A Brief Overview of the Asha’aree Sect – Shaykh AbdulMuhsin & Shaykh Ahmad Yahya an-Najmi

Compiled & Translated By Abbas Abu Yahya

1 – Shaykh AbdulMuhsin bin Hamd al-Abbaad al-Badr said:

‘All praise belongs to Allaah the Lord of all the Worlds, and the praise, peace and blessings of Allaah be upon His Messenger and upon his Family and his Companions.

To proceed:

In response to the question about the Asha’irah: Are they from the Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah or not?

I say: ‘The Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah are the Noble Companions Radi Allaahu anhum, and those who followed their path, just as the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- said in explaining the ‘Firqat an-Najeeyah’ (the Saved Sect): ‘They are those who are upon what I am upon and my Companions.’

Their belief in the Names of Allaah – the All-Mighty and the Magnificent – and His Characteristics (Sifaat) is that they affirm for Allaah –Azza wa Jal- what is affirmed in the Book and the Sunnah from the Names and Characteristics in the way which they befit Allaah -Subhanahu Ta’ala- without explaining how they are, or resembling them with anything else, or with Tamtheel (to liken Allaah or His Characteristics to that of the creation), or Tahreef (alteration and distortion of wording or meaning), or Ta’weel (metaphorical interpretation) of them or cancelling them.  Just as Allaah -Azza wa Jal- said:

<< لَيۡسَ كَمِثۡلِهِۦ شَيۡءٞۖ وَهُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلۡبَصِيرُ >>

<< There is nothing like unto Him and He is the All-Hearing the All-Seeing>> [Shura : 11]

In this Ayaah there is the affirmation that Allaah Ta’ala has the two Sifaat (Characteristics) of Hearing and Seeing, which is in His statement: << and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.>>, and not likening Allaah to resembling anyone with Him as is in His statement: <<There is nothing like unto Him>>

The Asha’irah are those who ascribe to the Madhab (School of Thought) of Abul-Hasan al-Asha’ari -Rahimullaah- who was born in the year 270 A.H. and died in the year 330 A.H.  That Madhab on which he was before he came back to the Madhab of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah.  That Madhab which was on Ta’weel (metaphorical interpretation) of most of the Sifaat (Characteristics of Allaah), which is opposite to the Madhab of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah.

Therefore, the Asha’irah are from the deviated Islaamic sects, they are deviated from what Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah are upon.  It is not perceivable to the intellect that the truth was hidden from the Companions, and the Successors but then after that the truth had occurred in following a belief which was born after their time.

Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajr in his book ‘Fath al-Bari’ (13/407) quoted many statements from the Salaf about the authentic Aqeedah which is established upon the Book and the Sunnah and the understanding of the Salaf of the Ummah, he summed it up by saying:

‘Many quotes have preceded from the people of the third period of time and they are the Fuqaha (scholars) of the different lands, like Thawri, al-Awzaiee, Malik, al-Layth and those who lived at their time, and likewise those who took from them, from the other Imams. So how can a person not trust what the people of the first three generations agreed upon, and they are the best generations, with the testification of the owner of the Sharia?’

Ibn Hajr also quotes from al-Hasan al-Basari that he said:

‘If what al-Ja’ad is saying is true, then the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- would have conveyed it.’

Al-Ja’ad is Ibn Dirham the founder of the Madhab al-Jahmeeyah.[1]

I will say the like of what al-Hasan al-Basari -Rahimullaah- said:

‘If what the al-Asha’irah and other than them from the philosophers say is true, then the Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- would have conveyed it.’

[Taken from: ‘Takeed al-Musalamaat as-Salafeeyah’ p. 5]


2- Shaykh Ahmad Yahya an-Najmi said:

‘The truth of which there is no contention about, is that the Asha’irah and Matroodeeyah are from the groups of the Ahl-ul-Bida’.  It is not allowed for anyone to say that they are from the Ahl-ul-Sunnah and whoever claims that these two groups are from the Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah then he has squeezed himself between a grave and serious mistake, and a humiliating danger, and he will be questioned on the Day of Judgement about his statement before he is freed to go on his path.

Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah said in Majmoo’ al-Fatawa in (3/347) after speaking about this issue:

‘With that it becomes clear that the people with the most right to be the Firqat Najeeyah (the saved sect) are the Ahl-ul-Hadeeth and Sunnah those who do not have someone they biasedly follow except the Messenger of Allaah -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- and they are the most knowledgeable of the people regarding his statements, his situations, and they are the greatest in distinguishing between the authentic and weak of those statements and situations. Their Imams are scholars regarding those statements and situations and they are the people of knowledge of its meanings, and they follow them, with truth, action, love, with loyalty to the one who is loyal to it and have enmity to the one who has hatred to it. . . . [until he said]… and whatever the people differed over in regards to the issues of Sifaat (Characteristics of Allaah), al-Qadr (pre-destiny), al-Waeed (threat of punishment), Names of Allaah, enjoining the good, forbidding evil and other issues, then here they would return those issues to Allaah and His Messenger. They would refer to the Tafseer (explanation) of those general wordings of which the people of sects and differences differed over and whatever was in agreement with the Book and the Sunnah they would affirm that, and whatever was in opposition to the Book and the Sunnah they would regard that as false. They would not follow speculation or what their souls inclined and desired, because following speculation is ignorance, and following one’s desires without guidance from Allaah is oppression, and together that is evil: ignorance and oppression.’

How can those who apply the intellect in issues of al-Eemaan, which are well-established in the Book and the Sunnah be from the Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah, when they accept what they want from the Book and the Sunnah and reject what they want?!

This is why the Asha’irah and Matroodeeyah only affirm seven Sifaat of Allaah from His Sifaat, and they metaphorically interpret all the other Sifaat of Allaah, which in turn leads to cancelling out the Sifaat of Allaah.

How can that person be from the Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah when he metaphorically interprets the saying of Allaah Ta’ala: <> by saying [Isteewa means] Allaah conquered His Throne, so it is as if this person is saying that someone else had taken Allaah’s Throne and then after that Allaah had to conquer it?!

How can that person be from the Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah when he metaphorically interprets the hadeeth that Allaah descends the last third of the night which is established in the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- saying:

‘Allaah –Azza wa Jal- descends every night to the heavens of the Dunyaa, at the second half of the night, or at the third of the night and says: who is making Dua’ to Me so that I can respond to him; who is asking of Me so that I can give him it; who is seeking forgiveness from Me so that I can forgive him until Fajr comes in.’

[Collected by Ahmad, and it is originally in Bukhari and Muslim]

So the person who metaphorically interprets this, says it means: ‘Allaah’s command descends,’ [and not Allaah Himself] even though Allaah’s –Azza wa Jal- command descends at every time and moment.

How can that person be from Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah who metaphorically interprets Allaah’s Two Hands to mean Allaah’s blessings, even though Allaah –Subhana wa Ta’ala- connected/linked/explained that thing which is specific for the hand, which is spending, Allaah –the Most Magnificent- said:

وَقَالَتِ ٱلۡيَهُودُ يَدُ ٱللَّهِ مَغۡلُولَةٌۚ غُلَّتۡ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ وَلُعِنُواْ بِمَا قَالُواْۘ بَلۡ يَدَاهُ مَبۡسُوطَتَانِ يُنفِقُ كَيۡفَ يَشَآءُۚ

<< The Jews say: ‘Allaah’s Hand is tied up (i.e. He does not give and spend of His Bounty).’ Be their hands tied up and be they accursed for what they uttered. Nay, both His Hands are widely outstretched. He spends (of His Bounty) as He wills. >>[2]  knowing that the blessings which the Noble (Jaleel) Lord confers upon His worshippers are so many they cannot be enumerated?!

Allaah the Magnificent said:

<< وَإِن تَعُدُّواْ نِعۡمَةَ ٱللَّهِ لَا تُحۡصُوهَآۗ  >>

<< And if you would count the graces of Allaah, never could you be able to count them. >>[3]

How can that person be from Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah when he metaphorically interprets the Hadeeth: ‘Allaah does not look at the one who drags his garment below his ankles out of pride.’

[Agreed upon by Bukhari and Muslim] and other Hadeeth with this meaning; he metaphorically interprets ‘Allaah looking’ in this Hadeeth that the meaning of ‘looking’ is metaphorical for mercy, meaning that Allaah will not have mercy upon them?!

There are other deviated metaphorically interpretations, which transfer the texts present from Allaah –Azza wa Jal – in His Book or upon the tongue of His Messenger, which comprise of lofty meanings, which are befitting Allaah –Azza wa Jal- and they metaphorically interpret them with a false interpretation.

If we think about it, what has obligated them to metaphorically interpret the Sifaat like this, then we find that they claim that the condition and state of the intellect is that this is how Allaah should be characterized with those [distorted] characteristics; because they made and took the foundations of the people of Kalam (rationalistic theology & philosophy) as the foundation, and they used this foundation above that of the texts of the Sharia’, which came in the Book of Allaah, and in the Sunnah of the Messenger -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- which affirm for Allaah –Azza wa Jal- Names and Characteristics which befit His Majesty.

So the Asha’irah and Matroodeeyah made those foundations rationalistic theology (Kalam), which was taken from the philosophers, and the people of logic (Mantiq) those who were drowned in knowledge of rationalistic theology, and they spent their time in it, and wasted their lives in it, and their end result was confusion.’

[Taken from: ‘Takeed al-Musalamaat as-Salafeeyah’ p. 7]

Footnotes:

[1] A sect, which rejects the Characteristics of Allaah.

[2] Soorah Maidah: 64

[3] Soorah Nahl: 18

Posted from:

https://followingthesunnah.com/2013/08/30/a-brief-overview-of-the-ashaaree-sect/

Related Links

The Attributes of Allaah & The Creed of Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jama’ah – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lessons 32 & 33 : Point 42
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

وكل ما سمعت من الآثار شيئا مما لم يبلغه عقلك نحو قول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قلوب العباد بين إصبعين من أصابع الرحمن عز وجل وقوله إن الله ينزل إلى السماء الدنيا وينزل يوم عرفة وينزل يوم القيامة وإن جهنم لا يزال يطرح فيها حتى يضع عليها قدمه جل ثناؤه وقول الله تعالى للعبد إن مشيت إلي هرولت إليك وقوله خلق الله آدم على صورته وقول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم رأيت ربي في أحسن صورة وأشباه هذه الأحاديث فعليك بالتسليم والتصديق والتفويض والرضا ولا تفسر شيئا من هذه بهواك فإن الإيمان بهذا واجب فمن فسر شيئا من هذا بهواه ورده فهو جهمي

And whenever you hear something from the narrations, which your intellect cannot fully comprehend such as the saying of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam : “The hearts of the servants are between two fingers from the fingers of the Most Merciful, the Mighty and Majestic”

and His saying:  “Allaah descends to the lowest heaven and He descends on the Day of `Arafah and He will descend on the Day of Resurrection and that the Hellfire will continue to have people cast into it until He, the Majestic and Praise will place His foot upon it”

and the saying of Allaah the Most High to the servant: “if you come towards Me walking, I will comes towards you running.”

And His saying “Allaah created Aadam upon His image.”

And the saying of the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam : “I saw my Lord in the most excellent form” and the like of these ahaadeeth.

Then upon you is to submit and to believe and to consign the how to Allaah and to be pleased and do not explain anything from this based upon your desires since having eemaan in this is obligatory so whoever explains anything from this based upon his desires and rejects it then he is a Jahmee.

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

The texts of the sifaat (attributes) that are established for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, it is obligatory upon you to affirm them just as they come upon their reality without interfering with them with your intellect and saying this does not befit Allaah. Allaah is declared free of that and this is resemblance; tashbeeh, as is said by the Mu’attilah; deniers of the attributes or that you believe that Allaah resembles His creation as is said by the Mumaththilah; those who declare the Creator to be like the creation. So each of the two groups are upon misguidance.

  • Mu`attilah; those who deny the attributes, they went beyond the limit in tanzeeh (declaring Allaah free) to such an extent that they denied the names and attributes in order to flee away from tashbeeh (resemblance) they claimed.
  • Mumaththilah; those who liken Allaah to the creation, they went beyond the limit in affirming to such an extent that they likened Allaah to His creation.

Both of these positions are baatil (false and futile).

And the position of the Ahl-ul-Sunnah is al-wasat (the middle and justly balanced position), they affirm the names and attributes for Allaah with affirmation without tashbeeh (without likening Allaah to the creation) and they negate from Him any resemblance to a created being declaring Him free of imperfections but without denying the attributes. This is the position of the Ahl-ul Sunnah W`al Jama`ah. In accordance with His saying He the Most High said:

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ ۖ

There is nothing like Him.
(Sooratus-Shurah (42) aayah 11)

This is a refutation of the Mumaththilah; those who liken Allaah to the creation, “there is nothing like Him.”

وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ

And He, Allaah is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing.
(Sooratus-Shurah (42) aayah 11)

This is a refutation of the Mu`attilah; those who deny the attributes and the aayah proves that affirming the names and attributes does not necessitate tashbeeh (resemblance) to the creation nor tamtheel (His being like) the creation and the fact that the people affirm whatever attributes He has affirmed for Himself or His Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, we affirm those attributes and that in no way necessitates that we have likened Him to the creation or declared Him to be resemblance to the creation. This is the correct methodology with regard to the matter of Al-Asma Wa-Sifaat (names and the attributes).

Like such as “The hearts of the servants are between two fingers from the fingers of the Most Merciful, the Mighty and Majestic,”[1] you should affirm asaabi` (the fingers) for the Most Merciful as occurs in the hadeeth and you should not say that they are like the fingers of the created being for this is tashbeeh (likening) Him to the creation, we declare Allaah free of it. Rather, we affirm it as befits the Majesty of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High not like the fingers of the created beings.

And we affirm the Hadeeth Qudsee in which Allaah, the Majestic and Most High says:

“Whoever comes to me walking, I come to him running.”[2]

Meaning whoever hastens towards My pleasure and towards obedience to Me then I will hasten to forgive his sins and to carry out his needs. so the meaning of harwalah (running) is not the meaning that is well-known with us but rather it is explained by the end of the hadeeth by His saying, “If he were to ask Me, I would certainly give to him and if he were to ask My refuge, I would certainly grant him refuge.” So, the meaning of al-harwalah here is hastening to carry out the needs of His servant just as the servant hastens to the obedience to Allaah. So, does the servant run in reality or in meaning?[3]

So this contains a refutation of some of those who are overhasty in affirming al-harwalah (running) for Allaah and this is the case of actions which are done as a response just as He, the Most High said:

فَيَسْخَرُونَ مِنْهُمْ ۙ سَخِرَ اللَّهُ مِنْهُمْ

So they (the disbelievers) mock at the believers, Allaah will mock at them.(Sooratut-Towbah (9), aayah 79)

He, the Most High said:

إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُسْتَهْزِئُونَ

اللَّهُ يَسْتَهْزِئُ بِهِمْ

They (the hypocrites) say, “We were only mocking.” Allaah will mock them.(Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 14-15)

He, the Most High said:

وَمَكَرُوا وَمَكَرَ اللَّهُ ۖ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرُ الْمَاكِرِينَ

And they plotted and Allaah planned.
(Soorah Aali `Imraan (3), aayah 154)

So, it is obligatory to have awareness of these tremendous principles so that a person may be upon clear insight and be aware of the position of the Salaf with regard to it; those who are more firmly grounded than you and had more knowledge than you and a person should not try and make himself independent with his own understanding and his own intellect and affirm for Allaah things that he does not know about based upon what is apparent or based upon some unclear things, when there are decisive evidences, which explain and clarify them. So, it is obligatory to refer that which is unclear back to that which is clear and only those who are firmly grounded in knowledge will be guided to doing this. So, it is obligatory upon the student of knowledge and the beginner that he should not be hasty in these matters. Rather, he should withhold with regard to them and he should learn how he is to understand them upon the methodology of the Salaf and upon the clear, correct way. The Salaf (predecessors) did not fall short in making the truth clear and in laying down principles and regulations. However, this requires learning and understanding.

And the like of this also is his saying sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“Our Lord descends to the lowest heaven.”[4]

“And He descends on the evening of Arafah.”[5]

“He will come on the Day of Resurrection.”

He, the Most High said:

هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَأْتِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي ظُلَلٍ مِّنَ الْغَمَامِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ ۚ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ الْأُمُورُ

Do they but await that Allaah should come to them screened by clouds and the angels come and the affair will be finished and to Allaah return all affairs. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 210)

And likewise with regard to Allaah, the Most High’s coming on the Day of Resurrection, it occurs also as a side point in a hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anh.[6]

“He will come on the Day of Resurrection to carry out judgement upon His servants.”[7]

We affirm these matters for Allaah upon their reality (haqeeqah) without interfering by defining the kayfiyyah (how). So, we do not burden ourselves with awareness of how He will descend and how He will come. So, the kayfiyyah (how), we do not enter into it but as for the meaning then it is ma’qool (understood) and therefore, when Imaam Maalik was asked about how al-istiwaa; how the ascending is when the questioner said:

الرَّحْمَٰنُ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ اسْتَوَىٰ

The Most Merciful ascended over the Throne.
(Soorah Taa Haa (20), aayah 5)

Then the questioner said to Imaam Maalik:

“How did He ascend?”

He was asking about kayfiyyah (how).

Imaam Maalik rahimahullaah said to him:

الاستواء معلوم

“The ascending is known.”

Meaning known with regard to its meaning.

Imaam Maalik said:

والكيف مجهول , والإيمان به واجب , والسؤال عنه بدعة

“And how is unknown and having eemaan in it is obligatory and asking about it is bid’ah (innovation).”

This is the sound methodology in the like of these affairs.[8]

Likewise, affirmation of assoorah (a form) for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic in his saying sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam:

“Allaah created Aadam upon his image.”[9]

And in a narration:

“Upon the form of the Most Merciful one.”[10]

So, we affirm assoorah (a form or image) for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic just as His Messenger affirmed it for Him in his saying:

“I saw my Lord in the best form.” [11]

i.e this was in the world seeing Him in a dream in the best form. It contains affirmation of assoorah (form or image) for Allaah, the Majestic and Most High as befits His Majesty, not like the images of the created beings but rather, it is the assoorah (image or form) of the Most Merciful, the Majestic and Most High. So, these matters, we affirm them and we do not enter into them nor raise doubts about them nor delve further into them.

His saying, “We consign or surrender the matter,” what is correct is to perform tafweed of the kayfiyyah (how) it is, not tafweed of the meaning.[12]

His saying, “Do not explain anything from these with your desires,” rather you must explain them with the correct meaning that befits Allaah, the Majestic and Most High. It should not be said that they are not to be explained. Rather, they are to be explained and their meaning is to be made clear and tafweed (surrender, consigning) is just with regard to how only. So, therefore you affirm an-nuzool (His descending) but you negate the kayfiyyah (how). Allaah, the Majestic and Most High comes on the Day of Resurrection to carry out the judgement just as He, the Most High said:

وَجَاءَ رَبُّكَ وَالْمَلَكُ صَفًّا صَفًّا

And your Lord will come. (Sooratul-Fajr (89), aayah 22)

هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَأْتِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي ظُلَلٍ مِّنَ الْغَمَامِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ ۚ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ الْأُمُورُ

Do they but await that Allaah comes to them screened by clouds and the angels and the affair is concluded. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 210)

He, the Perfect will come to carry out judgement upon His servants. However, it is not like the coming of the created being and the coming of one of the creation. Rather, it is coming as befits His Majesty however He wishes, He, the Perfect and Most High.

His saying, “You should not explain any of this Bi Hawaaka (with your desires),” meaning do not explain them without knowledge (`ilm) but as for your explaining them as necessitated by the evidences and referring that which is unclear back to that which is clear then there is no harm in it. But as for a person who is a beginner or an ignorant person then he should not enter into these very grave matters and these tremendous matters because this is a mistake and something very dangerous and I see many of the youth who feign knowledge being bold upon the matters of `aqeedah and they start to derive things from them and to speak about them and then they have enmity towards each other based upon these things and they break ties with each other when they disagree.

So, oh brothers, Allaah did not burden us with these matters. Upon you is to proceed upon the methodology of the Salaf and to say what they said. The books of `aqeedah are precisely written and all praise is for Allaah and printed and corrected and being studied and carefully checked so do not introduce things from yourselves and understandings from yourselves, you have been  sufficed having to do this.

His saying, “Having eemaan in this is obligatory,” having eemaan in the names of Allaah and attributes and His actions is obligatory. It is obligatory upon the servant and from having eemaan in Allaah is to have eemaan in His names and His attributes as befits His Majesty, He, the Perfect and Most High. So, the person who interferes in the matters of names and attributes, either with ta`teel (negation) or with tamtheel (likening the Creator to the creation) or with tafweed (claiming ignorance about the meaning) or by bringing explanation from himself then this person has not believed in Allaah with true and full eemaan. Rather, his eemaan is deficient.

His saying, “So, whoever explains anything from this based upon his desires and rejects it then he is a Jahmee,” the Jahmiyyah negated the names and attributes because they explain them in accordance with what befits the created being. There is no doubt that Allaah is declared free of that which befits the created being. So, they initially likened Him and then secondly, they negated based upon their tamtheel (having likened Him to the creation) since nothing was apparent to them from these texts except that which resembles the created beings.

So, therefore they denied them on account of that but as for if they had just said these texts contain attributes and names of Allaah in reality, that they are as befit Him, they are not like the names of the created beings nor like the attributes of the created beings, if they’d just followed this methodology, they would have been safe and sound but they were afflicted on account of their understanding and their desires.

And the Jahmiyyah, this is an ascription to Al-Jahm ibn Safwaan at-Tirmidhiyy or As-Samar Qandee, this well-known deviant, ascribed to the town of Tirmidh or the area of Samar Qand and he was the first one who manifested the saying that the Qur’aan is created and who had the saying that the names and the attributes are to be negated and who said that eemaan is just merely awareness in the heart to the rest of his sayings of misguidance and disbelief. So, whoever holds this belief then he is ascribed to him or it is to be said this person is a Jahmee in ascription to Al-Jahm.

Footnotes:

[1] Part of a hadeeth reported by Muslim (2,654) from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Amr ibn al-`Aas radiyAllaahu `anhuma.

[2] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (7,405) and Muslim (2,675) from a hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anh.

[3] Side point: Whether ar-harwalah (running) is to be understood literally or it’s to be explained as Shaykh al-Fowzaan mentioned in the likes of what occurs at the end of the hadeeth then as Shaykh al-Fowzaan hafizahullaah said, This is also what was said by Shaykh ul-Islaam ibn Taymeeyah in Majmoo` al-Fataawa and likewise you’ll find in the explanation of Shaykh Saalih Aal ash-Shaykh upon Al-Waasitiyyah of Ibn Taymeeyah, the same explanation, he explained it that here in this particular hadeeth al-harwalah means Allaah, the Most High’s hastening to carry out the needs of His servant and to forgive him.

However, there are others from the People of Knowledge who affirm al-harwalah (running) as an attribute for Allaah, the Most High as is apparent. From them was Imaam Ad-Daranee in his refutation of Al-Mareesee. Likewise, from the present day scholars Shaykh bin Baaz rahimahullaah in his fataawa; Fataawa Noor `Alaa al-Darb. Likewise, Shaykh ibn `Uthaymeen in his fataawa and in his fataawa of al-`aqeedah in his book Al-Qawaa`id al-Muthlaa and Shaykh `Ubayd in his explanation, he agreed with that as well. Likewise, the Saudi Lajna also and likewise, Shaykh al-Albaaniyy in Silsilatul Huda Wan-Noor tape series, all of them affirming this as an attribute for Allaah as befits His Majesty.”

Likewise, Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said in his taped explanation – “So, the Salaf had a great deal of speech concerning it, however, what has most right in the matter is that we should have eemaan in it as befits the Majesty of Allaah, meaning we affirm it as an attribute for Allaah as it stands and it is a proof for His responding to His creation, we affirm the attribute and what’s necessitated by the attribute is that Allaah indeed responds to His creation. So what is indicated by the attribute and its affect is His reward. So affirming the attribute ar-harwalah has more right than the saying of those who say that it means giving reward alone.”

[4] Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (6,321) and Muslim (758) from Abu Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[5] Reported by Muslim (1,348) from `Aa`ishah that Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said:

“There is no day when Allaah frees more slaves from the fire than the day of Arafah and He indeed draws close then He boasts about them to the angels and says “what do those people want?” 

[6] Reported by Al Bukhaariyy (806) and Muslim (182), a long hadeeth containing the wording:

“And Allaah will come to them, He, the Mighty and Majestic.” 

[7] He, the Most High said:

وَجَاءَ رَبُّكَ وَالْمَلَكُ صَفًّا صَفًّا

And your Lord will come and the angels in ranks.
(Sooratul-Fajr (89), aayah 22)

[8] Side point: Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah in his explanation mentioned a number of attributes and he applied the same principle to each one with regard to Allaah’s hand for example, he says, “The hand the meaning is known, the how is unknown, having eemaan in it is obligatory and asking how is an innovation.”

[9] Reported by Al Bukhaariyy (6,227) and reported by Muslim (2,841) from a hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah radiyAllaahu `anhu.

[10] Reported by AtTabaraaniyy in Al-Mu’jam al-Kabeer and by Al-Haarith ibn `Abee Usaamah in his Musnad and by Ibn Khuzaymah in Kitaab at-Tawheed from a hadeeth of `Abdullaah ibn `Umar radiyAllaahu `anhuma and it was declared authentic by Imaam Ahmad and Ishaaq ibn Raahaweyh as occurs in Meezaan al-I’tidaal of Imaam athThahabiyy.

Side point: Some of the People of Knowledge such as Ibn Khuzaymah and some others declare this wording to be weak and likewise Shaykh al-Albaaniyy declared this wording weak in AdDa`eefah, hadeeth number 1,176 because of four weaknesses in the chain of narration. Ibn Khuzaymah himself pointed out three of the weaknesses and Shaykh al-Albaaniyy mentions the 4th weakness as well, Allaahu `Aalam.

[11] Reported by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad and it should be volume 5, page 243 and by At-Tirmidhiyy in his Sunan from a hadeeth of Mu`aadh radiyAllaahu `anhu and it was declared authentic by At-Tirmidhiyy and he mentioned Al-Bukhaariyy declared it authentic also and likewise it was declared  saheeh (authentic) by Shaykh al-Albaaniyy.

[12] Side Point: The position of the People of the Sunnah is with regard to the attributes of Allaah, the Most High then we say just as Imaam Maalik said as for the meaning of the attributes then we affirm the meaning but as regards to how the attribute is then we do not know so that is what we consign to Allaah, we give up on that, how it is; we do not know, we leave that to our Lord, Allaahu `Aalam. Whereas, as regards to the Mufawwidah; the deviant group then they  do the tafweed of the meaning i.e  they say we don’t know what the meaning is.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

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We do not enter into vain speech concerning Allaah, nor do we dispute regarding Allaah’s Religion – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah: Lesson 32  : Point [126] 

We do not enter into vain speech concerning Allaah,nor do we dispute regarding Allaah’s Religion

[Souncloud Audio Link]

At-Ta`leeqaat Al-Mukhtasarah `alaa Matn Al-`Aqeedah AtTahaawiyyah
By Shaykh Saalih ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah, in 1426AH

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series of Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah:
Explanation of Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Deviance of those who negate the Ru’yah (’Seeing Allaah’ by the people of Paradise) – Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Please listen to the Part 01 of this Lecture @ ‘Seeing Allaah’ by the people of Paradise is true, without their encompassing Him and without us knowing how it will be 

Aqeedah Tahawiyyah : Lesson 17

[58] والرؤْيةُ حقٌّ لأَهلِ الجَنَّةِ، بِغَيْرِ إِحَاطَةٍ ولا كَيْفِيَّةٍ‏‏‏.

[58]     And ‘seeing Allaah’ by the people of Paradise is true, without their encompassing Him and without us knowing how it will be.


The Explanation – Point [58] (continued from Lesson 16)

No one denies ar-ru.yah (seeing Allaah) except the people of innovation such as the Jahmiyyah and the Mu`tazilah – those who negate the ru.yah (that Allaah will be seen by the believers). They say: This (affirming seeing Allaah) would necessitate that Allaah is in a direction (جهة – jihah). And it is their view that Allaah is not in a direction; and in their view He is not within the creation, nor is He outside it, nor is He above, nor is He below, nor is He to the right, nor is He to the justify; He is not in any direction. And the meaning of this is that He does not exist, High and Exalted is Allaah above what they say.  So, they deny seeing Allaah because of this futile opinion.

As for the Ashaa`irah, when they were not able to deny the proofs from the Book and the Sunnah then they affirmed seeing Allaah, but they said: He will be seen, but not in any direction. And this is an amazing contradiction! Because, there is nothing that is seen which is not in a direction; and therefore the Mu`tazilah refuted them for this because it is something impossible. Whereas the Ahlus-Sunnah (the people of the Sunnah), they say: He the Perfect and Most High will be seen and He is in the direction of al-`uloo (العلو – being elevated) and above them. Because the term ‘al-jihah’ (الجهة – direction), if what is meant by it is a direction within the creation, then in that sense Allaah is not in any such direction because Allaah is not incarnate within His creation, He the Perfect and Most High.

And if what is meant by it, is that He is Exalted and above all of the creation then this is something confirmed for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. So, Allaah is indeed Exalted and High above the heavens. So the term ‘al-jihah’ (direction) is neither affirmed nor denied directly in text. However, it can be spoken of with the previous details.[1]

And the meaning of “…without their encompassing Him and without saying how”: They cannot encompass Allaah the Mighty and Majestic; they will see Him, He the Perfect, but not encompass Him. And Allaah is Azeem (عظيم – Tremendous); it is not possible that He can be encompassed. He the Perfect said,

And they do not encompass Him in Knowledge (Soorah TaaHaa (20), aayah 110)

He, the Majestic and Most High said,

Sight cannot grasp Him (Sooratul-An`aam (6), aayah 103)

Meaning: sight cannot encompass Him; it doesn’t mean that He cannot be seen, because Allaah the Perfect and Most High did not say, “Sight will not see Him (لا تراه الأبصار).” Rather, He said, “Sight will not grasp Him.” So, reaching and grasping is something and ar-ru.yah (seeing) is something else. So sight will see Him, He the Perfect, but not encompass Him. So this contains a refutation of those who seek to use this aayah as a proof to deny ar-ru.yah (that Allaah will be seen) – those who say that seeing Allaah is not possible, saying: because Allaah said, “Sight will not encompass Him.” So we say to them: You do not know the meaning of:

Sight does not encompass Him; rather, He encompasses all Sight  (Sooratul-An`aam (6), aayah 103)

So the aayah,Sight does not encompass Him; rather, He encompasses all Sight,” its meaning is: He will not be encompassed by that. It doesn’t mean that He won’t be seen; and He the Perfect did not say: “Sight will not see Him.”

And they also use as evidence, saying: Moosaa `alayhis-salaam said,

“O my Lord, show me Yourself, let me look upon You.” So He said, “You will not see Me.”
(Sooratul-A`raaf (7), aayah 143)

(They say) this is a proof negating ar-ru’yah (seeing Allaah).

So we say to them: This refers to this world because Moosaa asked for that in this world and no one will see Allaah in this world – neither any Prophet nor anyone else. But as for in the Hereafter, then the believers will certainly see their Lord. And the conditions in the world are not the same as the conditions in the Hereafter. So the people in this world are weak in their bodies and weak in their senses; they are not able to see Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. But as for in the Hereafter, then Allaah will give them the ability by which they will be able to see their Lord, the Majestic and Most High, (He would give this) as an honour for them.

Therefore, when Moosaa asked his Lord in this aayah,

He said, “You will not see Me; however, look at the mountain and if it remains in its place then you shall see Me.” So when his Lord manifested Himself to the mountain, He caused it to shatter to dust. (Sooratul-A`raaf (7), aayah 143)

The mountain shattered and turned to dust; and the mountain is inanimate and solid, so how about the created being who is composed of flesh and blood and bones? He is not able to see Allaah in the world.

And this question that Moosaa asked, to see Allaah, is a proof that it is permissible to see Him and possible (to see Him); because Moosaa would not ask his Lord for anything which is not permissible. Rather, he asked Him for something which is permissible; but, it would not occur in this world. So therefore, Allaah the Perfect said, “You will not see Me,” and He did not say “I cannot be seen.”

So Allaah will indeed be seen in the Hereafter,[2] and those who have the most right to this seeing (ar-ru.yah) are the Prophets.

And his saying, “And we do not say how this will be” meaning: it is not to be said, “How will they see Allaah?” because this is just like the rest of the Attributes of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic – we do not know how they are. So, we have eemaan in them (we believe in them) and we know their meaning and we affirm them. However, the kayfiyyah (كيفية– how they are) is unknown; we do not know it. So Allaah knows better about that, He the Perfect.

 End of explanation of point [58] 

[59]     Just as is stated by the Book of our Lord: “On that Day some faces will be radiant, shining, looking at their Lord.” (Sooratul-Qiyaamah (75) aayaat 22-3).

The Explanation – Point [59]

This clearly states that it is looking upon Allaah with sight since the term for ‘looking’ is used with ilaa (إلى – the particle ‘towards’). So its meaning is ‘looking with sight’. Whereas the Mu`tazilah, they say: ﭽ ﭝ  ﭞﭼ ‘ilaa’ (إلى) here is a plural and it means ‘blessings’; so (they say) it means: ‘they will be looking at the Blessings of their Lord’ and this is foolish delusion which people of intellect would laugh at since a particle doesn’t become plural.

End of explanation of point [59]

[60] وتَفْسيرُهُ عَلى ما أرادَهُ اللهُ تَعالَى وَعَلِمَه‏‏‏.

[60]     And its explanation is as Allaah the Most High, wanted and knew.

The Explanation – Point [60]

Meaning, the explanation of:

Looking upon their Lord (Sooratul-Qiyaamah (75), aayah 23)

Meaning: (its explanation) is just as Allaah the Mighty and Majestic wanted, and that is that it means ‘seeing with sight’. Its explanation is not as the innovators want.

End of explanation of point [60]

[61] وكلُّ ما جاءَ في ذَلِكَ مِنَ الحديثِ الصَّحيحِ عَنِ الرسولِ صلَّى الله عليه وآله وسلَّم فهو كما قال‏‏‏‏.

[61]     And every authentic hadeeth reported from the Messenger, sallAllaahu `alayhi wa aalihi wa sallam (may Allaah extol him and his true followers and grant him perfect peace and security), then it is just as he said.

The Explanation – Point [61]

Meaning: everything reported from the Messenger `alayhissalaatu was-salaam affirming that Allaah will be seen, then it is true upon its reality – just the same as what occurs in the Qur.aan. It is obligatory that we have eemaan in it because it is the speech of the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam which is wahy (revelation) from Allaah.

And he (the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) does not speak from his own desires; it is just revelation inspired. (Sooratun-Najm (53), aayaat 3-4)

And it (the Sunnah of the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) is called ‘the second Revelation’. And the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam informed in many ahaadeeth which are mutawaatir (reported by huge numbers of people) that the believers would see their Lord on the Day of Resurrection. So therefore, it is obligatory to have eemaan in that, without tahreef (تحريف – altering the meaning) and without ta`teel (تعطيل – negating) and without tamtheel (تمثيلlikening Him to His creation) and without takyeef (تكييفsaying ‘how’).

End of explanation of point [61]

[62] وَمَعناهُ على ما أرادَ‏‏‏‏.

[62]     And its meaning is as He intended.

The Explanation – Point [62]

Meaning: as the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam intended (when he said it), not as those innovators and deviants intended.

 End of explanation of point [62][3]

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s Side Point: In Shaykh Al-`Uthaymeen’s abridgement of Al-Hamawiyyah, Talqees Al-Hamawiyyah (تلخيص الحموية) of Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah, he mentioned a point right near the beginning, which was: that the people of the Sunnah in affirming Allaah’s Attributes, (first principle:)

we affirm for Allaah whatever He affirmed for Himself or whatever His Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam affirmed for Him, (second principle:) and we deny/negate for Allaah whatever He negated for Himself or the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam negated for Him. Thirdly, where there is something that is not denied in text, nor is it affirmed in text, from those things which the people disagree about, such as the term ‘a body’ (جسم – jism) or ‘al-heez’ (being in a place) and ‘al-jihah’ (being in a direction) and the like of that, then their way (the people of the Sunnah) is at-tawaqquf – to stop and withhold with regard to its wording. So they don’t affirm its wording and they don’t deny it since it is not reported. And as for its meaning, then we ask for the detail of what is meant by it, and if we find that what is meant by it is something futile and false – something which Allaah is declared free of, then we reject it; and if what is meant by it is something true – something which is not prohibited for Allaah, then we accept it. This is their way and this is the obligatory way.

Later on in the book (page 45) he actually goes into detail about al-jihah. He mentioned that the later people brought this term up (al-jihah – direction) and he deals with it in this way i.e. if what they mean is a direction within the creation then we deny that for Allaah and if what they mean by that is that Allaah is above the heavens, then we affirm that.

[2] On the authority of Aboo Moosaa Al-Ash`aree radiyAllaahu `anh who said: Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said,

جَنَّتَانِ مِنْ فِضَّةٍ آنِيَتُهُمَا وَمَا فِيهِمَا وَجَنَّتَانِ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ آنِيَتُهُمَا وَمَا فِيهِمَا وَمَا بَيْنَ الْقَوْمِ وَبَيْنَ أَنْ يَنْظُرُوا إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ إِلَّا رِدَاءُ الْكِبْرِ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ فِي جَنَّةِ عَدْنٍ‏

“There will be two gardens containing silver – their utensils and whatever they contain, and two gardens of gold – their utensils and whatever they contain, and nothing will be between the people in the eternal garden and their looking upon their Lord, except the cloak of rightful pride upon His Face.”

Reported by Al-Bukhaaree in the Book of Tafseer, hadeeth 4878 and 4880 and reported by Muslim in the Book of Eemaan.

[3] Translator’s Side Point: Shaykh Al-Albaanee rahimahullaah made a fairly small point on this point here. He said:

You should know that the ahaadeeth reported affirming the believers seeing their Lord on the Day of Resurrection are very many – to the extent that they reach the level of being mutawaatir as has been clearly stated by a group of the imaams. From them, the explainer (Ibn Abil-`Izz), and he mentioned some of them and then he said,

“The ahaadeeth about the ru.yah (seeing Allaah) are reported by around thirty companions and whoever acquired comprehensive knowledge of them will state with certainty that the Messenger (sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam) definitely said it and if I had not put it upon myself to write this book in abridged form, then I would quote more of the ahaadeeth here.”

Then he said, “The declaration that seeing Allaah the Most High will be like seeing the Sun and the Moon is not tashbeeh (تشبيه) of Allaah (causing Allaah to resemble His creation). Rather, it is a statement that the ‘act’ of seeing is like ‘that’ act of seeing – not that the One seen is like the thing which is seen. However, it does contain an evidence that Allaah is above His creation; since, can any seeing be comprehended without facing? And as for those people who say, ‘He will be seen, but not in a direction,’ then this person should look back and check his own intellect because either he is opposing obstinately his correct intellect or his intellect has got something wrong with it. Or otherwise a person saying, ‘He will be seen but He will not be in front, He will not be behind, He will not be to the right, He will not be to the justify, He will not be above and He will not be below;’ (then this is not correct) anyone who hears this, whose nature is sound, then he will reject it.”

Then Shaykh Al-Albaanee said:

“I say: And as for His, He the Most High, being seen in this world, then the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said in the authentic hadeeth that none of us will see Him until he dies. Hadeeth reported by Muslim. And as for him `alayhissalaatu was-salaam, then there is nothing reported to affirm that he even saw his Lord. Indeed, there is something authentic from him which indicates a denial of this because when he was asked about this he said,

نور، أنى أراه

Meaning:   “Light, how could I see Him”

And along with this, the noble lady `Aa.ishah (radiyAllaahu `anhaa) clearly denied this (that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam saw his Lord) as occurs in the two Saheeh’s; and that is the basic principle which we cling to.”

At-Ta`leeqaat Al-Mukhtasarah `alaa Matn Al-`Aqeedah AtTahaawiyyah
By Shaykh Saalih ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan hafizahullaah
Pages 76-80 (Point 58-62)

Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah, on 17th January, 2005

Transcribed by Sideeqa Ali

Points discussed in this excerpt include:

  • ru’yah is not denied except by the people of innovation
  • Explanation of the term ‘al-jihah’ (direction) with regard to Allaah, the Most High
  • Correct meaning of the aayahSight cannot grasp Him
  • Arguments used by those who deny ruyah
  • ruyah is like the rest of the Attributes – we affirm it but do not ask ‘how’ it is
  • Seeing Allaah will be with one’s sight (in the Hereafter)
  • The hadeeth regarding the ruyah are true upon its reality

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the Full Audio Series of Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah:
Explanation of Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

The claim that there are only twenty Attributes of Allah – alifta.net

Al-Sifat (the Attributes of Allah)

Q 12: I read in the book of Tawdih Al-`Aqidah Al-Mufidah Fi `Ilm Al-Tawhid, that is a commentary by Shaykh Husayn Abdul-Rahim on Al-Mazidah that was written by Ahmad Al-Dardir. It is the second part of the course of the fourth year in the prepatory stage in Al-Azhar institutes. This fourth edition was verified also by Musa Ahmad, V. 4, on 1363 A.H, 1963 A.D. In this book, I read that the Attributes of Allah (Exalted be He) are twenty Attributes in the saying of a certain group as Al-Raziyah. In another saying Imam Al-Ash`ary and those who adopted his views said that the Attributes of Allah are thirteen Attributes. What is agreed upon according to this book is seven Attributes that are the Attributes of Al-Ma’any (the meanings). We would like to know what is incumbent upon us with regard to the Attributes of Allah and their number if they are seven, thirteen or twenty. If they are twenty Attributes, what is the meaning of His being Potent and Living. Are these books proper for studying the sound creed? I doubt such books, because the author of Al-Mazidah is Ash’ary.

I would like to follow the example of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah (those adhering to the Sunnah and the Muslim community). I do not like to imitate Al-Asha`irah or others.Guide me to a book that talks about the Attributes of Allah according to the creed of Ahl-ul-Sunnah (those adhering to the Sunnah)!

A: `Aqidah of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah is that Allah is described with the Attributes of Perfection.Moreover, Allah should be described with what He described Himself with in the Qur’an and what His Messenger (peace be upon him) described Him without Tahrif (distortion of the meaning), Ta`til (denial of Allah’s Attributes), Takyif (questioning Allah’s Attributes or Tamthil (likening Allah’s Attributes to those of His Creation) according to His saying: There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.

Saying that they are twenty, seven or thirteen has no basis and contradicts the Qur’an, Sunnah and consensus of Muslim Ummah (nation).

The book you have mentioned is not reliable.

You can read the book called Al-‘Aqidah Al-Wasitiyyah by Ibn Taymiyyah with the commentary of Muhammad Khalil Al-Harras.

You can also read Al-Tadmuriyah and Al-Hamawiyah both written by Shaykh Al-Isalm Ibn Taymiyyah.

These three books have pointed out the creed of Ahl-ul-Sunnah (those adhering to the Sunnah) concerning the Names and Attributes of Allah and refuted the allegations of their opponents.

May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!

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