Fearing Others Besides Allah – Shaykh Abdur-Rahman Ibn Hasan Ali-Shaykh

Title: Fearing Others Besides Allah
Original Title: فتح المجيد
Original Author: ‘Abdur-Raḥmān Ibn Ḥasan Āli-Shaykh
Translator: Abu az-Zubayr Harrison ( hafidhahullaah)


The First Verse: That is only Satan who frightens (you) of his supporters
The Types of Fearing Others Besides Allah
The Second Verse: The mosques of Allah are only to be maintained by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day
The Third Verse: “And of mankind are some who say, “We believe in Allah,” but if they are made to suffer for the sake of Allah…”
The Ḥadīth: “Whoever seeks the pleasure of Allah by angering people, Allah will suffice him regarding people.”

The First Verse:

Allah (تعالى ) says:

That is only Satan who frightens (you) of his supporters. So do not fear them, but fear Me, if you are indeed believers. [1]

Fear is one of the most dignified and important religious principles. Fear of Allah summarizes all forms of worship which must be made solely and sincerely for Allah.

Allah says (about His messengers):

And they, from fearing Him, are frightened. [2]

And He (تعالى ) says (about the angels):

They fear their Lord above them.[3]

And He (تعالى ) says (about the believers):

But whoever has feared standing before his Lord will have two gardens.[4]


So fear only Me.[5]

And Allah says:

So do not fear people, but fear Me. [6]

There are many verses in the Quran similar to these.

Fear of other than Allah can be divided into three types.

1. The first type of fear is an inward, spiritual fear. This type is the religious fear one has of other than Allah such as fearing idols and false gods, being afraid that they may afflict him with something he dislikes. An example is the verse in which Allah narrated that the people of Prophet Hūd said to him:

“We only say that some of our gods have possessed you with evil.” He said, “Indeed, I call Allah to witness, and you witness yourselves, that I am free from whatever you associate with Allah.” [7]

Allah also says about this type of fear:

And they threaten you with those (they worship) other than Him. [8]

This is exactly the same type of fear those who worship grave inhabitants have as well as idol worshippers; such people fear these false gods. They threaten the people who believe only in Allah with the punishment of such false deities when the believers criticize their misplaced worship, encouraging them to instead sincerely worship Allah alone. This type of fear completely invalidates tawḥīd – the worship of Allah alone.

2. The second type of fearing others besides Allah is when one chooses not to do what he is religiously obligated to do out of fear of other people. This type of fear is impermissible and it is a form of associating others with Allah which contradicts complete tawḥīd. And it is this type of fear for which the opening verse was revealed; Allah (تعالى ) says:

Those to whom hypocrites said, “The people have certainly gathered against you, so fear them.” But it (only) increased them in faith and they said, “Sufficient for us is Allah and (He is) the best disposer of affairs.” So they returned with favor from Allah and bounty, no harm having touched them. They pursued the pleasure of Allah, and Allah is the possessor of great bounty. That is only Satan who frightens (you) of his supporters. So do not fear them, but fear Me, if you are indeed believers. [9]

Similarly, in a ḥadīth

Allah (تعالى ) will ask a worshipper on the Day of Resurrection, “What prevented you, when you saw some wrongdoing, from changing it?” The person will answer, “My Lord, the fear of people.” He will say, “I was more deserving that you fear Me.” [10]

3. The third type of fearing others besides Allah is the natural fear. It is the instinctive fear of an enemy, a wild animal, or similar things. There is nothing wrong with this type of fear as Allah (تعالى ) said relaying the story of Prophet Mūsá ( عليه السلام) :

So he escaped it (the city), fearful and anticipating (apprehension). He said, “My Lord, save me from the wrongdoing people.” [11]

As for the meaning of “That is only Satan who frightens (you) of his supporters” in the opening verse,12 it means he tries to make you afraid of his allies. And as for “So do not fear them, but fear Me”, this is a commandment from Allah (تعالى ) to believers that they must not fear others besides Him. It is an order that they should limit their emotion of fear to Allah alone, fearing none other. This is the complete sincerity and devotion Allah requires from his worshippers and with which He is pleased. So when they ensure their fear is for none other than Allah, as well as all other aspects of worship, He will in return give them what they hope for and keep them safe and secure from the fears of this life and the hereafter as He (تعالى ) says:

Is Allah not sufficient for His servant? And yet they threaten you with other than Him.[13]

The great scholar Ibn al-Qayyim ( رحمه الله  تعالى ) said:

Part of the plot of the enemy of Allah is that he tries to frighten believers with his soldiers and supporters. He does so in order that the believers will be too scared to oppose and strive against them, too scared to encourage his supporters to do good or forbid them from doing evil. As such, Allah, the Most High, informs us that this is all part of the plot and deception of Satan and his intimidation and frightening (of believers). Yet He has forbidden us from fearing them by saying—and this is the interpretation of most interpreters—that Satan is only trying to make the believers scared of his supporters. Qatādah says, “He (Satan) makes them (his supporters) seem greater, more significant in the believer’s hearts.” So whenever a worshipper’s faith in Allah becomes stronger, the fear of Satan’s supporters becomes less, and when his faith weakens, his fear of them becomes greater. Therefore, this verse shows that sincerity in fear is one of the conditions of complete faith.

The Second Verse

Allah (تعالى ) says:

The mosques of Allah are only to be maintained by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day and establish prayer and give charity and fear none other besides Allah. It is expected that those will be of the rightly guided.[14]

Here, Allah tells us the mosques of Allah are to be maintained only by people of faith in Allah and the last day (the Day of Judgment). They are those who both believe with their hearts and worship with their limbs, and they make their fear sincerely and exclusively for Allah and no other. For these, He has confirmed the maintenance of places of worship after He forbade it for those who worship others besides Him. This is because the establishment and care of such places of worship is to be done with obedience (to Allah) and righteous actions. As for one who worships other than Allah, even if he were to perform a seemingly righteous action:

Their deeds are like a mirage in a desert which a thirsty one thinks is water until, when he comes to it, he finds it is nothing but finds Allah before him. [15]


Their deeds are like ashes which the wind blows forcefully on a stormy day.[16]

Considering that, true goodness does not result from such action or person. So places of worship, the mosques, should be maintained and populated with only true faith, the most dignified of which is tawḥīd and righteous deeds free of all forms of deficiency such as the worship of other than Allah and unfounded religious innovation. All of that is included in the meaning of the word “faith” (īmān) according to mainstream Muslims who follow the Sunnah.

About “and (they) fear none other besides Allah” in the verse, Ibn ‘Aṭiyyah says,

“It means the type of fear which is based on honor, worship, and obedience. And while it may be inevitable that people are afraid of worldly dangers, they must ultimately fear the decree and control of Allah alone regarding (the consequences) of such worldly dangers.”

Ibn al-Qayyim ( رحمه الله ) says,

“Fear is worship of the heart, and it is not fitting to be given to others besides Allah, similar to repentance, love, reliance, hope, and other aspects of worship of the heart.”

As for “It is expected that those will be of the rightly guided”, Ibn Abī Ṭalḥah reported that Ibn ‘Abbās ( رضي الله عنه ) ماsaid, “He is saying, ‘They are the rightly guided.’ Any time the Arabic word ‘( عَسَىasá – “perhaps,” “it is expected,” etc.) is used in the Quran, it means it is something destined to happen.” [17]

The Third Verse

Allah (تعالى ) says:

And of mankind are some who say, “We believe in Allah.” But if they are made to suffer for the sake of Allah, they consider the trial of mankind as (if it were equal to) the punishment of Allah. [18]

Ibn Kathīr ( رحمه الله ) says:

Allah (تعالى ) informs us about the characteristics of some people who dishonestly claim to believe, but their belief is only with their tongues and not firm in their hearts. For such people, when a trial or tribulation comes to them in this life, they believe it is from the resentment and wrath of Allah and then leave Islam. Ibn ‘Abbās ( رضي الله عنه ما ) said, “It becomes a tribulation from which he leaves his religion when harmed for the sake of Allah.”

Ibn al-Qayyim ( رحمه الله ) says:

When people are sent a messenger, they become one of two types of individuals: those who respond, “I believe,” and those who do not. Those who refuse continue on with their sin and disbelief. As for he who says he believes, he is then tested by his Lord with trial and affliction; the affliction is only a test however. This is to distinguish the truthful from the untruthful. As for those who do not believe (in the messenger), he should not think that Allah is incapable (of testing him), or that he will escape from Him. As a consequence, whoever believes in the messengers and obeys them, the messengers’ enemies will begin to show enmity toward him and afflict him with whatever will harm him (in this life). And those who neither believe in the messengers nor obey them, they will be recompensed in this life and in the hereafter and will still eventually experience what harms them. Yet their harm is greater and more lasting than that experienced in life by the messenger’s followers.

So even though every soul will experience some type of harm, whether it believes or refuses belief, a believer is hurt in this life only as a trial for him then he will be rewarded for it both in this life and in the hereafter. But he who refuses to believe, he may experience his delight in this life, again only as a trial for him, then he experiences a permanent harm and everlasting pain (in the hereafter).

Everyone must live among others and people have their own ideas and plans. People want other individuals to agree and conform to them in their plans. If one does not agree with them, choosing instead to contradict them, they seek to harm and punish him. Even if he were to conform to them, he would still be harmed, sometimes by the very people he agrees with, sometimes by others. For example, if a person of religion who is conscientious of Allah is among sinful or oppressive people, he may feel he has no way of escaping their wickedness and oppression except by either agreeing and conforming to what they are upon or at least by remaining silent regarding their evil. Were he to support them or remain silent, he may save himself from their evil and tribulations. But they will then have gained influence and power over him, humiliating him and perhaps harming him with affliction even greater than he had feared had he criticized them and differed from them. Even if he were safe from them, he may simply be humiliated and harmed by other than them.

The solution is to remember what the Mother of the Believers, ‘Āishah ( رضي الله عنها ), said to Muā’wiyah ( رضي الله عنه ): Whoever seeks the pleasure of Allah by angering people, Allah will suffice him regarding people. And whoever seeks the pleasure of people by angering Allah, Allah will entrust him to people.” [19]

So when Allah guides an individual, inspiring within him His guidance and saving him from the evil of his own soul, such a person would refuse to support and agree with others in sinful acts. He would patiently bear whatever enmity they show him for it. He will then have his reward in this life and the hereafter as did the messengers and their followers.

Allah (تعالى ) then informs us about those who enter the faith without true insight. When he is harmed for the sake of Allah, he considers the tribulation of people—and it is the hurt he feels from them and their hatred which the messengers and their followers always experience from those who oppose them—he makes such tribulation of people, by his fleeing from it and avoiding whatever upsets them, equal to the punishment of Allah from which believers should more rightfully flee with true faith.

True believers with complete insight, however, flee from the punishment of Allah toward belief in Him. They bear patiently with whatever temporary harm they may suffer (from people) for Him, harm from which they will soon escape. But the other individual (who refuses to differ from sinful people), from his weak insight and unclear understanding of faith, flees from the harm of those who oppose the messengers toward agreeing with them and following them. In doing so, he flees from the punishment of people and into the punishment of Allah. He equates the harm of people, by his action of fleeing from it in what angers Allah, with the punishment of Allah. How unbefitting it is that he seeks safety and refuge (from people’s harm) in the scorching fire, running away from the pain of an hour to the pain of eternity.

Also in this verse is a refutation of the Murjiah Karrāmiyah sect (who claim that merely expressing faith with the tongue is sufficient to be saved). This is because such peoples’ statement, “We believe in Allah,” as mentioned in the verse, did not benefit them when they refused to patiently bear the harm of those who would hurt them for the sake of Allah. So proclaiming faith alone is of no benefit without actions. True religious faith of any person is only correct when it combines three aspects: belief in the heart and its actions (emotions in accordance with faith), statements with the tongue, and actions with the limbs. That is the position of all mainstream Muslims who follow the Sunnah, past and present, and Allah (سبحانه وتعالى) knows best.

Such action (conforming to sinfulness, refusing to differ from it) is a form of flattering the creation despite the truth, and the only one saved from such action is one whom Allah saves.

The Ḥadīth

‘Āishah ( رضي الله عنه ) reported that Allah’s messenger (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) said:

“Whoever seeks the pleasure of Allah by angering people, Allah will suffice him regarding people. And whoever seeks the pleasure of people by angering Allah, Allah will entrust him to people.” [20]

Ibn Ḥibbān recorded this ḥadīth with that wording and al-Tirmidhī recorded it by way of a man from Medina who said that Mu’āwiyah ( رضي الله عنه ) wrote to ‘Āishah ( رضي الله عنها) : “Write and advise me but be concise.” She replied, greeting him with “Peace be on you,” then wrote that she heard the messenger of Allah (صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ) say, “Whoever seeks the pleasure of Allah by angering people, Allah will suffice him regarding people. And whoever seeks the pleasure of people by angering Allah, Allah will entrust him to people.”

The scholar of Islam (Ibn Taymiyyah) says:

‘Āishah wrote this ḥadīth to Mu’āwiyah and it has been reported from her in a marfū’ form [21] that she said, “Whoever seeks the pleasure of Allah by angering people, Allah will suffice him regarding people. And whoever seeks the pleasure of people by angering Allah, they will not protect him from Allah in any way.” That is the marfū’ form.

It has also been reported in a mawqūf form [22] that she said, “Whoever pleases Allah at the expense of angering people, Allah will be pleased with him and cause people to be pleased with him too. But whoever pleases people at the expense of angering Allah, He will make those who praise him revert back to criticizing him.”

This is the greatest understanding of religion. Whoever seeks to please Allah, even if it means angering people, he has rightfully feared Allah and has become His righteous worshipper. Allah in return assumes the responsibility of protecting the righteous and He is sufficient for his worshipper.

And whoever fears Allah, He will make a way for him to get out (from every difficulty), and He will provide him from (sources) he could never imagine.[23]

Allah will certainly suffice him from having to rely on people. As for trying to please all people, that is impossible anyway.

As for, “seeking the pleasure of people by angering Allah,” in doing this, the person gives preference to people’s acceptance and happiness over that of Allah. This happens when the honor and respect for Allah and His greatness has not settled in his heart. If it had, it would have prevented him from seeking to gain the pleasure of the creation by gaining the anger of his creator, his Lord, and owner – the very One who controls all hearts, removes all difficulties, and forgives all sins. Based on this, such a choice (preferring to please people by angering Allah) is a form of associating others in worship with Allah because he considers pleasing the creation a higher priority than pleasing Allah. He seeks to get closer to creation by way of displeasing Allah. And no one is saved from this except one whom Allah saves and for whom He gives the success of truly knowing Him. This is attained by knowing what befits Allah by believing in His characteristics and rejecting any false notions which reduce His perfection and knowing tawḥīd of His lordship and sole right to worship. With Allah alone is success.

Ibn Rajab ( رحمه الله ) said:

If one realizes that anyone of creation on earth—and the earth is merely dirt—is himself (created) from dirt, then why would someone give preference to obeying someone from dirt over obeying the Lord of lords? How can he please dirt by angering the Owner, the Bestower? That is certainly an amazing thing.

In this ḥadīth, there is a severe reprimand for whoever fears people, preferring their acceptance and pleasure over Allah. And perhaps his punishment for doing so may even be a test or affliction in his religion—we seek refuge with Allah from that—as He says:

So He punished them with hypocrisy in their hearts until the day they will meet Him because they failed Allah in what they promised Him and because they used to lie. [24]


[1] The Quran, Sūrah Āli ‘Imrān, 3:175
[2] Sūrah al-Anbiyā, 21:28
[3] Sūrah al-Naḥl, 16:50
[4] Sūrah al-Raḥmān, 55:46
[5] Sūrah al-Naḥl, 16:51
[6] Sūrah al-Māidah, 5:44
[7] Sūrah Hūd, 11:54
[8] Sūrah al-Zumar, 39:36
[9] Sūrah Āli ‘Imrān, 3:173-175
[10] Recorded by Aḥmad (3/27, 29, 77), Ibn Ḥibbān (1845), Ibn Mājah (4017), and others. Shaykh ‘Abdul ‘Azīz Ibn Bāz said it is authentic in his checking of Fatḥ al-Majīd. Shaykh Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī said the similar narration of Ibn Mājah is authentic in Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan Ibn Mājah (no. 3244).
[11] Sūrah al-Qaṣaṣ, 28:21
[12] The verse again (Sūrah Āli ‘Imrān, 3:175):
“إِنَّمَا ذَلِكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوْلِيَاءَهُ فَلا تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ ”
That is only Satan who frightens (you) of his supporters. So do not fear them, but fear Me, if you are indeed believers.
[13] Sūrah al-Zumar, 39:36
[14] Sūrah al-Tawbah, 9:18
[15] Sūrah al-Nūr, 24:39
[16] Sūrah al-Nūr, 24:39
[17] Shaykh ‘Abdul ‘Azīz Ibn Bāz noted in his checking of Fatḥ al-Majīd that Ibn Kathīr mentioned that Ibn ‘Abbās also said, “It is similar to the verse in which Allah says to his prophet ( ): صلّى الله عليه وسلّم”It is expected that your Lord will resurrect you to a praised station” (Sūrah al-Isrá,17:79) and this refers to his intercession.” Muhammad Ibn Isḥāq Ibn Yassār said, “‘( عَسَىasá) mentioned in the Quran is truth from Allah.”
[18] Sūrah al-‘Ankabūt, 29:10
[19] This ḥadīth is recorded by al-Tirmidhī and the explanation will come on pg.14 of this article.
[20] Recorded by Ibn Ḥibbān (1542 – )مواردand al-Tirmidhī (2414) and al-Albānī said it is authentic in Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan alTirmidhī (1967).
[21] Muḥammad Ibn Ṣaliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn explains in his booklet Muṣṭalaḥ al-Ḥadīth that a marfū’ narration is one in which is either explicitly attributed to the prophet ( ) صلّى الله عليه وسلّمor considered to be attributed to him based on other ruling factors.
[22] Ibn al-‘Uthaymīn explains also in Muṣṭalaḥ al-Ḥadīth that a mawqūf narration is one that is attributed only to the narrating companion and not raised to the status of being attributed to the prophet ( .) صلّى الله عليه وسلّم
[23] Sūrah al-Ṭalāq, 65:2,3
[24] Sūrah al-Ṭawbah, 9:77

PS: The Arabic verses and hadith  are not posted in this article, please refer to PDF for the same.

[Download Original PDF]

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Utilise your Time in Beneficial Matters & keep away from Qeela wa Qaal – Shaykh Uthaymeen


I advise you all to safeguard your time and to occupy yourselves in that which is beneficial. You should know that time is more precious than wealth, as Allaah – the Most Blessed, the Most High – said:

Until, when death comes to one of them, he says:”My Lord! Send me back, That I might do righteousness in that which I left behind.” [Surah Al-Mu’minoon: Aayahs 99-100]

Time is such that when it departs it does not return, whereas wealth, when it departs, then it is possible to replace it. So time is of the utmost importance. This is why I advise you to safeguard your time, and to occupy yourselves in that which benefits. Keep away from qeela wa qaal (gossiping) – that so and so said such and such about this and that person – because the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said in an authentic narration: “Indeed Allaah hates qeela wa qaal (gossip mongering), asking too many questions, and wasting one’s wealth.” [4] Unfortunately, many of the youths – after returning to the correct path, and uniting their hearts and unifying their word – have become disunited and fragmented into many factions, and this is due to the whisperings of Shaytaan amongst them and the disuniting of their word. So I advise the brothers to utilise your time in beneficial matters, and to keep away from qeela wa qaal. Indeed, time is like a sword; either you strike it, or it will strike you!

[4] Related by Muslim (no.1715), from Abu Hurayrah radiallaahu ‘anhu.

Source: Excerpted from Very beneficial article : 

A Concise Legacy : Shaykh ibn Uthaymeen
Al-Istiqaamah Magazine , Issue No.5 – Ramadân 1417H / January 1997

Wearing a Copper/Brass Bracelet for Curing Rheumatism – Imam Ibn Baz

Ibn Baz Fatwas – (Part No. 1; Page No. 206,207)

Copper bracelets [1]

[1]This is another answer to a question about copper bracelets made to cure rheumatism

From `Abdul-`Aziz ibn `Abdullah ibn Baz to my honorable brother, may Allah safeguard you.

As-salamu `alaykum warahmatullah wabarakatuh (May Allah’s Peace, Mercy, and Blessings be upon you).

I have received your noble letter, may Allah be pleased with you. I have also reviewed the enclosed documents on the properties of the copper bracelet recently made to cure rheumatism. I have considered the whole matter more than once and discussed it with a number of university lecturers. We exchanged opinions on the juristic ruling on the copper bracelet in question, but there were different opinions on the matter; some regard it permissible as it has properties of curing rheumatism, whereas others see that it is better not to wear it, on the ground that wearing it is like the practice of the people of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic time of ignorance), who used to wear copper amulets and bracelets, thinking that they were a cure for many diseases and a reason for the safety of the person wearing them against envy.

`Uqbah ibn `Amir (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

Anyone who wears an amulet, Allah will not fulfill their need, and anyone who wears a seashell, Allah will not give them peace. [1]

According to another narration:

Anyone who hangs an amulet has committed Shirk (associating others with Allah in His Divinity or worship). [2]

Imran ibn Al-Husayn (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) also narrated:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) saw a man with a brass bracelet on his hand. He (peace be upon him) asked him, ‘What is this?’ The man replied, ‘A protection from weakness.’ He (peace be upon him) said, ‘Cast it off, for verily it will only increase your weakness; and if you die wearing it, you will never succeed.’ [3]

According to another Hadith:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) in one of his journeys sent a messenger to check the camels of the caravan, and ordered the cutting of all string necklaces hung around the necks of the camels which were thought by the people of Jahiliyyah to benefit and protect their camels.

These Hadiths and others show that a Muslim must not wear amulets, bracelets, strings, bones, beads or other things that are used by some people to prevent or remove evil.

In my opinion, it is better not to wear or use this copper bracelet to block any means to Shirk, and to not let the heart be attached to such things, and to direct Muslims with their hearts toward Allah Alone trustingly and confidently, and to restrict oneself to lawful means that are indisputably permissible. Surely, what Allah has made lawful and accessible is sufficient and dispenses with any need for what is forbidden.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) is authentically reported to have said:

Anyone who guards themselves against doubtful matters keeps their religion and honor blameless, and anyone who indulges in doubtful matters indulges in unlawful matters, just as a shepherd who pastures his animals around a sanctuary will soon (transgress upon it and) pasture them in it. [4]

He (peace be upon him) also said:

Leave what causes you doubt and turn to what does not cause you doubt. [5]

Undoubtedly, wearing a copper bracelet is similar to what was practiced by the people of Jahiliyyah. Wearing it constitutes either a prohibited matter of Shirk or a means leading to Shirk or at least a doubtful matter.

Therefore, it is better for a Muslim not to wear it and resort to lawful medical treatment. This is the opinion that seems correct to a group of scholars, shaykhs, and myself as well with regard to this issue.

We ask Allah (Exalted be He) to guide you and us to what pleases Him, grant us good understanding of His Religion, and protect us against all that opposes His Laws. Indeed, He is Able to do all things. May Allah safeguard you. As-salamu `alaykum.


[1] Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 4, p. 154.

[2] Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 4, p. 156.

[3] Ibn Majah, Sunan, Book on medicine, no. 3531; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 4, p. 445.

[4] Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Book on faith, no. 52; Muslim, Sahih, Book on sharecropping, no. 1599; Al-Nasa’y, Sunan, Book on transactions, no. 4453; Ibn Majah, Sunan, Book on trials, no. 3984; and Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 4, p. 270.

[5] Al-Tirmidhy, Sunan, Book on Resurrection, heart-softening narrations, and piety, no. 2518; Al-Nasa’y, Sunan, Book on drinks, no. 5711; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 200; and Al-Darimy, Sunan, Book on transactions, no. 2532.

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Innovations of Ar-Râfida and An-Nâssiba in relation to Ashura – Shaykh Muhammad Ali Ferkous

The following  is excerpted from Fatwa of Shaykh Muhammad Ali Ferkous from his website. Full fatwa can be read @ http://ferkous.com/home/?q=en/fatwa-en-592

As for the heresies innovated by Ar-Râfida(3), like the fact of imposing thirst to themselves and showing sadness as well as other innovations, like considering this day a day of sorrow and, on the other hand, An-Nâssiba(4) who show joy and happiness and expend much in this day; neither the former nor the latter have a valid origin on which to rely, but there are only invented hadiths attributed falsely to the Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم or weak hadiths that do not reach the degree of validity to be taken as proofs.

Sheikh Al-Islâm Ibn Taymiya رحمه الله demonstrated this by saying:

“Like what was innovated by some people who follow their passions during the day of `Ashura, as making themselves thirsty, showing sadness, gathering and other heresies that are not legislated neither by Allah nor by His Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم and none of the Salaf (Predecessors) or one of Ahl-Al-Bayt (The Prophet’s صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّمFamily) or others… this was an affliction to the Muslims – that is to say, the murder of Al-Hussayn رضي الله عنه – and that should be dealt with like other calamities by saying the legal Istirjâ`(5). Yet, some heretics innovated, during this day, acts that contradict what Allah عزَّ وجلَّ ordered to do when a calamity occurs. They added to that calumnies and denigration of the Companions who are innocent of killing Al-Hussayn رضي الله عنه and other things that Allah عزَّ وجلَّ and His Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم detest… As for the fact of considering days of calamities as days of bereavement, this does not belong to the Islamic religion but rather to the religion of the pre-Islamic period”,

then Ibn Taymiya رحمه اللهsaid:

“Some people innovated things during this day (`Ashura) on the basis of invented hadiths that have no valid origin like: the merit of taking a ritual bath in this day, to make up with kohl and shaking hands. All these things and others are innovated and hateful, but what is recommended is to fast during this day… apparently, as regards the invention of these hadiths, when chauvinism appeared between An-Nâssiba and Ar-Râfida, the former made the day of `Ashura a day of bereavement, and the latter invented texts that require expending copiously and making of `Ashura a holiday. However, these two ways are false”(6).

If we know that what was prescribed during this day is limited to fasting, it is not allowed to answer the invitation of someone who considers it a day of bereavement, nor someone who considers it a holiday, because it is not allowed to alter the sharia of Allah عزَّ وجلَّ for the sake of someone or rectify and add something to it.

Footnotes :

(3) Ar-Râfida: a sect belonging to the large sect of Shiites, they took the oath of allegiance to Zayd Ibn `Ali, and asked him to renounce the two Sheikhs (Abu Bakr and `Umar رضي الله عنهما), so he disagreed with them, then they left and refused him, that is to say: they boycotted him and gave up their oath of allegiance. Among their principles: Al-‘Imâma (The imamship of twelve members of the lineage of the Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم), Al-`Isma (The infallibility of the twelve imams), Al-Mahdiyya (They believe in a person of the lineage of the Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم whose name is Muhammad Ibn Al-Hassan Al-`Askari who will come back at the end of the world), At-Taqiyya (To show the contrary of what one believes), in addition to insulting the Companions and other principles.

(4) An-Nâssiba: those who detest Ali رضي الله عنه and his companions. See: “Majmû`Al-Fatâwa” (25/301).

(5) Saying: “Inna Lillâh Wa Inna Ilayhi Râji`ûn” (Truly! To Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return).

(6) See: “Iqtidhâ’ As-Sirât Al-Mustaqîm” of Ibn Taymiya (2/129-133).

The Ruling regarding observing Fasting in Allah’s month Al-Muharram – Shaykh Muhammad Ali Ferkous

The question:

Is it permissible to observe fast during the whole month of Muharram?

The answer:

All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. Peace and blessing be upon whom Allah sent as a mercy to the Worlds, upon his Family, his Companions and his Brothers till the Day of Resurrection.

Before answering your question, I want to draw attention to a spread mistake which consists in designating the term “Muharram” without the letters Alif and Lâm (Al-)(1). The correct form is to say “Al-Muharram” as it is mentioned in many prophetic hadiths, and because the Arabs did not mention this month in their speeches and poetry but with the definite article “Al”, which is not the case with the other months. So, this denomination is unwritten and not according to a rule.

Hereupon, one can fast during the month Al-Muharram, that is why it is recommended to observe much of fasting in it, in accordance with the Prophet’s صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم saying:

“The most superior fasting after (the fasting of) Ramadan is that of Allah’s month of Al-Muharram and the most superior prayer after the obligatory (prayers) is the Night Prayer”(2).

Fasting `Âshurâ’ which is the tenth of the month of Al-Muharram is more recommended, in accordance with the Prophet’s صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم saying: “This is the day of `Âshurâ’ (tenth of Al-Muharram). Allah has not enjoined its fasting on you but I am fasting it. You have the choice either to fast or not”(3).

Moreover, fasting `Âshurâ’ expiates the precedent year, in accordance with the Prophet’s صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّمsaying: “…Moreover, I expect from Allah that the fasting of the day of `Âshurâ’ will expiate (the sins of) the preceding year”(4). It is also recommended to fast the day preceding `Ashura’ which is the ninth day of the month Al-Muharram as it is mentioned in the hadith of Ibn `Abbâs رضي الله عنهما who said: “When the Messenger of Allah observed fast on the day of `Ashura, and ordered Muslims to fast on it, they said to him: “O Messenger of Allah! This is a day which both the Jews and the Christians venerate. Upon this, the Messenger of Allah said, “When it is the next year, Allah willing, we would observe fast on the ninth day (of Al-Muharram besides that day)”. But, it was not until the next year that the Messenger of Allah صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم had died”(5), and in another narration: “If I survive to the coming year, I would surely observe fast on the ninth (day of Al-Muharram)”(6).

Furthermore, it is recommended to fast a day after `Âshurâ’, that is to say, the eleventh day of the month of Al-Muharram, as it is narrated in an authentic and Mauqûf(7) text according to Ibn `Abbâsرضي الله عنهما: “Fast the day of `Âshurâ’, be different from Jews, fast one day before it or one day after it”(8). Al-Hâfidh (Ibn Hajar) رحمه الله said, “…Fasting `Âshurâ’ comes under three categories, the lowest is to fast it alone, better than it, is to fast the ninth day with it, and the best is to fast the ninth and the eleventh days with it”(9).

It is worth mentioning that it is permissible to fast during Allah’s month Al-Muharram but without specifying the last day of the year with the intention of bidding a farewell to the lunar year of Hegira, nor the first day of Al-Muharram with the intention of welcoming the new year by fasting, except what has been previously mentioned regarding fasting the day of `Âshurâ’ and the two days in order to differ from Jews (i.e. the ninth and eleventh days).

In fact, those who specify the first day and the last day of the year by fasting, support their opinion with a fabricated hadith: “Whoever fasts the last day of Dhu Al-Hijja and the first day of Al-Muharram, has surely ended the last year and begins the current year by a fast which has the reward of expiating fifty years”(10). This is in fact an invented hadith which is falsely attributed to the Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم. Abu Shâma said, “There is nothing reported about the first night of Al-Muharram. Besides, I made a research concerning the reported traditions whether authentic or weak and have examined weak hadiths, but I have found no one who mentioned something about that subject. Therefore, I fear-may Allah preserve us- that some prevaricator invents a hadith concerning this topic” (11).

Nothing is recommended then during the month of Al-Muharram, not even in `Âshurâ’ except fasting. As for performing a `Umra on the first of Al-Muharram or observing a special supplication or an invocation, or to devote oneself during the night of `Âshurâ’ to worship, supplications and invocations. Nothing of the aforesaid things were done, neither by the Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم nor by his Companions رضي الله عنهم not even by the noble successors. The Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم said: “Whoever does an action that is not in accordance with our tradition will have it rejected”(12)

The perfect knowledge belongs to Allah عزَّ وجلَّ. Our last prayer is all praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. Peace and blessing be upon our Prophet, his Family, his Companions and Brothers till the Day of Resurrection.

Algiers, Al-Muharram 4th, 1429H.

Corresponding to: January 11th, 2008.


(1) Al: a definite article in Arabic.

(2) Reported by Muslim, chapter of “Fasting”, concerning the merit of observing fast in the month of Al-Muharram (hadith 2755), Abu Dâwûd, chapter of “Fasting”, concerning fasting during the month Al-Muharram (hadith 2429), At-Tirmidhi, chapter of “Prayer”, concerning what is reported about night prayer (hadith 438), An-Nassâ’i, chapter of “Night prayers and the supererogatory prayers of the day”, concerning the merit of night prayers (hadith 1613) and Ahmad in his “Musnad” (hadith 8329) on the authority of Abu Hurayra رضي الله عنه.

(3) Reported by Al-Bukhâri, chapter of “Fasting”, concerning fasting `Âshurâ’ (hadith 1899), Muslim, chapter of “Fasting”, concerning fasting `Âshurâ’ (hadith 2653), Mâlik in “Al-Muwatta’” (hadith 663) and Ahmad in his “Musnad” (hadith 16425) on the authority Mu`âwiya Ibn Abi Sufyân رضي الله عنهما.

(4) Reported by Muslim, chapter of “Fasting”, concerning the recommendation of fasting three days in each month…(hadith 2746), Abu Dâwûd, chapter of “Fasting”, concerning fasting the whole year by way of supererogation (hadith 2425), Ibn Mâjah, chapter of “Fasting”, concerning fasting `Âshurâ’ (hadith 1738) and Ahmad in his “Musnad” (hadith 23290) on the authority of Abu Qatâda Al-Ansâriرضي الله عنه.

(5) Reported by Muslim, chapter of “Fasting”, concerning on which day fasting is observed for `Âshurâ’ (hadith 2666), on the authority of Ibn `Abbâs رضي الله عنهما.

(6) Reported by Muslim, chapter of “Fasting”, concerning on which day fasting is observed for `Âshurâ’ (hadith 2667), Ibn Mâjah, chapter of “Fasting”, concerning fasting the day of `Âshurâ’ (hadith 1736) and Ahmad in his “Musnad” (3203) on the authority of Ibn `Abbâs رضي الله عنهما.

(7) Mauqûf: A tradition attributed to a Companion.

(8) Reported as being attributed to the Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم by Ibn Khuzayma in his “Sahîh” (hadith 2095), and Ahmad in his “Musnad” (hadith 2155). Al-Albâni said in “Sahîh Ibn Khuzayma” (3/290): “Its chain of narration is weak because the memorization of Ibn Abi Layla is bad, and because `Atâ’ contradicted him as well as others. In fact, `Atâ’ reported this hadith according to Ibn `Abbâs as attributed to him; its chain of narration is authentic according to At-Tahâwi and Al-Bayhaqi”. This hadith is reported Mauqûf by At-Tabari in “Tahdhîb Al-Âthâr” (Musnad `Umar/1430), this tradition has been judged as authentic by Al-Albâni as it is aforementioned and by Zakariya Ibn Ghulâm Al-Pâkistâni in “Fî Mâ Sahha Min Âthâr As-Sahâba Fi Al-Fiqh” (2/675).

(9) See, “Fath Al-Bâri” by Ibn Hajar (4/246).

(10) Ibn Al-Jauzi has judged this hadith as being fabricated in “Al-Maudhû`ât” (2/199), As-Suyûti in “Al-La’âli’” (2/108) and Ash-Shaukâni in “Al-Fawâ’id” (page: 96).

(11) See, “Al-Bâ`ith `Ala Inkâr Al-Bida` Wal-Hawâdith” (239).

(12) This version of the hadith is reported by Muslim, chapter of “Judgments”, concerning canceling the invalid judgments and abrogating the heresies (hadith 4590). The two Sheikhs, Al-Bukhâri in the chapter of “Reconciliation” (hadith 2697) and Muslim, chapter of “Judgments” (hadith 4589) agreed to report it according to the following version: “If somebody innovates something which is not involved in the principles of our religion, that thing will be rejected” on the authority of `Âishaرضي الله عنها and in Al-Bukhâri’s “Sahîh” : “…which is not part of it…”.

Posted from the Sheik’s website:

Detachment of the Heart From the Created – Ibn Taymiyah | Dr. Saleh-As-Saleh [Audio|En]

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Posted from Audio Series:
The Concise Admonition – Shaikal-Islam Ibn Taymiyah rahimahullaah

Women : The Greatest Temptation – Shaykh Uthaymeen

Women : The Greatest Temptation – Shaykh Uthaymeen

A FRIDAY SERMON BY: Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn [1]

Oh Muslims, there is a certain well known pastime of tribulation and temptation into which many people fall today. Unfortunately, this issue does not negatively affect only the individuals who fall into it. Rather, its consequences affect others as Allah (تعالى) says:

Beware of a trial which will not afflict only those who have transgressed among you exclusively, and know that Allah is severe in penalty. [2]

Muslims, the tribulations to which I refer are temptations pertaining to (the unlawful admiration of) women, and it is such trials about which the messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

I will not leave behind a trial more harmful to men than (the temptations of) women.[3]

It is a trial which the shameful ones readily partake in, one that affects their desires, blinds their eyes, and destroys their judgment. This eventually leads them to following women around in the streets and shopping malls, flirting with them, whistling at them and whispering to them. They may even go so far as to touch or grope women in public as if they are completely unconcerned with others around them. Perhaps they see others as insignificant as if they were cattle. This is because such people are immersed in their own lust. They belittle morality and they defy societal norms. They are fearless before Allah (Azza wa Jal) as they choose ways (to support their desires) other than the respectable ways of sensible people.

We must, as a believing Muslim people, renounce these activities perpetrated by such immoral individuals. We detest these types of behaviors because they contradict the characteristics and qualities of believers in Allah and the last day. We disapprove of such actions because they are means leading one closer to adultery or fornication about which Allah (تعالى)  says:

And do not approach adultery, fornication. Certainly, it has always been immoral and an evil way.[4]

We condemn this behavior (of chasing after women, watching them desirously, flirting with them, etc.) because it infringes upon personal safety and security, and it could lead to community fear, panic (among women), and societal disorder. And we criticize it because it may inevitably bring about a swift, overwhelming and inclusive punishment. Allaah (azza wa jal) says:

When we intend to destroy a town, we command its affluent ones, but they defiantly disobey. So the word comes into effect upon it, and we destroy it with complete destruction. [5]

Here, “We command” is a type of universal responsibility befitting those of affluence and power (to enforce change in society). Allah mentions the “affluent ones” because it is often the rich and powerful who immerse themselves in sin. And if they refuse to change, “The word comes into effect upon it, and we destroy it with complete destruction.” After mentioning His punishment for adultery and fornication (among other sins), Allah then speaks about the exception, those who will avoid punishment, the true worshippers of the Most-Merciful:

Whoever does that incurs sin. The punishment will be multiplied upon him and he will abide therein disgraced, except for those who repent, believe, and do righteous deeds. For them, Allah will replace their bad deeds with good ones and Allah is ever forgiving, merciful. [6]

Oh Muslims, You who try to safeguard your dignity and protect the women in your care, immoral qualities and shameful behaviors such as these to which some people degenerate—and such behavior was not prevalent in our society until recently—weaken your religion, weaken your honorable protectiveness of women, and spread the means leading to tribulations and societal problems.

Weakening of One’s Religion

As for the weakening of one’s religion, these people who follow women around, being tested with admiring and flirting with them, had they been strong in religion, they would not dare do the kinds of things they do with women. Such actions result in their sinning against Allah (azza wa jal)  and preoccupying themselves with and giving preference to the creation instead of the creator. Allah (azza wa jal) says:

Tell the believing men to lower their gazes and protect their private parts. That is purer for them. Allah is certainly aware of everything they do. [7]

The Weakening of One’s Honorable Protectiveness of Women

As for the weakening of one’s honorable protectiveness – the praiseworthy type of respectful jealousy one should have of women – individuals afflicted with this temptation to “chase women,” had they had the complete respectful honor for women, they would not dare chase after the women of their brothers (in faith), the women (sisters, daughters, mothers) of their fellow citizens, thereby putting those women into the same types of temptations and tribulations. The type of religious brotherhood we have obliges men to respect and honor his brothers’ womenfolk and those of his fellow citizens, having the same kind of commendable jealousy for their honor and chastity as he has for his own female relatives.

I would ask these men: Would you be happy to know that someone chases after your own wife out of desire for her? Or your daughter, your sister, or other female relatives? Would you like people flirting with them? If he would hate such behavior with his own women, why would he allow his own desires to tempt him into doing the same things with other women? I warn these individuals who have been afflicted with such admiration of women from the very actions which would allow another man to gain influence over his own women. I advise them to prevent his relatives from becoming afflicted with such trials.

The Spreading of Tribulations & Societal Problems

The tribulations and temptations to admire and chase after women are many. Such behavior (because of its popularity and influence) leads to various forms of widespread media, including audio, visual, and written publications, being placed in the hands of our young men and women. They have newspapers and magazines filled with images and articles that arouse their desires, stimulate their emotions, and kindle the fires of passion. Even worse than this media is that which comes to our land from abroad, or sometimes even from our own citizens. We ask Allah to guide them and to protect us from their evil.

Another way this tribulation may spread is by the very blessings which Allah has bestowed on this land: the comfort of its society, its excess wealth, good food, and the overall security and prosperity of our society. Oftentimes, such luxuries lead one’s heart to become empty and the body to become idle from inactivity or unemployment. This is why you almost always find these young men to be one of two types. They are often unsuccessful men who have no careers to occupy their time or attention. They live off the prosperity of other wealthy, successful men. They neither know a skill, nor try to learn one. They do not work towards a specific occupation or official career. Thus, his desires get the better of him and leave him in a perpetual downfall.

Or they may often be men who may work but they waste the results of their labor, wasting their earnings, unconcerned with its value or what results from the bad consequences of their actions. But as for a dignified, determined believer, he does not allow his personality to deteriorate to the point of such shallow yet despicable behavior. Other ways these temptations spread is what some women of immoral conduct themselves perpetrate in their choice of clothing, their appearance, and lustful behaviors. By these choices, they are inclined to promote this type of tribulation. Such conduct was foreign to our righteous predecessors. Some women go to shopping centers to flaunt themselves, to exhibit their beauty with the most attractive clothing they own. They may then throw over it a thin cloak but one that might be shortened or raised up so that her attractive clothing underneath is displayed. They are dressed yet still appear naked, wearing the types of garments the women of Hell wear. The prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

There are two types of the people of Hell that I have never seen: (1) People with whips like the tails of cattle with which they beat people, and (2) women who are dressed but appear naked, walking with an enticing strut with their heads looking like the humps of camels. They will never enter Paradise, nor even smell its fragrance although its scent can be perceived from such and such a distance. [8]

Some women also frequent shopping centers adorned with gold jewelry or elegant watches, walking in such a manner and revealing her hands (in an attractive, seductive way) to entice those who see her even though Allah (Azza wa Jal) says:

They (believing women) should not strike their feet in such a manner that the adornment they hide may be known. [9]

Other women go out perfumed, sometimes choosing to wear the strongest, most fragrant perfume so that almost every man she passes who smells her scent, she allures him with it. The prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said about this:

Any woman who has been around incense should not join us in the last evening prayer. [10]

A woman, if she wears perfume and then passes by a gathering (of men), she is this and that (meaning: a type of adulterer, fornicator). [11]

Other women frequent the malls unveiled or wearing a thin veil that barely conceals her face. Perhaps it is even worn as a way of beautifying her face, or just to hide some blemish on her face. Still other women may cover their faces yet they wear the veil so tightly that their nose, eyebrows, and cheeks are shown. These are no doubt temptations.

You also find women roaming shopping centers in a strutting, swaying manner and joke and giggle with their girlfriends. Sometimes they visit shops, with or without need, to chat with the salesman, prolonging their conversation. Perhaps she requests an item stored in the back of the shop that she actually does not want; she just wants to keep chatting with the salesman. Yet Allah (Azza wa Jal) told the prophet’s wives and they were considered the “mothers of the believers,” they were the most pure and farthest from any behaviors or situations of temptation – Allah told them:

Do not be soft in speech (to men) for fear that he in whose heart is a disease should desire (you), but speak in an honorable manner. [12]

Muslims, we have described some things regarding the sickness but is there a cure? The answer is yes and there are several types of medicine thanks to Allah. We are a Muslim nation practicing the religion of Islam, and Allah (Azza wa Jal) has clarified the general responsibilities a man has regarding his family members and the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has spoken about this as well. As for Allah (Azza wa Jal) He says in His noble book:

You who believe, protect yourselves and your families from a fire whose fuel is people and stones over which are (appointed) angels, stern and severe. They do not disobey Allah in what He commands them but do as they are commanded.[13]

As for the Sunnah, the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

Each of you is a shepherd and each of you is responsible for his flock. The leader is a shepherd and responsible for his flock (i.e., citizens). A man is a shepherd over his family and responsible for his flock. A woman is a shepherd in her husband’s home and responsible for her flock. And a servant, worker is a shepherd over the property of his master, boss. So each of you is a shepherd and is responsible for his flock.[14]

Worshippers of Allah, fear Allah and fulfill your responsibilities. Continuously prevent and discourage the women in your care from visiting shopping centers to behave in manners that contradict religious rulings.

I ask Allah to help us and you with regards to the medicine of integrity and honor, to guide us and guide others with us for He is capable of all things. All thanks are for Allah, the lord of the worlds, and may Allah send peace and prayers on our prophet, Muhammad, and upon his family and companions.

Ibn al-‘Uthaymīn continues in the second part of his Friday sermon…

Oh Muslim brothers. You, men who are caretakers of women, men who are responsible for your families, fear Allah with respect to yourselves and families. Cultivate in them respectable manners and praiseworthy characteristics, and discourage them from becoming the very means which lead to temptations and tribulations. You are men and they are women and men have been charged with taking care of women because of what Allah has given one over the other and because men (are obliged to) spend their wealth to support them. [15]

A man should neither be (helpless, having no influence) as if he were simply a rock in his house, nor should he be as if he is one of the women. Rather, he must act like a man in every sense of the word. Be shepherds; be responsible and influential so that you live among your families as men.

Some people go to great measures to ensure their financial stability, carefully watching their expenses, their checkbooks and bookkeeping. Yet they neglect their family members for whom they are personally and immediately responsible. Such a man, were he to lose a single sheep from his flock (a single coin, for example), he would search right and left for it until it is found. All the while, he remains unconcerned that his family members, his sons and daughters, are losing their manners and good character.

Men are protectors and maintainers of women by what Allah has given one over the other and what they spend (to support them) from their wealth.

Fulfill the obligations Allah has placed over you. This is my advice I present to you as I remind you that you are responsible for your families because Allah told you this and the prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has charged you with this. Do you want to waste this trust you have been given? Do you want to be unable to answer when you are made to stand in front of Allah and asked about this trust?

Fear Allah and take seriously the obligations Allah has placed on you. Do not neglect and waste your chances at raising your family. If you fail in the upbringing of your family and this man fails his family and that man fails, soon the entire society becomes corrupt. Society is a conglomeration made up of individuals, so when the individuals become corrupt the entire population is corrupt.

I conclude this speech of mine asking Allah (Azza wa Jal) to assist us and you all in fulfilling our responsibilities we have regarding the safeguarding of our families. Oh Allah, help us care for our families, providing the best care for them.


[1]This is a sermon given by Muḥammad Ibn Ṣāliḥ al-‘Uthaymīn before a Friday prayer. The complete opening and closing supplications of the scholar have been omitted. The Arabic text and audio, at the time of translation, is available at: http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/all/khotab/article_265.shtml.
[2] The Quran, Sūrah al-Anfāl, 8:25
[3] Collected by al-Bukhārī. Allah confirms this in Sūrah Āli-‘Imrān, 3:14, as He mentions various things people covet, beginning the list with women: Beautified for people is the love of that which they desire: women…
[4]Sūrah al-Isrā, 17:32
[5]Sūrah al-Isrā, 17:16
[6]Sūrah al-Furqān, 25:68-70
[7] Sūrah al-Nūr, 24:30
[8] Collected by Muslim
[9] Sūrah al-Nūr, 24:31
[10] Collected by al-Nasāī and al-Albānī said it is authentic in Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan al-Nasāī (no. 4739)
[11] Collected by al-Tirmidhī and al-Albānī said it is authentic in Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan al-Tirmidhī (no. 2237). In a similar narration collected by al-Nasāī and graded as authentic by al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ Sunan al-Nasāī (no. 4737), the prophet (صلّى اهلل عليه وسلّم) said explicitly: “Any woman who wears perfume and then passes by people so that they smell her fragrance, she is an adulterer, fornicator”
[12] Sūrah al-Aḥzāb, 33:32
[13] Sūrah al-Taḥrīm, 66:6
[14] Collected by al-Bukhārī
[15] This is based on the verse in Sūrah al-Nisā, 4:34:

Translated by Abu az-Zubayr Harrison hafidhahullaah

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Do not wrong ourselves especially in these Sacred Months – Abu Muhammad Al Maghribee [Short Clip|En]

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This short clip was extracted from the below lecture:
Virtues of the Month of Muharram and Fasting on Aashoora – Abu Muhammad Al Maghribee [Audio|En]

The Four Sacred Months – Tafseer Ibn Kathir

(36. Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein, and fight against the Mushrikin idolaters collectively as they fight against you collectively. But know that Allah is with those who have Taqwa.)

 Soorat at-Tawbah 9:36

The Year consists of Twelve Months

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Bakrah said that the Prophet said in a speech during his Hajj,

(The division of time has turned to its original form which was current when Allah created the heavens and the earth. The year is of twelve months, out of which four months are sacred: Three are in succession Dhul-Qa`dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (Ath-Thaniyah) and Sha`ban.”

The Prophet then asked, (What is the day today’) We said, “Allah and His Messenger know better. He kept quiet until we thought that he might give that day another name. He said (Isn’t it the day of Nahr) We replied, “Yes.” He further asked, (Which month is this) We again said, “Allah and His Messenger know better,” and he kept quiet and made us think that he might give it another name. Then he said,(Isn’t it the month of Dhul-Hijjah) We replied, “Yes.” He asked, (What town is this) We said, “Allah and His Messenger know better,” and he kept quiet until we thought that he might change its name. He asked, (Isn’t this the (Sacred) Town) We said, “Yes.” He said,

(Verily! Your blood, property and honor are sacred to one another like the sanctity of this day of yours, in this month of yours and in this city of yours. Verily, you will meet your Lord and He will question you about your actions. Behold! Do not revert to misguidance after me by striking the necks of one another. Have I conveyed It is incumbent upon those who are present to inform those who are absent, because those who are absent might comprehend (what I have said) better than some who are present.)

Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected this Hadith.

In a small book collected by Shaykh `Alam ad-Din As-Sakhawi, entitled, Al-Mashhur fi Asma’ Al-Ayam wash-Shuhur, he mentioned that Muharram is so named because it is a sacred month. To me, it was so named to emphasize its sacredness. This is because the Arabs would switch it around. One year they would say it was a sacred month, the following year they would say that it was not. The author said, “…and Safar is so named because they used to leave their homes during that month for fighting and traveling. When saying `Safir’ a place, it means to leave it… Rabi` Al-Awwal is called that because they used to do Irtiba` in it, that is to maintain one’s property… and Rabi` Al-Akhir, was so named for the same reasons. Jumada is called that because the water would dry up (Jamud) then….They say Jumada Al-Uwla and Al-Awwal, or Jumada Al-Akhar or Al-Akhirah. Rajab comes from Tarjib, meaning to honor. Sha`ban because the tribes would separate and return to their homes. Ramadan was so named because of the severity of the Ramda’ – that is – the heat, and they say that the branch Ramadat when it is thirsty…And the saying that it is a Name of Allah is a mistake, for there is no proof or support for that…”

The Sacred Months

Allah said,

(of them four are sacred). The Arabs used to consider these months sacred during the time of Jahiliyyah, except for a group of them called Al-Basl, who held eight months of the year to be sacred as way of exaggeration in religion.

The Prophet said,

(Three are in succession; Dhul-Qa`dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (Ath-Thani) and Sha`ban).

The Prophet said “Rajab of Mudar” to attest to the custom of Mudar, in saying that Rajab is the month that is between Jumada and Sha`ban, not as the tribe of Rabi`ah thought, that it is between Sha`ban and Shawwal, which is Ramadan in the present calendar. The four Sacred Months were made four, three in succession and one alone, so that the Hajj and `Umrah are performed with ease. Dhul-Qa`dah, the month before the Hajj month, was made sacred because they refrained from fighting during that month. Dhul-Hijjah, the next month, was made sacred because it is the month of Hajj, during which they performed Hajj rituals. Muharram, which comes next, was made sacred so that they are able to go back to their areas in safety after performing Hajj. Rajab, in the middle of the lunar year, was made sacred so that those coming from the farthest areas of Arabia are able to perform `Umrah and visit the House and then go back to their areas safely.

Allah said next,

(That is the right religion), that is the Straight Law, requiring implementing Allah’s order concerning the months that He made sacred and their true count as it was originally written by Allah. Allah said,

(so wrong not yourselves therein) during these Sacred Months, for sin in them is worse than sin in other months. Likewise, sins in the Sacred City are written multiplied,

(…and whoever inclines to evil actions therein (in Makkah) or to do wrong, him We shall cause to taste from a painful torment) 22:25. Similarly, sin in general is worse during the Sacred Months

`Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated that Ibn `Abbas said, Allah’s statement,

(Verily, the number of months with Allah…), is connected to

(so wrong not yourselves therein), “In all (twelve) months. Allah then chose four out of these months and made them sacred, emphasizing their sanctity, making sinning in them greater, in addition to, multiplying rewards of righteous deeds during them.” Qatadah said about Allah’s statement,

(so wrong not yourselves therein), “Injustice during the Sacred Months is worse and graver than injustice in other months. Verily, injustice is always wrong, but Allah makes things graver than others as He will.”

He also said,

“Allah has chosen some of His creation above others. He chose Messengers from angels and from men. He also chose His Speech above all speech, the Masajid above other areas of the earth, Ramadan and the Sacred Months above all months, Friday above the other days and Laylatul-Qadr (The Night of Decree) above all nights. Therefore, sanctify what Allah has sanctified, for doing so is the practice of people of understanding and comprehension.”

Fighting in the Sacred Months

Allah said,

(and fight against the idolators collectively), all of you,

(as they fight against you collectively.), all of them,

(But know that Allah is with those who have Taqwa), and know that initiating battle during the Sacred Months is forbidden. Allah said in other Ayat,

(O you who believe! Violate not the sanctity of the symbols of Allah, nor of the sacred month.) 5:2,

(The Sacred Month is for the Sacred Month, and for the prohibited things, there is the law of equality (Qisas). Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him) 2:194, and,

(Then when the Sacred Months have passed, kill the idolators…) 9:5. As for Allah’s statement,

(And fight against the idolators collectively as they fight against you collectively), it includes permission for the believers to fight the idolators in the Sacred Month, if the idolators initiate hostilities therein. Allah said in other Ayat,

(The Sacred Month is for the Sacred Month, and for the prohibited things, there is the law of equality (Qisas)) 2:194, and,

(And fight not with them at Al-Masjid Al-Haram, unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them.) 2:191.

As for the Messenger of Allah laying siege to At-Ta’if until the Sacred Month started, it was a continuation of the battle against Hawazin and their allies from Thaqif. They started the fighting and gathered their men for the purpose of conducting war. The Messenger of Allah marched to meet them and when they took refuge in At-Ta’if, the Prophet laid siege to them so that they descend from their forts, but they inflicted casualties on Muslims. The siege continued for about forty days, during which a Sacred Month began, and the siege continued for several days in that month. The Messenger broke the siege and went back (to Makkah). So fighting that carries over into it the Sacred Month is not the same as initiating warfare during it, Allah knows best.

Source: Tafseer Ibn Kathir, Soorat at-Tawbah 9:36, Dar-us-salam english Publications

We ask Allaah to make us firm upon Eemaan & to conclude our lives with it – Imam Tahaawi | Dawud Burbank [Short Clip]

This short clip was extracted by AbdurRahman.Org from # 60 of the Audio Series: Explanation of Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]