Beware of Theological Rhetoric (kalaam) and its people – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 69 : Point 116
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

Beware of looking into rhetorical theology (kalaam) and sitting with the people of rhetorical theology (kalaam) [1].

NOTES

[1] It is reported that Imaam ash-Shaafi’ee (rahimahullah) said,

“My ruling regarding the people of theological rhetoric is that they should be beaten with palm branches and shoes and led around the markets an it (should) be said: This is the punishment of those who have abandoned the Book and the Sunnah and taken to theological rhetoric.”

Reported by al-Baghaawee in Sharh as-Sunnah (1/218).

Imaam Ahmad (rahimahullaah) said,

“A person of theological rhetoric will never succeed. The scholars of theological rhetoric are wicked heretics.”

Reported by Ibn al-Jawzee in Manaaqib Ahmad (p204).

[Souncloud Audio Link

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Links:

https://abdurrahman.org/innovated-groups-sects/theological-rhetoric

https://abdurrahman.org/asma-wa-sifaat-com/

Rhetorical Theology (al-kalaam) & Argumentation, Disputing & Self-amazement – Sharh as-Sunnah | Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Bismillaah

Sharh as-Sunnah : Lesson 48: Point 80
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

Imaam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said:

And know that heresy, disbelief, doubts, innovations, misguidance and confusion about the religion have not occurred except through rhetorical theology (al-kalaam) and the people of rhetorical theology and through argumentation, debating, disputing and self-amazement. And how can a man boldly enter into debating, disputing and argumentation when Allaah, the Most High says:

مَا يُجَادِلُ فِي آيَاتِ اللَّهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُو

None dispute regarding the aayaat of Allaah except those who disbelieve.(Soorah-Ghaafir (40), aayah 4)

So, upon you is to submit and to be pleased and satisfied with the narrations and to withhold and remain silent.[1]

[Souncloud Audio Link

Transcribed Audio:

Explanation of this has preceded and a warning against it.[2]

His saying, “So what is upon you is to submit and to be pleased and satisfied with the narrations and to withhold and remain silent.” Upon you is to submit to the speech of Allaah and to the speech of His Messenger and to withhold from argumentation and raising doubts because that is prohibited. Indeed it will increase confusion. Take hold of the speech of Allaah and the speech of His Messenger and be satisfied with that so that you are guided and therefore be at peace from whisperings, doubts and false ideas and you will come to be upon clear insight. So Allaah sent down this Qur’aan as a clarification of everything.[3]

Footnotes:

[1] Translator’s side point: With regard to al-kalaam (rhetorical theology) then Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said with regard to the meaning of kalaam; it means logic.

[2] Translator’s side point: Page 125, for this 1st volume, point number 11.

Listen to these Points at the below Links:

Point 10: Al-kalaam (theological rhetoric), arguing, debating and disputing are newly introduced affairs

Point 11: Speculative speech (kalaam) about Allaah, the Most High, is an innovation and misguidance

[3] Translator’s side point: Explanation of Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee rahimahullaah then he said: The author said, “And you should know that there has not been any heresy or any disbelief,” I say, “Restricting heresy to be a result of al-kalaam (rhetorical theology) and to the people of rhetorical theology and to the people of disputing and argumentation, this refers to what’s mostly the case. However, indeed there are cases of heresy and disbelief, which come about for other reasons besides kalaam (rhetorical theology). And we seek Allaah’s refuge from all the causes of heresy and disbelief and doubts and innovations, Aameen. However, this is what is generally the case with regard to a person who learns kalaam (rhetorical theology) and those who learn the different forms of debating and argumentation and self-amazement. And what is obligatory is to not be amazed at one’s self. And a person’s being outstanding in debating and argumentation is something which is blameworthy in the legislation unless it is to make the truth clear. And there occurs in the authentic hadeeth from the ahaadeeth of `Aa`ishah radiyAllaahu `anhaa that the Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said that:

“The most hated of men to Allaah is the argumentative quarrelsome person.”

Reported by Al-Bukhaariyy (2457) and Muslim (2668).

And in the narration of At-Tirmithee:

“Allaah hates that person who is very eloquent from the men, the one who moves his tongue around just as the cows move their tongues around.”

Reported by Tirmithee (2,853) and declared saheeh (authentic) by Shaykh Al-Albaaniyy.

And then the author rahimahullaah said, How can a person be bold upon argumentation and disputing when Allaah says:

مَا يُجَادِلُ فِي آيَاتِ اللَّهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُو

None dispute regarding the aayaat of Allaah except those who disbelieve.(Soorah-Ghaafir (40), aayah 4)

So upon you is to submit and to be pleased and satisfied with the narrations and to withhold and be silent.”

And I say – what is befitting for the Muslim is to submit to whatever comes from Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, in His Book and upon the tongue of His Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam and to withhold and be silent whatever is besides that knowing that submission to what occurs from the bringer of the legislation sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam should be a submission of ridaa (being pleased and satisfied) and based upon acceptance and eemaan and attesting to the truth, acting upon whatever requires action from it and believing whatever it necessitates that we believe in. Allaah, the Most High said:

وَالْعَصْرِ
إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ
إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ

By time, mankind is in loss except those who have eemaan (truly believe) and work righteous and correct deeds and they encourage each other with the truth and they encourage each other with patience. (Sooratul-Asr, aayah 1-3)

And the meaning of `aamanoo is saddaqoo: they believe and attest to the truth.

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
(A Gift To The Reader In Annotation Of Sharh As-Sunnah)
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Transcribed by Saima Zaher.

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhus Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

jleftng>Visit : Book Study of Sharh as-Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Speculative speech (kalaam) about Allaah, the Most High, is an innovation and misguidance (Part A) – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 13 : Point 11 (Part A)
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

The author Imam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said,

And know, may Allaah have mercy upon you, that speculative speech, kalaam, about the Lord, the Most High, is a newly introduced matter and it is an innovation and misguidance. Nothing is to be said about the Lord except what He, the Mighty and Majestic, described Himself with in the Qur·aan and what the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam explained to his Companions. So He, the Majestic in Renown, is One.

There is nothing like Him; and He is The All Hearing The All Seeing. (Sooratush-Shooraa (42), aayah 11)

Our Lord is the First without any beginning, and the Last without any end. He knows whatever is secret and whatever is most hidden. He has ascended over His Throne, and His Knowledge is in every place. And no place is free of His Knowledge.

[Souncloud Audio Link

The Explanation (Transcription of above Audio):

His saying, “Kalaam, speech/rhetorical theology/theological rhetoric, with regard to the Lord, the Most High, is something new and it is an innovation and misguidance.” Meaning, theological rhetoric, kalaam, with regard to the Self of the Lord, the Perfect and Most High, and with regard to His Names and His Attributes, is a newly introduced affair. It was introduced by the people of misguidance, those who do not submit to the texts and who do not have fear of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. So therefore they speak about the Self of the Lord, and they speak about His Names and His Attributes, and they deny and they negate that which Allaah affirmed for Himself or that which His Messenger affirmed for Him. And they bring opinions from themselves. (And they say) “This is what is correct.” They speak in explanation of the texts with other than their correct explanation, or they say, “We don’t understand them.” They say, “We leave and entrust them to Allaah.” And the Speech of Allaah and the speech of His Messenger becomes just like foreign/non-Arabic speech which the Arabs do not understand.

So what is obligatory upon the Muslims is that they continue upon the correct path, upon the way of the Salaf and that they do not give any attention to those people who mislead others, those who argue about Allaah without any proof which He has given them. They dispute about the Qur·aan and they dispute about the Sunnah. Their affair is just argumentation. So it is obligatory to beware of those people. Those people are not people who are followers (of the Truth); rather they are innovators who are just following their desires. [02]

His saying, “And nothing is to be said about the Lord except that which He described Himself with, He the Mighty and Majestic, in the Qur’aan.” Having forbidden argumentation about Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and arguments/debates about the Names of Allaah and His Attributes, he now explains what is obligatory. And it is that we affirm the Qur·aan and the Sunnah just as they came upon their meaning, the meaning taken from the Arabic language with which the Qur·aan and the Sunnah came down. So al `ilm, knowledge, its meaning is well known in the language. Likewise al-wajh, the face, is well known. And al-`ayn, eyes, and al-yad, hands, and al-istiwaa·, ascending, and al-`uloow, being high above, all of these and their like, their meaning is well known in the Arabic language in which the Qur·aan came down. Whereas the people of misguidance, they say “This speech is not in accordance with what is apparent from it.”

And then they divide into two categories:

• A category who say, “We stop and withhold. And we say what is apparent is not what is meant; but then we do not understand what is actually meant by it.” And they are the Mufowwidah the people of tafweed.

• And the second category are the Mu’owwillah, the people of ta’weel, who give false interpretations. And they are more in number; they are the majority out of these two groups. They interpret with other than their correct meaning.

So they went astray and they lead others astray and they preoccupy the people. And they fill up books with these debates, with arguments and disputations which lead to nothing.

So what is obligatory is to submit to what occurs in the Book and in the Sunnah with regard to the Names of Allaah and His Attributes as was meant by Allaah and His Messenger, because Allaah knows best about Himself, He the Perfect and Most High, and He knows best about other than Himself. And the most knowledgeable one from the creation about Allaah is the Messenger of Allaah sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. As for us, then our knowledge falls short. There are many things that we do not know related to our own selves with regard to the details of our bodies and the veins and the senses. There are things which we do not know. Do you know the rooh, about the soul? What exactly is it? The intellect, what is it? If you do not know something from your own body, nor something about your own self, then how can you speak about the Self of Allaah the Perfect and Most High, which is not known, except to Him, He, the Perfect.

He (Allaah) knows whatever is in front of them and whatever is behind them and they do not encompass Him with knowledge (Soorah TaaHaa (20), aayah 110)

This is outside what they know and outside what they can imagine. And no analogy can be made between Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, and His creation. This would be a belittlement of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic. So He knows best about His Self and about other than Himself. And He is the One who is truest in saying and better in speech than His creation, as Shaykhul-Islaam rahimahullaah said in al-Waasitiyyah [03].

His saying, “and what Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam explained to his Companions.” The issue of the Names and Attributes hinges upon the Book and the Sunnah. And their explanation is also in the Book and the Sunnah, and the language of the Arabs in which the Legislation came down. And we do not go to the logic of Aristotle and Plato, or so and so, or such and such. This is a crime against the Legislation of Allaah, the Perfect and Most High, and it is a case of replacing the Revelation with logic and `ilmul-kalaam, theological rhetoric. And what fruit did theological rhetoric and argumentation produce for those people with regard to misguidance and ruin and loss. And they did not reach any result. And this is by their own admission.

They expended their whole lives in debating and disputations, and in the end they acknowledged that they did not reached any result. And if only they had submitted to Allaah and to His Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, they would have found relaxation.

And therefore one of them said:

“The result of using the intellects is just that the mind is tied in knots
And most of the striving of the people is just misguidance
And our spirits are forlorn strangers within our bodies
And all the results that come about in this world for us are just harm and an evil climate

And we did not benefit from our studies through our whole lives except that we just gathered they said and such and such said (idle speech).” [04]

So they came to a state of doubt and uncertainty. And as for those who submitted to Allaah and to His Messenger, then they were saved and at peace from this.

And the people of misguidance say also:

“Upon my life, I have gone around all of the institutions of learning
And I have looked upon all those places
And I did not see except one who is putting his palm
upon his chin in confusion or one who is striking his teeth in regret.” [05]

He went around all the institutes of learning, institutes of theological rhetoric and logic and debating and he examined them and did not find in them that which could remedy the need to know. And he said [06]:

“I have carefully considered the different paths of theological rhetoric and the ways of the philosophers. And I did not see them remedying the sick [07] nor quenching the thirst of the person with extreme thirst. And I saw that the closest path was the way of the Qur’aan.

Read with regard to affirmation.

The good word ascends to Him. (Soorah Faatir (35), aayah 10)

The Most Merciful ascended upon the Throne. (Soorah TaaHaa (20), aayah 5)

And read with regard to negation:

There is nothing like Him (Sooratush-Shooraa (42), aayah 11)

And they do not encompass Him with knowledge. (Soorah Taahaa (20), aayah 110) ”

(End of quote)

His saying, “So He, the Majestic in Renown, is One. There is nothing like Him; and He is The All Hearing, The All Seeing.” He is, He the Perfect, One. No one shares with Him with regard to His Self nor with regard to His Names and His Attributes nor with regard to His Creating and His Actions nor with regard to His worship. There is no sharer and no partner for Him. So why therefore tire yourself out? You are a created being and He is the Creator. How can the created being encompass knowledge of the Creator, the Majestic and Most High? So you, your role is just to submit to Allaah and to His Messenger and not to dispute and not to argue and not to tire yourself out and to tire other people out. This is what is obligatory and binding. And therefore the Companions, they did not engage themselves in these unnecessary matters. And they did not withhold with regard to an aayah or with regard to a hadeeth. Rather they affirmed it and submitted to it and held what it contained as their creed and belief, and they never had any problems arise, ever. So the matter is a matter requiring submission and compliance. And that we do not delve into matters of creed and belief in the way which the people of disputation and the people of kalaam, theological rhetoric, and people of logic delved into it. Such that the result was, as they themselves admitted regarding themselves, that they ended up in a state of bewilderment and confusion and not reaching any result, as one of them said,

“We didn’t benefit anything from our studies, throughout our whole lives Except in the end we just gathered idle speech.”

(Meaning), so and so said and so and so said. And if he says such and such then the response is such and such. [08]

Footnotes:

[02] Translator’s side point: Shaykh Saalih as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said regarding this point, “Meaning by that, speech which was introduced by the Jahmiyyah with regard to delving into speaking about Attributes of Allaah without knowledge. But as for describing (giving as an Attribute) that which Allaah described Himself with or which His Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam described Him with, then this is something required.

[03] This occurs in al-`Aqeedah Al-Waasitiyyah.

[04] These lines of poetry are by al-Fakhrur-Raazee. You can refer back to Dar· Ta`aarud al-Aql wan-Naql and Minhaajus-Sunnah (of Shaykhul-Islaam ibn Taymeeyah).

[05] These lines of poetry are by ash-Shahristaanee, the author of the book al-Milal wan-Nahl. You can refer back to Dar· Ta`aarud al-Aql wan-Naql and Minhaajus-Sunnah (of Shaykhul-Islaam ibn Taymeeyah).

[06] This is a quote from ar-Raazee quoted from him in the book an-Nuboowaat of Shaykhul-Islaam (ibn Taymeeyah)

[07] Translator’s note: curing the one who has a need for knowledge

[08] Shaykh as-Suhaymee hafizahullaah said, “Then he made clear that it is obligatory to describe Allaah with that which He described Himself with, and that which His Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam described Him with, without tahreef, distorting the meaning, without ta`teel, denying/depriving it of meaning, without takyeef, saying how, and without tamtheel, likening the Creator to the creation, in accordance with His Saying, He, the Most High:

There is nothing like Him (Allaah); and He is The All Hearing, The All Seeing (Sooratush-Shooraa (42), aayah 11)

So, “There is nothing like Him;” this is negation. And, “and He is The All Hearing, The All Seeing;” this is affirmation. And it contains a proof for detailed affirmation and for general and concise negation. Because His Saying, “There is nothing like Him,” this is a general and concise and negation. It negates everything that can be imagined or can cross the mind. And “and He is The Hearing, The Seeing,” this is affirmation in detail. And this aayah is a tremendous principle with regard to affirming the Attributes along with declaring Allaah, the Exalted and Most High, free of whatever does not befit Him.

Transcribed by Fawad Abu Zaid Al Afghaani. Download PDF of Lesson 13

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Links

Al-kalaam (theological rhetoric), arguing, debating and disputing are newly introduced affairs – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 13 : Point 10
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

The author Imam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said,

Al-kalaam (theological rhetoric), arguing, debating and disputing are newly introduced affairs. They cast doubt into the heart, even if the person happens to attain the Truth and the Sunnah.

[Souncloud Audio Link

The Explanation (Transcription of above Audio):

These matters, al-kalaam (theological rhetoric), debating and disputing which occurred between all of the sects, these are newly introduced matters. And the reason for them is the following of desires. And whoever is such that his desires follow that which the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam came with, then he will not have doubt.; and he will not be a person of disputing nor arguing nor quarrelling, because he is one who submits and complies. He, the Most High, said:

So if Guidance comes to you from Me, then whoever follows My Guidance, then there will be no fear upon them and they will not grieve. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 38)

So whoever follows My Guidance, then he will not go astray and he will not be wretched. (Soorah Taa Haa (20), aayah 123)

So the matter is a question of following, ittibaa`, and complying, inqiyaad, and submitting, tasleem, to the command of Allaah and His Messenger without debating and without argumentation. And the people of misguidance did not fall into argumentation and debates except on account of the fact that they did not submit to Allaah and to His Messenger in the way that the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah submitted. And therefore you will find the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah, and all Praise is for Allaah, united with no difference between them in the matter of `aqeedah, creed and belief; rather disagreement is found with the misguided sects. He, the Most High, said:

So if they turn away then they are the ones who will have split away and opposed. So Allaah will suffice you against them. And He is the all Hearing the all Knowing. (Sooratul-Baqarah (2), aayah 137)

And the confirmation of this occurs in another aayah:

And do not follow the other paths for they will cause you to split away and separate from His path. This He has commanded you with so that you may be dutiful to Him. (Sooratul-An `aam (6), aayah 153)

His saying, “(Theological rhetoric, arguing, debating, disputing are all newly introduced affairs. They cast doubt into the heart) even if the person involved in them happens to attain the Truth and the Sunnah.” Meaning, he will still be in error, because he has attained these two (the Truth and Sunnah) through other than the correct path.

Because the correct path is submission and not delving and debating and arguing which just causes the hearts to become bitter and produces grudges. And it also brings about something worse than that which is at-takfeer, people declaring others to be disbelievers, because the misguided sects they declare each other to be disbelievers and they declare each other to be misguided.

Every sect rejoicing at what they themselves are upon. (Sooratur-Room (30), aayah 32)

Everyone thinking that what he is upon is what is correct. As for the Ahlus-Sunnah walJamaa`ah, the people of Sunnah and the United Body upon the Truth, who submitted to the command and complied, then disagreements did not occur between them, and all Praise is for Allaah. And they do not declare each other to be disbelievers, and they do not declare each other to be misguided; rather they praise each other. And some of them follow others, because they are upon a correct path. Indeed hatred and grudges and declarations of others being disbelievers and being misguided only comes about on account of contradicting the Truth and taking hold of opinions and ideas.

And there is no doubt that everyone wants to defend his own opinion. So he will not accept that it will be said to him, “You are wrong,” for this will mean that you are accusing his intellect of being deficient and he will not be pleased with this. However, if you say to a person of Truth when he has made a mistake, “You have erred with regard to the evidence in this matter, you have missed out on the Sunnah,” then he will accept it, because his intent is the Truth and his intent is not just to support his own opinion. So if you say, “O so and so, you have missed out on the Sunnah, you have missed out on the correct evidence,” then he will accept and return. But if you say to a person who is a follower of desires, “You are in error,” then he will become angry and become worse. And this is the sign of the people of desires, that everyone just wants to aid and support that which he desires. But as for the person of the Truth, then what he wants is that the Truth should be aided, and he seeks after the Truth. And the wise word is the lost property of the believer; wherever he finds it, he takes hold of it. [01]

Footnotes:

[01] Translator’s side point: (Refer to pages 58-59 of Shaykh Ahmad an-Najmee’s Explanation of SharhusSunnah [Irshaadus-Saaree fee Sharhis-Sunnati lil-Barbahaaree])

Transcribed by Fawad Abu Zaid Al Afghaani. Download PDF of Lesson 13

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah of Imaam Barbahaaree

Related Links

The Religion is only what came from Allaah and it was not left to the intellects of men and to their opinions – Dawud Burbank [Audio|En]

Sharhu Sunnah : Lesson 06 : Point 04A
Shaykh Fawzan | Dawud Burbank [Audio|English]

The author Imam Barbahaaree rahimahullaah said,

“And know, may Allaah have mercy upon you, that the Religion is only what came from Allaah, the Exalted and Most High. It was not left to the intellects of men and to their opinions; and knowledge of it is what comes from Allaah and from His Messenger.

So do not follow anything based upon your desires and therefore depart from the Religion and leave Islaam. There will be no excuse for you, since the Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam explained the Sunnah to his nation, and he made it clear to his Companions and they are the Jamaa`ah, and they are the Main Body. And the Main Body is the Truth and its people. So whoever contradicts the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam in anything of the affairs of the Religion he has disbelieved.”

[ Note: In this audio, explanation of the only first paragraph from the above is covered]

[Souncloud Audio Link

The Explanation (Transcription of above Audio):

The Religion came only from Allaah, so He is the One who legislated the Religion, He the Perfect. It is not for anyone to legislate religion, which Allaah has not permitted. He the Most High said:

Do they have partners who legislate for them religion, not ordained by Allaah. (Sooratush-Shooraa (42), aayah 21)

This is a rebuke and a warning. So the Religion is that which Allaah has legislated, and which His Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam conveyed. This is the Religion about which Allaah the Majestic and Most High said:

He (Allaah) legislated for you the Religion with which He enjoined Nooh, and which He revealed to you, and which He enjoined upon Ibraaheem, and Moosaa and `Eesaa; that you should establish the Religion, and not separate within it. (Sooratush-Shooraa (42), aayah13)

This is the revealed way of the Prophets, specifically those five Prophets, who are those firmest in resolve. This is their Religion. So whoever deviates away from it or differs with it, then he is destroyed and he is astray. And it is built upon the tawheed of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic (singling out Allaah the Mighty and Majestic with all worship) and abandonment of the worship of everything besides Him, and restricting oneself to that which Allaah the Mighty and Majestic legislated, and keeping away from whatever Allaah has forbidden – this is the Religion.

His saying, “It was not left up to the intellects of men and their opinions.” – the Religion is not what men deem to be good or what they hold as their opinion, because this is not the Religion of Allaah. This is the Religion of the people, which they have newly invented. As for the Religion of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic, then it is what He legislated. As for that which the men hold as their opinion, based upon their own opinions, this is not the Religion of Allaah the Perfect and Most High. Rather it is just a religion of whoever holds that opinion. So nothing can be ascribed to Allaah from the Religion except that which He legislated upon the tongue of His Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam. And as for what others besides Him legislated, then it cannot be ascribed to Allaah, rather it can only be ascribed to whoever legislated it, and Allaah is free of it. He the Most High said:

Do they have partners who legislate for them religion which Allaah has not permitted (Sooratush-Shooraa (42), aayah 21)

His saying, “And its knowledge is with Allaah and His Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam.” – the affairs of the Religion are towqeefiyyah (depend upon text); there must be proofs from Allaah and His Messenger with regard to the affairs of the Religion. The matter is restricted to what occurs in the Book and the Sunnah from the affairs of the Religion. And newly introduced matters and innovations are abandoned, that which Allaah has not sent down any proof for – even if their people hold them to be religion, and they draw closer to Allaah through them, then we turn no attention to these things and we do not believe in them, because the Religion of Allaah is what He legislated and His Messenger.

Because the Religion is based upon knowledge which came from Allaah and His Messenger. And do not follow the desires of the people and the opinions of the people and what they declare to be good and what they follow each other upon, and it has no basis in the Book of Allaah or the Sunnah of His Messenger sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam.

Just as he `alayhis-salaatu was-salaam said:

“Whoever introduces into this affair of ours that which is not from it, it is rejected.”

And in one narration:

“Whoever does an action which our affair is not in accordance with, it is rejected” [4]

So the person who wishes that his action be righteous and be beneficial, then he should adhere to two matters:

The first matter: is that he makes his Religion pure for Allaah and free from shirk.

And the second matter: ittibaa`, following the Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam, free of innovations and newly introduced affairs.

A person will indeed find many things which contradict what is correct in the `aqeedah, matters which contradict what is correct in matters of worship, many of them; (because) the people have desires, and have their own aspirations, and they have their own opinions and they have their own ways (which they follow). So we do not follow the people, rather we present whatever the people are upon to the Book and the Sunnah. So whatever conforms with the Book and the Sunnah then it is the Truth, and whatever contradicts these two then it is false and futile.

Footnotes :

[04] The checking of this has preceded on page 66.
Translator’s side point: Hadeeth of Aa`ishah radiyAllaahu`anhaa reported by Muslim and in the Saheeh of al-Bukhaaree.

Transcribed by Umm `Abbaas Zaynab `Abdullah. Download PDF of Lesson 06

Ithaaful-Qaaree bit-Ta`leeqaat `alaa Sharhis-Sunnah
by Shaykh Saalih ibn Fowzaan al-Fowzaan
hafizahullaah
Translated by Aboo Talhah Daawood Burbank, rahimahullaah

Posted with kind permission from Dawud Burbank rahimahullaah

Listen to the full Audio Series of Sharhu Sunnah
Sharh-us-Sunnah – Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan – Dawood Burbank [Audio|En]

Visit : Book Study of Sharhu Sunnah – Imam Barbaharee

What the Salaf Said Regarding Theological Rhetoric (ilm al Kalaam)

Text from Usool as Sunnah (Foundations of Sunnah)

19.For indeed, (indulging in) theological rhetoric (kalaam) in [22] the matter of Qadar, the Ru’yah, the Qur’aan and other such issues are among the ways that are detested and which are forbidden.

20. The one Who does so, even if he reaches the truth with his words, is not from Ahlus-Sunnah, until he abandons (using) this mode of argumentation, [and until he] submits and believes in the aathaar (the Prophetic Narrations and those of the Companions [23]

Footnotes:

[22] Imaam ash-Shaafi’ee (d. 204H) said,

“My ruling regarding the people of theological rhetoric is that they should be beaten with palm leaves and shoes and be paraded amongst the kinsfolk and the tribes with it being announced, ‘This is the reward of the one who abandons the Book and the Sunnah and turns to theological rhetoric (kalaam).”

Sharh ‘AqeedatitTahaawiyyah of lbn Abil-’Izz, p. 75.

Ibn ‘Abdul-Barr said,

“The people of Fiqh and Aathaar in all the various towns and cities are agreed unanimously that the Ahlul-Kalaam (People of Theological Rhetoric) are (but) Ahlul-Bida’ waz-Zaigh (the People of Innovations and Deviation). And they are not considered, by all of the above, to be amongst the ranks of the Scholars (in truth).”

Reported by Ibn Qudaamah in his Burhaan fee Bayaanil-Qur’aan.

Imaam ash-Shaafi’ee (d. 204H) said,

“That a person is put to trial with everything that Allaah has forbidden, besides Shirk, is better than that he looks at Kalaam (theological rhetoric).” He also said, “If people knew what (misleading and destructive) desires are contained within theological rhetoric they would certainly flee from it as they would from a lion,”

he also said,

“Whoever showed boldness in approaching theological rhetoric will never prosper.”

Reported by Ibn Qudaamah in his Burhaan fee Bayaanil-Qur’aan.

One of the Scholars of ash-Shaash said:

“Every knowledge save that of the Qur’aan is a pre-occupation
Except for the Hadeeth and Fiqh (understanding) of the Deen
Knowledge is only that about which it is said,
‘Haddathanaa …‘ (So and so narrated to us)
And what is besides that
Are but whisperings of the Shayaateen (devils)”

Aboo Yoosuf, the companion of Aboo Haneefah said,

“Whoever sought knowledge by kalaam (theological rhetoric) will turn a heretical apostate,” and Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 241H) said, “The person of theological rhetoric will never prosper. And never do you see anyone looking into theological rhetoric except that in his heart is a desire for creating mischief.”

Both narrations are reported by Ibn Qudaamah in his Burhaan fee Bayaanil-Qur’aan.

[23] Muhammad Ibn Seereen (d. 110H) said,

“They (i.e., the Companions and the Taabi’een) used to consider themselves upon the path (of truth) so long as they held onto the narrations.”

Reported by al-Laalikaa’ee in his Sharh Usolil It’iqaad, no. 110.

Shaadh ibn Yahyaa said,

“There is no path which is more straight and direct (in leading) to Paradise than the path of the one who travels upon the aathaar (narrations).”

Reported by al-Laalikaa’ee in his Sharh UsoolilIt’qaad no. 112.

‘Abdullah ibn alMubaarak (d. 181H) said,

“I found that the affair was Ittibaa’ (following and imitation, i.e., following and submission to the narrations).”

Reported by al-Laalikaa’ee in his Sharh Usoolil-l’tiqaad, no. 113

Do not indulge in Scholastic Theology (Ilm-ul-Kalam or Theological Rhetoric or Rationalistic Approach) – Dr Saleh As Saleh [Audio|En]

The following audio Clip Extracted from Part 1 of the Series – Knowledge & Etiquette in Seeking it


Related Links:

Ilm-ul-Kalam (Knowledge Of Theological Rhetoric) – Ibn Baz

What the Salaf Said Regarding Theological Rhetoric (ilm al Kalaam)

The Mu’tazilites المعتزله – The so-called Rationalistic Sect – Dr Saleh as Saleh

The Mu’tazilah (from i’tazala, “to remove oneself” or “to withdraw”) is one of the philosophical schools whose doctrines were affected by Greek philosophy. Originally the sect was established by Waasil Ibn ‘Ataa’ (80-131Hj/699-748 C.E.), who withdrew (i’tazala) from the circle of al-Hasan al-Basri (d.110Hj/728) because of his opposing view that the Muslim who commits a grave sin was neither a believer nor a kaafir , but somewhere between the two (manzilah baynal- manzilatayn ). This marked the beginning of this so-called rationalistic sect. In its early stages its concepts were close to those of the Khaarijites. In the third century of Hijrah, the Mu’tazilah became  influenced by the Shee’ah. The Mu’tazilites teachings were further developed under the influence of the Greek and Persian ideologies leading to the birth of ‘ilmul kalaam (scholastic theology).

Some of the main corrupt beliefs of the Mu’tazilites include:

(1)  Denying the Attributes of Allaah.

(2)  Claiming that the Qur’aan is created. They were able to influence the Caliph al-Ma’moon (in 212Hj/827) and enforce this belief along with other distortions. Their scrutiny was a virtual inquisition. Many scholars were jailed and/or killed. Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal was tortured and jailed for his great stand defending the truth held by the salaf that the Qur’aan is the uncreated literal Word of Allaah. His great stand together with afew other scholars, led to the decline of the fitnah, and the Mu’tazilite doctrine was suppressed under the Caliph al-Mutawakkil (ruled 232-247Hj/ 847-861).

(3)  Claiming that man’s action is totally independent from Allaah’s Will. This is in direct opposition to what the Qur’aan and sunnah have affirmed, namely that man has the ability and the will to act, but like all other things, nothing escapes the Will of Allaah, the Most High. [107]

 (4)  Denying the general intercession for the sins committed by the disobedient Muslims and which Allaah approved for the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and others on the Day of Resurrection [See earlier in the text].

Blended under the title of “rational” this sect exists nowadays without openly carrying the same title it once held. The approach and methodology of those who make the intellectual proofs supersede the text (from the Qur’aan and sunnah ) is widespread. The opposite extreme is those who believe that rational evidences has no role whatsoever in implying many things which the textual evidences have proven. The medium path is that of the salaf , which affirms an implicative relationship between the textual evidences and intellectual proofs. The shar’ (the Qur’aan and authentic sunnah) lead and guide to the intellectual proofs and the latter share in guiding to many things which the shar’ implies. Basically, therefore, there is no contradiction between the two, but to the contrary, there is association. The basis for this relationship, however, is the shar’, and not the intellect, as the rationalists from the Mu’tazilites and the latter Ash’arites claim. This is because the shar’ is indispensable in itself and is not in need of our knowledge and reasoning. We are the ones who are in need of the shar’ and of its knowledge. So if the intellect knows the shar’ it attains a perfection which it lacked before. But if it fails, then it will remain ignorant and deficient.

In addition, the human intellect is one of the comparative or relative matters. Ahmad may know something by his intellect which Hasan’s intellect is totally unaware of. The same person may know of something under certain conditions which he may not know of at a different time and (or) state. The fact is that people have different levels of intellect in accordance with what Allaah (Subhanahu wa ta’alaa) bestows upon them from reasoning, awareness, contemplation and deduction, and differentiation.

It is natural that the intellect may err and fall in contradictions and /or differences in matters to which it may be subjected. So, those who say that the intellect should be given precedence to the shar’ are referring people to something to which there is no way to affirm and perceive its correctness. That is why many of the sects differed and split amongst themselves when they gave precedence to their rationalistic dogmas vis-à vis  the textual proofs. The irony is that each of these groups say that the intellect stands to support their positions! Another irony is that the top theologians who laid down many of these dogmas went into perplexity and confusion. Many of them like Imaam al-Juwaynee, Ar-Raazi, al-Ghazaali, and others, regretted their positions and asked Allaah to let them die on fitrah . In their cases, there is a lesson for those who still reiterate  the same dogmas from the latter Ash’arites , Mu’tazilites and many of those who exaggerate the role of the intellect! A great reminder for all is the saying of Allaah I about the shar’:

{ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِنْدِ غَيرِ اللهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اختِلافاً كَثِيراً } [النساء:82]

Had [the Qur’aan] been from other than Allaah, they would surely have found therein much contradictions. [Qur’aan, Soorat An-Nisaa’ (4:82)].

The authentic sunnah is a Revelation from Allaah and the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: “I have been given the Qur’aan and something like it along with [i.e. the sunnah ]. [108]  The shar’ with its textual proofs guiding the intellect are from Allaah, and that is why the salaf who correctly understood this relationship were, by Allaah’s help, saved from falling into perplexity and confusion! All Praise is due to Allaah.

Footnotes:

[107] For more details see our book Al-Qadaa’ wal-Qadar [Buraidah, Saudi Arabia: Daarul-Bukhaari Publication, 1417/1996], pp. 62-69. Check also http://www.understandislam.net.

[108] Collected by Abu Daawood, Ibn Maajah, Ahmad, at-Tahawi, and ad-Daarimee; Shaykh al-Albaani authenticated it in his verification of the Kitaabul Eemaan by Ibn Taymeeyah (p. 37).

Source : From the  Appendix of the Book,

Tafseer Ayatul-KursiBy Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al-’Uthaymeen
With Related Points of Benefit From the Shaykh’s Commentary on Imaam ibn Taymeeyah’s Sharhul ’Aqeedatil-Waasitiyyah,  Prepared by  Dr. Saleh As-Saleh (rahimahullah)

Ilm-ul-Kalam (Knowledge Of Theological Rhetoric) – Ibn Baz

[ A discipline that searches for answers to creedal issues using Logic ]

Ilmul-Kalaam (argumentation based on Greek philosophy) is among such innovations in the religion that created intellectual schisms in the Muslim nation and initiated deviant trends. One of the sects that indulged in Ilmul-Kalaam were the Mu’tazilah. They gave precedence to intellect over the revealed texts of the Qur’aan and the Sunnah – when they perceived the two conflicted. This attitude set an evil precedent for all later groups who sought to make intellect and desire decisive over the Qur’aan and the Sunnah

Ibn Baz Fatwa on this topic:

Q 3: Some people read many intellectual and scientific books and think that they have become a scholar or a Da’y (caller to Islam), although they may have poor knowledge in Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) and have not read any books about Shari’ah (Islamic law). What is Your Eminence’s opinion in this regard?

A: Knowledge of Shari’ah is derived from what Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) have said, and not from someone else’s words. The first source of Islamic knowledge is the Word of Allah and His Messenger, then the views of Muslim scholars who explain and interpret them for people. These scholars are Allah’s successors on earth after the messengers.

Allah (may He be Glorified and Exalted) says:(Surah Al-`Imran, 3: 18) Allýh bears witness that Lý ilýha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), and the angels, and those having knowledge (also give this witness). Here, knowledge refers to knowing Allah and His Religion. Allah (may He be Exalted) says:(Surah Fatir, 35: 28) It is only those who have knowledge among His slaves that fear Allýh. They are the messengers and their insightful followers, who follow this truthful religion and abide by the Qur’an and Sunnah (whatever is reported from the Prophet). Muslim scholars are the heirs of Messengers, since they explain the religion and guide others to Allah.

Moreover, a true knowledge seeker studies and reflects on the Qur’an and Sunnah and learns from Muslim scholars. This is the way of acquiring knowledge of Shari`ah which involves doing acts of obedience, meditating and benefiting from others. A knowledge seeker should read a lot, with the aim of attaining as much knowledge as possible. They should reflect on knowledge and look for answers to unclear matters in trustworthy books of Tafsir (exegesis of the meanings of the Qur’an) such as Tafsir by Ibn Kathir, Al-Baghawy and others, in addition to paying great attention to books of Hadith. Furthermore, knowledge of Shari`ah should be taken from knowledgeable scholars among Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah (those adhering to the Sunnah and the Muslim main body) and not scholars of ‘Ilm-ul-Kalam (a discipline that searches for answers to creedal issues using logic), innovators in religion or ignorant people.

Anything that is not included in the Qur’an and Sunnah cannot be considered Islamic knowledge, even if it is useful in worldly affairs. Here, we are concerned about knowledge that is useful in the Hereafter, which eliminates ignorance, clarifies the religion and shows people what Allah has made lawful and unlawful to them. Indeed, this is the true knowledge of Shari`ah.

Ibn Baz fatwas