Scholars Biographies: Shaikh Safiur-Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri

Author of Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum: The Sealed Nectar, When the Moon Split, History of Islam, and History of Makkah / Madinah.


All praise is due to Allah, the Rabb of all mankind, Jinn and all that exists. May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon our Prophet, the Seal of all Messengers, Muhammad, his family, Companions and all those who follow him until the Day of Judgement (Aameen).

[The following is an updated outline on the life of Shaykh Safiur-Rahman Mubarakpuri, may Allah have mercy upon him, based on the brief biography detailing his life and professional career presented to the Muslim World League while compiling this book (The Sealed Nectar) for publication.]

Name and Lineage

Name: Safiur-Rahman
Kunyah: Abu Hisham

Lineage: Safiur-Rahman bin Abdullah bin Muhammad Akbar bin Muhammad Ali bin AbdulMumin bin Faqirullah Mubarakpuri, Azami. Date and Place of Birth

I was born in the year 1942 C.E., in Husainabad, a village at a distance of one mile from the north side of Mubarakpur (Azamgarh District), a town famous for cottage industry in the northern province of India.

Educational Background

I started my studies at home reading the Qur’an from my grandfather and uncle. Then I was admitted to Madrasah Arabia Darut-Taleem, in Mubarakpur, and began my basic Islamic education in Arabic and Persian languages.

In Shawwal 1337 A.H. (June 1954 C.E.), I received admission to the Madrasah Ehyaul-Uloom, in Mubarakpur, for further education in Islamic studies and Arabic literature. Two years later, in Shawwal 1375 A.H. (May 1956 C.E.), I joined the Madrasah Faid Aam, Maunath Bhanjan, Azamgarh District for higher studies.

Upon completion of seven years of study in Islamic courses, I received a Master Degree from the same Institute in Sha’ban 1380 A. H. I also received the Certificates of Maulvi in 1959 C.E. and Alim in 1960 C.E. from the Government Education Board on passing their examinations with high grade. After changes in the system of the Arabic schools, I participated in the Fadil Degree examination under the Government Education Board, successfully passed double Fadil examinations in 1976 and 1978 C.E. with high honors.

Professional Life

After completing my studies at the Madrasah Faid Aam in 1961 C.E., I began teaching, preaching, lecturing and delivering sermons. However, unfavorable circumstances did not permit me to stay in one place for long. In March 1963 C.E., I joined the Madrasah Faid Aam in Maunath Bhanjan as a Teacher. Then I was transferred to the Madrasah Darul-Hadeeth in the same city in February 1966 C.E.

In January 1969 C.E., I was appointed as the Principal at the Madrasah Faidul-Uloom at Seoni (M.P.), India. After four years, in 1972 C.E., I was requested to serve in my native Institute Madrasah Arabia Darut-Taleem as Principal. After spending two years, I was invited by Jamiah Salafiyah Banaras to join as a Professor (Ustadh). I was appointed in Shawwal 1394 A.H. (October 1974 C.E.) working in various academic departments till Dhul-Hijjah 1408 A.H. (July 1988 C.E.).

A research institute was established in 1408 Hijrah at the Islamic University of Al-Madinah AlMunawwarah known as “The Center for the Services of the Prophet’s Biography.’’ I was selected to work there and was entrusted the duty of preparing an encyclopedia on the subject of the life history of the Noble Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), as a research scholar.

Books and Compilations

It is the mercy of Allah Who favored me and provided me the ability of writing from the very beginning of my career. During my teaching period, I wrote and compiled about seventeen books in the Urdu and Arabic languages. When the monthly Urdu magazine Muhaddith of Jamiah Salafiyah was published in 1980 C.E., I was appointed as Chief Editor of the magazine section up to September 1988 C.E., until I joined the Islamic University at Al-Madinah AlMunawwarah. During that period, I wrote a number of articles on social, historical, political and religious topics which were well received by many people. Al-Hamdu lillah!

“O our Rabb , accept from us with goodly acceptance and seek it grow in a good manner.’’


[Source : From the English Book “The Sealed Nectar”  published by dar-us-salam publications]

PS: Shaykh Safiur-Rahmaan Mubarakpuri (rahimahullaah) passed away 1st Dec 2006 C.E., in Mubarakpur, India, after Salaatul-Jumu’ah

Mubarakpuri wrote and compiled seventeen books in Urdu and Arabic. Several books were translated into English, including:

  • Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (English: The Sealed Nectar)
  • When the Moon Split
  • History of Makkah Al-Mukaramah
  • History of Madinah Al-Munawarah
  • Abridged Tafsir Ibn Kathir

History of Madinah Munawwarah – Shaikh Safiur-Rahman Mubarakpuri


History of Madinah Munawwarah (Shaikh Safiur-Rahman Mubarakpuri)

Publisher: Darussalam Publishers and Distributors (2002)
Pages: 152 Binding: Paperback

You can buy Here or read most of the book @ Google Books Here

Description from the publisher:

In this book, mention has been made about the different aspects of Al-Madinah, and the most important historical events are recorded that have direct effect on the establishment and sacredness of Al-Madinah as well as its religious weight.

This book has highlighted the sites that are highly important whenever Al-Madinah is mentioned like the Prophet’s Mosque, Quba Mosque and others. A great part of the book is designated to speak about the Prophet’s Mosque updating the expansions and the improvements that has taken place from the time of Muhammad (Sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam) till the Saudi era. It contains more than fifty, pictures taken from original documented resources. The pictures vary from old to new dealing with many aspects. The book is a genuine addition to the Islamic library in, its subject both for the researcher and the regular reader. This book sought scientific trustworthiness, by presenting only the correct Ahadith and authentic reports.

The Death of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) : Shaykh Safi ur-Rahmaan Mubarakfoori

From Ar-Raheeq al-Makhtoom

The Start of the Disease

On Monday the twenty-ninth of Safar in the eleventh year of al-Hijra, he participated in funeral rites in al-Baqee’. On the way back he had a headache, his temperature rose so high that the heat effect could be felt over his headband. He led the Muslims in prayer for eleven days though he was sick. The total number of his sick days were either thirteen of fourteen.

The Last Week

When his sickness grew severe he asked his wives: “Where shall I stay tomorrow?” “Where shall I stay?” They understood what he wanted. So they allowed him to stay wherever he wished. He moved to ‘Aishah’s room leaning – while he was walking – on al-Fadl bin al-‘Abbas and ‘Alî bin Abî Tâlib. Head banded as he was, he dragged his feet till he came into her abode. It was there that he spent the last week of his life.

During that period, ‘Aishah used to recite al-Mu’awwidhat (Chapters 113 and 114 of the Qur’ân) and other supplications which he has already taught her.

Five days before death

On Wednesday, five days before he died the Prophet’s temperature rose so high signalling the severness of his disease. He fainted and suffered from pain. “Pour out on me seven Qirab (water skin pots) of various water wells so that I may go out to meet people and talk to them.” So they seated him in a container (usually used for washing) and poured out water on him till he said: “That is enough. That is enough.”

Then he felt well enough to enter the Mosque. He entered it band-headed, sat on the pulpit and made a speech to the people who were gathering together around him. He said: “The curse of Allâh falls upon the Jews and Christians for they have made their Prophets’ tombs places of worship.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 1/62; Muatta’ Imâm Malik, p.360] Then he said: “Do not make my tomb a worshipped idol.” [Muatta’ Imâm Malik, p.65]

Then he offered himself and invited the people to repay any injuries he might have inflicted on them, saying:

“He whom I have ever lashed his back, I offer him my back so that he may avenge himself on me. He whom I have ever blasphemed his honour, here I am offering my honour so that he may avenge himself.”

Then he descended, and performed the noon prayer. Again he returned to the pulpit and sat on it. He resumed his first speech about enmity and some other things. A man then said: “You owe me three Dirhams.” The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Fadl, pay him the money.” He went on saying:

“I admonish you to be good to Al-Ansar (the Helpers). They are my family and with them I found shelter. They have acquitted themselves credibly of the responsibility that fell upon them and now there remains what you have to do. You should fully acknowledge and appreciate the favour that they have shown, and should overlook their faults.”

In another version: “The number of believers would increase, but the number of Helpers would decrease to the extent that they would be among men as salt in the food. So he who from among you occupies a position of responsibility and is powerful enough to do harm or good to the people, he should frilly acknowledge and appreciate the favour that these benefactors have shown and overlook their faults.”

And said: “Allâh, the Great, has given a slave of His the opportunity to make a choice between whatever he desires of Allâh’s provisions in this world, and what He keeps for him in the world, but he has opted for the latter.”

Abû Sa’id Al-Khudri said: “Upon hearing that, Abû Bakr cried and said: ‘We sacrifice our fathers and mothers for your sake.’ We wondered why Abû Bakr said such a thing. People said: ‘Look at that old man! The Messenger of Allâh says about a slave of Allâh who was granted the right between the best fortunes of this world and the bounty of Allâh in the Hereafter, but he says: We sacrifice our fathers and mothers for your sake!’ It was later on that we realized what he had aimed at. The Messenger of Allâh was the slave informed to choose. We also acknowledged that Abû Bakr was the most learned among us.” [Mishkat Al-Masabih, 2/546]

Then the Messenger of Allâh said:

“The fellow I feel most secure in his company is Abû Bakr. If I were to make friendship with any other one than Allah, I would have Abû Bakr a bosom friend of mine. For him I feel affection and brotherhood of Islam. No gate shall be kept open in the Mosque except that of Abû Bakr’s.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 1/22,429,449, 2/638; Misbkat Al-Masabih, 2/548]

Four days before his death

On Thursday, four days before the death of the Messenger of Allâh he said to people — though he was suffering from a severe pain:

“Come here. I will cause you to write something so that you will never fall into error.” Upon this ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab said: “The Prophet of Allâh is suffering from acute pain and you have the Qur’an with you; the Book of Allâh is sufficient unto you.” Others however wanted the writing to be made. When Muhammad heard them debating over it, he ordered them to go away and leave him alone. [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/637]

That day he recommended three things:

1. Jews, Christians and polytheists should be expelled out of Arabia .
2. He recommended that delegations should be honoured and entertained, in a way similar to the one he used to do.
3. As for the third — the narrator said that he had forgotten it. It could have been adherence to the Holy Book and the Sunnah. It was likely to be the accomplishment and the mobilization of Osamah’s army, or it could have been performance of prayers and being attentive to slaves.

In spite of the strain of disease and suffering from pain, the Prophet used to lead all the prayers till that Thursday — four days before he died. On that day he led the sunset prayer and recited:

“By the winds (or angels or the Messengers of Allah) sent forth one after another.” [77:1] [Misbkat Al-Masabih, 1/102]

In the evening he grew so sick that he could not overcome the strain of disease or go out to enter the Mosque. ‘Aishah said: The Prophet asked: “Have the people performed the prayer?” “No. They haven’t. They are waiting for you.” “Put some water in the washing pot.” Said he. We did what he ordered. So he washed and wanted to stand up, but he fainted. When he came round he asked again “Have the people prayed?” Then the sequence of events took place again and again for the second and the third times from the time he washed to the time he fainted after his attempts to stand up. Therefore he sent to Abû Bakr to lead the prayer himself. Abû Bakr then led the prayer during those days [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 1/99]. They were seventeen prayers in the lifetime of Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Three or four times ‘Aishah talked to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to exempt Abû Bakr from leadership in prayer lest people should despair of him, but he refused and said: “You (women) are like the women who tried to entice Joseph (Yusuf) into immorality. Convey my request to Abû Bakr to lead the prayer.”

A Day or Two prior to Death

On Saturday or on Sunday, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam felt that he was well enough to perform the prayer; so he went out leaning on two men in order to perform the noon prayer. Abû Bakr, who was then about to lead the prayer withdrew when he saw him coming; but the Prophet made him a gesture to stay where he was and said: “Seat me next to him.” They seated him on the left hand side of Abû Bakr. The Prophet led the prayer, and Abû Bakr followed him and raised his voice at every ‘Allâhu Akbar’ (i.e. Allâh is the Greatest) the Prophet said, so that the people may hear clearly. [Sahîh al-Bukhârî 1/98,99]

A Day before his Death

On Sunday, a day before he died, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam set his slaves free, paid as a charity the seven Dinars he owned and gave his weapons as a present to the Muslims. So when night fell ‘Aishah had to borrow some oil from her neighbour to light her oil-lantern. Even his armour was mortgaged as a security with a Jew for thirty Sa’ (a cubic measure) of barley.

The Last Day Alive

In a narration by Anas bin Malik, he said: “While the Muslims were performing the dawn prayer on Monday — led by Abû Bakr, they were surprised to see the Messenger of Allâh raising the curtain of ‘Aishah’s room. He looked at them while they were praying aligned properly and smiled cheerfully. Seeing him, Abû Bakr withdrew to join the lines and give way to him to lead the prayer. For he thought that the Prophet wanted to go out and pray.” Anas said: “The Muslims, who were praying, were so delighted that they were almost too enraptured at their prayers. The Messenger of Allâh made them a gesture to continue their prayer, went into the room and drew down the curtain.” [ibid. 21640]

The Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not live for the next prayer time.

When it was daytime, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam called Fatimah and told her something in a secret voice that made her cry. Then he whispered to her something else which made her laugh. ‘Aishah enquired from her after the Prophet’s death, as to this weeping and laughing to which Fatimah replied:

“The first time he disclosed to me that he would not recover from his illness and I wept. Then he told me that I would be the first of his family to join him, so I laughed.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/638]

He gave Fatimah glad tidings that she would become the lady of all women of the world [Rahmat-ul-lil’alameen, 1/282]. Fatimah witnessed the great pain that afflicted her father. So she said: “What great pain my father is in!”. To these words, the Prophet remarked:

“He will not suffer any more when today is over.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/641]

He asked that Al-Hasan and Al-Husain be brought to him. He kissed them and recommended that they be looked after. He asked to see his wives. They were brought to him. He preached them and told them to remember Allah. Pain grew so much severe that the trace of poison he had at Khaibar came to light. It was so sore that he said to ‘Aishah: “I still feel the painful effect of that food I tasted at Khaibar. I feel as if death is approaching.” [ibid, 2/637] He ordered the people to perform the prayers and be attentive to slaves. He repeated it several times. [ibid. 2/637]

The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam breathes his last

When the pangs of death started, ‘Aishah leant him against her. She used to say: One of Allah’s bounties upon me is that the Messenger of Allâh died in my house, while I am still alive. He died between my chest and neck while he was leaning against me. Allâh has mixed his saliva with mine at his death. For ‘Abdur Rahman – the son of Abû Bakr – came in with a Siwak (i.e. the root of a desert plant used for brushing teeth) in his hand, while I was leaning the Messenger of Allâh against me. I noticed that he was looking at the Siwak, so I asked him – for I knew that he wanted it — “Would you like me to take it for you?” He nodded in agreement. I took it and gave it to him. As it was too hard for him, I asked him “Shall I soften it for you?” He nodded in agreement. So I softened it with my saliva and he passed it (on his teeth).

In another version it is said: “So he brushed (Istanna) his teeth as nice as he could.” There was a water container (Rakwa) available at his hand with some water in. He put his hand in it and wiped his face with it and said:

“There is no god but Allah. Death is full of agonies.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/640]

As soon as he had finished his Siwak, brushing, he raised his hand or finger up, looked upwards to the ceiling and moved his lips. So ‘Aishah listened to him. She heard him say: “With those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace with the Prophets and the Truthful ones (As-Siddeeqeen), the martyrs and the good doers. O Allâh, forgive me and have mercy upon me and join me to the Companionship on high.” [ibid, 2/638-641] Then at intervals he uttered these words: “The most exalted Companionship on high. To Allâh we turn and to Him we turn back for help and last abode.” This event took place at high morning time on Monday, the twelfth of Rabi’ al-Awwal, in the eleventh year of Al-Hijrah. He was sixty-three years and four days old when he died.

The Companions’ concern over the Prophet’s Death

The great (loss) news was soon known by everybody in Madinah. Dark grief spread on all areas and hoirizons of Madinah. Anas said: “I have never witnessed a day better or brighter than that day on which the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came to us; and I have never witnessed a more awful or darker day than that one on which the Messenger of Allâh died on.” [Mishkat-ul-Masabih, 2/547]

When he died, Fatimah said: “O Father, whom his Lord responded to his supplication! O Father, whose abode is Paradise . O Father, whom I announce his death to Gabriel.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/641]

‘Umar’s Attitude

‘Umar, who was so stunned that he almost lost consciousness and stood before people addressing them: “Some of the hypocrites claim that the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam died. The Messenger of Allâh did not die, but went to his Lord in the same way as Moses bin ‘Imran did. He stayed away for forty nights, but finally came back though they said he had been dead. By Allah, the Messenger of Allâh will come back and he will cut of the hands and legs of those who claim his death.” [Ibn Hisham, 2/655]

Abû Bakr’s Attitude

Abû Bakr left his house at As-Sunh and came forth to the Mosque on a mare-back. At the Mosque, he dismounted and entered. He talked to nobody but went on till he entered ‘Aishah’s abode, and went directly to where the Messenger of Allâh sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was. The Prophet was covered with a Yemeni mantle. He uncovered his face and tended down, kissed him and cried. Then he said: “I sacrifice my father and mother for your sake. Allah, verily, will not cause you to die twice. You have just experienced the death that Allâh had ordained.”

Then he went out and found ‘Umar talking to people. He said: “‘Umar, be seated.” ‘Umar refused to do so. People parted ‘Umar and came towards Abû Bakr, who started a speech saying:

“And now, he who worships Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Muhammad is dead now. But he who worships Allah, He is Ever Living and He never dies. Allâh says: ‘Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is no more than a Messenger, and indeed (many) Messengers have passed away before him. If he dies or is killed, will you then turn back on your heels (as disbelievers)? And he who turns back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allâh, and Allâh will give reward to those who are grateful.’ ” [3:144]

Ibn ‘Abbas said: “By Allâh it sounded as if people had never heard such a Qur’aanic verse till Abû Bakr recited it as a reminder. So people started reciting it till there was no man who did not recite it.”

Ibn Al-Musaiyab said that ‘Umar had said: “By Allâh as soon as I heard Abû Bakr say it, I fell down to the ground. I felt as if my legs had been unable to carry me so I collapsed when I heard him say it. Only then did I realize that Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had really died.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 2/640,641]

Burial and Farewell Preparations to his Honourable Body

Dispute about who would succeed him broke out even before having the Messenger of Allah’s body prepared for burial. Lots of arguments, discussions, dialogues took place between the Helpers and Emigrants in the roofed passage (portico) of Barn Sa’ida. Finally they acknowledged Abû Bakr (RA) as a caliph. They spent the whole Monday there till it was night. People were so busy with their arguments that it was late night — just about dawn of Tuesday — yet his blessed body was still lying on his bed covered with an inked-garment. He was locked in the room.

On Tuesday, his body was washed with his clothes on. He was washed by Al-’Abbas, ‘Alî, Al-Fadl and Qathm — the two sons of Al-’Abbas, as well as Shaqran — the Messenger’s freed slave, Osamah bin Zaid and Aws bin Khauli. Al-’Abbas, Al-Fadi and Qathm turned his body round, whereas Osamah and Shaqran poured out water. ‘Alî washed him and Aws leant him against his chest.

They shrouded him in three white Sahooli cotton cloth which had neither a headcloth [Sahîh al-Bukhârî, 1/169, Sahîh Muslim, 1/306] nor a casing and inserted him in.

A sort of disagreement arose with regard to a burial place. Abû Bakr said: “I heard the Messenger of Allâh say: ‘A dead Prophet is buried where he dies.’” So Abû Talhah lifted the bed on which he died, dug underneath and cut the ground to make the tomb.

People entered the room ten by ten. They prayed for the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The first to pray for him were people of his clan. Then the Emigrants, then the Helpers. Women prayed for him after men. The young were the last to pray.

This process took Tuesday long and Wednesday night (i.e. the night which precedes Wednesday morning). ‘Aishah said: “We did not know that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was being buried till we heard the sound of tools digging the ground at the depth of Wednesday night.” [Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasool, p.471; Ibn Hisham, 2/649-665; Talqeeh Fuhoom Ahl M-Athar, p. 38, 39; Rahmat-ul-lil’alameen 1/277-286]

The Story of the Prisoners of the Battle of Badr : Shaykh Safi ur-Rahmaan Mubarakfoori

From Ar-Raheeq al-Makhtoom

On their way back to Madinah, at a large sand hill, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam divided the spoils equally among the fighters after he had taken Al-Khums (one-fifth). When they reached As-Safra’, he ordered that two of the prisoners should be killed. They were An-Nadr bin Al-Harith and ‘Uqbah bin Abi Muait, because they had persecuted the Muslims in Makkah, and harboured deep hatred towards Allaah and His Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam . In a nutshell, they were criminals of war in modern terminology, and their execution was an awesome lesson to oppressors. ‘Uqbah forgot his pride and cried out, “Who will look after my children O Messenger of Allaah?” The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam answered, “The Fire (of Hell).” Did ‘Uqbah not remember the day when he had thrown the entrails of a sheep onto the head of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam while he was prostrating himself in prayer, and Fatimah had come and washed it off him? He had also strangled the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with his cloak if it had not been for Abu Bakr to intervene and release the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam . The heads of both criminals were struck off by Alee bin Abi TAleeb.

The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam exhorted the Muslims to treat the prisoners so well to such an extent that the captors used to give the captives their bread (the more valued part of the meal) and keep the dates for themselves.

Prisoners of war constituted a problem awaiting resolution because it was a new phenomenon in the history of Islaam. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam consulted Abu Bakr and Umar bin Al-Khattab as to what he should do with the prisoners. Abu Bakr suggested that he should ransom them, explaining this by saying: “They are after all our relatives, and this money would give us strength against the disbelievers, moreover, Allaah could guide them to Islaam.” Umar advised killing them, saying, “They are the leaders of Kufr (disbelief).” The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam preferred Abu Bakr’s suggestion to that of Umar’s. The following day, Umar called on the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Abu Bakr to see them weeping. He showed extreme astonishment and inquired about the situation so that he might weep if it was worth weeping for, or else he would feign weeping.

“It is not for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war (and free them with ransom) until he had made a great slaughter (among his enemies) in the land. You desire the good of this world (i.e. the money of ransom for freeing the captives), but Allaah desires (for you) the Hereafter. And Allaah is All-Mighty, All-Wise. Were it not a previous ordainment from Allaah, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took.” [Qur’aan 8:67-68]

The previous Divine ordainment went as follows,

“Thereafter (is the time) either for generosity (i.e. free them without ransom) or ransom.” [Qur’aan 47:4]

Which included an area providing permission to take ransom, that is why no penalty was imposed. They were rebuked only for taking prisoners before subduing all the land of disbelief. Apart from this, the polytheists taken to Madinah were not only prisoners of war but rather archcriminals of war whom modern war penal law brings to justice to receive their due sentence of death or prison for life.

The ransom for the prisoners ranged between 4000 and 1000 Dirhams in accordance with the captive’s financial situation. Another form of ransom assumed an educational dimension; most of the Makkans, unlike the Madinese, were literate and so each prisoner who could not afford the ransom was entrusted with ten children to teach them the art of writing and reading. Once the child had been proficient enough, the instructor would be set free. Another clan of prisoners were released unransomed on grounds of being hard up. Zainab, the daughter of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , paid the ransom of her husband Abul-‘As with a necklace. The Muslims released her prisoner and returned the necklace in deference to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but on condition that Abul-‘As allow Zainab to migrate to Madinah, which he actually did.

In captivity, there was also an eloquent orator called Suhail bin ‘Amr. Umar suggested that they pull out his front teeth to disable him from speaking, but the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam turned down his suggestion for fear Quraish should retAleeate in the same manner on one hand, and on the other for fear of Allaah’s wrath on the Day of Resurrection.

Sa’d bin An-Nu’man, a lesser pilgrim detained in Makkah, was released in return for setting Abu Sufyan’s son, a captive, free.

The Story of the 600-700 Jews Beheaded by the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam at Bani Quraiza in 5 AH

The Bani Quraiza was a tribe of Jews in a district of Madinah that betrayed the Muslims and sided with the enemy during the Battle of Ahzaab (also known as the Battle of the Confederates and the Battle of the Trench). The Sealed Nectar describes what happened to them immediately after the Battle of Ahzaab:

Archangel Gabriel, on the very day the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came back to Madinah after the previous battle, and while he was washing in Umm Salama’s house, visited him asking that he should unsheathe his sword and head for the habitation of the seditious Banu Quraiza and fight them. Gabriel noted that he with a procession of angels would go ahead to shake their forts and cast fear in their hearts.

The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , immediately summoned the prayer caller and ordered him to announce fresh hostilities against Banu Quraiza, institued Ibn Umm Maktum as a ruler of Madinah, and entrusted the banner of war to Alee bin Abi TAleeb who marched towards the appointed target and came close enough to hear the Jews abusing the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , who on his part set out at the head of three thousand infantry men and thirty horsemen of Ansar (Helpers) and Muhajireen (Emigrants). On their way to encounter the enemy, the afternoon prayer was due. Some Muslims refused to observe it until they had defeated the enemy, while others offered it in its proper time, as usual. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam objected to neither. When they reached the habitations of Banu Quraiza, they laid tight siege to their forts. Seeing this terrible situation they were in, the chief of the Jews Ka’b bin Asad offered them three alternatives: to embrace Islaam, and consequently their life, wealth, women and children would be in full security, and reminded them that such behaviour would not be incongruous with what they had read in their books about the veracity of Muhammad’s Prophethood; to kill their children and women and then challenge the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his followers to the sword to either exterminate the Muslims or be exterminated, or as a third possibility to take Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his people by surprise on Saturday – a day mutually understood to witness no fighting.

None of those alternatives appealed them, so their chief, angrily and indignantly, turned to them saying: “You have never been decisive in decision-making since you were born.” The gloomy future already visible, they made contacts with some Muslims, who had maintained good relation with them, in order to learn about their fate in the light of the current circumstances. They requested that Abu Lubaba be despatched to them for advice. On his arrival, the men began to implore, women and children to cry desperately. In answer to their demand for advice he pointed to his throat saying it was homicide awaiting them. He then immediately reAleezed that he had betrayed the Prophet’s trust, so he headed directly for the mosque in Madinah and tied himself to a wooden tall pole swearing that no one would untie him save the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , and added that he would never enter the habitation of Banu Quraiza in recompense for the deadly mistake he made. When the Messenger sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was informed of this incident, he said, ” I would have begged Allaah to forgive him if he had asked me, but since he had tied himself out of his own free will, then it was Allaah Who would turn to him in forgiveness.”

The Jews of Banu Quraiza could have endured the siege much longer because food and water were plentifully available and their strongholds were greatly fortified, whereas the Muslims were in the wild bare land suffering a lot from cold and hunger, let alone too much fatigue consequent on endless warfare operations that had started even before the battle of Confederates. Nevertheless, this was a battle of nerves, for Allaah had cast fear in the the Jews’ hearts, and their morale had almost collapsed especially when two Muslim heroes, Alee bin Abi TAleeb and Az-Zubair bin ‘Awwam proceeded with Alee swearing that he would never stop until he had either stormed their garrisons or been martyred like Hamza (a former Muslim martyr).

In the light of this reluctance, they had nothing except to comply with the Messenger’s judgement. The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ordered that the men should be handcuffed, and this was done under the supervision of Muhammad bin Salamah Al-Ansari while the women and children were isolated in confinement. Thereupon Al-Aws tribe interceded begging the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to be lenient toward them. He suggested that Sa’d bin Mu’adh, a former ally, be deputed to give verdict about them, and they agreed.

Sa’d meanwhile stayed behind in Madinah due to a serious wound he sustained in the Confederates Battle. He was summoned and brought on a donkey. On his way to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , the Jews used to exhort him to be lenient in his judgement on account of former friendship. Sa’d remained silent but when they persisted he uttered: “It is time for Sa’d not to be afraid of the blame of the blamers.” On hearing this decisive attitude, some of them returned to Madinah waiting for a desperate doom.

On arrival, he Aleeghted with the help of some men. He was informed that the Jews had agreed to accept his verdict about them. He immediately wondered if his judgement would pass on all the people present, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam included, turning his face away in honour of him. The reply was positive.

He decided that all the able-bodied male persons belonging to the tribe should be killed, women and children taken prisoners and their wealth divided among the Muslim fighters. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam accepted his judgement saying that Sa’d had adjudged by the Command of Allaah. In fact, the Jews deserved that severe punitive action for the ugly treachery they had harboured against Islaam, and the large arsenal they have amassed and which consisted of one thousand and five hundred swords, two thousand spears, three hundred armours and five hundred shields, all of which went into the hands of the Muslims. Trenches were dug in the bazaar of Madinah and a number of Jews between six and seven hundred were beheaded therein. Hot beds of intrigue and treachery were thus exterminated once and for all.

Huyai, a chief criminal of war, a devil of Bani Nadir and Safiyah’s father, had joined the ranks of Banu Quraiza when Quraish and Ghatfan defected, was admitted into the audience of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with his hands tied to his neck with a rope. In audacious defiance, he declared obstinate enmity to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but admitted that Allaah’s Will was to be fulfilled and added that he was resigned to his fate. He was ordered to sit down, and was beheaded on the spot.

Only one woman of the Jews was killed because she had killed a Muslim warrior by flinging a grinding stone upon him. A few elements of the enemy embraced Islaam and their lives, wealth and children were spared. As for the spoils of the war, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam divided them, after putting a fifth aside, in accordance with Allaah’s injunctions. Three shares went to the horseman and one to the infantry fighter. Women captives were sent to Najd to be bartered with horses and weaponry.

After the war with Banu Quraiza had been settled and they had been defeated, Sa’d bin Mu’adh’s wish was gratified and he gave his last breath. In response to his supplication ‘Aishah narrated, Sa’d’s wounds began to bleed from the front part of his neck while he was in his tent which the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had pitched for him in the mosque so that he would be in close proximity in order to inquire about and watch his well-being closely. The people were not scared except when the blood flowed towards them, and in the Mosque along with Sa’d’s tent, there was the tent of Banu Ghifar. They said: O people of the tent, what is it that is coming to us from you? Lo! it was Sa’d’s wound that was bleeding and he died thereon.

Jabir narrated that the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had said: “The Throne of the Compassionate shook for the death of Sa’d bin Mu’adh.” When his bier was carried, At-Tirmidhi said: The hypocrites alleged it was too light. The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam retorted: “The angels are carrying him.”

In the process of the sieze laid to Banu Quraiza, one man of the Muslims, Khallad bin Suwaid was killed when a women of the Jews dropped the grinding stone on him, and another, Abu Sinan bin Mihsan, the brother of ‘Ukasha, died.

Abu Lubaba stayed tied for six nights. His wife used to untie him at prayer times and then he tied himself again to the pole. One early morning, Allaah the All-Forgiving revealed a verse to the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to the effect that Allaah had turned to Abu Lubaba with forgiveness. The Muslims rushed to release him but he insisted that the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam himself do it. And this was done shortly before the morning prayer.

This Military Expedition took place in the month of Dhul Qa’dah in the year five Hijri (5AH), and the siege of Banu Quraiza’s forts lasted for 25 days. The Chapter of Confederates (Qur’aan, Surah 33)was revealed containing Allaah’s Words concerning the basic issues relating to the believers and hypocrites during the battle of the Confederates, and the consequences of the treachery and breaching of covenants by the Jews.

The Prophetic Household – Shaykh Safi ur-Rahmaan Mubarakfoori

Taken from the “The Sealed Nectar” book

1. Khadijah Bint Khuwailid: In Makkah — prior to Hijra — the Prophet’s household comprised him (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) and his wife Khadijah bint Khuwailid. He was twenty-five and she was forty when they got married. She was the first woman he married. She was the only wife he had till she died. He had sons and daughters with her. None of their sons lived long. They all died. Their daughters were Zainab, Ruqaiya, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah.

Zainab was married to her maternal cousin Abu Al-‘As bin Al-Rabi‘ and that was before Al-Hijra. Ruqaiya and Umm Kulthum were both married to ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan – may Allah be pleased with him – successively (i.e. he married one after the death of her sister). Fatimah was married to ‘Ali bin Abi Talib; and that was in the period between Badr and Uhud battles. The sons and daughters that Fatimah and ‘Ali had were Al-Hasan, Al-Husain, Zainab and Umm Kulthum.

It is well-known that the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) was exceptionally authorized to have more than four wives for various reasons. The wives he married were thirteen. Nine of them outlived him. Two died in his lifetime: Khadijah and the Mother of the poor (Umm Al-Masakeen) — Zainab bint Khuzaima, besides two others with whom he did not consummate his marriage.

2. Sawdah bint Zam‘a: He married her in Shawwal, in the tenth year of Prophethood, a few days after the death of Khadijah. Prior to that, she was married to a paternal cousin of hers called As-Sakran bin ‘Amr.

3. ‘Aishah bint Abu Bakr: He married her in the eleventh year of Prophethood, a year after his marriage to Sawdah, and two years and five months before Al-Hijra. She was six years old when he married her. However, he did not consummate the marriage with her till Shawwal seven months after Al-Hijra, and that was in Madinah. She was nine then. She was the only virgin he married, and the most beloved creature to him. As a woman she was the most learnèd woman in jurisprudence.

4. Hafsah bint ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab: She was Aiyim (i.e. husbandless). Her ex-husband was Khunais bin Hudhafa As-Sahmi in the period between Badr and Uhud battles. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married her in the third year of Al-Hijra.

5. Zainab bint Khuzaimah: She was from Bani Hilal bin ‘Amir bin Sa‘sa‘a. Was nicknamed Umm Al-Masakeen, because of her kindness and care towards them. She used to be the wife of ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh, who was martyred at Uhud, was married to the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) in the fourth year of Al-Hijra, but she died two or three months after her marriage to the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) .

6. Umm Salamah Hind bint Abi Omaiyah: She used to be the wife of Abu Salamah, who died in Jumada Al-Akhir, in the fourth year of Al-Hijra. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married her in Shawwal of the same year.

7. Zainab bint Jahsh bin Riyab: She was from Bani Asad bin Khuzaimah and was the Messenger’s paternal cousin. She was married to Zaid bin Haritha — who was then considered son of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) . However, Zaid divorced her. Allâh sent down some Qur’ânic verses with this respect:

“So when Zaid had accomplished his desire from her (i.e., divorced her), We gave her to you in marriage.” [33:37]

About her, Allâh has sent down some verses of Al-Ahzab Chapter that discussed the adoption of children in detail — anyway we will discuss this later. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married her in Dhul-Qa‘dah, the fifth year of Al-Hijra.

8. Juwairiyah bint Al-Harith: Al-Harith was the head of Bani Al-Mustaliq of Khuza‘ah. Juwairiyah was among the booty that fell to the Muslims from Bani Al-Mustaliq. She was a portion of Thabit bin Qais bin Shammas’ share. He made her a covenant to set her free at a certain time. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) accomplished the covenant and married her in Sha‘ban in the sixth year of Al-Hijra.

9. Umm Habibah: Ramlah, the daughter of Abu Sufyan. She was married to ‘Ubaidullah bin Jahsh. She migrated with him to Abyssinia ( Ethiopia). When ‘Ubaidullah apostatized and became a Christian, she stoodfast to her religion and refused to convert. However ‘Ubaidullah died there in Abyssinia ( Ethiopia). The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) dispatched ‘Amr bin Omaiyah Ad-Damri with a letter to Negus, the king, asking him for Umm Habibah’s hand — that was in Muharram, in the seventh year of Al-Hijra. Negus agreed and sent her to the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) in the company of Sharhabeel bin Hasnah.

10. Safiyah bint Huyai bin Akhtab: From the Children of Israel, she was among the booty taken at Khaibar battle. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) took her for himself. He set her free and married her after that conquest in the seventh year of Al-Hijra.

11. Maimunah bint Al-Harith: The daughter of Al-Harith, and the sister of Umm Al-Fadl Lubabah bint Al-Harith. The Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married her after the Compensatory ‘Umrah (Lesser Pilgrimage). That was in Dhul-Qa‘dah in the seventh year of Al-Hijra.

Those were the eleven women that the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) had married and consummated marriage with them. He outlived two of them — Khadijah and Zainab, the Umm Al-Masakeen. Whereas the other nine wives outlived him.

The two wives that he did not consummate marriage with were, one from Bani Kilab and the other from Kindah and this was the one called Al-Jauniyah.

Besides these, he had two concubines. The first was Mariyah, the Coptic (an Egyptian Christian), a present gift from Al-Muqauqis, vicegerent of Egypt — she gave birth to his son Ibrâhim, who died in Madinah while still a little child, on the28 th or29 th of Shawwal in the year 10A.H., i.e.27 th January, 632 A.D. The second one was Raihanah bint Zaid An-Nadriyah or Quraziyah, a captive from Bani Quraiza. Some people say she was one of his wives. However, Ibn Al-Qaiyim gives more weight to the first version. Abu ‘Ubaidah spoke of two more concubines, Jameelah, a captive, and another one, a bondwoman granted to him by Zainab bint Jahsh.[]

Whosoever meditates on the life of the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) , will conceive that his marriage to this great number of women in the late years of his lifetime, after he had almost spent thirty years of his best days of youth sufficing himself to one old wife — Khadijah and later on to Sawdah, was in no way an overwhelming lustful desire to be satisfied through such a number of wives. These marriages were in fact motivated by aims and purposes much more glorious and greater than what normal marriages usually aim at.

The tendency of the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) towards establishing a relationship by marriage with both Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and his marriage to ‘Aishah and Hafsah — and getting his daughter Fatimah married to ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, and the marriage of his two daughters, Ruqaiyah and Umm Kulthum to ‘Uthman — indicate clearly that he aimed at confirming the relationship among the four men — whose sacrifices and great achievements in the cause of Islam are well-known.

Besides this, there was that tradition of the Arabs to honour the in-law relations. For them a son or a daughter-in-law was a means by which they sought the consolidation of relationship and affection with various phratries. Hostility and fights against alliances and affinities would bring an unforgettable shame, disgrace and degradation to them.

By marrying the Mothers of believers, the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) wanted to demolish or break down the Arab tribes’ enmity to Islam and extinguish their intense hatred. Umm Salamah was from Bani Makhzum — the clan of Abu Jahl and Khalid bin Al-Waleed. Her marriage to the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) produced good results. Khalid’s deliberately undecisive attitude at Uhud — for instance — was due to the Messenger’s marriage to Umm Salamah. Khalid went even further than that, in a short time he willingly became a keen obedient Muslim.

After the Messenger of Allâh’s marriage to Umm Habibah, Abu Sufyan, her father, did not encounter him with any sort of hostility. Similarly his marriage to Juwairiyah and Safiyah made the two tribes stop all sorts of provocation, aggression or hostility against Islam. Better still, Juwairiyah, herself, was one of the greatest sources of blessing to her own people. On the occasion of her marriage to the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) , his Companions set a hundred families of her people free. They said: “It is for their affinity with the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) .” No need to say what great good impression this gratitude had on everybody’s soul. One of the greatest motives of all is Allâh’s bidding his Prophet to educate and purify the souls of people who had known nothing whatsoever about courtesy, education and culture. He had to teach them to comply with the necessities of civilization and to contribute to the solidification and the establishment of a new Islamic society.

An essential fundamental rule of the Muslim society is to prohibit mixing of men and women. Providing direct education for women, though highly compelling, is impossible in the light of this Islamic norm. Therefore, the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) had to select some women of different ages and talents, and indoctrinate them systematically in order to educate she-bedouins and townswomen, old and young, and thus furnish them with the instruments of propagating the true faith. The Mothers of believers (i.e. wives of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) ) were in such a convenient position that they could convey the state of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) and his affairs to people (men and women). Being educated and taught the teachings and rules of Islam, his wives, especially those who outlived him, played a very important role in conveying Prophetic traditions Ahadith to the Muslims. ‘Aishah, for instance, related a large number of the Prophet’s deeds and statements.

His marriage to his paternal cousin Zainab bint Jahsh was a peculiar case which aimed at eradicating a deeply rooted pre-Islamic tradition — i.e. the adoption of children. In Al-Jahiliyah the Arabs used to consider an adopted person exactly like a real son or daughter as far as rights and sanctities are concerned. That Jahiliyah tradition had been so deeply rooted in their hearts that it was not easy to remove or uproot it. This tradition in fact affronts the basic principles of Islam; especially those concerned with marriage, divorce and inheritance and some other cases, and brought about lots of corruptions and indecencies. Naturally Islam stands against such deeds, and attempts to remove them from the Islamic society.

For the eradication of this tradition, Allâh, the Exalted, bid His Messenger (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) to marry his cousin Zainab bint Jahsh, who was an ex-wife to Zaid. She was at variance with Zaid to an extent that he intended to divorce her — that was at the time when the Confederates (Al-Ahzab) were making an evil alliance against the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) and against the Muslims. The Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) feared that the hypocrites, the idolaters, and the Jews would make a propaganda out of it and try to influence some Muslims of weak hearts. That was why he urged Zaid not to divorce her, in order not to get involved into that trial.

Undoubtedly this hesitation and partiality were alien to the character of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) . They did not apply to the power of determination and will with which he had been sent. Allâh, the Exalted, blamed him for that by saying:

 “And (remember) when you said to him (Zaid bin Haritha may Allah be pleased with him – — the freed slave of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) on whom Allâh has bestowed grace (by guiding him to Islam) and you (O Muhammad (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) too) have done favour (by manumitting him), ‘Keep your wife to yourself, and fear Allâh.’ But you did hide in yourself (i.e. what Allâh has already made known to you that He will give her to you in marriage) that which Allâh will make manifest, you did fear the people (i.e. Muhammad (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married the divorced wife of his manumitted slave) whereas Allâh had a better right that you should fear him.” [33:37]

Finally Zaid divorced Zainab and the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) married her at the time he laid siege to Bani Quraiza. That was after she had finished her Iddat (i.e. period during which a widow or a divorcee may not remarry). Allâh Himself had already ordained it, and so gave him no other alternative. Allâh had even started the marriage Himself by saying:

 “So when Zaid had accomplished his desire from her (i.e. divorced her), We gave her to you in marriage, so that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of (the marriage of) the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them (i.e. they have divorced them).” [33:37]

And that was in order to break down the tradition of child adoption in practice after He had done it in words:

 “Call them (adopted sons) by (the names of) their fathers, that is more just near Allâh.” [33:5]

“Muhammad ( saw) is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allâh, and the last (end) of the Prophets.” [33:40]

Lots of deeply-rooted traditions cannot be uprooted or demolished or even adjusted by mere words. They must be matched and associated with the action of the advocate of the Message himself.

This could be perceived through the deeds practised by the Muslims at Al-Hudaibiyah ‘Umrah (Lesser Pilgrimage) during which ‘Urwah bin Mas‘ud Al-Thaqafi saw certain Muslims tend to pick up any expectoration that fell down from the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) . He also saw them race to the water of his ablution and they almost quarrelled for it. There were others who competed to pledge allegiance to death and some others pledged not to flee from (the battlefield). Among those people, were eminent Companions like ‘Umar and Abu Bakr, who although dedicated all their lives to the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) and to the cause of Islam, but refused to carry out the Messenger’s ordres with respect to slaughtering sacrificial animals after the ratification of Al-Hudaibiyah Peace Treaty, the thing that perturbed and caused the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) to feel anxious. However, when Umm Salamah – may Allah be pleased with her – advised that he take the initiative and sacrifice his animals, his followers raced to follow his example; a clear evidence in support of the saying: Actions speak louder than words, in the process of exterminating a deeply-established tradition.

Hypocrites aroused a lot of suspicions and made a broad false propaganda against that marriage. Their acts and talks about that marriage had ill-effects on those Muslims whose Faith was still weak, particularly that Zainab was the fifth wife — and the Noble Qur’ân limited the number up to four only; Zaid was traditionally his son, and so a father marrying his son’s divorcee was a heinous sin in the eyes of the Arabians.

Al-AhzabSurah was revealed to shed full light on the two issues, i.e. Islam does not recognize adoption of children, and the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) is given (by Allâh) more freedom as regards the number of wives he can hold than other Muslims in order to achieve noble and honourable purposes.

However, the treatment of the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) to his wives was of honourable, noble, and superb nature. His wives were on tops in respect of honour, satisfaction, patience, modesty, and service (that is to say the performance of housework and marriage duties). Although the Messenger’s house-life was hard and unbearable, none of his wives complained. Anas said about the Prophet’s life: “According to my knowledge, the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) has never tasted a thin flattened loaf in all his lifetime, nor has he ever seen with his own eyes roasted mutton.”[]

‘Aishah said: “Over two months have elapsed — during which we have seen three crescents — and yet no fire has been kindled in the houses of the Messenger of Allâh (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) (i.e. they did not cook food).” “What did you eat to sustain yourselves?” ‘Urwah asked. She said “The two blacks: dates and water”[]. Lots of information about the hard life of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam) were told.

In spite of these hardships, straits and adversity of life in the house of the Prophet (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam), none of his wives uttered a word of complaint worthy of reproach — but once. This exception was required by human instinctive inclinations. However, it was not so important and consequently it did not require the decree of a legislative rule. Allâh has given them an opportunity to choose between two things, as clearly stated in the following verses:

 “O Prophet (Muhammad (Sallalaahu alaihi wa Sallam)! Say to your wives: ‘If you desire the life of this world, and its glitter, — then come! I will make a provision for you and set you free in a handsome manner (divorce). But if you desire Allâh and His Messenger, and the Home of the Hereafter, then verily, Allâh has prepared for Al-Muhsinat (good doers) amongst you an enormous reward.’” [33:28,29]

They were so noble and honest that none of them preferred ‘the life of this world and its glitter’ to the abode in the Hereafter.

Although they were many in number, nothing of the dispute occurrences that normally happen among co-wives, took place in their houses. Very few cases could be the only exception; but they were quite normal. Allâh reproached them for that, so they ceased to do such a thing. This incident is mentioned in At-Tahreem Chapter:

 “O Prophet! Why do you ban (for yourself) that which Allâh has made lawful to you …” [66:1] (to the end of the fifth verse).

Discussing polygamy — in my opinion — is not a necessity; since a person who is familiar with the Europeans, and indecent practices, sufferings, wickedness, their sorrows and distresses, the horrible crimes they commit in this respect as well as the trials, the disasters that they are involved in, and which emanate directly from their disregard of the principle of polygamy form a good reason (to justify the soundness of polygamy). The distorted picture of life in Europe with the ill-practices featuring it, could truthfully justify the existence and practice of polygamy. In this, there are Divine signs for all people possessed of lucid mind.

History of Makkah – Shaikh Safiur-Rahman Mubarakpuri


History of Makkah Mukarramah (Shaikh Safiur-Rahman Mubarakpuri)

Publisher: Darussalam Publishers and Distributors (2002)
Pages: 176 Binding: Paperback

You can buy Here or read most of the book @ Google Books Here

Description from the publisher:

Mentions the different aspects of Makkah, and records the most important historical events that have direct effect on the establishment and sacredness of Makkah as well as its religious weight. Highlights the sites that are highly important whenever Makkah is mentioned like the Black Stone, Zamzarn Well and others. Designates a great part of the book speaking about the Holy Ka’bah and the Holy Mosque updating the extensions and the improvements, that have taken place from the time of Muhammad (S) to the Saudi era.At the end of the book there is a complete appendix about Hajj and its rites.

Refutation of Maududi’s principle of Shirk in Haakimiyah by Shaykh SafiurRahman Mubarakpuri rahimahullah

Impressions of Shaykh Safiur Rahman Mubarakpooree about Maududi.

A view of Maududi upon which he stood with firmness and the truth is that he laid the foundation for his Jamaat (group, i.e Jamat e islami) upon this view. And presented this view with such strength that even great scholars were influenced by him and they even accepted it, even though they did not enter him Jamaat, but they were influenced by his thoughts and accepted them. When these views came before me, even I was confused for a few days. But after that Allaah Ta’la opened this matter (mas’ala) in such a clear way that no type of doubt or confusion remained . Now I will present it before you, then there will be no doubt or confusion for you too Insha’Allaah. So clearly Allaah Ta’ala has opened it.

The view of Maulana (Maududi) was that if there is continuous following (Ita’ah) of someone, then this is the worship (Ibadah) of that person .the Muslim is in continuous following (Ita’ah) of Allaah Ta’ala and he follow (Ita’ah) the Prophet SalAllaahu alaihiwasallam because Allaah Ta’ala ordered to follow him. Thus the following (Ita’ah) of the Prophet salAllaahu alaihiwasallam is in accordance to the following (Ita’ah) of Allaah Ta’ala, therefore when he SalAllaahu alaihiwasallam is followed it is the following of Allaah Ta’ala and this worship (Ibaadah) becomes the  worship (Ibaadah) of Allaah. Now from here he (Maududi) has raised another problem that if a government does not govern according to the law laid by Allaah Ta’ala then following that government will be worshipping  that government and this is Shirk. And this is where he (Maududi) took his view of Shirk in Haakimiyyah and presented it strongly, and many a people are busy in it till date. Now I will present its truth before you, I mean t say that books of about a hundered, two hundred, three hundred, four hundred, six hundred and in some cases eight hundred pages have been written by many people on this topic. The matter has been confused in such a way and with such long debates that it becomes difficult to imagine. That is why I present this matter before you in a few clear and firm way.

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