did with the Ash’aree Al-Baaqilaanee, praising him, calling him the “Imaam of the Muslims” and so on, those who saw him were deluded by it and adopted the Ash’aree beliefs because of that. This is the same case with everyone that praises the people of innovations and desires, for he will cause great amounts of people to enter into their beliefs, especially if he is regarded as one of the righteous and pious individuals, and Allaah knows best.

[2] Saheeh Al-Bukhaaree (6919) and Saheeh Muslim (1716)

[3] He is referring to the book “The Methodology of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah in Criticizing Individuals, Books and Groups.” It was released in a new format in its second edition and contains several important additions. We advise the student of knowledge to read it.

Cooperating and Working with Al-Muntadaa Al-Islaamee – Shaykh Muqbil bin Haadee

AUTHOR: Shaikh Muqbil bin Haadee Al-Waadi’ee
SOURCE: Tuhfat-ul-Mujeeb ‘alaa As’ilat-il-Haadir wal-Ghareeb (pg. 143-147) [Original source is a tape “Questions from England” recorded in Ramadaan 13, 1416H]

Question: There is a group amongst us (in Britain) called Muntadaa Al-Markaz Al-Islaamee. They are connected with Muhammad Suroor and they sell his books and interact with him. And they have a tazkiyah (approval/recommendation) from Shaikh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez Ibn Baaz and Shaikh Ibn ‘Uthaimeen that encourages cooperating with them and being connected to them. So what is your advice to Al-Muntadaa Al-Islaamee and what is your advice to the Salafees who cooperate and work with them in Da’wah?

Answer: My advice to them is that they return to the condition they were upon when they were spreading the Qur’aan and Sunnah in their magazine “Al-Bayaan” and in their magazine “As-Sunnah”. We were extremely pleased with the magazine “As-Sunnah” and likewise with the magazine “Al-Bayaan”. But then the reality became clear – that they were in fact Hizbees (partisans), who called people away from the scholars.

And I advise them to not clash with the Muslim rulers. This partisanship (hizbiyyah) has caused divisions within the unity of the callers to Allaah from among the Ahlus-Sunnah in Yemen, and in the lands of the Haramayn, Najd and in Sudan and in Egypt, as well as in many of the Muslim countries.

They call people to not have any concern for knowledge. There used to be a group of students that was studying with us, then they attached themselves to these people, and all of sudden they started to have contempt for their brothers (other students) and for us.

Studying the Qur’aan and the Sunnah to them is like a seashell (i.e. it is hollow and empty). And performing worship in the masjid to them is also like a seashell. And these are the masaajid, about which the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “If one of you makes wudoo (ablution) and he does it well, then he goes out to the masjid – nothing brings him out except the prayer, he does not take one step except that Allaah raises him one level due to it and one sin gets erased from him. So when he prays, the angels do not stop sending their prayers upon him, as long as he is in prayer, saying: ‘O Allaah, bless him, O Allaah, have mercy on him.’ And none of you ceases to be in prayer while he is waiting for the (next) prayer.” 

So I say: If Shaikh Ibn Baaz and Shaikh Ibn ‘Uthaimeen gave tazkiyah (approval) to Al-Muntadaa before the Gulf Crisis, then they are both excused from that, because even we ourselves praised the magazine “Al-Bayaan” a lot, and we called people to cooperate in working with them. And if they gave their tazkiyah after the Gulf Crisis – and I don’t think that is so – then they are both considered to be in error. So I say to the two Shaikhs: These people have split the Muslims here in Yemen and they have turned to attacking and showing enmity to the Ahlus-Sunnah. Rather, their harm has become great – and I do not say that their harm is greater than that of the Ikhwaan al-Muslimeen – for they are only like scraps as compared to the Ikhwaan al-Muslimeen. And they are the ones who transgress against many of the masaajid of Ahlus-Sunnah, amongst which is a masjid in ‘Aden, the masjid of the people in Buraiqah, which Shaikh Ahmad Ibn ‘Uthmaan is the Imaam of…

So if these two Shaikhs issued a tazkiyah (religious approval), then they should take it back, just as I took mine back when their affair became clear to me during the Gulf Crisis, and when their enmity became apparent to me in Yemen. And from their heads is ‘Abdul-Majeed Ar-Reemee, Muhammad Al-Baydaanee and ‘Abdullaah Ibn Faysal Al-Ahdal. They have begun mocking and ridiculing their brothers. And if you were to read the Qasaa’id (poetic verses) of ‘Abdul-Majeed you would have found them according to the Sunnah, but now they have diluted and melted away.

So I advise the mashaayikh to recant form their approvals (tazkiyaat), for Allaah says in His Noble Book: “And do not argue on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Verily, Allaah does not like anyone who is a betrayer, sinner.” [Surah An-Nisaa: 107]

And He says: “Have you not seen those who claim sanctity for themselves (i.e. given themselves tazkiyahs). Nay, but Allah sanctifies whom He wills. And they will not be dealt with unjustly, even equal to the extent of a fateel (small thread).” [Surah An-Nisaa: 49]

And He says in His Glorious Book: “So do not purify (give tazkiyah to) yourselves, He knows best who has Taqwaa.” [Surah An-Najm: 13?]

And they use this tazkiyah (approval) for the purpose of deceiving the people, so it is not acceptable if it is used for this time, because it has become clear from them that they attack Shaikh Al-Albaanee and that they criticize Shaikh Ibn Baaz, when he issued a fatwa allowing the treaty with the Jews during the Gulf Crisis. And they rejoice at this so that they can chase the people away from the scholars, because no one has remained with them! So they say: “We have no choice for these people, except to attack their scholars, because we (ourselves) are scholars.” And if their Shaikh opposes them he suddenly becomes from the Takfeeri group!

They invited Abu Suhaib, who was Syrian, to teach amongst them. So after he taught amongst them for as long as Allaah willed, they said: “We feel that the fruits of your teaching should be repaid to you, so pick any land and we will give you the proper permits. So he responded: “The lands belong to Allaah and do not belong to you. Cut off the salary you pay me because I don’t want it.” Then the students remained with him and all praise be to Allaah not one student was produced from them. Even though they are troublemakers, still by Allaah’s Grace, they have no effect. So I advise the Salafi brothers to stay far away from these Hizbees (partisans), because they are not looking for anything except to build the membership of their party.

And if ‘Aqeel Al-Muqtaree comes to you, or Muhammad Al-Mahdee or other than these two, and the people say: “This is a scholar from the scholars of Yemen”, then do not host him or allow him entry. And do not attend his lectures, because he only goes touring around for the sake of collecting dollars!

And one brother who came from America informed me that they were touring through America, giving lectures, and they would say: “The one who supports an orphan and me are like this!”[1] So a man from the crowd stood up – and he was looking for aid for Bosnia and Herzog – and said: “The one who supports the orphan is the one who feeds him not the one who begs.” So they began to dispute with one another all because of the worldly matters (Duniyaa)!

When worldly aspirations enter into the Da’wah, it’s blessing diminishes, as Allaah says: “Does not the sincere worship belong to Allaah?” [Surah Az-Zumar: 3] And He says: “And they were not commanded except to worship Allaah, making their worship (Religion) sincerely to Him (alone).” [Surah Al-Bayyinah: 5]

As for their magazine of begging, which we call “Al-Furqah” (causing divisions) Magazine, and which they call “Al-Furqaan” (The Criterion), then I challenge them to bring any of its issues which doesn’t have begging in it. And I challenge Muhammad al-Mahdee to bring forth a student of knowledge that can be studied under. Rather, you find that he has transformed ‘Abdullaah Ibn Ghaalib, Muhammad Al-Baydaanee and many others, for they used to be students of knowledge here (in Yemen), but then he deluded them and misled them!

And I forgot to mention Muhammad Al-Hadeeyah who came charging from Sudan to Riyadh, then to Jeddah, then to Qatar and then to Abu Dhabi, then to Dubai, all for the purpose of building a masjid for the Sufis!

So I advise you to stay far away from these individuals! And perhaps someone may say: “So then who should we study under?” So my response is: I hold that it is an obligation on our noble brothers in the lands of the Haramayn and Najd to send to their brothers some people (to teach them) who are not Hizbees (partisans). And it is an obligation on us also, to send to our brothers in England some of our students who can be studied under, even if they stay for three or five months.

Therefore I say: It is an obligation to turn our attention to the Qur’aan and the Sunnah. As for the lectures of the innovators, then you will see them stampeding and ramming (like wild beats) in their lectures, but then when they finish, they say: “We have a project for establishing an educational center.” And this educational center is in the district of Daleel.

So I advise the brothers – may Allaah preserve them – to request from Shaikh Ibn Baaz – may Allaah preserve him – that he send to them someone that can teach them. And I advise my brothers here (in Yemen), that one of them should go to (them) and stay for three months, then return and someone else go. This does not fall into the realm of advice only; rather I consider it to be an obligation. But I don’t mean that a brother should arrive at England and then they waste his time by traveling around or that he doesn’t find students who want to seek knowledge from him. So they must learn some Arabic, ‘Aqeedah (Creed), Islamic Fiqh and Hadeeth of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam).


[1] Translator’s Note: This is a hadeeth from Allaah’s Messenger

A Brief Overview of some Deviant Sects – Shaykh Uthaimeen

A Brief Overview of some Deviant Sects

AUTHOR: Imaam Muhammad bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaimeen
SOURCE: His explanation of Lum’at-ul-‘Itiqaad of Ibn Qudaamah (pg. 161-163)

There are certain signs that indicate people of innovation, such as.

1. They attribute themselves to something other than Islaam and the Sunnah, due to what they have introduced from innovations in speech, action and belief.

2. They cling fanatically to their opinions and do not turn to the truth, even if it is clearly conveyed to them.

3. They hate the scholars of Islaam and the Religion.

From their groups are:

1. Ar-Raafidah – They are the ones who go to extremes with regard to the Members of the Household (Aali Bait). They declare the companions that opposed them as being disbelievers or they accuse them of evil (fisq). They are divided into many sects, among which are the extremists, who claim that ‘Alee is god, and among which are other than them. Their innovation first appeared during the Khilaafah of ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib when ‘Abdullaah bin Saba’ said to him: “You are God.” Due to this, ‘Alee commanded that they be set on fire. However, their leader, ‘Abdullaah bin Saba’, escaped to another city.

They hold various views concerning the Attributes of Allaah, so among them are those who performtashbeeh, those who perform ta’teel and those who are in conformity (with the correct view of the attributes). They are called the Raafidah because they rejected (rafd) Zayd bin ‘Alee Ibnul-Husayn bin ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib, when they asked him about Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and so he said “rahimahullaah” for both of them.

So they rejected him and distanced themselves from him. And they named themselves Shee’ah because of their claim and notion that they are taking sides (tashayu’) with the Aali Bait and that they support them and that they are reclaiming their right to Imaamship.

2. Al-Jahmiyyah – They attribute themselves to Al-Jahm bin Safwaan who was killed by Saalim or Salim bin Ahwaz in the year 121H. Their views concerning the Attributes of Allaah are composed ofta’teel (denial) and nafee (negation). Concerning Al-Qadar, they hold the opinion that mankind is coerced to do deeds (al-jabr).

Their view concerning Eemaan is that of Irjaa, which means that they believe Eemaan is merely the confirmation of the heart, and that statements and actions are not part of Eemaan. So according to them, someone who commits a major sin is a believer with complete Eemaan (i.e. Eemaan does not increase or decrease). So they are the Mu’atazilah, Jabariyyah and Murji’ah all in one and they are divided into many sects.

3. Al-Khawaarij – They are the ones who set out to kill ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) due to his rulership. Their methodology consists of freeing themselves from ‘Uthmaan (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) and ‘Alee (radyAllaahu ‘anhu), setting out against the Imaam if he opposes the Sunnah and declaring disbelief upon the one who commits a major sin. They believe that this type of person will remain in the Hellfire forever. They are divided into numerous groups.

4. Al-Qadariyyah – Their methodology consists of negating Al-Qadar from the actions of the servant and that his desire and ability are independent from the Desire and Ability of Allaah. The first to manifest this view openly was Mu’bad Al-Juhnee, in the last part of the era of the Sahaabah. He learned it from a Majoosee man from Al-Basrah.

They are divided into two groups, one that is extreme and one that is not extreme. The extremist group rejects the attributes of knowledge, desire, ability and creating from Allaah in favor of the actions of the servant. This type of people has now become extinct or close to it. Those that are not extreme believe that Allaah is knowledgeable of the actions of the servant. However, they reject its occurring by His desire, ability and creating. This is what their belief is founded upon.

5. Al-Murji’ah – They believe that actions are deferred from Eemaan (Al-Irjaa). Thus actions, according to them, are not part of it. Eemaan is simply the complying of the heart. Thus the sinner, according to them, is a believer with complete Eemaan, even if he does what he does from the disobedient acts or he abandons what he abandons from the obedient acts. And if we ruled that someone that abandoned one of the commandments of the Religion is a disbeliever, then that would be due to the absence of the complying in his heart not due to his abandonment of that deed. These are the views of the Jahmiyyah. And it, along in comparison with the views of the Khawaarij, are the two opposite extremities.

6. Al-Mu’atazilah – They are the followers of Waasil bin Ataa’, who withdrew (‘Itizaal) from the gathering of Al-Hasan Al-Basree. He determined that the sinner is in a level between two levels. Thus, he is neither a believer nor a disbeliever, yet he will reside eternally in the Hellfire. ‘Amr bin ‘Ubaid followed him in that and their views concerning the Attributes of Allaah are based on ta’teel, like the Jahmiyyah, and concerning Al-Qadar, like that of the Qadariyyah.

They reject the relation of the Qadaa and the Qadar of Allaah to the actions of the servant. In regards to the one who commits a major sin, they hold that he will remain in the Hellfire forever and that he is extracted from the fold of Eemaan into a level between the two levels of belief and disbelief. Thus they oppose the views of the Jahmiyyah in regards to these two principles.

7. Al-Karaamiyyah – They are the followers of Muhammad bin Karaam, who died in 225H. They incline towards tashbeeh and hold the belief of Irjaa. They are further divided into numerous groups.

8. As-Saalimah – They are the followers of a man who was called Ibn Saalim. Their views consist of tashbeeh.

These are the groups mentioned by the author. He then said “And those similar to them”, such as the Ash’ariyyah. They are the followers of Abul-Hasan ‘Alee bin Ismaa’eel Al-Ash’aree. At first, he inclined towards the views of the Mu’tazilah sect, until he reached forty years of age. Then he openly announced his repentance from that to the public and exposed the falsehood of the Mu’tazilah. So he took hold of the methodology of the Ahl-us-Sunnah, may Allaah have mercy on him.

As for those who attribute themselves to him, they remained upon a specific methodology, which is known as the Ash’ariyyah sect. They do not confirm any of Allaah’s attributes, except seven, which they believe are proven by intellect. And they distort the meaning of the rest of them. The seven (they affirm) are the ones mentioned in this verse:

“He is Living, Knowing, Able and has Speech
Desire, and likewise Hearing and Seeing”

They also commit other innovations with regard to the meaning of Speech, Al-Qadar and other than that.

Published: July 11, 2004 | Modified: July 11, 2004

A Glimpse into the Khawaarij – Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan

AUTHOR: Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan
SOURCE: Lamha ‘an-il-Firaq-id-Daalah (pg. 31-37) w/ notes by Shabbaab Ar-Raajihee

The Khawaarij are those who revolted (i.e. made khurooj) against the ruler during the last part of ‘Uthmaan’s Khilaafah. Their revolting resulted in the murder of ‘Uthmaan (radyAllaahu ‘anhu).

Then their evil increased during the Khilaafah of ‘Alee (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) and they rebelled against him, declaring him to be a disbeliever. They also pronounced disbelief on the Companions, because they would not agree with them in their (false) beliefs. So they ruled that all those who opposed them in their views were disbelievers. As a result, they pronounced disbelief on the best amongst creation – the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). Why was this (?) – because they did not agree with them on their misguidance and disbelief.

Their Beliefs: They do not adhere to the Sunnah and the Jamaa’ah, nor do they obey the leader. Rather, they hold rebelling against him and renouncing allegiance to him to be from the Religion,[1] contrary to the advice of Allaah’s Messenger of giving obedience and contrary to what Allaah has commanded in His saying: “Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger and those in authority amongst you.” [Surah An-Nisaa: 59]

So Allaah made obeying the ruler part of the Religion, and the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) made obeying the ruler part of the Religion, as is found in his saying: “I counsel you to have Taqwaa of Allaah and to hear and obey, even if a slave should take command over you. For indeed, whosoever lives amongst you, will see many differences…” [2]

So obeying the Muslim Ruler is part of the Religion (of Islaam). But the Khawarij say: “No, we are free (from this).” This is the way of insurrection and rebellion today!

So the Khawaarij are those who seek to cause division to the main unified body of Muslims and to revolt against the leaders – and there is disobedience to Allaah and His Messenger in doing this. They also hold that the person who commits a major sin is a disbeliever.

So someone that commits a major sin – a fornicator, a thief, one who drinks alcohol, for example – are all considered disbelievers by them. On the contrary, Ahl-us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah hold such a person as a “Muslim with deficient Eemaan”[3] and they call him a “sinner in the Religion.” So he is a “believer” due to his Eemaan, while being a “sinner” due to his major sin. This is because nothing expels one out of the fold of Islaam except Shirk and the well-known things that nullify one’s Islaam. As for the sins that are below Shirk, then they do not cause one to be expelled from the fold of Eemaan, even if they are major sins. Allaah says: “Verily Allaah does not forgive that Shirk (association of partners in worship) be committed with Him, but he forgives what is lower than that (of sins) to whom He wills.” [Surah an-Nisaa: 48, 116]

The Khawaarij say: “The one who commits a major sin is a disbeliever, he will not be forgiven and he will reside in the Hellfire forever.” And this is contrary to what is stated in the Qur’aan. The reason for this is because they do not have understanding (of the Religion).

Take note that the cause for their falling into these (false beliefs) was their lack of knowledge. This is because they are a people intense in their worship, prayer, fasting and recitation of the Qur’aan. And they have a strong fervor for the Religion, but they do not have knowledge – and this is the problem.

So going to great lengths and exerting oneself in piety and worship must be accompanied by knowledge and understanding of the Religion. This is why the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) described them to his Companions in the following manner: That the Companions would look down upon their own prayer as compared to their prayer and on their worship as compared to their worship. Then he said: “They will shoot out from the Religion just as the arrow shoots out from a hunted game”[4] – in spite of their worship and in spite of their righteousness and their praying Tahajjud at night.

So because their exertion was not based upon a correct foundation, nor upon authentic knowledge, it became a misguidance, a plague and evil upon them and upon the ummah.

And furthermore, it is not known from the Khawaarij – for one day – that they fought against the disbelievers ever! Instead, they only fight with the Muslims, as the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “And they will kill the People of Islaam, while leaving alone the people of Awthaan (idols).” [5]

So we have not come to know in the history of the Khawaarij that one day they fought against the disbelievers and polytheists. Rather, they are always fighting against the Muslims. They killed ‘Uthmaan and they killed ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib. They killed Az-Zubayr Ibn-ul-‘Awaam and killed the best of the Companions. And they have not stopped killing Muslims.

And this is all due to their ignorance of the Religion of Allaah. But in spite of this, they had piety and worship, but since these were not founded upon authentic knowledge, it became a disease on them. This is why the great scholar, Ibn Al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said in his description of them:

“They have textual evidences, which they fall short of in understanding
So they have been given shortness in knowledge.”

So they use texts as evidences but yet they do not comprehend them. They use as evidence texts from the Qur’aan and the Sunnah concerning the threat for committing sins, but they do not comprehend their meanings. They do not refer them back to the other texts, in which there is found a promise for forgiveness and the acceptance of repentance for those whose sins are less than Shirk. So they accept one part and leave off another part – all of this due to their ignorance.

So having an over-protective love for the Religion and enthusiasm are not sufficient. They must be founded upon knowledge and understanding of Allaah’s Religion. This is so that they can be produced from knowledge and so that they can be put in their proper place.

So over-protective love for the Religion is good and enthusiasm is good, but they must be guided and directed by the following of the Qur’aan and the Sunnah.

There is no one with more precedence in the Religion nor more sincere to the Muslims than the Sahaabah (the Comapnions), but in spite of that, they fought against the Khawaarij due to their danger and their evil.

‘Alee bin Abee Taalib fought against them such that he slaughtered them with the worst of killings in the incident of Nahrawaan. By doing this, he realized what the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) informed us of in that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) gave the good tidings to the one who killed them of goodness and Paradise. So ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib, he was the one who killed them – so he received this good tiding from Allaah’s Messenger.[7] He killed them in order to prevent their evil from befalling the Muslims.

It is an obligation on the Muslims in every generation, if they should become aware of the existence of this wicked methodology, that they remedy it by calling to the Way of Allaah first and educating the people about it. But if they do not accept this, then they must fight against them in order to prevent their evil.

‘Alee bin Abee Taalib (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) sent his cousin, ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Abbaas – the Habr (scholar) of the ummah and the Turjumaan (Interpreter) of the Qur’aan – to them. So he debated with them and six thousand amongst them repented and returned back, but many remained behind and did not repent. So at this point, the Ameer-ul-Mu’mineen, ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib, along with the Sahaabah, fought against them. This was in order to prevent their evil and harm from befalling the Muslims.

So this is the sect known as Al-Khawaarij and their beliefs.


[1] In our time, perhaps the one who believes that we must hear and obey the leaders in matters that are not sinful, are labeled as government agents or kiss-ups or gullible simpletons! So you will see them attacking the leaders and exposing their faults to the public from the mimbars and in their gatherings. And Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Whoever desires to advise the sultaan (authority) about a matter, then he must not expose it in public, but rather he should take him by his hand and go in privacy with him. So if he accepts (the advice) then that is (reward) for him, and if he doesn’t (accept) then he has conveyed what will be held against him.” Reported by Ahmad (3/404) from the narration of ‘Iyyaad bin Ghanam (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) Ibn Abee ‘Aasim also reported it in his book As-Sunnah (2/522).

And when the leader bars one of them from speaking in public gatherings, they rally together and go out in demonstrations, thinking – out of ignorance on their part – that barring someone from speaking or putting someone in jail justifies rebellion! Did they not hear the Prophet’s statement found in the narration of ‘Awf bin Maalik Al-Ashja’ee (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) in Saheeh Muslim (1855): “…No, so long as they establish the prayer.” And in the hadeeth of ‘Ubaadah bin As-Saamit (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) found in the two Saheeh Collections, the Prophet said: “…unless you see clear and open disbelief, by which you will have proof before Allaah in the matter.” This was his (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) response to the Companions when they questioned him, seeking permission to fight against the oppressive leaders.

Do they not know how long Imaam Ahmad remained locked up in prison? And where did Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taimiyyah die?! Wasn’t Imaam Ahmad put in jail for several years and whipped because he would not say that the Qur’aan was created? So why then did he not order the people to revolt against the Khaleefah? Don’t they know that Shaikh-ul-Islaam stayed in prison for more than two years and died while in it? Why did he not command the people to revolt against the leader? And on top of this, these scholars had a high position in terms of virtue and knowledge, so what about those who are less than them??? Indeed these ideologies and actions did not come to us except after the youth began to take their knowledge from such and such modern-day thinker and from such and such literary poet and from such and such Islamic writer, abandoning the scholars and placing their books behind their backs to be forgotten! Wa laa hawla wa laa quwata ilaa billaah!

[2] An authentic hadeeth reported by Ahmad, Ibn Maajah, At-Tirmidhee, Al-Haakim and many others [Abridged by the translator].

[3] Even if they commit a sin thinking it to be trivial (Istikhfaaf), they do not commit disbelief so long as they do not make it lawful (Istihlaal), contrary to what some of them say: That a person who commits a sin thinking it to be trivial, commits disbelief that takes him out from the Religion. This statement is the essence of the beliefs of the Khawaarij as our Shaikh, Shaikh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez Ibn ‘Abdillaah Bin Baaz said when he was asked about it in Taa’if in 1415H.

[4] Part of a long hadeeth reported by Ahmad, Muslim, Al-Bukhaaree and others from several of the Companions [Abridged by the translator]

[5] Part of a long hadeeth reported by Ahmad, Muslim, Al-Bukhaaree and others [Abridged by the translator]

[6] Nooniyyah of Ibn Al-Qayyim (pg. 97)

[7] Al-Bukhaaree reported in his Saheeh (6930), Muslim in his Saheeh (1066), Ahmad in his Musnad (1/113), Ibn Abee ‘Aasim in his As-Sunnah (914) and ‘Abdullaah bin al-Imaam Ahmad in his As-Sunnah (1487): From ‘Alee (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) who said: “I heard Allaah’s Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) say: ‘Towards the last days, a people will emerge who will be young in age and have foolish ideas. They will speak with the best speech of the creatures. Their Eemaan will not go past their throats. So wherever you encounter them, kill them, for indeed there will be a reward for the one who kills them on the Day of Judgement.’”

After narrating a hadeeth about the Khawaarij and their signs, Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudree (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) said: “Twenty or more than twenty of the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger narrated to me that ‘Alee was in charge of killing them.” Reported by Ahmad in his Musnad (3/33) and his son ‘Abdullaah in As-Sunnah (1512).

Published: July 11, 2004 | Modified: July 11, 2004

A Glimpse into the Shee’ah – Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan

Author: Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan
Source: Lamhah ‘anil-Firaq-id-Daalah (pg. 38-39)
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The Shee’ah are those who have split off and taken sides with the Members of the Prophet’s Household (Ahlul-Bayt). Originally, the word tashayyu’ (splitting into factions) meant: Following and Aiding (someone).

Allaah says: “And verily from his (Nooh’s) shee’ah (i.e. those who followed his way) was Ibraaheem.” [Surah As-Saaffaat: 83] Meaning: Ibraaheem was from his followers and among the supporters of his Religion.

Then afterward, this word began to be applied to this deviant sect that claims to be followers of the Members of the Household, which consists of ‘Alee bin Abee Taailb (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) and his offspring.

They allege that ‘Alee (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) deserved to be commissioned with the Khilaafah after the Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and that Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthmaan and the Companions (in general) oppressed ‘Alee, usurping the Khilaafah from him.

This is what they claim. But they are lying in this matter since the Companions unanimously agreed on giving the pledge of allegiance (bay’ah) to Abu Bakr. And amongst these Companions was ‘Alee himself, who pledged his allegiance to Abu Bakr, and thereafter to ‘Umar and then ‘Uthmaan. So this means that in reality, they (i.e. the Shee’ah) hold ‘Alee to be deceitful!

They also deem all of the Companions to be disbelievers except for a few amongst them. And they have turned to invoking curses on Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, labeling them as the “Two idols of Quraish”

From their beliefs and practices is that: They go to extremes with regard to the Imaams from the Members of the Household, giving them the right to legislate laws and abrogate rulings (in Islaam) because they claim that the Qur’aan is distorted and deficient.

This is to the point that they have resorted to taking their Imaams as lords besides Allaah. So they have built tombs over their graves and erected shrines for them, making Tawaaf around them, presenting sacrificial animals to them and swearing oaths to them!

The Shee’aah have split up into further denominations, some less dangerous than others and some worse than others. Amongst these denominations are the Zaydees, the Raafidees, the Isma’eelis, the Faatimees, the Qaraamitees and so on and so forth – a large amount of groups and numerous denominations.

So it is like this – everyone who abandons the truth will not cease to be upon differing and division. Allaah says:

“So if they believe in the same thing you believe (i.e. Prophet and Companions), then they are rightly-guided. But if they turn away, then they are only in divided opposition (amongst themselves). So Allaah will suffice for you against them. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 137]

So whoever abandons the truth will be tested with falling into falsehood, deviation and division, which all lead to no other result except destruction, and we seek refuge in Allaah!

The Shee’ah have split up amongst themselves into numerous sects and denominations, and likewise the Qadariyyah. The Khawaarij have also split up into various denominations (amongst themselves), such as: The Azaariqah, the Hurooriyyah, the Najdaat, the Safriyyah and the Ibaadiyyah. Amongst them are those who are extreme in their beliefs and amongst them are those who are less than that.

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